Biomineralization Induced by Bacteria and its Implications in Multidisplinary Fields
Wei Li1, Purnima Baidya1
1Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Abstracts
Biomineralization is an unsurprisingly occurring phenomenon in all living organisms. Here in this review, we discuss bacterially derived calcite precipitation in detail. Bacteria-derived calcite precipitation is a hopeful, eco-friendly unconventional approach to conventional and current remediation technologies to solve environmental problems in multidisciplinary fields. Bacterial carbonic anhydrase and bacteria-derived calcite precipitation have become an efficient aspect of the multidisciplinary field, such as medical approaches, removal of heavy metals and radionuclides, use of filler in rubber and plastics and fluorescent particles in stationary ink and stationary markers, engineering applications. This article not only highlights the major strengths of bacteria derived calcite precipitation but also discusses the limitation to applications of this technology on a commercial scale.

Keywords: Biomineralization, carbonic anhydrase, calcite precipitation, calcium carbonate

Background
Biomineralization is the biochemical modification of an environment by living organisms’ activity, which results in the precipitation of minerals ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Phillips;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;621;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Phillips et al., 2013);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;621;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744069″;621;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Phillips, A. J.;/author;;author;Gerlach, R.;/author;;author;Lauchnor, E.;/author;;author;Mitchell, A. C.;/author;;author;Cunningham, A. B.;/author;;author;Spangler, L.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. [email protected];/auth-address;;titles;;title;Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: A review;/title;;secondary-title;Biofouling;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Biofouling;/full-title;;abbr-1;Biofouling;/abbr-1;;abbr-2;Biofouling;/abbr-2;;/periodical;;pages;715-33;/pages;;volume;29;/volume;;number;6;/number;;keywords;;keyword;Biofilms/*growth &amp; development</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Construction Materials/*microbiology</keyword><keyword>Engineering</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Porosity</keyword><keyword>Surface Properties</keyword><keyword>Urea/*chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1029-2454 (Electronic) 0892-7014 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23802871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08927014.2013.796550</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Phillips et al., 2013) and these minerals could be silicates in algae and diatoms, carbonates in invertebrates and calcium, phosphates and carbonates invertebrates ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dhami</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>623</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dhami, Reddy, &amp; Mukherjee, 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>623</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744425″>623</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dhami, N. K.</author><author>Reddy, M. S.</author><author>Mukherjee, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University Patiala, India.</auth-address><titles><title>Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: A review</title><secondary-title>Front Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Frontiers in Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Front. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami, Reddy, & Mukherjee, 2013). It is a widespread phenomenon leading to the formation of more than 60 different biominerals ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu, Kang, Shin, &amp; So, 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu, Kang, Shin, & So, 2016). 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Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami et al., 2013) or intracellularly PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Zb3NoaWRhPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Yoshida et al., 2010). At least, three different mechanisms involved in the production of biominerals. Firstly, biologically controlled mineralization that consists of cellular activities that specifically direct the formation of minerals ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Phillips</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>621</RecNum><DisplayText>(Phillips et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>621</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744069″>621</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Phillips, A. J.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author><author>Lauchnor, E.</author><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Spangler, L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: A review</title><secondary-title>Biofouling</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biofouling</full-title><abbr-1>Biofouling</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biofouling</abbr-2></periodical><pages>715-33</pages><volume>29</volume><number>6</number><keywords><keyword>Biofilms/*growth &amp; development</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Construction Materials/*microbiology</keyword><keyword>Engineering</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Porosity</keyword><keyword>Surface Properties</keyword><keyword>Urea/*chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1029-2454 (Electronic) 0892-7014 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23802871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08927014.2013.796550</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Phillips et al., 2013). Here, organisms control nucleation and growth of minerals and these minerals directly synthesized at a specific location within or in the cell, but only under certain conditions. Secondly, biologically influenced mineralization in which passive mineral precipitation is caused by the presence of cell surface organic matter such as extracellular polymeric substances associated with biofilms ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Benzerara</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>632</RecNum><DisplayText>(Benzerara et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>632</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487746668″>632</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Benzerara, K.</author><author>Miot, J.</author><author>Morin, G.</author><author>Ona-Nguema, G.</author><author>Skouri-Panet, F.</author><author>Ferard, C.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7590, Inst Mineral &amp; Phys Milieux Condenses, F-75252 Paris 05, France Univ Paris 07, IPGP, F-75252 Paris 05, France</auth-address><titles><title>Significance, mechanisms and environmental implications of microbial biomineralization</title><secondary-title>Comptes Rendus Geoscience</secondary-title><alt-title>Cr Geosci</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Comptes Rendus Geoscience</full-title></periodical><pages>160-167</pages><volume>343</volume><number>2-3</number><keywords><keyword>bioremediation</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>arsenic</keyword><keyword>uranium</keyword><keyword>geomicrobiology</keyword><keyword>acid-mine drainage</keyword><keyword>iron-oxidizing bacteria</keyword><keyword>uranium biomineralization</keyword><keyword>manganese(ii) oxidation</keyword><keyword>biogeochemical systems</keyword><keyword>magnetosome formation</keyword><keyword>phosphatase-activity</keyword><keyword>membrane-vesicles</keyword><keyword>arsenic release</keyword><keyword>coral skeleton</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2011</year><pub-dates><date>Feb-Mar</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1631-0713</isbn><accession-num>WOS:000289880800006</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>&lt;Go to ISI&gt;://WOS:000289880800006</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.crte.2010.09.002</electronic-resource-num><language>English</language></record></Cite></EndNote>(Benzerara et al., 2011). Finally, biologically induced mineralization where chemical modification of an environment by biological activity that results in supersaturation and the precipitation of minerals ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Phillips</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>621</RecNum><DisplayText>(Phillips et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>621</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744069″>621</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Phillips, A. J.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author><author>Lauchnor, E.</author><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Spangler, L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: A review</title><secondary-title>Biofouling</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biofouling</full-title><abbr-1>Biofouling</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biofouling</abbr-2></periodical><pages>715-33</pages><volume>29</volume><number>6</number><keywords><keyword>Biofilms/*growth &amp; development</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Construction Materials/*microbiology</keyword><keyword>Engineering</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Porosity</keyword><keyword>Surface Properties</keyword><keyword>Urea/*chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1029-2454 (Electronic) 0892-7014 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23802871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08927014.2013.796550</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Phillips et al., 2013).

Facilitation of biomineralization by bacteria
Bacteria expressed mineral precipitates as extremely fine-grained often having <1 µm in diameter. Because of this mineralization process, all most all major mineral groups, whether metal oxyhydroxides, silicates, carbonates, phosphates, sulfates, sulfides, and even native metals, have been shown to precipitate in ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Andrew</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1168</RecNum><DisplayText>(Andrew, CanfieldKurt, &amp; Konhauser, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1168</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521434837″>1168</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Andrew, H. K.</author><author>CanfieldKurt, D. E. </author><author>Konhauser, K. O.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fundamentals of geobiology</title></titles><dates><year>2012</year></dates><publisher>Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Andrew, CanfieldKurt, & Konhauser, 2012). Bacteria may influence the initial stages of mineralization, however, not directly associated with biologically controlled biomineralization was observed. But during the protonation–deprotonation reactions, the bacterial surface develops a negative surface charge at pH values characteristic of most natural environments, and in doing so, will become reactive towards charged cations and a number of mineral surfaces ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Emerson</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1169</RecNum><DisplayText>(Emerson, Fleming, &amp; McBeth, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1169</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521435139″>1169</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Emerson, D.</author><author>Fleming, E. J.</author><author>McBeth, J. M.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine 04575, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Iron-oxidizing bacteria: an environmental and genomic perspective</title><secondary-title>Annu Rev Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Annual Review of Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Annu. Rev. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Annu Rev Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>561-83</pages><volume>64</volume><keywords><keyword>Bacteria/genetics/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>*Environmental Microbiology</keyword><keyword>*Genome, Bacterial</keyword><keyword>Iron/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics</keyword><keyword>Oxidation-Reduction</keyword><keyword>Phylogeny</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2010</year></dates><isbn>1545-3251 (Electronic) 0066-4227 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>20565252</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20565252</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1146/annurev.micro.112408.134208</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Emerson, Fleming, & McBeth, 2010). Some cations preferentially bind to different sites on the cell surface, and crucially, they are not equally exchangeable. For instance, trivalent such as La3+, Fe3+ and divalent such as Ca2+, Mg2+ metal cations are strongly bound to the cell wall of various bacteria, while monovalent cations such as Na+, K+ are easily lost in competition with those metals for binding sites ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Andrew</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1168</RecNum><DisplayText>(Andrew et al., 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1168</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521434837″>1168</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Andrew, H. K.</author><author>CanfieldKurt, D. E. </author><author>Konhauser, K. O.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fundamentals of geobiology</title></titles><dates><year>2012</year></dates><publisher>Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Andrew et al., 2012). Some of the most important factors that influence ion binding to cells are the composition of the solution, including pH and the activity of all ions; secondly, ligand spacing and their stereochemistry; thirdly, ligand composition; and finally the balance between the initial electrostatic attractions between a soluble ion and the organic ligands, and the subsequent covalent forces that arise from electron sharing across a ion-ligand molecular orbital ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Andrew</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1168</RecNum><DisplayText>(Andrew et al., 2012; Williams, 1981)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1168</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521434837″>1168</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Andrew, H. K.</author><author>CanfieldKurt, D. E. </author><author>Konhauser, K. O.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fundamentals of geobiology</title></titles><dates><year>2012</year></dates><publisher>Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Williams</Author><Year>1981</Year><RecNum>1170</RecNum><record><rec-number>1170</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521435598″>1170</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Williams, R. J. P.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Physico-chemical aspects of inorganic element transfer through membranes</title><secondary-title>Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London </secondary-title></titles><pages>57–74</pages><volume>B294</volume><dates><year>1981</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Andrew et al., 2012; Williams, 1981). 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Silva-Castro et al., 2015; Viktor Stabnikov, Naeimi, Ivanov, & Chu, 2011). In this manner, the bacterium catalyses mineral formation simply because it has bound cations on its outer surface. Those cations react with more ions, potentially leading to biomineralization. With that said, bacteria only serve to enhance the precipitation kinetics in supersaturated solutions; they neither increase the extent of precipitation nor facilitate precipitation in undersaturated solutions PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5FbWVyc29uPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Emerson et al., 2010; Fowle & Fein, 2001). The size of the mineral precipitate depends on a number of variables, including the concentration of ions and the amount of time through which the reactions proceed. The end result could be a bacterial wall that contains copious amounts of mineral precipitate, often approaching, or exceeding, the mass of the microorganism itself ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Andrew</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1168</RecNum><DisplayText>(Andrew et al., 2012; Beveridge, 1984)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1168</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521434837″>1168</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Andrew, H. K.</author><author>CanfieldKurt, D. E. </author><author>Konhauser, K. O.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fundamentals of geobiology</title></titles><dates><year>2012</year></dates><publisher>Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Beveridge</Author><Year>1984</Year><RecNum>1171</RecNum><record><rec-number>1171</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521436019″>1171</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Beveridge, T. J.</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Reddy, C. A.</author><author>Klug, M. J.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Mechanisms of the binding of metallic ions to bacterial walls and the possible impact on microbial ecology</title><secondary-title>In: Current Perspectives in Microbial Ecology </secondary-title></titles><pages>601–607</pages><dates><year>1984</year></dates><pub-location>Washington, DC</pub-location><publisher>American Society for Microbiology</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Andrew et al., 2012; Beveridge, 1984).
Table 1: The names and chemical compositions of minerals produced by biologically induced and controlled mineralization processes
Name Formula
Carbonates
Calcite
Mg-calcite
Aragonite
Vaterite
Monohydrocalcite
Protodolomite
Hydrocerussite
Amorphous calcium carbonate (at least 5 forms) CaCO3
(MgxCa1-x)CO3
CaCO3
CaCO3
CaCO3·H2O
CaMg(CO3)2
Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
CaCO3·H2O or CaCO3
Phosphates
Octacalcium phosphate
Brushite
Francolite
Carbonated-hydroxylapatite (dahllite)
Whitlockite
Struvite
Vivianite
Amorphous calcium phosphate (at least 6 forms)
Amorphous calcium pyrophosphate Ca8H2(PO4)6
CaHPO4·2H2O
Ca10(PO4)6F2
Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH)
Ca18H2(Mg,Fe)2+2(PO4)14
Mg(NH4)(PO4)·6H2O
Fe3+2(PO4)2·8H20
Ca2P2O7·2H2O variable
Ca2P2O7·2H2O
SulfatesGypsum
Barite
Celestite
Jarosite CaSO4·2H2O
BaSO4
SrSO4
KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
SulfidesPyrite
Hydrotroilite
Sphalerite
Wurtzite
Galena
Greigite
Mackinawite
Amorphous pyrrhotiteAcanthite FeS2
FeS·nH2O
ZnSZnSPbSFe3S4
(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe1-xS (x = 00.17)
Ag2S
Arsenates
Orpiment As2S3
Hydrated Silica
Amorphous silica SiO2·nH2O
Chlorides
Atacamite Cu2Cl(OH)3
Fluorides
Fluorite
Hieratite CaF2
K2SiF6
Metals
Sulfur S
Oxides
Magnetite
Amorphous ilmenite
Amorphous iron oxide
Amorphous manganese oxide Fe3O4
Fe+2TiO3
Fe2O3
Mn3O4
Hydroxides and hydrous oxides
Goethite
Lepidocrocite
Ferrihydrite
Todorokite
Birnessite?-FeOOH?-FeOOH5Fe2O3·9H2O
(Mn+2CaMg)Mn3+4O7·H20
Na4Mn14O27·9H2O
Organic crystals*
Earlandite
Whewellite
Weddellite
Glushinskite
Manganese oxalate (unnamed)
Sodium urate
Uric acid
Ca tartrate
Ca malate
Paraffin hydrocarbon
Guanine Ca3(C6H5O2)2·4H2O
CaC2O4·H2O
CaC2O4·(2+X)H2O (X<0.5)
MgC2O4·4H2O
Mn2C2O4·2H2O
C5H3N4NaO3
C5H4N4O3
C4H4CaO6
C4H4CaO5
C5H3(NH2)N4O
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Lowenstam & Weiner, 1989; Mann, 2001; Weiner & Addadi, 1991)
Biologically controlled mineralization
The organism uses cellular activities to direct the nucleation, growth, morphology and final location of the deposited minerals is characterized as biologically controlled mineralization ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dhami</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>623</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dhami et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>623</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744425″>623</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dhami, N. K.</author><author>Reddy, M. S.</author><author>Mukherjee, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University Patiala, India.</auth-address><titles><title>Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: A review</title><secondary-title>Front Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Frontiers in Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Front. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami et al., 2013). Nevertheless, the degree of regulation contrasts across species but over-all, almost all controlled mineralization processes occur in an isolated environment, resulting in remarkable sophisticated, species-specific products that give the organism specialized biological functions PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5FbWVyc29uPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Emerson et al., 2010; Fowle & Fein, 2001). Biologically controlled mineralization processes can be described as it occurred such as extra-, inter- or intracellularly, they differ from each other, on locations of the mineralization site with reference to the cells responsible for mineralization. However, not all mineralization processes can be classified in this simple manner. As in some cases, mineral formation begins within the cell and then proceeds outside the cell ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gorospe</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1083</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gorospe et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1083</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508503625″>1083</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gorospe, Choco Michael</author><author>Han, Sang-Hyun</author><author>Kim, Seong-Geun</author><author>Park, Joo-Young</author><author>Kang, Chang-Ho</author><author>Jeong, Jin-Hoon</author><author>So, Jae-Seong</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Effects of different calcium salts on calcium carbonate crystal formation by Sporosarcina pasteurii KCTC 3558</title><secondary-title>Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering</full-title></periodical><pages>903-908</pages><volume>18</volume><number>5</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>September 01</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1976-3816</isbn><label>Gorospe2013</label><work-type>journal article</work-type><urls><related-urls><url>https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-013-0030-0</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s12257-013-0030-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gorospe et al., 2013).
Biologically controlled extracellular mineralization
In extracellular mineralization, the cell synthesizes a macromolecular matrix comprised of proteins, polysaccharides or glycoproteins that assemble to form a three-dimensional framework outside the cell in an area that will contribute for biomineralization ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu et al., 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu et al., 2016). The structures and compositions of these organic frameworks are genetically programmed to perform essential regulating and/or organizing functions that will result in the formation of composite biominerals. Additionally, many of matrix proteins are negatively charged due to presences of a high proportion of acidic amino acids especially aspartate and phosphorylated groups PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5TaWx2YS1DYXN0cm88L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDE1PC9Z
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AG==
ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Silva-Castro et al., 2015; Viktor Stabnikov et al., 2011; Swift & Wheeler, 1992; Weiner & Dove, 2010). There are two mechanisms by which the cell can transfer constituents to the matrix. In the first, the cell may actively pump cations through the membrane and into the surrounding region ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Simkiss</Author><Year>1986</Year><RecNum>1177</RecNum><DisplayText>(K. Simkiss, 1986)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1177</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521438607″>1177</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Simkiss, K.</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Riding, R.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>The processes of biomineralization in lower plants and animals-an overview</title><secondary-title>Biomineralization in lower plants and animals</secondary-title></titles><pages>19-37</pages><volume>30</volume><dates><year>1986</year></dates><pub-location>Leadbeater BSC</pub-location><publisher>Oxford University Press, NY</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(K. Simkiss, 1986). Once out of the cell, the supersaturation level of the fluid is established and maintained by ion diffusion over relatively large distances to the organic matrix PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5FbWVyc29uPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Emerson et al., 2010; Fowle & Fein, 2001). In the second approach, the cations may be concentrated within the cell into cation-loaded vesicles, exported through the membrane and later broken down by precursor compounds in the organic matrix. The latter mechanism is used for cartilage mineralization in the epiphyseal growth plate ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ali, 1983; Anbu et al., 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Ali</Author><Year>1983</Year><RecNum>1178</RecNum><record><rec-number>1178</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521438873″>1178</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ali, S. Y.</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Hall, B. K.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Calcification of cartilage</title><secondary-title>Cartilage, structure, function and biochemistry</secondary-title></titles><pages>343-378</pages><dates><year>1983</year></dates><pub-location>New York</pub-location><publisher>Academic Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ali, 1983; Anbu et al., 2016). Anion movement is typically the result of passive diffusion in response to the electroneutrality requirement and is ultimately driven by pH gradients created during cation transport. In both approaches, the cell works actively to supply cations to an external organic matrix for “on-site” nucleation and growth ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hamdan</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>635</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hamdan, Kavazanjian, &amp; Rittmann, 2011; K. Simkiss &amp; Wilbur, 1989)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>635</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487747831″>635</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Paper”>47</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hamdan, N. </author><author>Kavazanjian, E. </author><author>Rittmann, B. E. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Sequestration of radionuclides and metal contaminants through microbially-induced carbonate precipitation</title><secondary-title>Pan-Am CGS Geotechnical conference</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>Toronto</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Simkiss</Author><Year>1989</Year><RecNum>558</RecNum><record><rec-number>558</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1486301129″>558</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Simkiss, K. </author><author>Wilbur, K.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cell Biology and Mineral Deposition</title><secondary-title>Biomineralization</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>1989</year></dates><pub-location>San Diego</pub-location><publisher>Academic Press, Inc.</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hamdan, Kavazanjian, & Rittmann, 2011; K. Simkiss & Wilbur, 1989).
Biologically controlled intercellular mineralization
Biologically controlled intercellular mineralization is not well-known compared to other biomineralization processes as it typically occurs in single-celled organisms that exist as a community ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dhami</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>623</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dhami et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>623</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744425″>623</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dhami, N. K.</author><author>Reddy, M. S.</author><author>Mukherjee, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University Patiala, India.</auth-address><titles><title>Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: A review</title><secondary-title>Front Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Frontiers in Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Front. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami et al., 2013). At first glance, intercellular mineral establishment appears to be a modified form of extracellular mineralization, however, the epidermis of the individual organisms serves as the primary means of isolating the site of mineralization PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5FbWVyc29uPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Emerson et al., 2010; Fowle & Fein, 2001; Mann, 2001). The epithelial substrate reproducibly directs the nucleation and growth of specific biomineral phases over large areas of cell surfaces. Mineralization between cells can become as extensive as to completely fill the intercellular spaces, thus forming a type of exoskeleton ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gorospe</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1083</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gorospe et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1083</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508503625″>1083</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gorospe, Choco Michael</author><author>Han, Sang-Hyun</author><author>Kim, Seong-Geun</author><author>Park, Joo-Young</author><author>Kang, Chang-Ho</author><author>Jeong, Jin-Hoon</author><author>So, Jae-Seong</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Effects of different calcium salts on calcium carbonate crystal formation by Sporosarcina pasteurii KCTC 3558</title><secondary-title>Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering</full-title></periodical><pages>903-908</pages><volume>18</volume><number>5</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>September 01</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1976-3816</isbn><label>Gorospe2013</label><work-type>journal article</work-type><urls><related-urls><url>https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-013-0030-0</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s12257-013-0030-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gorospe et al., 2013). At first glance, this might appear to be a type of biologically induced mineralization, but studies have shown that the epidermis of individual organisms directs the polymorph and shape of the biomineral that forms. An example is found in calcareous algae that nucleate and grow calcite with a c-axis orientation that is perpendicular to the cell surface ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hamdan</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>635</RecNum><DisplayText>(Borowitzka, 1982; Hamdan et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>635</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487747831″>635</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Paper”>47</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hamdan, N. </author><author>Kavazanjian, E. </author><author>Rittmann, B. E. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Sequestration of radionuclides and metal contaminants through microbially-induced carbonate precipitation</title><secondary-title>Pan-Am CGS Geotechnical conference</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>Toronto</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Borowitzka</Author><Year>1982</Year><RecNum>1180</RecNum><record><rec-number>1180</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521439650″>1180</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Borowitzka, M. A. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Morphological and cytological aspects of algal calcification</title><secondary-title>Intl Rev Cytology </secondary-title></titles><pages>127-160</pages><volume>74</volume><dates><year>1982</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Borowitzka, 1982; Hamdan et al., 2011).

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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Emerson et al., 2010; Fowle & Fein, 2001). The compartment membrane also regulates the pH, pCO2 and at least to some extent of minor as well as trace element compositions. Indeed, the mineralized structures that develop from intracellular processes often exhibit highly intricate species-specific morphologies ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gorospe</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1083</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gorospe et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1083</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508503625″>1083</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gorospe, Choco Michael</author><author>Han, Sang-Hyun</author><author>Kim, Seong-Geun</author><author>Park, Joo-Young</author><author>Kang, Chang-Ho</author><author>Jeong, Jin-Hoon</author><author>So, Jae-Seong</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Effects of different calcium salts on calcium carbonate crystal formation by Sporosarcina pasteurii KCTC 3558</title><secondary-title>Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering</full-title></periodical><pages>903-908</pages><volume>18</volume><number>5</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>September 01</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1976-3816</isbn><label>Gorospe2013</label><work-type>journal article</work-type><urls><related-urls><url>https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-013-0030-0</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s12257-013-0030-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gorospe et al., 2013). The intracellular mineralization is a broad concept that encompasses a number of fates for the initial compartment-based precipitate. These structures may leave the cell as individual units or be preassembled prior to extrusion through the membrane PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5FbWVyc29uPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Bosak, 2011; Emerson et al., 2010; Fowle & Fein, 2001).
Bacteria driven calcite precipitation
Bacteria driven calcite precipitation refers to the synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from a supersaturated solution via the presence of their bacterial cells and biochemical activities ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bosak</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>633</RecNum><DisplayText>(Bosak, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>633</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487746995″>633</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bosak, T. </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Reitner, J. </author><author>Thiel, V. </author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Calcite precipitation, microbially induced</title><secondary-title>Encyclopedia of earth sciences series </secondary-title></titles><pages>223–227</pages><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>Netherlands</pub-location><publisher>Springer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bosak, 2011). In this process, organisms are able to secrete one or more metabolic products (CO32?) that react with ions (Ca2+) in the environment resulting in the subsequent precipitation of minerals. These processes are governed mainly by four key factors PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Zb3NoaWRhPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Yoshida et al., 2010) and they are Ca2+ concentration, the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and the availability of nucleation sites ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu et al., 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu et al., 2016). The concentration of carbonate ions is associated with the pH and concentration of DIC for a given aquatic system. Additionally, the concentration of DIC depends on several environmental parameters such as temperature and the partial pressure of CO2. There is emerging necessity to isolate microbes having the capacity to precipitation of carbonates in shorter times as in natural habitat, carbonates precipitation is very slow to produce large amounts of carbonates rapidly. Until now different research has been carried for isolating bacterial species precipitate carbonates in alkaline environments rich in Ca2+ ions and various mechanisms which could induce precipitation by bacteria in natural habitats have been proposed ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu et al., 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu et al., 2016). Even though, the precise role of bacteria and bacterial activities in CaCO3 crystallization remains unclear but seems to fall in three hypothesis. As per the first, mineralization occurs as a by-product of microbial metabolism, second hypothesis, carbonate nucleation takes place on the cell wall, finally, the third hypothesis involves the role of extracellular macromolecules ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu et al., 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu et al., 2016).

The CaCO3 precipitation process is a direct and easily controllable mechanism of bacteria driven calcite precipitation that can produce high concentrations of CaCO3 in short period of time ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dhami</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>623</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dhami et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>623</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744425″>623</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dhami, N. K.</author><author>Reddy, M. S.</author><author>Mukherjee, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University Patiala, India.</auth-address><titles><title>Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: A review</title><secondary-title>Front Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Frontiers in Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Front. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami et al., 2013). Mainly four groups of microorganisms are seen to be involved in formation of CaCO3 precipitation via different mechanisms such as photosynthesis ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hamdan</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>635</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hamdan et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>635</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487747831″>635</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Paper”>47</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hamdan, N. </author><author>Kavazanjian, E. </author><author>Rittmann, B. E. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Sequestration of radionuclides and metal contaminants through microbially-induced carbonate precipitation</title><secondary-title>Pan-Am CGS Geotechnical conference</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>Toronto</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hamdan et al., 2011) such as cyanobacteria and algae, urea hydrolysis ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dhami</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>623</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dhami et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>623</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744425″>623</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dhami, N. K.</author><author>Reddy, M. S.</author><author>Mukherjee, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University Patiala, India.</auth-address><titles><title>Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: A review</title><secondary-title>Front Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Frontiers in Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Front. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami et al., 2013), sulfate reduction, anaerobic sulfide oxidation PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Zb3NoaWRhPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Anbu et al., 2016; W. Li et al., 2011). However, the precipitation of calcium carbonate by bacteria via urease (urea amidohydrolase; EC 3.5.1.5) is the most the simplest ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dhami</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>623</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dhami et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>623</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744425″>623</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dhami, N. K.</author><author>Reddy, M. S.</author><author>Mukherjee, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University Patiala, India.</auth-address><titles><title>Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: A review</title><secondary-title>Front Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Frontiers in Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Front. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami et al., 2013) and widely used method PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5CdXJiYW5rPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMjwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Malcolm B. Burbank, Weaver, Williams, & Crawford, 2012; M. Li, Cheng, & Guo, 2013; V. Stabnikov, Chu, Ivanov, & Li, 2013; Viktor Stabnikov et al., 2011). Nevertheless, few studies have been carried out on the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in calcite dissolution PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5TaWx2YS1DYXN0cm88L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDE1PC9Z
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Silva-Castro et al., 2015; Viktor Stabnikov et al., 2011) and demonstrated that bovine CA promoted the formation of CaCO3. Many researchers have found that adding bovine CA enhanced, and increased the precipitation rate of CaCO3, similar results were obtained when bovine CA added to brines, and others have discovered the CA domain too. The effects of CA from Bacillus sp. On calcite precipitation is also fully important as bacterial CA to the carbon cycle needs to be examined, however, their role has not been quoted in the literature so far ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>565</RecNum><DisplayText>(W. Li et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>565</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1486302801″>565</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, W. </author><author>Liu, L. P.</author><author>Zhou, P. P.</author><author>Cao, L.</author><author>Yu, L. J.</author><author>Jiang, S. Y.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Calcite precipitation induced by bacteria and bacterially produced carbonic anhydrase</title><secondary-title>Curr. Sci.</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Current Science</full-title><abbr-1>Curr. Sci.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Curr Sci</abbr-2></periodical><pages>502-508</pages><volume>100</volume><keywords><keyword>Bacteria, calcite precipitation, carbonic anhydrase, nucleation.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(W. Li et al., 2011).

Mechanism of action of bacteria-derived calcite precipitation
In the biomineralization process, bacteria serve as nucleation sites, through which CaCO3 precipitates with the bacteria. Bacterial cell surfaces have negatively charged groups that act as scavengers for divalent cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+ by binding them onto their cell surfaces at neutral pH, which make ideal nucleation sites for calcite deposition ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gorospe</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1083</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gorospe et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1083</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508503625″>1083</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gorospe, Choco Michael</author><author>Han, Sang-Hyun</author><author>Kim, Seong-Geun</author><author>Park, Joo-Young</author><author>Kang, Chang-Ho</author><author>Jeong, Jin-Hoon</author><author>So, Jae-Seong</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Effects of different calcium salts on calcium carbonate crystal formation by Sporosarcina pasteurii KCTC 3558</title><secondary-title>Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering</full-title></periodical><pages>903-908</pages><volume>18</volume><number>5</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>September 01</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1976-3816</isbn><label>Gorospe2013</label><work-type>journal article</work-type><urls><related-urls><url>https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-013-0030-0</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s12257-013-0030-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gorospe et al., 2013). However, Ca2+ ions can bind more frequently onto the negatively charged cell surface of bacteria than Mg2+ due to their having greater power for ionic selectivity ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu et al., 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu et al., 2016). Subsequently, the bound Ca2+, Mg2+ions reacts with anions (carbonate) to form calcium carbonate in an insoluble form. Bacterial cells are very important for the precipitation of CaCO3 because the bacteria provide nucleation sites i.e. heterogeneous nucleation and affect the specific types of minerals formed ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>629</RecNum><DisplayText>(V. Achal, Pan, Zhang, &amp; Fu, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>629</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745861″>629</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, V.</author><author>Pan, X.</author><author>Zhang, D.</author><author>Fu, Q.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, People&apos;s Republic of China.</auth-address><titles><title>Bioremediation of Pb-contaminated soil based on microbially induced calcite precipitation</title><secondary-title>J Microbiol Biotechnol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology</full-title><abbr-1>J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Microbiol Biotechnol</abbr-2><abbr-3>Journal of Microbiology &amp; Biotechnology</abbr-3></periodical><pages>244-7</pages><volume>22</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>*Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Carbonates/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Lead/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Micrococcaceae/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>*Soil Microbiology</keyword><keyword>Soil Pollutants/*metabolism</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Feb</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1738-8872 (Electronic) 1017-7825 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>22370357</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22370357</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(V. Achal, Pan, Zhang, & Fu, 2012). Previous studies proposed that ion transport especially Ca2+ across the cellular membrane is linked to bacteria driven calcite precipitation. In Bacillus, the Ca2+ concentration progressively decreased over time, reaching percentages of 25% after 20 days of culture. However, the percentages of Mg2+ reduction were always lower than the Ca2+ percentages with values ranging from 80% after 20 days of culture. Greater power for ionic selectivity produces more adsorption of Ca2+ than of Mg2+ in the bacteria cellular envelope. The bacterial Ca2+ pump is displaced close to the outside of the cell, whereas the Mg2+ pump is located towards the inside. It has been defended that extracellular Ca2+ concentrations are around 4X103- fold higher than intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. These findings explain the greater tendency of these bacterial strains to precipitate CaCO3 instead of MgCO3, even when the concentration of Mg2+ was much higher than the concentration of Ca2+ PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5TaWx2YS1DYXN0cm88L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDE1PC9Z
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Silva-Castro et al., 2015).
Microbial carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) is a catalytic enzyme specific to accelerating the formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). It does not shift the equilibrium of the reaction but rather helps the equilibrium be reached much quicker, allowing for its high-velocity yield of product, H2CO3 dissociate in the medium. This enzyme has been known to catalyse one million reactions per second, carbonic acid readily dissociates into H+, and bicarbonate since it is a more stable compound ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>645</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wei Li, Chen, Zhou, &amp; Yu, 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>645</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487783605″>645</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Wei</author><author>Chen, Wei-Shan</author><author>Zhou, Peng-Peng</author><author>Yu, Long-Jiang</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Influence of enzyme concentration on bio-sequestration of CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> in carbonate form using bacterial carbonic anhydrase</style></title><secondary-title>Chemical Engineering Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Chemical Engineering Journal</full-title><abbr-1>Chem. Eng. J.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Chem Eng J</abbr-2></periodical><pages>149-156</pages><volume>232</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>13858947</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.cej.2013.07.069</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wei Li, Chen, Zhou, & Yu, 2013).
H2O + CO2 ? H2CO3
H2CO3 ? H+ + HCO3-
Ca2+ + 2HCO3- ? CaCO3 + H+ + HCO3-
? CaCO3? + H2O + CO2
The HCO3- result in a change of pH, this shift can then precipitate the metal ions. The generation of HCO3- changes the local pH and the reaction continues spontaneously to form CaCO3 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>645</RecNum><DisplayText>(W. Li et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>645</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487783605″>645</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Wei</author><author>Chen, Wei-Shan</author><author>Zhou, Peng-Peng</author><author>Yu, Long-Jiang</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Influence of enzyme concentration on bio-sequestration of CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> in carbonate form using bacterial carbonic anhydrase</style></title><secondary-title>Chemical Engineering Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Chemical Engineering Journal</full-title><abbr-1>Chem. Eng. J.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Chem Eng J</abbr-2></periodical><pages>149-156</pages><volume>232</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>13858947</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.cej.2013.07.069</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(W. Li et al., 2013). Precipitation of CaCO3 occurs at the bacterial cell surface if there is sufficient concentration of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution. Bacterial cell wall due to its negative charge binds to Ca2+, which is unutilized by bacterial metabolic processes, approximately every bacterial serving as nucleation site for CaCO3 precipitation when the cell concentration was low and CA being the rate-limiting step promotes this precipitation around the cell PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5MaTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTM8L1llYXI+PFJlY051
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (W. Li et al., 2013; W. Li et al., 2011).
Ca2+ + CellN ? CellN-Ca2+ Where, CellN= Nucleated site in bacterial cell surface
HCO3-? H+ + CO32- In presences of CA
CellN-Ca2+ + CO32- ? CellN-CaCO3
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Al Qabany, Soga, & Santamarina, 2012; Dhami, Reddy, & Mukherjee, 2014; C.-H. Kang, Kwon, & So, 2015; Mortensen, Haber, DeJong, Caslake, & Nelson, 2011; Ng, Lee, & Hii, 2012 ; Viktor Stabnikov et al., 2011). Additionally, primary and secondary metabolites except for CA, other extracellular macromolecules such as extracellular proteins (excluding CA), polypeptides, amino acids exopolysaccharides, lipids and/or organic substances present in the medium may have positive or negative effects on calcite precipitation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>645</RecNum><DisplayText>(W. Li et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>645</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487783605″>645</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Wei</author><author>Chen, Wei-Shan</author><author>Zhou, Peng-Peng</author><author>Yu, Long-Jiang</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Influence of enzyme concentration on bio-sequestration of CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> in carbonate form using bacterial carbonic anhydrase</style></title><secondary-title>Chemical Engineering Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Chemical Engineering Journal</full-title><abbr-1>Chem. Eng. J.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Chem Eng J</abbr-2></periodical><pages>149-156</pages><volume>232</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>13858947</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.cej.2013.07.069</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(W. Li et al., 2013). However, other numerous factors may affect the carbonate crystal growth, crystal morphology and calcium binding and effect of these biological factors on the systematic study of CaCO3, crystal morphology regulation are rarely achieved ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>565</RecNum><DisplayText>(W. Li et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>565</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1486302801″>565</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, W. </author><author>Liu, L. P.</author><author>Zhou, P. P.</author><author>Cao, L.</author><author>Yu, L. J.</author><author>Jiang, S. Y.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Calcite precipitation induced by bacteria and bacterially produced carbonic anhydrase</title><secondary-title>Curr. Sci.</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Current Science</full-title><abbr-1>Curr. Sci.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Curr Sci</abbr-2></periodical><pages>502-508</pages><volume>100</volume><keywords><keyword>Bacteria, calcite precipitation, carbonic anhydrase, nucleation.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(W. Li et al., 2011).

The implication of bacteria driven calcite precipitation
The bacteria driven calcite precipitation technology can be applied to solve various medical, environmental problems, including remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides, bioconsolidation, biocement, CO2 sequestration and other applications PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Zb3NoaWRhPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (V. Achal, Pan, Lee, Kumari, & Zhang, 2013; V. Achal, Pan, Zhang, et al., 2012; Hamdan et al., 2011; Yoshida et al., 2010). However, an additional question for earth scientists involves how biological mineralization processes determine the compositional signatures contained in biogenic minerals. With the increasing reliance upon compositional proxies as indicators of past environmental conditions, this is a problem that needs to be addressed. It is discussed in some detail below.

Medical approaches
Among the 12 catalytically active human isoforms (HCAI–VA, VB–VII, IX, XII-XIV), the well-characterized is HCA II and located in the cytosol of many cells and organs PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Cb29uZTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTM8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Boone, Habibzadegan, Gill, & McKenna, 2013; Duda & McKenna, 2004). This enzyme possesses a remarkably high catalytic efficiency (kcat of 1.4 × 106 s?1 and a kcat/KM of 1.5 × 108 M?1s?1) PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Cb29uZTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTM8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Cb29uZTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTM8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Boone et al., 2013; Lindskog & Silverman, 2000). These various isoforms are involved in various physiological roles fluid secretion, acid/base balance and thus pH balance, gluconeogenesis, ureagenesis, gastric acid production, as well as transport of CO2 from tissues to the lungs in the form of HCO3? through blood PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Cb29uZTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTM8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Boone et al., 2013; Sly & Hu, 1995; Supuran & Scozzafava, 2007). As CO2 released during respiration process is not exactly soluble in blood and to be transported, these CO2 are converted to by HCA II. Likewise, in diseases such as glaucoma, the role of CA has been recognized. In this condition due to excess secretion of aqueous humour in the eye results increase intra-ocular pressures whereas the reduction in CA activity decreases the secretion of HCO3? and aqueous humour, thereby reducing the pressure ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boone</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1074</RecNum><DisplayText>(Boone et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1074</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1507702693″>1074</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Boone, C. D.</author><author>Habibzadegan, A.</author><author>Gill, S.</author><author>McKenna, R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Carbonic anhydrases and their biotechnological applications</title><secondary-title>Biomolecules</secondary-title></titles><pages>553-62</pages><volume>3</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 19</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>2218-273X (Print) 2218-273X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24970180</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970180</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4030944</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3390/biom3030553</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boone et al., 2013).
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Boone et al., 2013; Esteban et al., 2002). However, decreased lung efficacy because of over-pressurized or over-distended lung tissue is the major problem ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Maggiore</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>1092</RecNum><DisplayText>(Maggiore, C Richard, &amp; Brochard, 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1092</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508570535″>1092</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio</author><author>C Richard, J.</author><author>Brochard, Laurent</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>What has been learnt from P/V curves in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome</title></titles><pages>22s-26s</pages><volume>42</volume><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1183/09031936.03.00004204</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Maggiore, C Richard, & Brochard, 2003). In modern technology, artificial lung (device) is capable of assisting with respiration without input from the lungs and it could replace ventilators in treating respiratory failure never the less many challenges facing this new technology ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boone</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1074</RecNum><DisplayText>(Boone et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1074</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1507702693″>1074</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Boone, C. D.</author><author>Habibzadegan, A.</author><author>Gill, S.</author><author>McKenna, R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Carbonic anhydrases and their biotechnological applications</title><secondary-title>Biomolecules</secondary-title></titles><pages>553-62</pages><volume>3</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 19</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>2218-273X (Print) 2218-273X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24970180</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970180</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4030944</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3390/biom3030553</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boone et al., 2013). The finding to date indicates the options of smaller artificial lungs to be engineered with CA incorporation and it may function effectively within the human body ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kaar</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>1093</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kaar, Oh, Russell, &amp; Federspiel, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1093</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508570778″>1093</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kaar, J. L.</author><author>Oh, H. I.</author><author>Russell, A. J.</author><author>Federspiel, W. J.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA.</auth-address><titles><title>Towards improved artificial lungs through biocatalysis</title><secondary-title>Biomaterials</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biomaterials</full-title><abbr-1>Biomaterials</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biomaterials</abbr-2></periodical><pages>3131-9</pages><volume>28</volume><number>20</number><keywords><keyword>Artificial Organs/*standards</keyword><keyword>Bicarbonates/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Carbon Dioxide/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrases/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Lung/metabolism/*physiology</keyword><keyword>Membranes, Artificial</keyword><keyword>Microscopy, Electron, Scanning</keyword><keyword>Permeability</keyword><keyword>Pulmonary Gas Exchange</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year><pub-dates><date>Jul</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0142-9612 (Print) 0142-9612 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>17433433</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433433</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3427004</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.03.021</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kaar, Oh, Russell, & Federspiel, 2007). However, this technique requires the need of a much more stable form of CA which not be denatured by the shear forces and if in future such a stable CA variant can be engineered, these methods could lead to smaller more efficient artificial lungs ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boone</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1074</RecNum><DisplayText>(Boone et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1074</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1507702693″>1074</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Boone, C. D.</author><author>Habibzadegan, A.</author><author>Gill, S.</author><author>McKenna, R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Carbonic anhydrases and their biotechnological applications</title><secondary-title>Biomolecules</secondary-title></titles><pages>553-62</pages><volume>3</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 19</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>2218-273X (Print) 2218-273X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24970180</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970180</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4030944</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3390/biom3030553</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boone et al., 2013).
Pharmacological considerations: Opioids have strong analgesic effects but high doses may cause respiratory hypoventilation, which may lead to increased CO2 and decreased O2 levels in the body ultimately leading to an acidosis-induced death. In this case, CAs have been employed in CO2-responsive cationic hydrogels in antidote delivery to treat analgesic overdose without losing therapeutic levels of drug PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5TYXRhdjwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTA8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Satav, Bhat, & Thayumanavan, 2010) as CA treatment involves a feedback-regulated antidote delivery system that responds to high CO2 levels or decrease in pH PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Cb29uZTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTM8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Boone et al., 2013; Satav et al., 2010). The cationic hydrogel is based on N, N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate polymers that have modified to have a pKa ~ 7.5, which makes it an adequate blood pH monitor, therefore incorporation of CA as a CO2 sensor improved the efficiency of these antidote-delivery systems PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5TYXRhdjwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTA8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Satav et al., 2010). Whereas, other hydrogels designed with a switchable co-block polymer can undergo a transition change from gel to sol upon exposure to CO2. This study demonstrates that stimuli-triggered drug delivery could be incorporated with CAs utilizing CO2, bicarbonate or pH changes as signalling molecules ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Han</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1095</RecNum><DisplayText>(Han et al., 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1095</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508572027″>1095</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Han, D. H.</author><author>Boissiere, O.</author><author>Kumar, S.</author><author>Tong, X.</author><author>Tremblay, L.</author><author>Zhao, Y.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Chim, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Med Nucl &amp; Radiobiol, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada Univ Sherbrooke, Ctr Imagerie Mol Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada</auth-address><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Two-way CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>-switchable triblock copolymer hydrogels</style></title><secondary-title>Macromolecules</secondary-title><alt-title>Macromolecules</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Macromolecules</full-title><abbr-1>Macromolecules</abbr-1><abbr-2>Macromolecules</abbr-2></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>Macromolecules</full-title><abbr-1>Macromolecules</abbr-1><abbr-2>Macromolecules</abbr-2></alt-periodical><pages>7440-7445</pages><volume>45</volume><number>18</number><keywords><keyword>n-isopropylacrylamide copolymers</keyword><keyword>emulsion polymerization</keyword><keyword>switchable surfactants</keyword><keyword>transition</keyword><keyword>polymers</keyword><keyword>aba</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Sep 25</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0024-9297</isbn><accession-num>WOS:000309041100014</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>&lt;Go to ISI&gt;://WOS:000309041100014</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/ma3015189</electronic-resource-num><language>English</language></record></Cite></EndNote>(Han et al., 2012).

Blood substitutes: As natural blood supplement in trauma injuries or major surgeries often limited, there has been a requirement for the development of natural blood substitutes primarily consisting of 4–5 cross-linked stroma-free haemoglobin (PolySFHb) molecules. The plus point with these substitutes is they contain no blood antigen, can be sterilized, stored for long periods ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boone</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1074</RecNum><DisplayText>(Boone et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1074</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1507702693″>1074</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Boone, C. D.</author><author>Habibzadegan, A.</author><author>Gill, S.</author><author>McKenna, R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Carbonic anhydrases and their biotechnological applications</title><secondary-title>Biomolecules</secondary-title></titles><pages>553-62</pages><volume>3</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 19</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>2218-273X (Print) 2218-273X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24970180</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970180</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4030944</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3390/biom3030553</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boone et al., 2013). However, the major drawback of these substitutes are the inadequate CO2 removal rates, leading to acidosis, and if still untreated finally to coma and death ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Sly</Author><Year>1995</Year><RecNum>1088</RecNum><DisplayText>(Sly &amp; Hu, 1995)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1088</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508568485″>1088</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sly, W. S.</author><author>Hu, P. Y.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, St. Louis University School of Medicine, Missouri 63104, USA.</auth-address><titles><title>Human carbonic anhydrases and carbonic anhydrase deficiencies</title><secondary-title>Annu Rev Biochem</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Annual Review of Biochemistry</full-title><abbr-1>Annu. Rev. Biochem.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Annu Rev Biochem</abbr-2></periodical><pages>375-401</pages><volume>64</volume><keywords><keyword>Amino Acid Sequence</keyword><keyword>Animals</keyword><keyword>Binding Sites</keyword><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrases/*deficiency/genetics/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Chromosome Mapping</keyword><keyword>Disease Models, Animal</keyword><keyword>Female</keyword><keyword>Humans</keyword><keyword>Isoenzymes/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Macaca nemestrina</keyword><keyword>Male</keyword><keyword>Mice</keyword><keyword>Molecular Biology</keyword><keyword>Molecular Sequence Data</keyword><keyword>Molecular Structure</keyword><keyword>Sequence Homology, Amino Acid</keyword><keyword>Syndrome</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1995</year></dates><isbn>0066-4154 (Print) 0066-4154 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>7574487</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7574487</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1146/annurev.bi.64.070195.002111</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Sly & Hu, 1995). Lastly, to overcome this limitation with enhanced activity, few enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and CA are introduced to the PolySFHb substitute (PolySFHb-SOD-CAT-CA) was introduced PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5CaWFuPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMjwvWWVhcj48UmVj
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Boone et al., 2013; R. F. Chen & Kernohan, 1967). For example, the high affinity of HCA II for Zn2+ (4 pM) has been used to quantify trace amounts of Zn2+ in the sea and wastewater for concerns over toxicity to certain plants, invertebrates and fish ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boone</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1074</RecNum><DisplayText>(Boone et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1074</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1507702693″>1074</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Boone, C. D.</author><author>Habibzadegan, A.</author><author>Gill, S.</author><author>McKenna, R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Carbonic anhydrases and their biotechnological applications</title><secondary-title>Biomolecules</secondary-title></titles><pages>553-62</pages><volume>3</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 19</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>2218-273X (Print) 2218-273X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24970180</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970180</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4030944</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3390/biom3030553</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boone et al., 2013). This biosensor would operate along the seabed and relay a fluorescence signal up to the ocean surface that is released upon binding of a strong inhibitor, dansylamide, upon binding of Zn2+ in the active site of apo-CA ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chen</Author><Year>1967</Year><RecNum>1098</RecNum><DisplayText>(R. F. Chen &amp; Kernohan, 1967)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1098</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508573582″>1098</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chen, R. F.</author><author>Kernohan, J. C.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Combination of bovine carbonic anhydrase with a fluorescent sulfonamide</title><secondary-title>J Biol Chem</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Biological Chemistry</full-title><abbr-1>J. Biol. Chem.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Biol Chem</abbr-2></periodical><pages>5813-23</pages><volume>242</volume><number>24</number><keywords><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/pharmacology</keyword><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrases/analysis/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Energy Transfer</keyword><keyword>Erythrocytes/enzymology</keyword><keyword>Esterases/antagonists &amp; inhibitors</keyword><keyword>Fluorescence</keyword><keyword>Fluorometry</keyword><keyword>Naphthalenes/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Protein Binding</keyword><keyword>Spectrum Analysis</keyword><keyword>Sulfonamides/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Tryptophan/analysis</keyword><keyword>Ultraviolet Rays</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1967</year><pub-dates><date>Dec 25</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0021-9258 (Print) 0021-9258 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>4990698</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4990698</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>4990698 </custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>(R. F. Chen & Kernohan, 1967). The reusability and efficiency of this system are also limited because of the slow dissociation rate of Zn2+ from the CA active site (t1/2 ? 90 days). On the other hand, the relative abundance of natural Zn2+ in the environment compared to that of the binding affinity also limits the production of apo-HCA II ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeYear=”1″><Author>Lindskog</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>1087</RecNum><DisplayText>(Lindskog &amp; Silverman)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1087</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508568321″>1087</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lindskog, S.</author><author>Silverman, D.N. </author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Chegwidden, W.R.</author><author>Carter, N.D.</author><author>Edwards, Y.H.</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>The catalytic mechanism of mammalian carbonic anhydrases</title><secondary-title>The carbonic anhdyrases: New horizons</secondary-title></titles><pages>175–195</pages><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>Boston, MA, USA</pub-location><publisher>Birkhäuser Verlag</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Lindskog & Silverman). To avoid these limitations, HCA II variant (E117Q) that contained both a lowered binding affinity (nM) and a much faster dissociation time (t1/2 ? 3 sec) for zinc was developed PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5IdWFuZzwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjE5OTg8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Huang et al., 1998). The binding affinity of HCA II for Cu2+ and Hg2+ is greater than that of Zn2+ PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGUgRXhjbHVkZVllYXI9IjEiPjxBdXRob3I+TGluZHNrb2c8L0F1dGhvcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Hunt, 2003; Lindskog & Silverman, 2000; J. B. Thompson, Ferris, & Smith, 1990). Therefore, a group of researchers tried to improve the fluorescence signalling upon Zn2+ binding in the active site of HCA II via incorporation of the H36C variant. These variants with a lowered binding affinity for above-mentioned metals would have to be developed before detection of other metals is feasible. Then selectively labelled with an SH-reactive fluorophore ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thompson</Author><Year>1990</Year><RecNum>516</RecNum><DisplayText>(J. B. Thompson et al., 1990)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>516</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1486202177″>516</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thompson, J. B.</author><author>Ferris, F. G. </author><author>Smith, D. A. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Geomicrobiology and sedimentology of the mixolimnion and chemocline in Fayetteville Green Lake, New York, USA </title><secondary-title>Palaios </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Palaios</full-title><abbr-1>Palaios</abbr-1><abbr-2>Palaios</abbr-2></periodical><pages>52–75</pages><volume>5</volume><dates><year>1990</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(J. B. Thompson et al., 1990) that would interact upon ligation of an inhibitor, azosulfonamide, acting as a fluorescence acceptor ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thompson</Author><Year>1995</Year><RecNum>1126</RecNum><DisplayText>(R. B. Thompson &amp; Patchan, 1995)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1126</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1515997473″>1126</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thompson, R. B.</author><author>Patchan, M. W.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA.</auth-address><titles><title>Lifetime-based fluorescence energy transfer biosensing of zinc</title><secondary-title>Anal Biochem</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Analytical Biochemistry</full-title><abbr-1>Anal. Biochem.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Anal Biochem</abbr-2></periodical><pages>123-8</pages><volume>227</volume><number>1</number><keywords><keyword>Binding Sites</keyword><keyword>*Biosensing Techniques</keyword><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrases/chemistry/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>*Energy Transfer</keyword><keyword>Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Humans</keyword><keyword>Kinetics</keyword><keyword>Models, Chemical</keyword><keyword>Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Spectrometry, Fluorescence</keyword><keyword>Zinc/*analysis/metabolism</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1995</year><pub-dates><date>May 1</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0003-2697 (Print) 0003-2697 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>7668370</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7668370</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1006/abio.1995.1260</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(R. B. Thompson & Patchan, 1995). Sulphonamide inhibitors, however, do not bind tightly to CA with metals other than Zn2+ or Co2+ bound in the active site, promoting the need for a novel development of metal ligation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Harrington</Author><Year>1977</Year><RecNum>1127</RecNum><DisplayText>(Harrington &amp; Wilkins, 1977)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1127</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1515997612″>1127</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Harrington, P. C.</author><author>Wilkins, R. G.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Interaction of acetazolamide and 4-nitrothiophenolate ion with bivalent metal ion derivatives of bovine carbonic anhydrase</title><secondary-title>Biochemistry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biochemistry</full-title><abbr-1>Biochemistry</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biochemistry</abbr-2></periodical><pages>448-54</pages><volume>16</volume><number>3</number><keywords><keyword>*Acetazolamide</keyword><keyword>Animals</keyword><keyword>*Carbonic Anhydrases/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Cations, Divalent</keyword><keyword>Cattle</keyword><keyword>Hydrogen-Ion Concentration</keyword><keyword>Kinetics</keyword><keyword>Mathematics</keyword><keyword>Protein Binding</keyword><keyword>Spectrophotometry</keyword><keyword>Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet</keyword><keyword>*Thiophenes</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1977</year><pub-dates><date>Feb 8</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0006-2960 (Print) 0006-2960 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>13818</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13818</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Harrington & Wilkins, 1977). 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (McCranor et al., 2012) . This can be extended to the other metals that do not exhibit d-d absorbance bands, (Hg2+ and Cd2+) since the binding of these metals to apo-CA causes a quenching of the fluorescence of an active site fluorophore ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thompson</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>1125</RecNum><DisplayText>(R. B. Thompson, Ge, Patchan, &amp; Fierke, 1996)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1125</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1515997355″>1125</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thompson, R. B.</author><author>Ge, Z.</author><author>Patchan, M. W.</author><author>Fierke, C. A.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Performance enhancement of fluorescence energy transfer-based biosensors by site-directed mutagenesis of the transducer</title><secondary-title>J Biomed Opt</secondary-title></titles><pages>131-7</pages><volume>1</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>1996</year><pub-dates><date>Jan</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1083-3668 (Print) 1083-3668 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23014654</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23014654</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1117/12.227108</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(R. B. Thompson, Ge, Patchan, & Fierke, 1996). Since biologically prevalent divalent metals such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ do not bind to CA and interfere with the assay, biosensors employed in biomedical applications are especially useful PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5GcmVkZXJpY2tzb248L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA2PC9Z
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Pn==
ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Bozym et al., 2008; Frederickson et al., 2006; McCranor et al., 2012; D. Wang, Hurst, Thompson, & Fierke, 2011).
Removal of heavy metals and radionuclides
Heavy metals: Heavy metals such as Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb, As, Ni, Se, Ag, Zn, Hg, antimony (Sb) and thallium (Tl) from industrial activities pose a major threat to the environment owing to their toxicity, non-biodegradability and persistent deposition PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5HdW88L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDEwPC9ZZWFyPjxSZWNO
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (V. Achal, Pan, Zhang, et al., 2012; Guo et al., 2010). Additionally, the heavy metals that accumulate in the environment create many health problems for humans and other living organisms. Although usual heavy metals are naturally occurring, but become concentrated because of anthropogenic activities ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Guo</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1100</RecNum><DisplayText>(Guo et al., 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1100</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508583300″>1100</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Guo, H.</author><author>Luo, S.</author><author>Chen, L.</author><author>Xiao, X.</author><author>Xi, Q.</author><author>Wei, W.</author><author>Zeng, G.</author><author>Liu, C.</author><author>Wan, Y.</author><author>Chen, J.</author><author>He, Y.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, People&apos;s Republic of China.</auth-address><titles><title>Bioremediation of heavy metals by growing hyperaccumulaor endophytic bacterium Bacillus sp. L14</title><secondary-title>Bioresour Technol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Bioresource Technology</full-title><abbr-1>Bioresour. Technol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Bioresour Technol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>8599-605</pages><volume>101</volume><number>22</number><keywords><keyword>Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Cell Culture Techniques/methods</keyword><keyword>Cell Proliferation</keyword><keyword>Metals, Heavy/isolation &amp; purification/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Solanum/*classification/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Species Specificity</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2010</year><pub-dates><date>Nov</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1873-2976 (Electronic) 0960-8524 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>20637605</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20637605</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.085</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Guo et al., 2010). Among the mentioned, few heavy metals are vital to human health in trace amounts, but lethal in the large measures released by several industries ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Fu</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1103</RecNum><DisplayText>(Fu &amp; Wang, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1103</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508584558″>1103</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fu, Fenglian</author><author>Wang, Qi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: A review</title></titles><pages>407-18</pages><volume>92</volume><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.11.011</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Fu & Wang, 2011). As the level of toxicity is determined by the concentrations of the particular heavy metals; therefore, a huge attention is given to these metal contaminants for their removal from contaminated soil and/or wastewater ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vullo</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>1101</RecNum><DisplayText>(Vullo, Ceretti, Alejandra Daniel, Ramírez, &amp; Zalts, 2008)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1101</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508583863″>1101</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vullo, Diana</author><author>Ceretti, Helena</author><author>Alejandra Daniel, María</author><author>Ramírez, Silvana</author><author>Zalts, Anita</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Cadmium, zinc and copper biosorption mediated by </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Pseudomonas veronii</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> 2E</style></title></titles><pages>5574-81</pages><volume>99</volume><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.biortech.2007.10.060</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Vullo, Ceretti, Alejandra Daniel, Ramírez, & Zalts, 2008). Various traditional remediation such as adsorption, chemical precipitation, electrochemical treatment, an evaporation method, filtration, ion exchange, membrane technology, oxidation/reduction, and reverse osmosis ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wang</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>1102</RecNum><DisplayText>(J. Wang &amp; Chen, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1102</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508584149″>1102</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wang, Jianlong</author><author>Chen, Can</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Biosorbents for heavy metal removal and their future</title></titles><pages>195-226</pages><volume>27</volume><dates><year>2009</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.11.002</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(J. 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (V. Achal et al., 2013; V. Achal, Pan, Zhang, et al., 2012) as they are ineffective to remove the metals successfully beside being expensive, consume high amounts of chemicals and energy ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Fu</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1103</RecNum><DisplayText>(Fu &amp; Wang, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1103</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508584558″>1103</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fu, Fenglian</author><author>Wang, Qi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: A review</title></titles><pages>407-18</pages><volume>92</volume><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.11.011</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Fu & Wang, 2011).

Now days apart from above methods, numerous biological treatments also introduced to remove these metal contaminants from contaminated sites through phytoremediation, bioaccumulation, biocoagulation, bioleaching, biosorbents and bioimmobilization ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1104</RecNum><DisplayText>(Varenyam Achal, Pan, &amp; Zhang, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1104</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508584931″>1104</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, Varenyam</author><author>Pan, Xiangliang</author><author>Zhang, Daoyong</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Remediation of copper-contaminated soil by Kocuria flava CR1, based on microbially induced calcite precipitation</title><secondary-title>Ecological Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ecological Engineering</full-title><abbr-1>Ecol. Eng.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ecol Eng</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1601-1605</pages><volume>37</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>09258574</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.06.008</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Varenyam Achal, Pan, & Zhang, 2011). Likewise, these methods are also not effective because they are expensive, time-consuming and result in the release of immobilized or adsorbed heavy metals back to the environment PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BY2hhbDwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTI8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (V. Achal, Pan, Zhang, et al., 2012; Hamdan et al., 2011). Several authors have reported that bacteria driven calcite precipitation has the potential to remediate heavy metals from the environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>630</RecNum><DisplayText>(V. Achal, Pan, Fu, &amp; Zhang, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>630</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745990″>630</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, V.</author><author>Pan, X.</author><author>Fu, Q.</author><author>Zhang, D.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China.</auth-address><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Biomineralization based remediation of As(III) contaminated soil by </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Sporosarcina ginsengisoli</style></title><secondary-title>J Hazard Mater</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Hazardous Materials</full-title><abbr-1>J. Hazard. Mater.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Hazard Mater</abbr-2></periodical><pages>178-84</pages><volume>201-202</volume><keywords><keyword>Arsenicals/chemistry/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>China</keyword><keyword>*Soil Microbiology</keyword><keyword>Soil Pollutants/chemistry/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Sporosarcina/*growth &amp; development</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Jan 30</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1873-3336 (Electronic) 0304-3894 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>22154871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22154871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.11.067</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(V. Achal, Pan, Fu, & Zhang, 2012). Heavy metal toxicity affects the microbial growth and efficiency of this process; therefore, several researchers have isolated metal tolerant microbes with enzymatic capability from various environments to improve the efficiency of the bacteria-driven calcite precipitation process PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5HdW88L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDEwPC9ZZWFyPjxSZWNO
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Varenyam Achal et al., 2011; Guo et al., 2010; C. H. Kang, Han, Shin, Oh, & So, 2014). Here, calcites can be incorporated heavy metals (e.g., Pb2+) onto their surfaces via substitution of suitable divalent cations (Ca2+) in the calcite lattice (Eq. 8), after which these compounds are changed from soluble heavy metals to insoluble forms and finally detoxified PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BY2hhbDwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTE8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Varenyam Achal et al., 2011; M. Li et al., 2013).

Pb2+ + OH? + HCO?3 ?PbCO3 + H2O
Heavy metals
Copper: Generally copper is present everywhere in water, soil, and air, essential micronutrients for humans, but excess intake has toxicological effects ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Paulino</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>1107</RecNum><DisplayText>(Varenyam Achal et al., 2011; Paulino et al., 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1107</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508905872″>1107</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Paulino, A.T.</author><author>Minasse, F. A.</author><author>Guilherme, M. R.</author><author>Reis, A. V. </author><author>Muniz, E. C.</author><author>Nozaki, J. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>novel absorbent besed on silkwarm chrysalides for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters</title><secondary-title>J Colloid Interface Sci. </secondary-title></titles><pages>479-87</pages><volume>301</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls><custom2>16780853</custom2></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1104</RecNum><record><rec-number>1104</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508584931″>1104</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, Varenyam</author><author>Pan, Xiangliang</author><author>Zhang, Daoyong</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Remediation of copper-contaminated soil by Kocuria flava CR1, based on microbially induced calcite precipitation</title><secondary-title>Ecological Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ecological Engineering</full-title><abbr-1>Ecol. Eng.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ecol Eng</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1601-1605</pages><volume>37</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>09258574</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.06.008</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Varenyam Achal et al., 2011; Paulino et al., 2006). In 2011, from a mining area in China, copper tolerant bacteria K. flava CR1 has been isolated, via a bacteria-driven calcite precipitation process these isolates removes 97 % copper from the environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1104</RecNum><DisplayText>(Varenyam Achal et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1104</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508584931″>1104</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, Varenyam</author><author>Pan, Xiangliang</author><author>Zhang, Daoyong</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Remediation of copper-contaminated soil by Kocuria flava CR1, based on microbially induced calcite precipitation</title><secondary-title>Ecological Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ecological Engineering</full-title><abbr-1>Ecol. Eng.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ecol Eng</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1601-1605</pages><volume>37</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>09258574</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.06.008</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Varenyam Achal et al., 2011). Even though the high concentration of copper affects the bacterial growth, but it improves the copper removal rate ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1104</RecNum><DisplayText>(Varenyam Achal et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1104</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508584931″>1104</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, Varenyam</author><author>Pan, Xiangliang</author><author>Zhang, Daoyong</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Remediation of copper-contaminated soil by Kocuria flava CR1, based on microbially induced calcite precipitation</title><secondary-title>Ecological Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ecological Engineering</full-title><abbr-1>Ecol. Eng.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ecol Eng</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1601-1605</pages><volume>37</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>09258574</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.06.008</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Varenyam Achal et al., 2011). Recently, it was accounted that 93% copper is removed by Sporosarcina koreensis UR47 comparatively higher than that by Sporosarcina pasteurii ATCC 11859 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1106</RecNum><DisplayText>(M. Li et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1106</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508586440″>1106</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Meng</author><author>Cheng, Xiaohui</author><author>Guo, Hongxian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Heavy metal removal by biomineralization of urease producing bacteria isolated from soil</title><secondary-title>International Biodeterioration &amp; Biodegradation</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Biodeterioration &amp; Biodegradation</full-title><abbr-1>Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation</abbr-1><abbr-2>Int Biodeterior Biodegradation</abbr-2></periodical><pages>81-85</pages><volume>76</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>09648305</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.06.016</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(M. Li et al., 2013).
Cadmium: Cadmium belongs to extremely toxic metal, used in construction and agriculture, electroplating, in industrial paints, manufacture of batteries. Recently, few researchers found that Terrabacter tumescens remove more than 99 % of this metal from soil wastewater via bacteria driven calcite precipitation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1106</RecNum><DisplayText>(M. Li et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1106</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508586440″>1106</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Meng</author><author>Cheng, Xiaohui</author><author>Guo, Hongxian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Heavy metal removal by biomineralization of urease producing bacteria isolated from soil</title><secondary-title>International Biodeterioration &amp; Biodegradation</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Biodeterioration &amp; Biodegradation</full-title><abbr-1>Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation</abbr-1><abbr-2>Int Biodeterior Biodegradation</abbr-2></periodical><pages>81-85</pages><volume>76</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>09648305</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.06.016</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(M. Li et al., 2013) while another study concluded 99.5% of removal by calcite precipitation after 48 h in the beef extract, peptone and urea (BPU) media ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kang</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>1105</RecNum><DisplayText>(C. H. Kang, Han, et al., 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1105</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508585791″>1105</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Han, S. H.</author><author>Shin, Y.</author><author>Oh, S. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Yonghyun-dong, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751, South Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Bioremediation of Cd by microbially induced calcite precipitation</title><secondary-title>Appl Biochem Biotechnol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology</full-title><abbr-1>Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Appl Biochem Biotechnol</abbr-2><abbr-3>Applied Biochemistry &amp; Biotechnology</abbr-3></periodical><pages>1929-37</pages><volume>172</volume><number>4</number><keywords><keyword>*Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Cadmium/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*metabolism</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2014</year><pub-dates><date>Feb</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1559-0291 (Electronic) 0273-2289 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24293312</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293312</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s12010-013-0626-z</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(C. H. Kang, Han, et al., 2014).
Chromium: Chromium is an environmental pollutant, trace amount chromium Cr(III) is present in food and water but Cr(VI) is highly mobile, lethal, water soluble and carcinogenic ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kamaludeen</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>1108</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kamaludeen, Megharaj, Juhasz, Sethunathan, &amp; Naidu, 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1108</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508906884″>1108</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kamaludeen, Sara P. B.</author><author>Megharaj, Mallavarapu</author><author>Juhasz, Albert L.</author><author>Sethunathan, Nabrattil</author><author>Naidu, Ravi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Chromium-Microorganism Interactions in Soils: Remediation Implications</title></titles><pages>93-164</pages><volume>178</volume><dates><year>2003</year></dates><isbn>0179-5953</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/0-387-21728-2_4</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kamaludeen, Megharaj, Juhasz, Sethunathan, & Naidu, 2003). The drawback of phytoremediation and bioremediation to remove Cr from Cr- contaminated soil and water are these methods release the immobilized or adsorbed heavy metals back into the soil or water. Using the bacteria-driven calcite precipitation process, Scanning electron micrograph showing the remediation of Cr by L. sphaericus CH-5. a CdCl2, b CdCO3 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kang</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>1105</RecNum><DisplayText>(C. H. Kang, Han, et al., 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1105</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508585791″>1105</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Han, S. H.</author><author>Shin, Y.</author><author>Oh, S. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Yonghyun-dong, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751, South Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Bioremediation of Cd by microbially induced calcite precipitation</title><secondary-title>Appl Biochem Biotechnol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology</full-title><abbr-1>Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Appl Biochem Biotechnol</abbr-2><abbr-3>Applied Biochemistry &amp; Biotechnology</abbr-3></periodical><pages>1929-37</pages><volume>172</volume><number>4</number><keywords><keyword>*Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Cadmium/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*metabolism</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2014</year><pub-dates><date>Feb</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1559-0291 (Electronic) 0273-2289 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24293312</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293312</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s12010-013-0626-z</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(C. H. Kang, Han, et al., 2014) chromate can interact with CaCO3 in co-precipitated form and effectively remove chromium from Cr-contaminated sites PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BY2hhbDwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTM8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (V. Achal et al., 2013; Hua, Deng, Thornton, Yang, & Amonette, 2006). A few researchers investigated the role of metal ions during the transformation process, here transformation from vaterite to calcite, a spontaneous reaction through simple contact with water or heating, produce stable crystals. The transformation process may be delayed or stabilized in presence of any metal ions on the surface of the vaterite. Similarly, the transformation process was delayed or inhibited in the presence of Cr(VI) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hua</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>1109</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hua et al., 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1109</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508907814″>1109</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hua, Bin</author><author>Deng, Baolin</author><author>Thornton, Edward C.</author><author>Yang, John</author><author>Amonette, James E.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Incorporation of Chromate into Calcium Carbonate Structure During Coprecipitation</title><secondary-title>Water, Air, and Soil Pollution</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Water, Air, and Soil Pollution</full-title><abbr-1>Water Air Soil Pollut.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Water Air Soil Pollut</abbr-2><abbr-3>Water, Air, &amp; Soil Pollution</abbr-3></periodical><pages>381-390</pages><volume>179</volume><number>1-4</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><isbn>0049-6979 1573-2932</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s11270-006-9242-7</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hua et al., 2006). However, the same authors reported that the transformation process is not delayed in the presence of Cu2+ on the surface of the vaterite ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu et al., 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu et al., 2016).

Lead: Among environmental pollutants lead is the most predominant heavy metal contaminant and currently available remediation methods such as biosorption and other techniques are expensive, ineffective, requires high volumes of reagents and generation of toxic sledges and require a means of safe disposal ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wang</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>1102</RecNum><DisplayText>(J. Wang &amp; Chen, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1102</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508584149″>1102</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wang, Jianlong</author><author>Chen, Can</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Biosorbents for heavy metal removal and their future</title></titles><pages>195-226</pages><volume>27</volume><dates><year>2009</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.11.002</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(J. Wang & Chen, 2009). In the biosorption method in culture media by heavy metal tolerant Micrococcus luteus DE2008, the removal rate of Pb2+ and Cu2+ were 36.07 and 25.42 %, respectively ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>M Puyen</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1112</RecNum><DisplayText>(M Puyen et al., 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1112</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508908852″>1112</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>M Puyen, Zully</author><author>Villagrasa, Eduard</author><author>Maldonado, Juan</author><author>Diestra, Elia</author><author>Esteve, Isabel</author><author>Solé, Antoni</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Biosorption of lead and copper by heavy-metal tolerant </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Micrococcus luteus</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> DE2008</style></title></titles><pages>233-237</pages><volume>126C</volume><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.036</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(M Puyen et al., 2012). In this process, Pb2+ was bound with the calcite that is calcite precipitation product, which was responsible for its immobilization and resulted in significantly reduced Pb2+ levels in the environment PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5LYW5nPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxNDwvWWVhcj48UmVj
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (C.-H. Kang et al., 2015; C. H. Kang, Han, et al., 2014). The removal rate of Pb2+ was also found to be approximately 100 % by Sporosarcina koreensis UR47 as well ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1106</RecNum><DisplayText>(M. Li et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1106</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508586440″>1106</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Meng</author><author>Cheng, Xiaohui</author><author>Guo, Hongxian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Heavy metal removal by biomineralization of urease producing bacteria isolated from soil</title><secondary-title>International Biodeterioration &amp; Biodegradation</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Biodeterioration &amp; Biodegradation</full-title><abbr-1>Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation</abbr-1><abbr-2>Int Biodeterior Biodegradation</abbr-2></periodical><pages>81-85</pages><volume>76</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>09648305</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.06.016</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(M. Li et al., 2013).
Arsenic: Arsenite (AsIII) the most toxic arsenic species is highly mobile in soil and easily leached into groundwater ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>630</RecNum><DisplayText>(V. Achal, Pan, Fu, et al., 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>630</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745990″>630</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, V.</author><author>Pan, X.</author><author>Fu, Q.</author><author>Zhang, D.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China.</auth-address><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Biomineralization based remediation of As(III) contaminated soil by </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Sporosarcina ginsengisoli</style></title><secondary-title>J Hazard Mater</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Hazardous Materials</full-title><abbr-1>J. Hazard. Mater.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Hazard Mater</abbr-2></periodical><pages>178-84</pages><volume>201-202</volume><keywords><keyword>Arsenicals/chemistry/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>China</keyword><keyword>*Soil Microbiology</keyword><keyword>Soil Pollutants/chemistry/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Sporosarcina/*growth &amp; development</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Jan 30</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1873-3336 (Electronic) 0304-3894 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>22154871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22154871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.11.067</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(V. Achal, Pan, Fu, et al., 2012). Various bioremediation methods have been implied to remove As from the environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Fayiga</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>1134</RecNum><DisplayText>(Fayiga, Ma, Cao, &amp; Rathinasabapathi, 2004)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1134</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516000873″>1134</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fayiga, A. O.</author><author>Ma, L. Q.</author><author>Cao, X.</author><author>Rathinasabapathi, B.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290, USA.</auth-address><titles><title>Effects of heavy metals on growth and arsenic accumulation in the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L</title><secondary-title>Environ Pollut</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987)</full-title><abbr-1>Environ. Pollut.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Environ Pollut</abbr-2></periodical><pages>289-96</pages><volume>132</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Arsenic/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Metals, Heavy/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Pteris/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Soil Pollutants/*metabolism</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2004</year><pub-dates><date>Nov</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0269-7491 (Print) 0269-7491 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>15312941</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15312941</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.envpol.2004.04.020</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Fayiga, Ma, Cao, & Rathinasabapathi, 2004); but are ineffective since the immobilized or adsorbed heavy metals are again released into the environment. A study found, decreased the concentration of As in the NBU media containing 50 mM As(III) via the growth of arsenic-tolerant bacteria Sporosarcina ginsengisoli CR5, i.e. this strain efficiently remove about 96.3 % of the As after 7 days of cultivation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>630</RecNum><DisplayText>(V. Achal, Pan, Fu, et al., 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>630</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745990″>630</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, V.</author><author>Pan, X.</author><author>Fu, Q.</author><author>Zhang, D.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China.</auth-address><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Biomineralization based remediation of As(III) contaminated soil by </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Sporosarcina ginsengisoli</style></title><secondary-title>J Hazard Mater</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Hazardous Materials</full-title><abbr-1>J. Hazard. Mater.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Hazard Mater</abbr-2></periodical><pages>178-84</pages><volume>201-202</volume><keywords><keyword>Arsenicals/chemistry/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>China</keyword><keyword>*Soil Microbiology</keyword><keyword>Soil Pollutants/chemistry/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Sporosarcina/*growth &amp; development</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Jan 30</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1873-3336 (Electronic) 0304-3894 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>22154871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22154871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.11.067</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(V. Achal, Pan, Fu, et al., 2012). However, another study reported that about 96.9 % of As was removed from aqueous media containing only 40 mM of As(III) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Aksornchu</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>1135</RecNum><DisplayText>(Aksornchu, Prasertsan, &amp; Sobhon, 2008)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1135</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516001063″>1135</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Aksornchu, P.</author><author>Prasertsan, P. </author><author>Sobhon, V.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Isolation of arsenic?tolerant bacteria from arsenic?contaminated soil</title><secondary-title> Songkla? nakarin J Sci Technol </secondary-title></titles><pages>95–102</pages><volume>30</volume><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Aksornchu, Prasertsan, & Sobhon, 2008). Thus, the chief advantage of using bacteria driven calcite precipitation for As removal is that the carbonate metal complex (product) is insoluble and traps the As, preventing it from being released back into the environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>630</RecNum><DisplayText>(V. Achal, Pan, Fu, et al., 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>630</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745990″>630</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, V.</author><author>Pan, X.</author><author>Fu, Q.</author><author>Zhang, D.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China.</auth-address><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Biomineralization based remediation of As(III) contaminated soil by </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Sporosarcina ginsengisoli</style></title><secondary-title>J Hazard Mater</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Hazardous Materials</full-title><abbr-1>J. Hazard. Mater.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Hazard Mater</abbr-2></periodical><pages>178-84</pages><volume>201-202</volume><keywords><keyword>Arsenicals/chemistry/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>China</keyword><keyword>*Soil Microbiology</keyword><keyword>Soil Pollutants/chemistry/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Sporosarcina/*growth &amp; development</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Jan 30</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1873-3336 (Electronic) 0304-3894 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>22154871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22154871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.11.067</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(V. Achal, Pan, Fu, et al., 2012).
Removal of radionuclides: The nuclear waste management is the chief concerns, as radionuclide wastewater from commercial nuclear plants is highly toxic to the environment, particularly to human health ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ahmadpour</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1136</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ahmadpour, Zabihi, Tahmasbi, &amp; Bastami, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1136</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516001455″>1136</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ahmadpour, A.</author><author>Zabihi, M.</author><author>Tahmasbi, M.</author><author>Bastami, T. R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948944 Mashhad, Iran. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Effect of adsorbents and chemical treatments on the removal of strontium from aqueous solutions</title><secondary-title>J Hazard Mater</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Hazardous Materials</full-title><abbr-1>J. Hazard. Mater.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Hazard Mater</abbr-2></periodical><pages>552-6</pages><volume>182</volume><number>1-3</number><keywords><keyword>Adsorption</keyword><keyword>Kinetics</keyword><keyword>Models, Theoretical</keyword><keyword>Solutions</keyword><keyword>Strontium/*isolation &amp; purification</keyword><keyword>Temperature</keyword><keyword>Water</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2010</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 15</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1873-3336 (Electronic) 0304-3894 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>20633988</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20633988</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.06.067</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ahmadpour, Zabihi, Tahmasbi, & Bastami, 2010). Several physicochemical processes are in practice to eliminate radionuclides such as chemical precipitation, flocculation, ion exchange, membrane process, immobilization and adsorption ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Omar</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>1137</RecNum><DisplayText>(Omar, Arida, &amp; Daifullah, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1137</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516001664″>1137</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Omar, H.</author><author>Arida, H. </author><author>Daifullah, A. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Adsorption of </style><style face=”superscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>60 </style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Co radionuclides from aqueous solution by raw and modified ben? tonite</style></title><secondary-title>Appl Clay Sci </secondary-title></titles><pages>21–2</pages><volume>44</volume><dates><year>2009</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Omar, Arida, & Daifullah, 2009). Although, traditional treatment method such as pump and treat was found to be ineffective at the removal of radionuclides from the contaminated environment or prevent migration of mobile radionuclide groundwater contaminants PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5GdWppdGE8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDEwPC9ZZWFyPjxS
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Y. Fujita, Taylor, Wendt, Reed, & Smith, 2010; Y. Fujita et al., 2008). Therefore, an alternative method such as bacteria driven calcite precipitation involved cleaning up the radionuclides safely from the environment. This method stimulates microorganisms to promote CaCO3 precipitation, which in turn leads to promote co-precipitation of radionuclides by substitution of Ca2+ ion and formation of radionuclide carbonate minerals ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Fujita</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1139</RecNum><DisplayText>(Y. Fujita et al., 2010; Mitchell &amp; Ferris, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1139</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516002296″>1139</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fujita, Y. </author><author>Taylor, J. </author><author>Wendt, L. </author><author>Reed, D. </author><author>Smith, R. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Evaluating the potential of native ueolytic microbes to remediate a (90)Sr contaminated environment</title><secondary-title>Environ Sci Technol. </secondary-title></titles><pages>7652–7658</pages><volume>44</volume><dates><year>2010</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Mitchell</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>1140</RecNum><record><rec-number>1140</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516002769″>1140</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Ferris, F.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Effect of strontium contaminants upon the size and solubility of calcite crystals precipitated by the bacterial hydrolysis of urea</title><secondary-title>Environ Sci Technol. </secondary-title></titles><pages>1008–1014</pages><volume>40</volume><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Y. Fujita et al., 2010; Mitchell & Ferris, 2006).

Strontium: In living organisms, strontium (Sr) is soluble and highly toxic due to its long half-life (28.8 years). It can be readily passed through the food chain from contaminated soil or water ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Stabnikov</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>639</RecNum><DisplayText>(Viktor Stabnikov et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>639</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487749724″>639</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Stabnikov, Viktor</author><author>Naeimi, Maryam</author><author>Ivanov, Volodymyr</author><author>Chu, Jian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Formation of water-impermeable crust on sand surface using biocement</title><secondary-title>Cement and Concrete Research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Cement and Concrete Research</full-title><abbr-1>Cem. Concr. Res.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Cem Concr Res</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1143-1149</pages><volume>41</volume><number>11</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>00088846</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.06.017</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Viktor Stabnikov et al., 2011). The mobility and carcinogenic effects of Sr affect groundwater usability ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Lauchnor</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1142</RecNum><DisplayText>(Lauchnor et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1142</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516003433″>1142</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lauchnor, E. G.</author><author>Schultz, L. N.</author><author>Bugni, S.</author><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation and strontium coprecipitation in a porous media ?ow system</title><secondary-title>Environ Sci Technol. </secondary-title></titles><pages>1557–1564</pages><volume>47</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Lauchnor et al., 2013), and available conventional remediation techniques are both expensive and ineffective ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Al-Qabany</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1143</RecNum><DisplayText>(Al-Qabany, Soga, &amp; Santamarina, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1143</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516003791″>1143</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Al-Qabany, A. </author><author>Soga, K. </author><author>Santamarina, C. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Factors affecting ef?ciency of microbially induced calcite precipitation</title><secondary-title>J Geotech Geoenviron Eng. </secondary-title></titles><pages>992–1001</pages><volume>138</volume><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Al-Qabany, Soga, & Santamarina, 2012). Sr90 exists in the environment as the Sr2+ ion, which has chemical similarity to Ca2+; therefore, it can replace Ca2+ in living systems ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>V</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1073</RecNum><DisplayText>(V. Achal, Pan, &amp; Zhang, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1073</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1507702072″>1073</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, V.</author><author>Pan, X.</author><author>Zhang, D.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Bioremdiation of strontium (Sr) contaminated aquifer quartz sand based on carbonate precipitation induced by Sr resistant Halomonas sp. </title><secondary-title>Chemosphere </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Chemosphere</full-title><abbr-1>Chemosphere</abbr-1><abbr-2>Chemosphere</abbr-2></periodical><pages>764–768</pages><volume>89</volume><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(V. Achal, Pan, & Zhang, 2012). Many researchers have successfully demonstrated the co-precipitation of 90Sr2+ into calcite by substituting Ca2+ in calcite crystal through bacteria driven calcite precipitation effectively ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Brookshaw</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1145</RecNum><DisplayText>(V. Achal, Pan, &amp; Zhang, 2012; Brookshaw, Pattrick, Lloyd, &amp; Vaughan, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1145</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516006573″>1145</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Brookshaw, D.</author><author>Pattrick, R. </author><author>Lloyd, J. </author><author>Vaughan, D.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Microbial effects on mineral?radionuclide interactions and radionu? clide solid?phase capture processes</title><secondary-title>Mineral Mag </secondary-title></titles><pages>77-806</pages><volume>76</volume><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1073</RecNum><record><rec-number>1073</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1507702072″>1073</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, V.</author><author>Pan, X.</author><author>Zhang, D.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Bioremdiation of strontium (Sr) contaminated aquifer quartz sand based on carbonate precipitation induced by Sr resistant Halomonas sp. </title><secondary-title>Chemosphere </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Chemosphere</full-title><abbr-1>Chemosphere</abbr-1><abbr-2>Chemosphere</abbr-2></periodical><pages>764–768</pages><volume>89</volume><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(V. Achal, Pan, & Zhang, 2012; Brookshaw, Pattrick, Lloyd, & Vaughan, 2012). Calcite precipitation by Sporosarcina pasteurii captured approximately 95 % of Sr in the solid phase ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Warren</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>1147</RecNum><DisplayText>(Warren, Maurice, Parmar, &amp; Ferris, 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1147</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516007609″>1147</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Warren, L. A.</author><author>Maurice, P. A.</author><author>Parmar, N.</author><author>Ferris, F. G. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title> Microbially mediated calcium carbonate precipitation: implications for interpreting calcite precipitation and for solid?phase capture of inorganic contaminants</title><secondary-title>Geomicrobiol J </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Geomicrobiology Journal</full-title><abbr-1>Geomicrobiol. J.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Geomicrobiol J</abbr-2></periodical><pages>93–115</pages><volume>18</volume><dates><year>2001</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Warren, Maurice, Parmar, & Ferris, 2001). It was described that Sr-resistant Halomonas sp. SR4 removes about 80 % Sr removal from the soluble exchangeable fraction of aquifer quartz sand which is similar to report in which S pasteurii WJ-2 remove Sr from the soluble fraction of sand PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BY2hhbDwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTI8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (V. Achal, Pan, & Zhang, 2012; C. H. Kang, Choi, et al., 2014).

Calcium ions polychlorinated biphenyl contaminants: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) containing oils leaked from equipment comprise a serious environmental concern with impact to human health. Methods for removal of PCBs contaminated oil includes solvent washing, hydroblasting or sandblasting followed by encapsulation in epoxy coatings, but these methods are ineffective for the removal of PCBs successfully due to resurfacing of the oil over time ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Okwadha</Author><Year>2011 </Year><RecNum>634</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu et al., 2016; Okwadha &amp; Li, 2011 )</DisplayText><record><rec-number>634</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487747563″>634</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Okwadha, G. D. O. </author><author>Li, J. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Biocontaminant of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCPs) on flat concrete surfaces by microbial carbonate precipitation </title><secondary-title>J Environ Manag </secondary-title></titles><pages>2860-2864</pages><volume>92 </volume><dates><year>2011 </year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu et al., 2016; Okwadha & Li, 2011 ). Alternatively, calcite precipitation is able to produce a coating to seal PCBs-contaminated areas. Indeed, the process coated areas showed no leaching and a reduction in permeability of 1–5 orders of magnitude ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Okwadha</Author><Year>2011 </Year><RecNum>634</RecNum><DisplayText>(Okwadha &amp; Li, 2011 )</DisplayText><record><rec-number>634</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487747563″>634</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Okwadha, G. D. O. </author><author>Li, J. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Biocontaminant of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCPs) on flat concrete surfaces by microbial carbonate precipitation </title><secondary-title>J Environ Manag </secondary-title></titles><pages>2860-2864</pages><volume>92 </volume><dates><year>2011 </year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Okwadha & Li, 2011 ). High concentrations of calcium ions (500-1500 mg/L) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dhami</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>623</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dhami et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>623</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744425″>623</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dhami, N. K.</author><author>Reddy, M. S.</author><author>Mukherjee, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University Patiala, India.</auth-address><titles><title>Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: A review</title><secondary-title>Front Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Frontiers in Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Front. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami et al., 2013) in industrial wastewater are problematic because of the blockage of pipelines, boilers and heat exchangers through scaling or malfunctioning of aerobic and anaerobic reactors ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hammes</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>1148</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hammes, Seka, et al., 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1148</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516008372″>1148</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hammes, F.</author><author>Seka, A. </author><author>Hege, K. V. </author><author>de-Wiele, T. V. </author><author>Vanderdeelen, J. </author><author>Siciliano, S. D.</author><author>Verstraete, W. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Calcium removal from industrial wastewater by biocatalytic CaCO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>3</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> precipitation</style></title><secondary-title>J Chem Technol Biotechnol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology</full-title><abbr-1>J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Chem Technol Biotechnol</abbr-2><abbr-3>Journal of Chemical Technology &amp; Biotechnology</abbr-3></periodical><pages>670-677 </pages><volume>78</volume><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hammes, Seka, et al., 2003) due to calcium formation as carbonate, phosphate and/orgypsum ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dhami</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>623</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dhami et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>623</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744425″>623</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dhami, N. K.</author><author>Reddy, M. S.</author><author>Mukherjee, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University Patiala, India.</auth-address><titles><title>Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: A review</title><secondary-title>Front Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Frontiers in Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Front. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Front Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>314</pages><volume>4</volume><keywords><keyword>bacteria</keyword><keyword>biofilm</keyword><keyword>biomineralization</keyword><keyword>calcite</keyword><keyword>extrapolymeric substances</keyword><keyword>urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 29</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1664-302X (Print) 1664-302X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24194735</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24194735</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC3810791</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3389/fmicb.2013.00314</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dhami et al., 2013). 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Hammes, Boon, de-Villiers, Verstraete, & Siciliano, 2003; Hammes, Seka, et al., 2003). It is reported that the removal of calcium from industrial wastewater using a fluidized sand bed calcification reactor that employed the alkalinity generated by microbes in a standard up-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor. Using the biocatalytic calcification reactor, approximately 85–90 % (w/v) of the soluble calcium was precipitated as calcium carbonate and successfully removed through sedimentation in the treatment reactor ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hammes</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>1149</RecNum><DisplayText>(Hammes, Boon, et al., 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1149</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516008773″>1149</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hammes, F.</author><author>Boon, N.</author><author>de-Villiers, J. </author><author>Verstraete, W.</author><author>Siciliano, S. D. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Strain?specific ureolytic microbial calcium carbonate precipitation</title><secondary-title> Appl Environ Microbiol </secondary-title></titles><pages>4901–4909 </pages><volume>69</volume><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Hammes, Boon, et al., 2003). Therefore, this is an effective, eco-friendly and simple method for removal of calcium from industrial wastewater.
The filter of rubber, plastics and ink
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Yoshida et al., 2010). Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius, moderately thermophilic bacterium is isolated from thermophilically composted organic waste and it catalyzes the formation of calcite crystals, which harbour the property of fluorescence. The calcite crystals formed by G. thermoglucosidasius nucleation are excited by a wavelength interval of 260 to 400 nm, and their emission wavelengths are from 350 to 600nm. Additionally, the wide emission wavelength interval is a novel fluorescence property of G. thermoglucosidasius catalysed calcite crystals, which encourages it, usage as filler in rubber and plastics, fluorescent particles in stationery ink, and a fluorescent marker. Likewise, in materials engineering, environmentally friendly systems with minimal energy consumption and resource depletion are required for producing materials and composites. Biological processes serve as impressive arches types of sustainable materials technologies. Because of the potential benefits of biominerals in this regard, its study has gained recognition as an important area of biomimetic materials science ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wakayam</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>1212</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wakayam, Hall, &amp; Mann, 2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1212</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521541718″>1212</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wakayam, H.</author><author>Hall, S.R.</author><author>Mann, S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Fabricationof CaCO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>3</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>: Biopolymerthinfilms using super critical carbondioxide</style></title><secondary-title>J. Mater.Chem. </secondary-title></titles><pages>1134-1136</pages><volume>15</volume><dates><year>2005</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1039/b418569b</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wakayam, Hall, & Mann, 2005).

Engineering applications
Construction materials
Biodeposition: In reinforced concrete, pores might allow penetration of water and ions, particularly chloride or acids, leading to deleterious corrosive effects to the embedded reinforcing steel PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BY2hhbDwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTE8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (V. Achal, Mukherjee, & Reddy, 2011; W. De-Muynck et al., 2011). Biodeposition refers to the deposition of bacteria driven calcite precipitation to protect the surface of porous materials (such as limestone, concrete, or bricks) from water intrusion. In a calcite precipitation, the treated surface, CaCO3 can clog pores and decrease the ability of a material to absorb water, restore the surface, and reduce further potential weathering through a protective calcite layer ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>De-Muynck</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1151</RecNum><DisplayText>(W. De-Muynck et al., 2011; W. De-Muynck, Verbeken, De-Belie, &amp; Verstraete, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1151</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516009528″>1151</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>De-Muynck, W.</author><author>Leuridan, S.</author><author>Van-Loo, D.</author><author>Verbeken, K.</author><author>Cnudde, V.</author><author>De-Belie, N. </author><author>Verstraete, W. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>In?uence of pore structure on the effectiveness of a biogenic carbonate surface treatment for limestone conservation</title><secondary-title>Appl Environ Microbiol. </secondary-title></titles><pages>6808–6820</pages><volume>77</volume><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>De-Muynck</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1152</RecNum><record><rec-number>1152</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516010106″>1152</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>De-Muynck, W. </author><author>Verbeken, K. </author><author>De-Belie, N. </author><author>Verstraete, W.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>In?uence of urea and calcium dosage on the effectiveness of bacterially induced carbonate precipitation on limestone</title><secondary-title>Ecol Eng. </secondary-title></titles><pages>99–111</pages><volume>36</volume><dates><year>2010</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(W. De-Muynck et al., 2011; W. De-Muynck, Verbeken, De-Belie, & Verstraete, 2010). The experimental conditions, particularly the promotion of ureolytic activity and application of substrates, influence treatment efficacy. Additionally, Chunxiang et al. (2009) used S. pasteurii-facilitated bacteria driven calcite precipitation to coat cement with CaCO3 biodeposits to study corrosion resistance and concluded that adding calcium before urea to a stationary phase bacterial culture produced a more compact CaCO3 deposit because calcium influenced ureolysis activity and rates which may impact the adhesion and thickness of the CaCO3 layer ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chunxiang</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>1153</RecNum><DisplayText>(Chunxiang, Jianyun, Ruixing, &amp; Liang, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1153</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516010407″>1153</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chunxiang, Q. </author><author>Jianyun, W. </author><author>Ruixing, W. </author><author>Liang, C. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Corrosion protection of cement-based building materials by surface deposition of CaCO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>3</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> by </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Bacillus pasteurii</style></title><secondary-title> Mater Sci Eng C. </secondary-title></titles><pages>1273–1280</pages><volume>29</volume><dates><year>2009</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Chunxiang, Jianyun, Ruixing, & Liang, 2009). Whiffin (2004) suggested that High calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) concentrations may inhibit urease activity, although mixed effects on activity were observed among environmental isolates or a microbial consortium PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5XaGlm76yBbjwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDQ8L1llYXI+
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Malcolm B. Burbank et al., 2012; Hammes, Seka, et al., 2003; Whif?n, 2004). Therefore, depending on the organisms’ tolerance for calcium concentrations, a balance might need to be struck between high Ca2+ concentrations which may inhibit ureolysis and low Ca2+ concentration which may not allow for the formation of sufficiently protective deposits ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Phillips</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>621</RecNum><DisplayText>(Phillips et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>621</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744069″>621</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Phillips, A. J.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author><author>Lauchnor, E.</author><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Spangler, L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: A review</title><secondary-title>Biofouling</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biofouling</full-title><abbr-1>Biofouling</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biofouling</abbr-2></periodical><pages>715-33</pages><volume>29</volume><number>6</number><keywords><keyword>Biofilms/*growth &amp; development</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Construction Materials/*microbiology</keyword><keyword>Engineering</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Porosity</keyword><keyword>Surface Properties</keyword><keyword>Urea/*chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1029-2454 (Electronic) 0892-7014 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23802871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08927014.2013.796550</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Phillips et al., 2013).

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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (V. Stabnikov et al., 2013) contains carbonates, hydroxides, phosphates, silicates etc. However, chemical grout which binds to soil particles in place of cement are also in use but then again is expensive and toxic to humans plus the environment as it contains toxic substances such as sodium silicate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, acrylates, and acrylamides ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ivanov</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>1162</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ivanov &amp; Chu, 2008)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1162</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516082289″>1162</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ivanov, V.</author><author>Chu, J. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Application of microorganisms to geotechnical engineering for bioclogging and biocementation of soil in situ</title><secondary-title>Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Re/Views in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology (Online)</full-title><abbr-1>Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol</abbr-2><abbr-3>Re/Views in Environmental Science &amp; Bio/Technology (Online)</abbr-3></periodical><pages>139-153</pages><volume>7 </volume><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ivanov & Chu, 2008). Therefore, biocement via bacteria driven calcite precipitation treatment is an economical substitute for cement and chemical grouts PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5TdGFibmlrb3Y8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDExPC9ZZWFy
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Dhami et al., 2014; Phillips et al., 2013). It can also be applied to strengthen soil and treat the cracks in concrete ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>De-Muynck</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1151</RecNum><DisplayText>(W. De-Muynck et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1151</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516009528″>1151</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>De-Muynck, W.</author><author>Leuridan, S.</author><author>Van-Loo, D.</author><author>Verbeken, K.</author><author>Cnudde, V.</author><author>De-Belie, N. </author><author>Verstraete, W. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>In?uence of pore structure on the effectiveness of a biogenic carbonate surface treatment for limestone conservation</title><secondary-title>Appl Environ Microbiol. </secondary-title></titles><pages>6808–6820</pages><volume>77</volume><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(W. De-Muynck et al., 2011). Many researchers have reported the remediation of cracks by bacteria driven calcite precipitation of B. pasteurii and other Bacillus species too ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achal</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>631</RecNum><DisplayText>(V. Achal et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>631</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487746177″>631</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achal, V.</author><author>Pan, X.</author><author>Lee, D. J.</author><author>Kumari, D.</author><author>Zhang, D.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China.</auth-address><titles><title>Remediation of Cr(VI) from chromium slag by biocementation</title><secondary-title>Chemosphere</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Chemosphere</full-title><abbr-1>Chemosphere</abbr-1><abbr-2>Chemosphere</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1352-8</pages><volume>93</volume><number>7</number><keywords><keyword>Biodegradation, Environmental</keyword><keyword>China</keyword><keyword>Chromium/*analysis/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Soil Pollutants/*analysis/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Biocement</keyword><keyword>Bioremediation</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Chromium slag</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1879-1298 (Electronic) 0045-6535 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24001665</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24001665</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.08.008</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(V. Achal et al., 2013). The permeability of soil will reduce significantly through the accumulation of biomass and production of exopolymeric substances and according to them, bioclogging of soil restricts water flow through soil and reduces its permeability ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ng</Author><Year>2012 </Year><RecNum>644</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ng et al., 2012 )</DisplayText><record><rec-number>644</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487751768″>644</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ng, S. W. </author><author>Lee, M. L. </author><author>Hii, S. L. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>An overview of the factors affecting microbial-induced calcite precipitation and its potential application in soil improvement </title><secondary-title>World Acad Sci Eng technol </secondary-title></titles><pages>723-729</pages><volume>62 </volume><dates><year>2012 </year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ng et al., 2012 ). Bacteria driven calcite precipitation not only reduced pore size, porosity, and permeability, as well as it will improve the stiffness and strength of the porous media matrix ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Delong</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1181</RecNum><DisplayText>(Delong, Mortensen, &amp; Nelson, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1181</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521440740″>1181</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Delong, J. T. </author><author>Mortensen, B. M. </author><author>Nelson, D. C. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Biomediation soil improvement </title><secondary-title>Ecol Eng </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ecological Engineering</full-title><abbr-1>Ecol. Eng.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ecol Eng</abbr-2></periodical><pages>197-210</pages><volume>36 </volume><dates><year>2010</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Delong, Mortensen, & Nelson, 2010) and involved in protection of concrete surfaces against the ingress of deleterious substances such as Cl- ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>De-Muynck</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1151</RecNum><DisplayText>(W. De-Muynck et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1151</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516009528″>1151</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>De-Muynck, W.</author><author>Leuridan, S.</author><author>Van-Loo, D.</author><author>Verbeken, K.</author><author>Cnudde, V.</author><author>De-Belie, N. </author><author>Verstraete, W. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>In?uence of pore structure on the effectiveness of a biogenic carbonate surface treatment for limestone conservation</title><secondary-title>Appl Environ Microbiol. </secondary-title></titles><pages>6808–6820</pages><volume>77</volume><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(W. De-Muynck et al., 2011).

Bioconsolidation: There is a significant positive relationship between increased ionic strength and the bacterial attachment near the injection point of the transporting fluids because high salinity decreased the electrostatic repulsion forces among the cells and the porous media surfaces ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Phillips</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>621</RecNum><DisplayText>(Phillips et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>621</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744069″>621</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Phillips, A. J.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author><author>Lauchnor, E.</author><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Spangler, L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: A review</title><secondary-title>Biofouling</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biofouling</full-title><abbr-1>Biofouling</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biofouling</abbr-2></periodical><pages>715-33</pages><volume>29</volume><number>6</number><keywords><keyword>Biofilms/*growth &amp; development</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Construction Materials/*microbiology</keyword><keyword>Engineering</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Porosity</keyword><keyword>Surface Properties</keyword><keyword>Urea/*chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1029-2454 (Electronic) 0892-7014 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23802871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08927014.2013.796550</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Phillips et al., 2013) as well as this combination limit the spatial extent of the treatment. In general, channelling of bacteria through the matrix of a porous medium is a complicated function, which is determined by the size and surface properties of the bacterial cell, electrical interactions, the flow rate and the chemistry of the transport fluid and the pore size distribution of the porous medium. So that a balance between ionic strength and transport could help promote more homogeneous cell and ultimately bacterial activity distribution. Two different studies carried out on a smaller scale, laboratory-controlled environment such as bacteria driven calcite precipitation in 100m3 of sand ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Harkes</Author><Year>2010 </Year><RecNum>1182</RecNum><DisplayText>(Harkes, van Paassen, Booster, Whiffin, &amp; van Loosdrecht, 2010 )</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1182</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521441125″>1182</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Harkes, M.P. </author><author>van Paassen, L. A. </author><author>Booster, J. L. </author><author>Whiffin, V. S. </author><author>van Loosdrecht, M. C. M. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fixation and distribution of bacteria activity in sand to induce carbonate precipitation for ground reinforcement</title><secondary-title>Ecol Eng </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ecological Engineering</full-title><abbr-1>Ecol. Eng.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ecol Eng</abbr-2></periodical><pages>112-117</pages><volume>36 </volume><dates><year>2010 </year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Harkes, van Paassen, Booster, Whiffin, & van Loosdrecht, 2010 ) and in an injection strategies where sand was inoculated with S. pasteurii cells, cementation solution, both showed the ground improvement abilities and the extent of precipitation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Van Paassen</Author><Year>2010 </Year><RecNum>1183</RecNum><DisplayText>(Van Paassen et al., 2010 )</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1183</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521441581″>1183</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Van Paassen, L.A. </author><author>Daza, C. M. </author><author>Staal, M. </author><author>Sorokin, D. Y. </author><author>van der Zon, W. </author><author>van Loosdrecht, M. C.M. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Potential soil reinforcement by biological denitrification </title><secondary-title>Ecol Eng </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ecological Engineering</full-title><abbr-1>Ecol. Eng.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ecol Eng</abbr-2></periodical><pages>168-175</pages><volume>36 </volume><dates><year>2010 </year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Van Paassen et al., 2010 ).

Biodiesel: Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative fuel source which does not contribute to CO2 or SO4 levels in the atmosphere, emits less gaseous pollutants, except that it is non-toxic compared to conventional diesel ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Fujita</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1139</RecNum><DisplayText>(Y. Fujita et al., 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1139</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516002296″>1139</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fujita, Y. </author><author>Taylor, J. </author><author>Wendt, L. </author><author>Reed, D. </author><author>Smith, R. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Evaluating the potential of native ueolytic microbes to remediate a (90)Sr contaminated environment</title><secondary-title>Environ Sci Technol. </secondary-title></titles><pages>7652–7658</pages><volume>44</volume><dates><year>2010</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Y. Fujita et al., 2010). Primarily soybean oil accounts for biodiesel production ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeYear=”1″><Author>Chen</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>72</RecNum><DisplayText>(Y. Chen, Davis Parker, Chen, &amp; Yang)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>72</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1474545275″>72</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chen, Y.</author><author>Davis Parker, W.</author><author>Chen, H.</author><author>Yang, K.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Aberrant mitochondrial RNA in the role of aging and aging associated</title><secondary-title>Medical Hypotheses</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Medical Hypotheses</full-title><abbr-1>Med. Hypotheses</abbr-1><abbr-2>Med Hypotheses</abbr-2></periodical><pages>178-182</pages><volume>85</volume><dates><year>2015</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Y. Chen, Davis Parker, Chen, & Yang) but only fulfil only limited demand ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Weart</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1184</RecNum><DisplayText>(Weart, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1184</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521441980″>1184</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Web Page”>12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Weart, S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The carbon dioxide greenhouse effect in the discovery of global warming</title></titles><dates><year>2011</year><pub-dates><date>2017</date></pub-dates></dates><publisher>American Institue of Physics</publisher><urls><related-urls><url> http://www.aip.org/history/climate/co2.htm.</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Weart, 2011). Meantime production of soybean-derived biodiesel also displaces croplands and increased consumer prices ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boddiger</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>1158</RecNum><DisplayText>(Boddiger, 2007; Mercer-Blackman, Samiei, &amp; Cheng, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1158</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516015714″>1158</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Boddiger, D.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Boosting biofuel crops could threaten food security</title><secondary-title>The Lancet</secondary-title></titles><pages>923–924</pages><volume>370</volume><number>9591 </number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Mercer-Blackman</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>1157</RecNum><record><rec-number>1157</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1516015509″>1157</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Magazine Article”>19</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mercer-Blackman, V. </author><author>Samiei, H.</author><author>Cheng, K.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Biofuel demand pushes up food prices</title><secondary-title>IMF Survey Magazine</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2007</year></dates><publisher>IMF Research Department</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boddiger, 2007; Mercer-Blackman, Samiei, & Cheng, 2007), so algae-based systems could be attractive candidates as they have higher oil production and carbon fixation rates compared to terrestrial plants PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5KZW9uZzwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDM8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Jeong, Gillis, & Hwang, 2003; Johnson & Wen, 2009) and do not compete with traditional agriculture. They can be cultivated in ponds or in closed photobioreactors located on nonarable land ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chen</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>545</RecNum><DisplayText>(L. Chen et al., 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>545</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1486206275″>545</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chen, L.</author><author>Shen, Y. H.</author><author>Xie, A. J.</author><author>Huang, B.</author><author>Jia, R.</author><author>Guo, R. Y.</author><author>Tang, W. Z.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Bacteria-mediated synthesis of metal carbonate minerals with unusual morphologies and structures</title><secondary-title>Cryst. Growth Des.</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Cryst. Growth Des.</full-title></periodical><pages>743–754</pages><volume>9</volume><dates><year>2009</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(L. Chen et al., 2009). In photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae and cyanobacteria, CA participates in the carbon fixation pathways via Calvin cycle and ultimately results in sugar. The rate-limiting step of biomass production in these organisms is the uptake of CO2 into cells as bicarbonate and CA delivery of inorganic carbon to RuBisCo evolved to counterattack this limitation PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5DaGVuPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwOTwvWWVhcj48UmVj
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Cannon, Heinhorst, & Kerfeld, 2010; L. Chen et al., 2009). Numerous research efforts are in progress to enhance the efficiency of carbon fixation pathways targeting to improve food crop cultivation and biomass production ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ellis</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1186</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ellis, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1186</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521442945″>1186</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ellis, R. J.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Biochemistry: Tackling unintelligent design</title><secondary-title>Nature</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nature</full-title><abbr-1>Nature</abbr-1><abbr-2>Nature</abbr-2></periodical><pages>164–165</pages><volume>463</volume><number>7278</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ellis, 2010). Hence endogenous algal and cyanobacteria CA can also be used indirectly in calcite deposition, as evidenced by the enhanced CO2 capture and sequestration in the presence of the algal species Chlorella and Spirulina PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5SYW1hbmFuPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwOTwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Pires, Alvim-Ferraz, Martins, & Simões, 2012; Ramanan, Kannan, Deshkar, Yadav, & Chakrabarti, 2009; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jroundi, Schiro, Ruiz-Agudo, & Gonzalez-Munoz, 2012; Shekh et al., 2012) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite ExcludeYear=”1″><Author>Bertoncelj</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>50</RecNum><DisplayText>(Bertoncelj, Doberšek, Jamnik, &amp; Golob)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>50</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1474545272″>50</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bertoncelj, J.</author><author>Doberšek, U.</author><author>Jamnik, M.</author><author>Golob, T.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour of Slovenian honey</title><secondary-title>Food Chemistry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Food Chemistry</full-title><abbr-1>Food Chem.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Food Chem</abbr-2></periodical><pages>822 – 828</pages><volume>105</volume><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bertoncelj, Doberšek, Jamnik, & Golob). These algal species also provide the further advantage of producing calcite during cell with Chlorella produced the greatest yield of lipid biomass in photobioreactors ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ramanan</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>1122</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ramanan et al., 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1122</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1508915540″>1122</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ramanan, Rishiram</author><author>Kannan, Krishnamurthi</author><author>Deshkar, Ashok</author><author>Yadav, Raju</author><author>Chakrabarti, Tapan</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Enhanced algal CO2 sequestration through calcite deposition by Chlorella sp and Spirulina platensis in a mini-raceway pond</title></titles><pages>2616-22</pages><volume>101</volume><dates><year>2009</year></dates><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.061</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ramanan et al., 2009). Additional studies in simulated raceway ponds showed related results with the additional observation of decreased CO2 capture with increasing levels of CA inhibitor, acetazolamide PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5SYW1hbmFuPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwOTwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Fisher et al., 2012; Ramanan et al., 2009). However, this study needs much work in determining optimized conditions such as pH, substrate/nutrient availability, aeration, etc. for simultaneous production of biofuels and calcite with algal species ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chi</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1187</RecNum><DisplayText>(Chi, O’Fallon, &amp; Chen, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1187</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521443547″>1187</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chi, Z.</author><author>O’Fallon, J. V. </author><author>Chen, S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture</title><secondary-title>Trends in Biotechnology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Trends in Biotechnology</full-title><abbr-1>Trends Biotechnol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Trends Biotechnol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>537–541</pages><volume>29</volume><number>11</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Chi, O’Fallon, & Chen, 2011).

Liquefiable soils: Few studies have been carried out for field-scale biomineralization to strengthen liquefiable soils. Due to decrees in shearing strength, these soils loose granular soil deposits which generally found in saturated conditions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Phillips</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>621</RecNum><DisplayText>(Phillips et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>621</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744069″>621</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Phillips, A. J.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author><author>Lauchnor, E.</author><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Spangler, L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: A review</title><secondary-title>Biofouling</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biofouling</full-title><abbr-1>Biofouling</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biofouling</abbr-2></periodical><pages>715-33</pages><volume>29</volume><number>6</number><keywords><keyword>Biofilms/*growth &amp; development</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Construction Materials/*microbiology</keyword><keyword>Engineering</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Porosity</keyword><keyword>Surface Properties</keyword><keyword>Urea/*chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1029-2454 (Electronic) 0892-7014 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23802871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08927014.2013.796550</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Phillips et al., 2013). In addition, this is problematic when these soils are subjected to seismic waves as it contributes to man-made structure failure during earthquakes (Burbank et al. 2011). Study on soils on the shore of the Snake River (USA) were subjected to biomineralization treatments, which yielded soils cemented with about 1% by weight CaCO3 in the near surface and 1.8–2.4% calcite below 90 cm (Burbank PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5CdXJiYW5rPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMTwvWWVhcj48
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (M. B. Burbank, Weaver, Green, Williams, & Crawford, 2011). However, the findings did not support the laboratory-enriched samples and observe less precipitation, which was attributed to the lower technical quality of the calcium source in the field study. However, higher concentrations of CaCO3 formed away from the injection point rather than closer to the injection point ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Phillips</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>621</RecNum><DisplayText>(Phillips et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>621</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744069″>621</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Phillips, A. J.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author><author>Lauchnor, E.</author><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Spangler, L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: A review</title><secondary-title>Biofouling</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biofouling</full-title><abbr-1>Biofouling</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biofouling</abbr-2></periodical><pages>715-33</pages><volume>29</volume><number>6</number><keywords><keyword>Biofilms/*growth &amp; development</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Construction Materials/*microbiology</keyword><keyword>Engineering</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Porosity</keyword><keyword>Surface Properties</keyword><keyword>Urea/*chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1029-2454 (Electronic) 0892-7014 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23802871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08927014.2013.796550</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Phillips et al., 2013).
Subsurface barriers: From the very beginning, salt-water intrusion into freshwater aquifers during groundwater extraction has become a major problem in certain coastal regions. However, the problem is often addressed by creating underground dams or increasing artificial recharge of fresh water to prevent migration of salt-laden water into freshwater aquifers. Subsurface bacteria driven calcite precipitation barriers may be an alternative to above-mentioned problems ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Rusu</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1188</RecNum><DisplayText>(Rusu, Cheng, &amp; Li, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1188</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521444150″>1188</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rusu, C.</author><author>Cheng, X. </author><author>Li, M. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Biological clogging in Tangshan sand columns under salt water intrusion by </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Sporosarcina pasteurii</style></title><secondary-title>Adv Mater Res. </secondary-title></titles><pages>2040–2046</pages><volume>250</volume><dates><year>2011</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Rusu, Cheng, & Li, 2011), as saltwater intrusion into groundwater, calcite precipitation must be able to occur in saline conditions to be applied in these environments. Various environmental factors influence on bacteria driven calcite precipitation to determine suitable in-situ environments ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mortensen</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>641</RecNum><DisplayText>(Mortensen et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>641</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487750374″>641</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mortensen, B. M.</author><author>Haber, M. J.</author><author>DeJong, J. T.</author><author>Caslake, L. F.</author><author>Nelson, D. C.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Effects of environmental factors on microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation</title><secondary-title>J Appl Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Applied Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>J. Appl. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Appl Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>338-49</pages><volume>111</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Culture Media/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Fresh Water/chemistry/microbiology</keyword><keyword>Seawater/chemistry/microbiology</keyword><keyword>Soil/chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Soil Microbiology</keyword><keyword>Sporosarcina/*growth &amp; development/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Urea/analysis</keyword><keyword>Urease/metabolism</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2011</year><pub-dates><date>Aug</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1365-2672 (Electronic) 1364-5072 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>21624021</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21624021</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05065.x</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Mortensen et al., 2011). Interesting observations were obtained in their finding such as they observed that short-term enzymatic activity did not appear to be inhibited by anaerobic conditions after cells were cultured aerobically, this observation is agreed to other findings by few other research PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5QYXJrczwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDk8L1llYXI+PFJl
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Martin, Dodds, Ngwenya, Butler, & Elphick, 2012; Parks, 2009; Tobler et al., 2011). As well as due to increased alkalinity and cation availability, full and half-strength seawater enhanced CaCO3 precipitation rates. These results demonstrated the potential of enzyme-driven bacteria driven calcite precipitation for developing subsurface barriers to prevent saltwater intrusion ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mortensen</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>641</RecNum><DisplayText>(Mortensen et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>641</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487750374″>641</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mortensen, B. M.</author><author>Haber, M. J.</author><author>DeJong, J. T.</author><author>Caslake, L. F.</author><author>Nelson, D. C.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Effects of environmental factors on microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation</title><secondary-title>J Appl Microbiol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Applied Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>J. Appl. Microbiol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Appl Microbiol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>338-49</pages><volume>111</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Culture Media/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Fresh Water/chemistry/microbiology</keyword><keyword>Seawater/chemistry/microbiology</keyword><keyword>Soil/chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Soil Microbiology</keyword><keyword>Sporosarcina/*growth &amp; development/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Urea/analysis</keyword><keyword>Urease/metabolism</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2011</year><pub-dates><date>Aug</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1365-2672 (Electronic) 1364-5072 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>21624021</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21624021</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05065.x</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Mortensen et al., 2011).
Aquaculture: Biomineralization can be used by preparing crusts to control seepage from aquaculture ponds or reservoirs into underlying soils or sands. The halotolerant, alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. VS1 isolate to seal a sand-lined model pond. There is markedly reduced the seepage rate, taking sand to the same permeability range as well compacted clay and successive percolation treatments with high concentrations of urea and calcium solutions resulted in a nearly impermeable crust on the surface of the sand ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Stabnikov</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>639</RecNum><DisplayText>(Viktor Stabnikov et al., 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>639</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487749724″>639</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Stabnikov, Viktor</author><author>Naeimi, Maryam</author><author>Ivanov, Volodymyr</author><author>Chu, Jian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Formation of water-impermeable crust on sand surface using biocement</title><secondary-title>Cement and Concrete Research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Cement and Concrete Research</full-title><abbr-1>Cem. Concr. Res.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Cem Concr Res</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1143-1149</pages><volume>41</volume><number>11</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>00088846</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.06.017</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Viktor Stabnikov et al., 2011).

CO2 sequestration: Chemical fixation of CO2 in the form of carbonate minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite and magnesite over a geological time scale is a natural process for the sequestration of CO2 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Shaffer</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1197</RecNum><DisplayText>(Shaffer, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1197</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521532925″>1197</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Shaffer, Gary</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Long-term effectiveness and consequences of carbon dioxide sequestration</title><secondary-title>Nature Geoscience</secondary-title></titles><pages>464-467</pages><volume>3</volume><number>7</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><isbn>1752-0894 1752-0908</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1038/ngeo896</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Shaffer, 2010). Global warming, a growing concentration of CO2 in the environment is a primary issue which drags many scientists to contribute in this area ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Yadav</Author><Year>2011 </Year><RecNum>1198</RecNum><DisplayText>(Yadav, Labhsetwar, Kotwal, &amp; Rayalu, 2011 )</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1198</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521533358″>1198</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Yadav, R.</author><author>Labhsetwar, N.</author><author>Kotwal, S.</author><author>Rayalu, S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Single enzyme nanoparticle for biomimetric CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> sequestration </style></title><secondary-title>J Nanopart Res </secondary-title></titles><pages>263-271</pages><volume>13 </volume><dates><year>2011 </year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Yadav, Labhsetwar, Kotwal, & Rayalu, 2011 ). Currently, the concentration of CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere is 400 ppm; additionally, it is increasing at approximately 2 ppm/year. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reduce the release of CO2 into the environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anbu</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>628</RecNum><DisplayText>(Anbu et al., 2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>628</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487745646″>628</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anbu, P.</author><author>Kang, C. H.</author><author>Shin, Y. J.</author><author>So, J. S.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 Republic of Korea.</auth-address><titles><title>Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications</title><secondary-title>Springerplus</secondary-title></titles><pages>250</pages><volume>5</volume><keywords><keyword>Biomineralization</keyword><keyword>CO2 sequestration</keyword><keyword>Calcite</keyword><keyword>Micp</keyword><keyword>Urea hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Urease</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2193-1801 (Print)</isbn><accession-num>27026942</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026942</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4771655</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.1186/s40064-016-1869-2</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Anbu et al., 2016). Thus, scientists proposed biomimetic CO2 sequestration by using an enzyme such as CA to minimize the localized CO2 concentration ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Smith</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>550</RecNum><DisplayText>(Smith &amp; Ferry, 2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>550</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1486207134″>550</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Smith, K. S. </author><author>Ferry, J. G.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases</title><secondary-title>FEMS Microbiol. Rev.</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>FEMS Microbiology Reviews</full-title><abbr-1>FEMS Microbiol. Rev.</abbr-1><abbr-2>FEMS Microbiol Rev</abbr-2></periodical><pages>335–366</pages><volume>24</volume><dates><year>2000</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Smith & Ferry, 2000). In 2005, bovine CA was used to accelerate CO2 hydration which reported that precipitation of CaCO3 occurred much more rapidly ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Liu</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>1201</RecNum><DisplayText>(Liu, Bond, Abel, McPherson, &amp; Stringer, 2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1201</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521533710″>1201</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Liu, Ning</author><author>Bond, Gillian M.</author><author>Abel, Aaron</author><author>McPherson, Brian J.</author><author>Stringer, John</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Biomimetic sequestration of CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> in carbonate form: Role of produced waters and other brines</style></title><secondary-title>Fuel Processing Technology</secondary-title></titles><pages>1615-1625</pages><volume>86</volume><number>14-15</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><isbn>03783820</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.fuproc.2005.01.008</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Liu, Bond, Abel, McPherson, & Stringer, 2005). 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Dupraz, Parmentier, Ménez, & Guyot, 2009; Mitchell, Dideriksen, Spangler, Cunningham, & Gerlach, 2010). Information trapping, bacteria driven calcite precipitation may reduce permeability to diminish leakage potential. Whereas, insolubility trapping, the storage of CO2 might be enhanced by this process by increasing the dissolved CO2 as carbonate or bicarbonate in the subsurface formation water. Finally, in mineral trapping, bacteria driven calcite precipitation might enhance the precipitation of dissolved CO2 in carbonate minerals ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mitchell</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1203</RecNum><DisplayText>(Mitchell et al., 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521534139″>1203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Dideriksen, K.</author><author>Spangler, L. H.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Microbially enhanced carbon capture and storage by mineral-trapping and solubility-trapping</title><secondary-title>Environ Sci Technol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Environmental Science &amp; Technology</full-title><abbr-1>Environ. Sci. Technol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Environ Sci Technol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>5270-6</pages><volume>44</volume><number>13</number><keywords><keyword>Algorithms</keyword><keyword>Bacteria/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Biofilms</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Carbon/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>Carbon Dioxide/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Environmental Monitoring/methods</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Ions</keyword><keyword>Models, Chemical</keyword><keyword>Solubility</keyword><keyword>Thermodynamics</keyword><keyword>Wyoming</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2010</year><pub-dates><date>Jul 1</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0013-936X (Print) 0013-936X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>20540571</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20540571</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/es903270w</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Mitchell et al., 2010). Engineered calcite precipitation has been proposed to shield well cement from supercritical CO2, plug microfractures in the near well environment and diminishes permeability in cap rock ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Yadav</Author><Year>2011 </Year><RecNum>1198</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wanjari et al., 2011; Yadav et al., 2011 )</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1198</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521533358″>1198</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Yadav, R.</author><author>Labhsetwar, N.</author><author>Kotwal, S.</author><author>Rayalu, S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Single enzyme nanoparticle for biomimetric CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> sequestration </style></title><secondary-title>J Nanopart Res </secondary-title></titles><pages>263-271</pages><volume>13 </volume><dates><year>2011 </year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Wanjari</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>1204</RecNum><record><rec-number>1204</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521534315″>1204</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wanjari, Snehal</author><author>Prabhu, Chandan</author><author>Yadav, Renu</author><author>Satyanarayana, T.</author><author>Labhsetwar, Nitin</author><author>Rayalu, Sadhana</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Immobilization of carbonic anhydrase on chitosan beads for enhanced carbonation reaction</title><secondary-title>Process Biochemistry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Process Biochemistry</full-title><abbr-1>Process Biochem.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Process Biochem</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1010-1018</pages><volume>46</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>13595113</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.procbio.2011.01.023</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wanjari et al., 2011; Yadav et al., 2011 ). 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Cunningham, Gerlach, Spangler, & Mitchell, 2009; Cunningham et al., 2011; Ebigbo et al., 2012; Schultz, Pitts, Mitchell, Cunningham, & Gerlach, 2011).

Similarly, in 2006, the role of biological CA in biological calcification of molluscs, fish otoliths, corals, hard tissues of vertebrates has been widely studied but applications of these microbes for CO2 sequestrations have started ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Tambutté</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>1202</RecNum><DisplayText>(Tambutté et al., 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1202</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521533885″>1202</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Tambutté, Sylvie</author><author>Tambutté, Eric</author><author>Zoccola, Didier</author><author>Caminiti, Natacha</author><author>Lotto, Severine</author><author>Moya, Aurélie</author><author>Allemand, Denis</author><author>Adkins, Jess</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Characterization and role of carbonic anhydrase in the calcification process of the azooxanthellate coral Tubastrea aurea</title><secondary-title>Marine Biology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Marine Biology</full-title><abbr-1>Mar. Biol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Mar Biol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>71-83</pages><volume>151</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><isbn>0025-3162 1432-1793</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1007/s00227-006-0452-8</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Tambutté et al., 2006). Bacterial CA serves as a potential solution to seal fractures and high permeability leaking zones. This enzyme also enhances the storage of CO2 by increasing the dissolved CO2 as carbonate or bicarbonate in the subsurface formation water or the precipitation of dissolved CO2 in carbonate minerals PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5NaXRjaGVsbDwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTM8L1llYXI+
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Mitchell et al., 2010; Mitchell et al., 2013). As pH increases, the DIC increases and CO2 (g) decreases, therefore, could conclude that Bacterial CA calcite precipitation in the subsurface can potentially increase the security of long-term CO2 storage ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mitchell</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1203</RecNum><DisplayText>(Mitchell et al., 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521534139″>1203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Dideriksen, K.</author><author>Spangler, L. H.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Microbially enhanced carbon capture and storage by mineral-trapping and solubility-trapping</title><secondary-title>Environ Sci Technol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Environmental Science &amp; Technology</full-title><abbr-1>Environ. Sci. Technol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Environ Sci Technol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>5270-6</pages><volume>44</volume><number>13</number><keywords><keyword>Algorithms</keyword><keyword>Bacteria/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Biofilms</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Carbon/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>Carbon Dioxide/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Environmental Monitoring/methods</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Ions</keyword><keyword>Models, Chemical</keyword><keyword>Solubility</keyword><keyword>Thermodynamics</keyword><keyword>Wyoming</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2010</year><pub-dates><date>Jul 1</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0013-936X (Print) 0013-936X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>20540571</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20540571</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/es903270w</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Mitchell et al., 2010) except that extracellular CA have also ability to precipitate CaCO3 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kupriyanova</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>856</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kupriyanova et al., 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>856</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1497592379″>856</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kupriyanova, E.</author><author>Villarejo, A.</author><author>Markelova, A.</author><author>Gerasimenko, L.</author><author>Zavarzin, G.</author><author>Samuelsson, G.</author><author>Los, D. A.</author><author>Pronina, N.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Botanicheskaya Street 35, Moscow, 127276 Russia.</auth-address><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>Extracellular carbonic anhydrases of the stromatolite-forming cyanobacterium </style><style face=”italic” font=”default” size=”100%”>Microcoleus chthonoplastes</style></title><secondary-title>Microbiology</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Microbiology</full-title><abbr-1>Microbiology</abbr-1><abbr-2>Microbiology</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1149-56</pages><volume>153</volume><number>Pt 4</number><keywords><keyword>Blotting, Western</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/metabolism</keyword><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrases/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Cyanobacteria/chemistry/cytology/*enzymology</keyword><keyword>Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional</keyword><keyword>Glycocalyx/chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year><pub-dates><date>Apr</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1350-0872 (Print) 1350-0872 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>17379724</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17379724</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1099/mic.0.2006/003905-0</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kupriyanova et al., 2007). In 2010, it was also reported the potential employment of cyanobacteria for point source carbon capture and sequestration ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jansson</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>1207</RecNum><DisplayText>(Jansson &amp; Northen, 2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1207</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521534918″>1207</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jansson, C.</author><author>Northen, T.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Calcifying cyanobacteria: The potential of biomineralization for carbon capture and storage</title><secondary-title>Curr Opin Biotechnol</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Current Opinion in Biotechnology</full-title><abbr-1>Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Curr Opin Biotechnol</abbr-2></periodical><pages>365-71</pages><volume>21</volume><number>3</number><keywords><keyword>Biomimetics/methods</keyword><keyword>Biotechnology/methods</keyword><keyword>Carbon/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Cyanobacteria/*metabolism</keyword><keyword>Photosynthesis</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2010</year><pub-dates><date>Jun</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1879-0429 (Electronic) 0958-1669 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>20456936</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20456936</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.copbio.2010.03.017</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jansson & Northen, 2010), as cyanobacteria utilize solar energy through photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide to recalcitrant calcium carbonate biominerals ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kamennaya</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1208</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kamennaya, Ajo-Franklin, Northen, &amp; Jansson, 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1208</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521535071″>1208</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kamennaya, Nina</author><author>Ajo-Franklin, Caroline</author><author>Northen, Trent</author><author>Jansson, Christer</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cyanobacteria as biocatalysts for carbonate mineralization</title><secondary-title>Minerals</secondary-title></titles><pages>338-364</pages><volume>2</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>2075-163X</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.3390/min2040338</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kamennaya, Ajo-Franklin, Northen, & Jansson, 2012). In 2013, these injection strategies have been used to seal hydraulic fractures in about 70 cm diameter sandstone cores under ambient and high-pressure conditions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Phillips</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>621</RecNum><DisplayText>(Phillips et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>621</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1487744069″>621</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Phillips, A. J.</author><author>Gerlach, R.</author><author>Lauchnor, E.</author><author>Mitchell, A. C.</author><author>Cunningham, A. B.</author><author>Spangler, L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: A review</title><secondary-title>Biofouling</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Biofouling</full-title><abbr-1>Biofouling</abbr-1><abbr-2>Biofouling</abbr-2></periodical><pages>715-33</pages><volume>29</volume><number>6</number><keywords><keyword>Biofilms/*growth &amp; development</keyword><keyword>Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>*Chemical Precipitation</keyword><keyword>Construction Materials/*microbiology</keyword><keyword>Engineering</keyword><keyword>Environmental Restoration and Remediation/*methods</keyword><keyword>Hydrolysis</keyword><keyword>Porosity</keyword><keyword>Surface Properties</keyword><keyword>Urea/*chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1029-2454 (Electronic) 0892-7014 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23802871</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802871</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08927014.2013.796550</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Phillips et al., 2013).

Engineered CA-based bioreactors outclassed chemical methods using diethylamine solutions, with much higher selectivity, 400:1 and 300:1 for N2 and O2, respectively ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Cowan</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>1209</RecNum><DisplayText>(Cowan, Ge, Qin, McGregor, &amp; Trachtenberg, 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1209</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521539575″>1209</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Cowan, R. M.</author><author>Ge, J. J.</author><author>Qin, Y. J.</author><author>McGregor, M. L.</author><author>Trachtenberg, M. C.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Sapient&apos;s Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.</auth-address><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> capture by means of an enzyme-based reactor</style></title><secondary-title>Ann N Y Acad Sci</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences</full-title><abbr-1>Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ann N Y Acad Sci</abbr-2></periodical><pages>453-69</pages><volume>984</volume><keywords><keyword>Animals</keyword><keyword>Carbon Dioxide/*analysis/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrases/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Cattle</keyword><keyword>Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/*methods</keyword><keyword>Dose-Response Relationship, Drug</keyword><keyword>Hydrogen-Ion Concentration</keyword><keyword>*Membranes, Artificial</keyword><keyword>Models, Biological</keyword><keyword>Temperature</keyword><keyword>Water/metabolism</keyword><keyword>NASA Discipline Life Support Systems</keyword><keyword>Non-NASA Center</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2003</year><pub-dates><date>Mar</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0077-8923 (Print) 0077-8923 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>12783837</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12783837</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Cowan, Ge, Qin, McGregor, & Trachtenberg, 2003), apart from that the presence of CA increased CO2 transport across the polypropylene membrane by ~70% ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Simsek-Ege</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>1210</RecNum><DisplayText>(Simsek-Ege, Bond, &amp; Stringer, 2002)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1210</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521539781″>1210</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Simsek-Ege, F. A.</author><author>Bond, G. M.</author><author>Stringer, J.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Matrix molecular weight cut-off for encapsulation of carbonic anhydrase in polyelectrolyte beads</title><secondary-title>J Biomater Sci Polym Ed</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition</full-title><abbr-1>J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed.</abbr-1><abbr-2>J Biomater Sci Polym Ed</abbr-2></periodical><pages>1175-87</pages><volume>13</volume><number>11</number><keywords><keyword>Alginates</keyword><keyword>Animals</keyword><keyword>Biocompatible Materials</keyword><keyword>*Carbonic Anhydrases</keyword><keyword>Cattle</keyword><keyword>Chitin/*analogs &amp; derivatives</keyword><keyword>Chitosan</keyword><keyword>Drug Compounding</keyword><keyword>*Enzymes, Immobilized</keyword><keyword>Glucuronic Acid</keyword><keyword>Hexuronic Acids</keyword><keyword>Hydrogen-Ion Concentration</keyword><keyword>Microspheres</keyword><keyword>Molecular Weight</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2002</year></dates><isbn>0920-5063 (Print) 0920-5063 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>12518798</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12518798</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Simsek-Ege, Bond, & Stringer, 2002). Another benefit of these CA-bioreactor systems is that they are very efficient at ambient pressures and temperatures ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Cowan</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>1209</RecNum><DisplayText>(Cowan et al., 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1209</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1521539575″>1209</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Cowan, R. M.</author><author>Ge, J. J.</author><author>Qin, Y. J.</author><author>McGregor, M. L.</author><author>Trachtenberg, M. C.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Sapient&apos;s Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.</auth-address><titles><title><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”>CO</style><style face=”subscript” font=”default” size=”100%”>2</style><style face=”normal” font=”default” size=”100%”> capture by means of an enzyme-based reactor</style></title><secondary-title>Ann N Y Acad Sci</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences</full-title><abbr-1>Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.</abbr-1><abbr-2>Ann N Y Acad Sci</abbr-2></periodical><pages>453-69</pages><volume>984</volume><keywords><keyword>Animals</keyword><keyword>Carbon Dioxide/*analysis/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Carbonic Anhydrases/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Cattle</keyword><keyword>Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/*methods</keyword><keyword>Dose-Response Relationship, Drug</keyword><keyword>Hydrogen-Ion Concentration</keyword><keyword>*Membranes, Artificial</keyword><keyword>Models, Biological</keyword><keyword>Temperature</keyword><keyword>Water/metabolism</keyword><keyword>NASA Discipline Life Support Systems</keyword><keyword>Non-NASA Center</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2003</year><pub-dates><date>Mar</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>0077-8923 (Print) 0077-8923 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>12783837</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12783837</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Cowan et al., 2003), plus improving overall cost-efficiency. However, the longevity of the systems has raised concerns as the need to keep the membranes wet, or at least humid, will add cost and operational difficulties to their practical use ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boone</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1074</RecNum><DisplayText>(Boone et al., 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1074</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”rrpzaxr2n5p2wjet0zkxezz0fxwapdes9avs” timestamp=”1507702693″>1074</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Boone, C. D.</author><author>Habibzadegan, A.</author><author>Gill, S.</author><author>McKenna, R.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected] Biochemistry &amp; Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Carbonic anhydrases and their biotechnological applications</title><secondary-title>Biomolecules</secondary-title></titles><pages>553-62</pages><volume>3</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Aug 19</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>2218-273X (Print) 2218-273X (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24970180</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970180</url></related-urls></urls><custom2>PMC4030944</custom2><electronic-resource-num>10.3390/biom3030553</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boone et al., 2013).

Limitation
Even though the bacteria-driven calcite precipitation process has many merits, further study is needed to overcome the limitations to use of this technology prior to its commercialization as microbial processes are usually slower and more complex than a chemical process. This is because the microbial activity is completely dependent on environmental factors such as temperature, pH, the concentration of donors and acceptors of electrons, and concentration and diffusion rates of nutrients and metabolites. In addition, economic limitations to using of laboratory grade nutrient sources in field applications must be overcome. This process may not be totally environmentally friendly, secondary products synthesized during this process could be toxic and hazardous to human health and soil microorganisms at high concentrations. Therefore, additional investigations to improve the technology and reduce unwanted by-products are needed to enable the use of bacteria driven calcite precipitation on a commercial scale.

Conclusion
Many researchers have established numerous conventional methods for environmental clean-up, but these methods are ineffective and expensive. Enzymes from the microbial origin have a wide variety of potency for the calcite precipitation, among them most are the urease producing microbes but recently many researchers are focused on the carbonic anhydrase producing microbes too. Bacteria driven calcite precipitation is an effective and eco-friendly method for environmental remediation and their applications are not limited and are used to other applications to produce safe and environmentally stable products. The various aforementioned biotechnological aspects of the different CA-associated systems emphasize the usefulness of this enzyme, such as to remediate heavy metals and radionuclides from contaminated environments and for sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In addition, the same technology can be used to improve soil and sand quality, as well as cement sealing of concrete. Even though the bacteria-driven calcite precipitation process has many merits, because of the advancement of fast and cost-effective genome sequencing, molecular biology techniques that boost overexpression of protein and direct evolution techniques that can select for highly active and stable CAs provide an optimistic view as to the advancement in the efficiency and selectivity in current systems. However, further study is needed to overcome the limitations to using of this technology prior to its commercialization.

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