Based on Hofstede index, the highest dimension in Indonesia is power distance, the second is uncertainty avoidance, the third is masculinity and the lowest is individualism. The combination of highest index in power distance and uncertainty avoidance give indication that leader have strong power and authority to control their employee based on law, rules and regulation developed by leaders power. The masculinity dimension in Indonesia is fairly high. If compared to Asian average of Hofstedes dimension, it is slightly differences. The lowest index is individualism, which means that Indonesian tends to be collectivism.
Hofstedes dimension of national culture in Indonesia can be guidance to adapt in the working environment. Regarding on highest index in power distance, it need high loyalty and obedience to the boss as a leader. It is expected that employee should obey to the boss. They must follow the instruction or order from the boss without any refutations, although sometimes the instruction is not appropriate with employees mind.
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Sometimes, employee can refuse the instruction, but it is rarely occurred. Therefore, all of decisions depend on the boss. Dependency on the boss is relatively high. The obedience from employee to the boss can be caused of law, rules and regulations created by the boss or the leader. The strictly law, rules and regulations is created because of the society is low tolerance on uncertainty and not ready for rapid change in their surrounding environment. The law, rules and regulation is used to assist in defending themselves from uncertainty of the others behavior.
Thats why there are many rules and regulation in Indonesia to control attitude and behavior of society, particularly for employee in working place. It makes the monitoring system on employee is more complex and rigorous. Regarding on masculinity dimension, working environment in Indonesia tend to lead to masculinity rather than femininity. It reflects on the characteristics to give priority of value on assertive, acquisition of money, goods and competition.
In working place they tend to show the ownership of their possession, such as new car, embellishment, new mobile phone etc. It occurs not only in the upper class, but also in the middle to lower class. They tend to achieve material success, which is different with femininity that gives more attention on quality of life than material success.
Low score in individualism show the attitude of self-interest and family as a common interest in a group. Most of it is made jointly to the group, which needs high emotional dependence to each other. It relates with loyalty, which everyone has responsibility to develop strong relationship to fellow members in the group. Based on the four dimension, the foreigner who has been offered to the job in Indonesia has to adapt to the condition such as obey to the boss, ready to be monitored and controlled in strict rules, ready to deal with environmental condition that compete for material success and concern on the interest of the group.
Hofstedes dimension of national culture gives more attention on relationship on society or relationship between parties. It doesnt concern on factors inside the individual, such as motivation, mental toughness, painstaking, competence, maturity, etc HYPERLINK https//www.hofstede-insights.com/country/japan/ WHAT ABOUT JAPAN At an intermediate score of 54, Japan is a borderline hierarchical society. Yes, Japanese are always conscious of their hierarchical position in any social setting and act accordingly. However, it is not as hierarchical as most of the other Asian cultures.
Some foreigners experience Japan as extremely hierarchical because of their business experience of painstakingly slow decision making process all the decisions must be confirmed by each hierarchical layer and finally by the top management in Tokyo. Paradoxically, the exact example of their slow decision making process shows that in Japanese society there is no one top guy who can take decision like in more hierarchical societies. Another example of not so high Power Distance is that Japan has always been a meritocratic society.
There is a strong notion in the Japanese education system that everybody is born equal and anyone can get ahead and become anything if he (yes, it is still he) works hard enough. INDIVIDUALISM The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension isthe degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members.It has to do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their direct family only.
In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups that take care of them in exchange for loyalty. Japan scores 46 on the Individualism dimension. Certainly Japanese society shows many of the characteristics of a collectivistic society such as putting harmony of group above the expression of individual opinions and people have a strong sense of shame for losing face. However, it is not as collectivistic as most of her Asian neighbours.
The most popular explanation for this is that Japanese society does not have extended family system which forms a base of more collectivistic societies such as China and Korea. Japan has been a paternalistic society and the family name and asset was inherited from father to the eldest son. The younger siblings had to leave home and make their own living with their core families. One seemingly paradoxal example is that Japanese are famous for their loyalty to their companies, while Chinese seem to job hop more easily. However, company loyalty is something, which people have chosen for themselves, which is an Individualist thing to do. You could say that the Japanese in-group is situational.
While in more collectivistic culture, people are loyal to their inner group by birth, such as their extended family and their local community. Japanese are experienced as collectivistic by Western standards and experienced as Individualist by Asian standards. They are more private and reserved than most other Asians.
MASCULINITY A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school and continues throughout organisational life. A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable.The fundamental issue here is what motivates people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
At 95, Japan is one of the most Masculine societies in the world. However, in combination with their mild collectivism, you do not see assertive and competitive individual behaviors which we often associate with Masculine culture. What you see is a severe competition between groups. From very young age at kindergartens, children learn to compete on sports day for their groups (traditionally red team against white team).In corporate Japan, you see that employees are most motivated when they are fighting in a winning team against their competitors. What you also see as an expression of Masculinity in Japan is the drive for excellence and perfection in their material production (monodukuri) and in material services (hotels and restaurants) and presentation (gift wrapping and food presentation) in every aspect of life. Notorious Japanese workaholism is another expression of their Masculinity. It is still hard for women to climb up the corporate ladders in Japan with their Masculine norm of hard and long working hours.
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known should we try to control the future or just let it happen This ambiguity brings with it anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on Uncertainty Avoidance. At 92 Japan is one of the most uncertainty avoiding countries on earth.
This is often attributed to the fact that Japan is constantly threatened by natural disasters from earthquakes, tsunamis (this is a Japanese word used internationally), typhoons to volcano eruptions. Under these circumstances Japanese learned to prepare themselves for any uncertain situation. This goes not only for the emergency plan and precautions for sudden natural disasters but also for every other aspects of society. You could say that in Japan anything you do is prescribed for maximum predictability. From cradle to grave, life is highly ritualized and you have a lot of ceremonies. For example, there is opening and closing ceremonies of every school year which are conducted almost exactly the same way everywhere in Japan.
At weddings, funerals and other important social events, what people wear and how people should behave are prescribed in great detail in etiquette books. School teachers and public servants are reluctant to do things without precedence. In corporate Japan, a lot of time and effort is put into feasibility studies and all the risk factors must be worked out before any project can start. Managers ask for all the detailed facts and figures before taking any decision.
This high need for Uncertainty Avoidance is one of the reasons why changes are so difficult to realize in Japan. LONG TERM ORIENTATION This dimension describeshowevery society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
At 88 Japan scores as one of the most Long Term Orientation oriented societies. Japanese see their life as a very short moment in a long history of mankind. From this perspective, some kind of fatalism is not strange to the Japanese. You do your best in your life time and that is all what you can do. Notion of the one and only almighty God is not familiar to Japanese. People live their lives guided by virtues and practical good examples. In corporate Japan, you see long term orientation in the constantly high rate of investment in RD even in economically difficult times, higher own capital rate, priority to steady growth of market share rather than to a quarterly profit, and so on.
They all serve the durability of the companies. The idea behind it is that the companies are not here to make money every quarter for the share holders, but to serve the stake holders and society at large for many generations to come (e.g. Matsuhista). INDULGENCE One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not become human. This dimension is defined asthe extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong control is called Restraint.
Cultures can, therefore, be described as Indulgent or Restrained. Japan, with a low score of 42, is shown to have a culture of Restraint. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency to cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies, Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control the gratification of their desires. People with this orientation have the perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and feel that indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.
The Perception of Japan From a Foreigners Perspective Robert Keating(Representative, Tokyo Office, Quebec Government, Canada) The following is a summary of Mr. Keatings presentation at a GLOCOM Platform seminar on January 24, 2002 Promotion of Japans Image in the Past First, I would like to thank you very much for inviting me today. I view this occasion as a chance to exchange opinions with you. Obviously, the views that I will be expressing are not the views of my government, but my personal views.
What I would like to do is to look at the image or the perception of Japan that I have seen myself. But before starting to tell you about my own views, let us recap a little bit on the image that has been promoted by Japan abroad, at least officially. After the war, Japan adopted a public policy to present itself as a peace promoter to the world and an aid provider to developing countries. The Japanese government has also been trying to change the image of Japan from being an exotic country with Fujiyama and Geisha to being a very modern country with a dynamic economy, although I am not sure if Japan has been totally efficient in promoting a new image. Another aspect of promotion is that, probably without knowing it, the image of a modern Japan has been promoted along with a kind of anonymous Japan with lots of yen and high-quality products such as cars and consumer electronics. That image has strongly influenced foreigners views abroad, that is, Japan being a very dynamic economy but quite anonymous without promoting any specific image of Japanese people. Rather, the image has been affected more by companies of Japan or more by products from Japan. More recently, Japan has shifted towards cultural exchanges as one of the pillars in foreign policy along with security and economic cooperation.
As a result, you have seen the promotion of culture abroad through various governmental organizations, including programs for cultural exchange, protection of world heritage sites, promotion of cultural diversity for minorities, etc., some of which are linked to security as exemplified by the case of Japans effort to protect Angkor Wat, while playing an important role in promoting security and resolution of the crisis in Cambodia. I would also like to mention that in the 80s and 90s the Japanese government promoted international exchanges by inviting thousands and thousands of young people from abroad, mostly westerners, through the JET program for example. The official goal was to internationalize Japan, but I guess that one of the real goals was to maintain some kind of political influence overseas by attracting those young foreigners who can promote a new image of Japan in their home countries as ambassadors of Japan.
Japans Problems in Communication Having said this, I would now like to tackle an issue that may be a little provocative. First, the Japanese government is now at the point where they promote image, and have to decide whether they should promote the traditional image of Japan or what kind of image they should promote abroad. Should they do like France Japan is different from France, because I believe that the Japanese dont know very well the influence that the country has abroad in the day-to-day life of people. There is much more influence coming from Japan than you may think. Examples are not just cars and electronic products, but also games, foods, pictures, home decorations, and other cultural objects. This leads to my second point, that is, Americanization versus Japanization. Although we are living in an era when American culture, American values, American movie films, American literature, etc. are everywhere, you would be surprised to see how many products, values, and ways of thinking are from Japan, at least in Canada and the U.
S. When foreigners visit Tokyo, they find that it is not just a modern city but an exceptional city, and this is an image of the future, which is quite important. My third point is that by promoting Japan as an economic power in the past the backlash now is there, because Japan is obviously in some kind of crisis on the economic side. I think that Japans problem is more or less related to bad loans, and more structural than cyclical in nature. In any case, there is not one day when I am not reading a newspaper clip from Canada about the crisis of Japan.
So it is quite depressing. People in Quebec, Montreal, or Toronto look at Japan and see no future, as they think that the Japanese economy is going down the drain. We are here in Tokyo trying to promote Canadian exports to Japan, but have difficulty in attracting Canadian trade companies to do business with Japan because they see no future here and instead go to China for example. So the image of Japan for decision-making people is quite negative, possibly comparable to the image of Argentina. Although Japan and Argentina are totally different in economic size and strength, it is the image of Japan that is in serious crisis. In reality there are many sectors that have been doing relatively well such as cellular phones in Japan, but the image or perception of Japan is negative. This is one thing that you really have to know.
Let me go to the positive side and talk about building up a new image for Japan. One of the problems for Japan, I think, is how to communicate abroad. More and more young people are able to speak English. Prime Minister Koizumi is very popular among the Japanese, and I can tell you that he is very popular among foreigners too, because he can express himself in English and present the view of Japan differently from the prime ministers you have had in the past. He is very direct and a fantastic communicator, who has brought some kind of fresh wind to the Japanese way of communication.
Is there any future ahead for Japan Let us not be too pessimistic. Ten years ago when I came to Japan, America was in decline and everybody was talking about the Japanese miracle. Now, everybody says America is so good. Look at it on a long-term basis. I think this country has lots of potential, lots of possibilities, fantastically well-developed and well-educated manpower, etc., which you cannot erase. Especially, education is the key to everything, because the future is based on information and communication among people, where education plays a crucial role.
Although there may be some political or economic problems, you have much more potential and much more possibilities. There may be structural problems in Japan, but they can be solved. Therefore, we should not be so negative.
The problem for Japan is how to communicate with foreigners to present a view of Japan that is different from what you have seen abroad Indonesian Perceptions Of The West Julia Suryakusuma is a sociologist and social commentator based in Jakarta. Her writings appear in a variety of national and international publications. Her Almanac of Indonesian Politics (API) Foundation published the Almanac of Indonesian Political Parties (1999) and the Indonesian Parliament Guide (2001). Love-hate, ambivalent, distorted and the stubborn clinging on to views that are wrong these characteristics apply not just to Indonesian perceptions of the West, but also vice versa. Stereotypes of the West range from being very positivethat the West has superior technology and scientific knowledge, that it is rational and open, that it has superior conceptual skills and more capable managers, and that women are more independentto being very negativethat Westerners are crude, uncivilised, warlike, colonialist, promiscuous, and that they fail to take care of their elders. Indonesians stereotypes of the West range from very positive to highly negative. The West and Indonesia have a long history of engagement, not simply because of colonialism but also because of the open, almost porous nature of Indonesian society and the adaptability of Indonesians.
This may not always seem to be the case, especially in the light of threats to sweep Americans, because the assimilative character of Indonesians is never static. At times Indonesians are very open, while at other times they can be very closed and constipated, when they tend to make tight, even aggressively defined, boundaries. Indonesians seem to be in one of these latter phases at the moment, in common with many other peoples around the world. Despite a long history of engagement with the West, Indonesias openness has varied depending on the historical period. There are three broad ways in which Indonesians view the West through nationalism, traditional (conservative) Indonesian cultural values and Islam. The last two draw on two longstanding tensions the perennial East-West debate, and the global rivalry between Islam and the West that has endured for 14 centuries and has now been exacerbated by 11 September. It is useful to view Indonesian perceptions of the West in three ways nationalism, traditional cultural values and Islam.
The nationalist perspective Nationalism was used by Sukarno to invoke anti-colonial sentiments and, in many ways anti-Western sentiments, in a selective way. For example, in the 1960s he once had an Indonesian pop group called Koes Plus banned because its music, which imitated Western pop music, was considered to have a corrupting influence. Sukarno was also famous for his to hell with your aid exhortation, for pulling Indonesia out of the UN, for the Bandung Afro-Asian Conference (attended by 29 states, positing Indonesias leadership of an evolving movement of non-aligned states) and for his ideological, political and economic closure to the West. But, at the same time, he and other Indonesians of his generation and class were fond of individual objects, countries or people of Western origin. Sukarno actually loved many things American (he is even rumoured to have had an affair with Marilyn Monroe), but he grew so disappointed with US policy that he turned to the Soviet Union and other socialist countries.
Sukarno used nationalism as a means of stoking anti-colonial and anti-Western sentiments. But he also maintained a strong affinity for Western people and culture. The breast-beating nationalism la Sukarno is perhaps a thing of the past, although a similar sentiment still exists. Currently, the feeling that Indonesia should do for itself and act as a leader of Southeast Asia is still very much at the forefront of Indonesian minds (and certainly the governments). Accusations of Western interference in Indonesias internal affairsespecially in issues of human rights and securityhave been hurled at Western nations, most notably the US, Australia and the Netherlands, on more than a few occasions. There is also a suspicion (manifested among others in Indonesias penchant for conspiracy theories) that the West always has an ulterior motive and that it is out to rule the worldif not directly then through indirect institutions such as the IMF, the World Bank and Western-controlled multinational corporations. These theories stem directly from an ideological basis laid down by Sukarnos anti-Westernism and anti-Nekolim, the latter term being an acronym for neo-colonialism and imperialism coined by Sukarno.
Similar anti-Western nationalistic sentiments exist today, with a mistrust of the Wests true intentions there is a feeling that the West always has an ulterior motive and is bent on world domination. Another view is that the West is out to tear Indonesia apart and threaten its national unity. Any attempt by Western nations to speak up for the rights of minoritiesTimorese, Papuans, Acehneseis often seen through this lens. This perception stems from recent history, including the US involvement in among others the Revolutionary Government of the Indonesian Republic (PRRI), the Permesta incident in which the US and other Western nations offered none-too-clandestine support to regional rebellions that gravely threatened Indonesias survival as a unitary state, and the belated inclusion of West Papua (formerly under Dutch jurisdiction) into Indonesia.
The idea of federalism was also anathema, because it was introduced by the Dutch and seen as an attempt to break up Indonesia. More recently, the notion of regional autonomy (which is hoped to save Indonesia from disintegration) can be viewed as being in fact a form of federalism. There is also a perception that the West wants to see Indonesia broken up, cut down to size. Western support for the rights of minorities in Indonesia is viewed in such a context. The manipulation and distortion of information concerning the West is also a building block of Indonesian perceptions of the West, giving rise to impressions that all Westerners are individualists, have a materialist culture and are devoid of spiritual life. The perception is also cultivated that Western women are loose and that Western feminists are all lesbians and man-haters. These misperceptions, however, also originate from the West, with Hollywoods dominance of television and cinema serving to foster misperceptions and distortions about true behaviour in the West and particularly in the US. Many Indonesian perceptions of the West stem from distortions created by the media and the unrepresentative images conveyed.
American media, in the form of its dominance of television and cinema exacerbates these perceptions. More specifically, and potentially more dangerous, is the example of the story line that the daily Republika took about Jews being responsible for the 11 September attacksan explanation that was assumed to be true by a considerable number of Indonesians. Another example is the conspiracy theory espoused at the time of the rupiahs collapse in 1997-98, which saw the devaluation of the currency as being a Jewish (George Soros), US (IMF) and ethnic-Chinese (conglomerates) plot. Conversely, Indonesians see the Western press as doing much the same by publishing what they see as only negative and sensationalistic stories about Indonesia, and employing stereotypical categories to describe and analyse Indonesians and events in Indonesia.
To a degree, this perception is justified insofar as it is in the nature of the press everywhere to be that way. Some Indonesian manipulation of the media is potentially dangerous and irresponsible. But many Indonesians feel that Western media reporting of events in Indonesia is also unfair and irresponsible. The contemporary version of Indonesian nationalism is also based on the North-South divide. It is important to recognise that Indonesian perceptions of the West are based on a relationship that is unequal, and one that has been historically so in terms of political, economic and military power. More recently, this unequal relationship is seen in the context of the division of the world into developed and under-developed nations.
The West is perceived as being extremely wealthy in terms of natural and human resources, and regarded as the worlds main source of capital and technology. However, similar to imperial and colonial powers in the past, the prosperity of the West in the post-colonial years is often regarded as being achieved at the cost of poor developing nations, mostly the former colonial territories that have obtained independence after the end of World War II, of which Indonesia is a part. For this reason, theories of neo-colonialism developed in Asian and African countries and dependency theories developed primarily in Latin American countries are popular in Indonesia. The North-West polemic is also important in Indonesian perceptions, with the West (the North) seen as being extremely wealthy and acquiring its wealth through exploitation of developing nations, including Indonesia. One of the most striking perceptions and, indeed, sharp criticisms made by Indonesians of the West is in its high level of hypocrisy and double standards.
This is seen at both the national and corporate levels. This hypocrisy is institutionalised in many aspects of the relationship and is manifested as the two faces of the West. The first face is greedy, oppressive and exploitative, both towards people and natural resources. The second is the humanitarian face, advocating democracy, human rights and sound environmental practices. For example, Western companies often relocate their industries to Third World countries, including Indonesia, in order to take advantage of cheap labour and abundant natural resources. In the process, Western companies are perceived as engaging in exploitative labour practices, creating environmental pollution and displacing traditional peoples.
Indonesians also perceive the West as being hypocritical being critical on the one hand but exploitative on the other. Furthermore, Western nations sometimes attach conditions to the provision of aid, such as the maintenance of satisfactory human rights records. Once again, this is seen by many Indonesians as an example of Western hypocrisy, bearing in mind the past human rights violations in the treatment of African-Americans in the US and aborigines in Australia, and the Indonesian perception that these violations continue today. For instance, while the majority of Australians are not racist, the historical legacy of the cultural genocide of aborigines lingers, and the land issue of aborigines continues to fester.
Indonesians observe that John Howard also never condemned Pauline Hanson and her One Nation party, actually adopting its stance by appeared tough in defending Australia from the Asian hordes. It was the turning away of a refugee ship (the passengers of which were Muslim) that won Howard the election. While the US is a nation that staunchly upholds civil liberties, African-Americans still experience racial profiling (questioning or searching those who might commit a crime). Other problems include the high proportion of incarcerated blacksridiculously high when seen in comparison to the total black male population. And of course, African Americans would also say job discrimination is something some still experience.
In the context of international relations, another example of Western hypocrisy might be viewed in the way in which the US and its allies can bomb areas considered to be terrorists havens, but still criticise other countries when they engage in military action in their own troublesome domestic areas. In these cases, other countries are accused by the West of oppressing minorities, for example in actions against the Muslim Uighurs in China and the Acehnese in Indonesia. Indonesians view the attachment of human rights conditions to aid, coupled with perceived racism towards minorities in the US and Australia and criticism of military action against separatist minorities, as an example of Western double standards. But while Indonesians are critical of the West, they also engage in a common contradiction exhibited by former colonised peoples they long to acquire the knowledge and abilities of the West they seek to emulate the lifestyle of those they consider to be superior, in other words the neo-colonisers but, at the same time, they are resentful of Westerners power, possessions and control of resources. Indonesians penchant for blaming and scape-goating the West, which is the dominating Other in the Indonesian view, is often the result of feeling inferior, insecure, envious, defensive and frustrated. This is especially the case at difficult periods in the countrys history, not least during the current, chaotic, transitional period. But while critical of the West, Indonesians also aspire to things Western. They also engage in scape-goating the West because of a sense of inferiority.
Today, Indonesians look to the West for so many things their political and economic systems, technology and science, mass culture, popular ideologies, life-style and, sometimes, handouts. But an undercurrent of resentment still exists because these imports are a constant reminder of Indonesias own relative backwardness. Yet Indonesia is clearly a champion of Western style democracy and also welcomes aid, investment and loans from anywhere, including the West. Partly because of disillusionment (or perhaps contempt) with so-called Pancasila democracy, the models that are being looked at now are Western democratic models. The first thing that the reformasi movement demanded after the ouster of Soeharto in May 1998 was a free and fair election. There were also demands for free political parties, a free press, the implementation of trias politika and a revival of the role of the legislature and judiciary. While the reality is that this current transitional phase is still messy, with rampant KKN (collusion, corruption, nepotism) and a danger that the country could slip back into authoritarianism and militarism, still Western-style parliamentary democracy and a constitutional government are unquestionably what Indonesians are striving for, whatever their political camp. Currently, Indonesians look towards the West for a wide variety of reasons, while still resenting their own implicit backwardness.
The majority strives towards Western parliamentary democracy. Especially since the reform era, the pouring in of funds from donor agencies has been welcomed by government and non-government bodies alike, although not always for the right reasons (sometimes the money has not been utilised for the right purposes). However, the ambivalence remains, whereby the efforts of these funding agencies are seen as being part of an imperialistic scheme, imposing conditions that create both political, ideological and bureaucratic burdens for the recipient NGOs, which in some cases impact upon their constituents. The larger issue here, of course, is the governmental issue, which is also more easily played up. For example, in order to placate international lenders, the Indonesian government has been compelled to enforce fuel price increases.
To many Indonesians this is a concrete and costly manifestation of international (perceived to be Western) interference that hurts ordinary Indonesians in their daily lives and reinforces negative perceptions of the West. Funds from donor agencies are welcomed, but with a degree of ambivalence. There is a concern that, once again, aid is part of an imperialistic scheme to undermine Indonesias independence. The perspective of traditional cultural values Viewed from the perspective of Indonesian traditional cultural values, the West is often seen as a corrupting influence. Western liberalism, both political and personal, is seen as undesirable, and even abhorred. While there is great respect for the scientific and technological achievements of the West, Indonesians deplore pengaruh pergaulan bebas Barat (the influence of liberal Western social norms), which in essence means socialising too freely among the sexes, leading to pre- and extra-marital sex and other immoral practices. Why this should be pinned so specifically on the West is strange, as Indonesia has its own indigenous brand of pre- and extra-marital sex. As such, it appears to be a way of projecting Indonesias own permissiveness and immorality on the dominant Other, this being the West.
While periodically there are protests against programmes on television that are considered to purvey Western (im)morality, no serious action is ever taken. In terms of Indonesian cultural values, the West is often seen as a corrupting influence. But there is a degree of projection in this view. Indonesians hold the principle of respect for elders very highly, considering the informal behaviour of children in the West toward their parents (or other adults) as being disrespectfulcalling them by first name, talking back, and touching their parents head (which is taboo in Indonesian culture).
The general rule that most Western children are free of parental supervision or approval by the age of 18 is not the case in most Indonesian families. Public decorum is also considered very important, as well as norms of propriety, such as the ways of dressing and behaving, especially by women. The loud, boisterous behaviour of some Westerners, especially when under the intoxicating effects of alcohol, makes them appear barbaric to most Indonesians. Then, of course, there is the much-maligned individualism of the West, which implies selfishness, immorality and a lack of social commitment.
This is contrasted with Indonesias notion of community spirit (gotong royong), which Indonesians view with a sense of pride and often mention as being one of their virtues. In terms of cultural values, there is a wide gap between norms of behaviour in Indonesia and many western countries. Cultural presentation is also not to be underestimated, usually defined in terms of kasar versus halus (coarse versus refined). Western-style directness is seen as rude, but then even within Indonesia there is a cultural divide on this issue between different ethnic groups. For example, the divide exists between the more straightforward Bataks and other Sumatrans, in sharp contrast to the more indirect and masked behaviour of the Javanese.
While this may be a problem with government officials and the older generation, it is much less of an issue with the younger generation (up to 30 or even 40). Body language is also another criterion for measuring the degree to which a person is civilised. Besides head touching, arms akimbo, pointing with feet, pointing directly at anothers face, sitting or propping oneself against a desk or a table, and some other body gestures which Westerners consider normal, are also considered to be rude. These cultural differences are important, and create the perception in Indonesia that Westerns are unrefined and even plain rude. All these outward manifestations of cultural difference are not seen by Indonesians as just being dissimilar, but also as a sign that Westerners are uncouth and rude. This might be seen as a compensation for Indonesians inferiority complex, but it would be too simplistic to reduce the view simply to that. The cultivation of cultural disparities offers Indonesians some compensation for more general feelings of inferiority. The Islamic perspective Perceptions of the West growing out of Islam in Indonesia often draw on the global rivalry between Islam and the West (which is seen as being identical with Christendom), with the West perceived as being against Islam and Muslim countries.
This is also the reason for the hatred of many Islamic groups for Israel (which is not Christian, true, but which is seen as being supported by the West in a conflict against the Palestinians), and Indonesians support for other Islamic nations, most recently Afghanistan, when they are attacked by the West. If for Westerners the basic unit of organisation is the nation, for Muslims it is their religion. So while they may have their own internal fights among Islamic groups in Indonesia, there are also some fundamentalist groups (only a small minority) who passionately volunteer to fight a jihad against the US invaders in Afghanistan. This is partly because of a true belief in Islamic brotherhood, but is also because of the primordial and categorical hatred that some (minority) Islamic groups in Indonesia have towards the West. Many Indonesian Muslims view the West in the context of the struggle between Islam and (Western) Christendom. The West is also seen as supporting Israel at the expense of the Palestinians.
In Indonesia, as in many other Muslim countries, Islam is seen as a means of resistance against globalisation (which is perceived as being Western) and Western arrogance. The struggle against modernism and secularism is, however, not only waged against the West. It is also directed against other groups in Indonesian society that hold more secularist and modernist views, or more moderate forms of Islam that do not see themselves as being incompatible with the West. There is a feeling among many Indonesian Muslims that the West underestimates and even looks down on Islam, regarding Muslims as backward and inferior. In the growing awareness of the weakness, poverty and underdevelopment of the Islamic world, of which Indonesia is a part, this gives rise to anger and resentment, sometimes ferociously so.
The so-called Islamic revival in Indonesia, which is in part a response to Westernisation, exists at different levels of society. Among so-called fundamentalist groups it expresses itself more violently, for example in the raiding of Western-style bars (which serve alcohol). Among the upper class, and also notable lately among artists, the revival is manifested in the increasing importance and prevalence of wearing Islamic attire. Globalisation is seen as a manifestation of Western arrogance, which promotes modernism and secularism while eroding Islamic values and traditions. This has helped to stoke a Muslim revival across all layers of Indonesian society. One also needs to take into account the current context of political Islam in Indonesia, in which most top positions in government are held by Islamic political figuresan unprecedented development in the nations modern history.
Before Abdurrahman Wahid ousters last July, the Indonesian president was a kyai (Islamic cleric), prior to which he had been the head of the nations largest Muslim organisation, Nahdlatul Ulama (NU). The chair of the Peoples Consultative Assembly (MPR), Amien Rais, is a Muslim scholar and a former chair of Muhammadiyah, the nations second-largest Muslim organisation. The chair of the House of Representatives (DPR) is Akbar Tanjung, formerly a leader of HMI, an Islamic student organisation.
Hamzah Haz, head of the Muslim-oriented United Development Party (PPP), became the countrys vice-president in July 2001. Although President Megawati Soekarnoputri is ostensibly a secularist, she has nonetheless been forced to embrace the aspirations of moderate Islamic groups in order to safeguard her position. This precarious balance makes the presidents tap-dancing since the 11 September understandable. A natural foe of lawlessness, Megawati initially condemned the terrorist attacks on the US.
However, upon her return to Indonesia, facing escalating protests, she was obliged to offer none-too-veiled criticisms of the US bombing of Afghanistan. Indonesias current world-view is also moulded by the fact that most of the countrys top positions are held by Muslims. Historically, political Islam in Indonesia has long been trying to gain a foothold on state power. The transitional period has given it a chance to do so, following the reawakening of Islam as a true political force. This is a natural catching-up process, following Islams global revival during the 1980s and 1990s, which had been restrained or co-opted under the Soeharto regime. What seems clear is that many groups are now using the symbols of Islam to further their own interests, of which hatred, or at least hostility towards the West, is one.
External events, including 11 September, the US invasion of Afghanistan, not to mention the longstanding conflict between Israel and the Palestinians, have all helped to galvanise anti-Western sentiments in Indonesia. Muslim hatred directed specifically towards the US is caused not only by American support for Israel, but also by the perception that American politics and business are dominated by Jews 10 Stereotypes All Indonesians Hate HYPERLINK https//theculturetrip.com/authors/edira-putri/ Edira Putri Updated 7 August 2017 HYPERLINK https//www.facebook.
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And while, unfortunately, that does happen, there are far more trustworthy and legitimate tourism services than the ones that took advantage of out-of-towners. In fact, many more tourists are satisfied with the friendliness and hospitality of locals. And even when visitors find themselves in a confusing scenario, most of the time such traps can be avoided altogether by communicating prices beforehand, HYPERLINK https//theculturetrip.com/asia/indonesia/articles/a-solo-travelers-guide-to-indonesia/ asking questions, and reading reviews before choosing a service.
Bali rice terrace HYPERLINK https//www.flickr.com/photos/sherrattsam/3169834625/in/photolist-5Q7ep8-pQ2cpC-paBSbC-pQ2gqJ-pQ28Hu-paBQZE-6KAndb-6Kwqpv-6KAjef-6Kwu1e-6Kww72-6KAJ8L-yy9EHk-pQ58Xo-pQ51HJ-pPZcGg-5QbtD5-aitMcB-eEQQZw-b1YxYB-paERbz-F9hdg9-cUo7rC-b1VNF2-6KAhxo-CSe7DT-b38TuT-CJVNkv-BvMakx-92ZW2K-94Ttk4-b38VTn-93Y6vz-92Boys-BUEhhF-C23gV9-b38Yjr-b1YT88-94WwYN-9yVP4h-CkSK2R-BvCPRQ-b2EG8v-92ZLyF-947tsy-9ySNGr-b1Vw5t-9yVPaY-b1VwxZ-b1ZCWF t _blank Sam Sherratt / Flickr Indonesians are very conservative Some foreigners may have a mental image of Indonesian women wearing headscarves and long dresses. Some tourists may even feel compelled to dress as conservative as possible to respect the local culture. And while a modest attire is considered more polite (as with anywhere in the world), no one is judging anyone for wearing anything.
In the big cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, HYPERLINK https//theculturetrip.com/asia/indonesia/articles/20-must-visit-attractions-in-bali/ Bali, and more, visitors will see the majority of locals often walking around in jeans and a shirt, with many even wearing imported brands. Tourists can also enjoy a vibrant nightlife in certain parts of the city and have a good time with some local friends. Jakarta, Indonesia HYPERLINK https//www.flickr.com/photos/stenlylam/5635983463/in/photolist-9A2TwF-4vAyAe-5WU1in-6hNwwH-6hSEys-7r7fXW-ankCwb-ankCom-5AKnea-5Y8xXE-dT7ThL-oPiUCe-F4hQUU-6w3oPL-5Y8yfJ-5VmgKL-7bKynJ-4n8ybi-2TwMbP-aYScQ2-eg3gGv-5Y8yM1-c9KueQ-5Y4mMx-8oTrmx-aF9cq6-bxw8cr-4MFwmg-anhMqK-6YDqms-dJmt8v-6wjVGy-4MKH23-ankBg9-6wfKWB-aF9g5T-5KCKpz-qbqRft-9MzNtV-SAMQqz-5Y8zsJ-dR9cjK-RKAvjh-pXpkYd-4VkEhF-6vCNLg-aF9fz8-4ML2uW-77F27g-4MFTTi t _blank Stenly Lam / Flickr Indonesians practice radical Islam First of all, it should be noted that HYPERLINK https//theculturetrip.
com/asia/indonesia/articles/10-misconceptions-about-indonesia-you-should-know/ Indonesiais a secular state by lawit is not a Muslim country, even though it hosts the biggest Muslim population in the world. Religion may have its influences on the countrys philosophy and regulations, but with the exception of the Special Region of Aceh, the nation is governed by principles of democracy and humanity. Its also important to remember that the state officially acknowledges other religions, including Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Indonesians are either Balinese or Javanese The truth is that there are at least 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia, each with their own unique culture and customs. For tourists who have only visited the countrys main tourist attractions, the chance of encountering Balinese or Javanese people is actually high, but do not fall into the stereotype that will hinder you from appreciating the countrys rich diversity. Dayak Tribe in Palangkaraya, Indonesia HYPERLINK https//www.flickr.com/photos/utenriksdept/7351541816/in/photolist-ccCzfY-z5UTvq-z4Cxhm-yPkqY9-yPmupf-RHMvp4-z4BsnU-y9TCCh-ya6ZaF-y9YJS7-RHMvb8-ysjBre-bXYTXy-RR5hCm-DoBAcT-xuzt2s-RR5gLS-RR5go7-RR5gDN-QEKsn4-QEKqyV-RR5gSJ-QCcD1L-RR5huf-QCcDzS-QCcDkd-QCcCWC-QCcDfd-RHMuY4-RR5h19-QCcCRY-QEKqCT-QCcDF3-RR5hdy-RHMv5g-QCcDub-QCcD4G-RR5h6u-QCcB7q-QEKsyM-QEKqq8-yqFmgW-xX15xQ-qQEzPr-r88h2P-yqFpYq-xX7QWB-yciMTd-y8cv5N-yrBzMD t _blank Utenriksdepartementet UD / Flickr Indonesians live in trees with no electricity While there are still many HYPERLINK https//theculturetrip.
com/asia/indonesia/articles/8-traditions-only-people-living-in-indonesia-will-understand/ ethnic groupswho live traditionally with little to no modern technology, many parts of the country are now well developed. Indonesia has several big cities dense with shopping malls, hotels, and other modern facilities. And even the smaller towns have electricity and internet connection. The vibrant Jakarta skyline HYPERLINK https//www.flickr.com/photos/joe-joe/2303992129/in/photolist-4vAyAe-axaKPW-btYmK1-5WU1in-5VmgKL-6w3oPL-dT7ThL-5VcYe2-oPiUCe-hKs87b-8vG2X1-c9KueQ-d2W7iQ-5iqf6X-bWw4Nq-9Cg58t-qbqRft-bxw8cr-SUQLqG-6wfKWB-aF9cq6-Awhrgh-6hSEp1-pf9TPr-4n8ybi-6wjUAL-T5jXcS-6YDqms-6wjVGy-dJmt8v-pH8xv8-5KCKpz-4MKH23-dh5PJx-4MFwmg-5AKndP-4MFLCp-4MFuFH-4MKX6w-4MLhnu-3diGR2-cVZhcE-bqny8-5ide1y-jHtmWF-bFjise-4MFTTi-4MG67c-6u1g9L-CbDN9y t _blank The Diary of a Hotel Addict / Flickr Not only that, Indonesians make up a large part of global netizens, being the HYPERLINK https//theculturetrip.
com/asia/indonesia/articles/indonesians-are-obsessed-with-instagram-and-heres-why/ biggest marketfor Instagram in Asia Pacific and one of the most active markets for e-commerce, proving that many of the citizens are tech-savvy with ample technology. Indonesians are uneducated The image of Indonesians being uneducated is consistent with the general stereotype that the nation is widely traditional, remote, and uninformed. In reality, Indonesian kids are required by regulations to attend at least nine years of school. And thats just the bare minimumthe number of youngsters who enter college is rising with every generation. Also, both state and private institutions are adding new programs and facilities every year. In addition to that, many wealthy Indonesians go as far as Europe or the United States to acquire higher-quality education. Indonesians are poor Sadly, poverty is, indeed, a present social issue in Indonesia. But the generalization that Indonesians are poor is not true.
The country has a growing consumer class and professionals working in big international industries. As a country, Indonesia also has a strong economic growth and one of the highest GDPs in Asia. Indonesian farmers HYPERLINK https//www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/13801892434/in/photolist-n2CiLE-pRQfqu-5wy5Yp-bneHDY-boWcbd-pRQ2Uf-bBRuHg-boncnL-bBQtCP-bBR5QZ-bBHNbk-8uM4ww-ndZpyL-Sa5Yk4-p8FEyx-ncRqdP-bC8G38-neTo1i-nfgx7k-n2tPMP-8uM58b-Ea1Kqu-Bis6bH-pN41aF-bC73ZK-bC74h2-q76Gyo-bkB4WQ-oqaHX9-2rGN3i-p8Conj-5erZTv-5N1rT-bpfJZf-bCanRi-n2ue6z-ncQ8c6-ncQHef-q3jmR5-ncQoLU-n2bFPk-ncULCW-5nLmcv-ng4pP3-ncQNV5-dHNaQt-neYp1X-ncWHmb-neYEHB-n2vbeD t _blank SarahTz/Flickr Indonesians say wkwkwk Of all the countrys charms and achievements, netizens continue to refer to Indonesia as the wkwkwk country. Actually, wkwkwk is a form of laughter exchanged through chats or texts. No one really uses it or even knows how to pronounce it in real life, and even among Indonesians, the laugh is considered tacky.
Most people stick with the regular hahaha both in text and real life. A young Indonesian girl with a phone HYPERLINK https//www.flickr.com/photos/black_claw/5980790348/in/photolist-a7v7AY-8iod7h-dyeqVf-dyev9s-V19DxM-dy8XHK-dbRHLT-b34LPH-9HVVAH-9HVVJB-8vLdfy-9URBWm-neT5op-9HVVCr-8Q76Uh-9Xc779-dy5NLn-b34LrP-a8hdqq-a8hfQ7-dGiowf-a8hjyC-dybvHb-6HcHNp-a8hjmj-dy8Qh2-dy8Qcr-dyentL-dybg3C-dybiVm-a8hgnb-dy5SYR-dy9aWx-dyes73-dy8Z8T-dy5S6T-dy8Xh4-dy9aH6-dyeuYL-dy5PX2-dy8Tng-a8egfP-a8hnGo-dyeuAy-dyeu8Y-dybhPh-dy8WHK-dy5N3X-dyetSC-dy8XMg t _blank Farhan Perdana (Blek)/Flickr Indonesians are always late This stereotype is one held by both foreigners and fellow Indonesians. While punctuality may not be the nations foremost virtue, there are numerous Indonesians, especially professionals, who do not deserve the generalization. Just assuming that an appointment with an Indonesian will always start late is a mistake that you do not want to make. Also, you dont want to be a tourist who misses the train or the beginning of a show just because you thought its going to depart or start late.
Indonesians take bribes Some tourists have made the mistake of thinking that in Indonesia, money can solve everything. But many times, its better to follow the legal or official procedure to solve problems, as you may get into even more trouble for trying to bribe an official. HYPERLINK https//www.hofstede-insights.com/bsa_pro_id8bsa_pro_url1 t _blank Behind the Stereotype Japanese People Are So Nice and Polite Update 6 April 2018 Save Japan seems to be shrouded in stereotypes like no other country. From obscure vending machines to speaking toilets, from the shyness of Japans people to their eccentric subculture fashion. Amidst preconceptions and memes, were left wondering what is Japan really like As someone born and raised in Japan, I will try my best to share an inside perspective on the common stereotypes that people have about my home country. One of them is that Japanese people are incredibly nice and polite.
From HYPERLINK https//livejapan.com/en/category/cs0109002/ t _self animeto HYPERLINK https//livejapan.com/en/category/cs0201001/ t _self sushi, Japan leaves its cultural fingerprints all across the globe.
It is known as a quirky, innovative country that is the source of many a trend and invention, some useful, others amusing. However, there is one aspect of this developed nation that has undergone an undeniably unique evolution, especially compared to other countries in Asia and Europe. I am talking about communication in a global world. And especially the often-lauded kindness of Japanese people has everything to do with this. Japanese People Are So Nice Where Does this Stereotype Come From Japanese people are so nice is a sentence that youll often read or hear from travelers, no matter where theyre from. Of course, meeting people with kind and gentle personalities plays a big role in this perception of Japan, but nice folk like that can be found all over the world.
So, where does this stereotype come fromOne reason is the concept of omotenashi, a word that is often translated with hospitality, although that word falls short to encompass everything that omotenashi means. Its more than genuine kindness towards guests, its also a sharp eye for detail, awareness for individual needs, and the effort to always go the extra mile.Another factor is that no matter how crowded it gets, in a train, for example, Japanese people always strive to abide by the rules, which essentially means paying attention to social codes, etiquette, and manners even if it is bothersome.This mindset has very real effects. If you lose your wallet in Japan, the likelihood of it not being stolen but instead returned to the nearest police box is almost ridiculously high. These situations are often anecdotally told as a positive stereotype about Japan, but also are a prominent part of travel stories.
This is the kindness that Japan is famous for.However, this kindness is not tied to specific situations or people. Rather, it is an integral part of what being Japanese means. It is especially visible when someone from Japan interacts with someone from a different country, but looks entirely different between two Japanese people. Communication between Nationalities Imagine that youre an international tourist in Japan and, say, youve lost your way.
If you decide to ask a Japanese passerby for help, youll likely encounter a friendly, kind person thatll try to help you as best as they can, disregarding language barriers. A positive experience like that surely is not unique to Japan. Communication Between Japanese People Things look rather different between two Japanese people, however.
The mindset that a lot of Japanese people have when it comes to daily life in society is represented by thoughts such as how can I involve others as little as possible or how can I limit contact to strangers to a minimum. In other words, if a Japanese person wouldnt find a tourist but another Japanese person in a troubled situation, the likelihood of reacting to it with the kindness described above is much lower.Generally speaking, Japanese people try to involve other Japanese people as little as possible. If they see someone in trouble, at a train station for example, you will notice a lot of people passing by without reacting, whether they are in a hurry or not. This might be due to the mindset of not wanting to involve others and hence not wanting to be involved by others, either. The top priority is not to help but to not get caught up in anything, reinforced by the thought that someone else will surely help. Dont Bother Others not Even Dogs Let me explain this via a unique example that illustrates this mindset of not bothering and involving others.
Now imagine yourself in a HYPERLINK https//livejapan.com/en/category/cs0101004/ t _self parkin Japan, where someone takes a walk with their dog. In most parts of the world, it would be perfectly normal to go up to the person, talk to them, and maybe even pet the dog, especially if youre encountering the two of them regularly. Friendships are often born out of such small, friendly interactions.However, the same scene wouldnt happen like this in Japan. Speaking to someone who is a stranger, even if you encounter them daily on their walk, is a big no-go.
If youd still approach the owner for a friendly remark or casual chat, theyd likely walk away in mild shock. Even those whod politely respond would probably make an effort to physically and mentally distance themselves from you, to achieve an absolute minimum of contact.This sort of behavior is exclusive to Japan, I think you wouldnt encounter it in other Asian countries such as Taiwan, China, and all around Southeast Asia.
Tatemae A Japanese Communication Tool for Kindness and Respect You could say that being aware of the gaze of people around myself is part of the Japanese HYPERLINK https//livejapan.com/en/category/cm0101/ t _self nature, as well as the ever-present principle of not causing trouble to anyone else. Especially the latter is a concept that every child growing up in Japan is taught right from the start. If everyone does it like this, Japan surely will be a pleasant place to live in is the idea behind it.
However, the effort to not cause trouble is accompanied by another one the effort to look good in the eyes of others. This mix of principles creates the unique concept of tatemae, best translated as public position as opposed to private thoughts or real beliefs. Therefore, the famous Japanese kindness is a result of the desire of wanting to be seen favorably by others.If you work in a Japanese company, youll participate in nomikai, big drinking parties that usually involve entire departments.
In other countries, forming friendships with your colleagues over a shared lunch or beer after work is fairly common Japan is a different matter, though. Because of the constant awareness of not involving and troubling others, as well as worrying about how others see you, forming honest, open friendships can be hard.The drinking parties are a good example for this.
With a large number of people, the atmosphere is relaxed and fun and you might have a great time with the person next to you. After talking for a while, youll probably suggest Lets go have a drink sometime It sounds like the beginning of a new friendship and indeed, you might find yourself in a HYPERLINK https//livejapan.com/en/category/cs0114001/ t _self barfor a beer after work with your new friend some days later. However, if youre talking to a Japanese person, their heartfelt Yes, sure could also be a case of tatemae. Agreeing to something while actually having no genuine intent to follow through is a prime example.Opposed to what you might think, this doesnt count as lying. Instead, it comes from the same kindness that tourists note about Japanese people.
The actual intention is not as important as keeping the conversation pleasant and making the other person happy. For us Japanese, its a nice thing to do, even if the drinks will never happen. Globalization Using Kindness as a Shield Even after having looked at the stereotype of the nice Japanese people more closely, there is no denying that kindness is an inherent part of the Japanese mindset. Every person growing up in Japan carries it with them. However, the island nation of Japan is also under the influence of globalization, adopting and adapting to cultural influences from all around the world. Japan is historically known for rapid development and the last few decades are not an exception.
However, human interaction and communication might not be able to keep up with those changes.Modern Japan changes from one day another, both on a technological and a cultural level. The country is home to a plethora of personalities and while everyone tries their best to coexist alongside one another, the Japanese kindness seems to turn into a shield. Let me explain Even if we see someone being in trouble, we tend to put our own feelings first and wont approach because we navigate the world under the concept of not bothering and involving for us, its a way to keep the balance and avoid trouble.I believe that this is the key to communication on Japan. This shield of kindness always seems to come before any interaction, and getting through can be really tough IndonesiaGuide ALook at Indonesian Language, Culture, Customs and Business Etiquette Facts and Statistics LocationSouth-eastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean CapitalJakarta Population253,609,643 (2014 est.) Ethnic GroupsJavanese 45, Sundanese 14, Madurese 7.
5, coastal Malays 7.5, other 26 Religions HYPERLINK http//www.commisceo-global.
com/blog/a-brief-introduction-to-islam o intro to Islam t _blank Muslim88, Protestant 5, Roman Catholic 3, HYPERLINK http//www.commisceo-global.com/blog/a-brief-introduction-to-hinduism o about hinduism t _blank Hindu2, Buddhist 1, other 1 Language The official language of Indonesia is known as Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesian. Indonesian is a standardised dialect of the Malay language and was formulated at the time of the declaration of Indonesian independence in 1945. Malay and Indonesian remain very similar.
Although the official language, in reality it is most of the populations second language. Due to the sheer size and fractured, island make-up of the country most people speak regional dialects such as Minangkabau or Javanese. These will usually be spoken at home and in the local community but at work or at school Indonesian is used. Indonesian Society Culture Diversity Indonesia is a hugely diverse nation. It is made up of over 17,500 islands (6,000 of which are inhabited) which are home to over 300 ethnic groups. Each province has its own language, ethnic make-up, religions and history. Most people will define themselves locally before nationally. In addition there are many cultural influences stemming back from difference in heritage.
Indonesians are a mix of Chinese, European, Indian, and Malay. Although Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world it also has a large number of Christian Protestants, Catholics, Hindus and Buddhists. This great diversity has needed a great deal of attention from the government to maintain a cohesion. As a result the national motto is Unity in Diversity, the language has been standardised and a national philosophy has been devised know as Pancasila which stresses universal justice for all Indonesians. Group Thinking Due to the diverse nature of Indonesian society there exists a strong pull towards the group, whether family, village or island. People will define themselves according to their ethnic group, family and place of birth. The family is still very traditional in structure. Family members have clearly defined roles and a great sense of interdependence.
Hierarchy As with most group orientated cultures, hierarchy plays a great role in Indonesian culture. Hierarchical relationships are respected, emphaised and maintained. Respect is usually shown to those with status, power, position, and age.
This can be seen in both the village and the office where the most senior is expected to make group decisions. Superiors are often called bapak or ibu, which means the equivalent of father or mother, sir or madam. Although those higher up the hierarchy make decisions Indonesians are advocates of group discussion and consensus. This ties back to the idea of maintaining strong group cohesiveness and harmonious relationships. Face Due to the need to maintain group harmony the concept of face is important to understand. In Indonesia the concept is about avoiding the cause of shame (malu).
Consequently, people are very careful how they interact and speak. Although a foreigner can not be expected to understand the nuances of the concept it is crucial to keep an eye on ones behavior. One should never ridicule, shout at or offend anyone. Imperfections should always be hidden and addresses privately. Similarly blame should never be aimed at any individual/group publicly. One manifestation of the concept of face/shame is that Indonesians communicate quite indirectly, i.
e. they would never wish to cause anyone shame by giving them a negative answer so would phrase it a way where you would be expected to realise what they truly want to say..
Bahasa Indonesian actually has 12 ways of saying No and several other ways of saying Yes when the actual meaning is No GeneralEtiquette Guidelines Meeting and Greeting Greetings can be rather formal as they are meant to show respect. A handshake is the most common greeting accompanied with the word Selamat. Many Indonesians may give a slight bow or place their hands on their heart after shaking your hand. If you are being introduced to several people, always start with the eldest or most senior person first. Titles are important in Indonesia as they signify status. If you know of any titles ensure you use them in conjunction with the name. Some Indonesians only have one name, although it is becoming more common for people to have a first name and a surname, especially in the middle class. Many Indonesians, especially those from Java, may have had an extremely long name, which was shortened into a sort of nickname for everyday conversation.
There are several ethnic groups in Indonesia. Most have adopted Indonesian names over the years, while some retain the naming conventions of their ethnicity. GiftGiving Etiquette Gift giving etiquette in Indonesia heavily depends on the ethnicity of the receiver. Here are some general gift giving guidelines Gift giving etiquette for the Chinese It is considered polite to verbally refuse a gift before accepting it. This shows that the recipient is not greedy. Items to avoid include scissors, knives or other cutting utensils as they indicate that you want to sever the relationship. Elaborate wrapping is expected – gold and red and considered auspicious.
Gifts are not opened when received. Gift giving etiquette for ethnic Malays / Muslims In Islam alcohol is forbidden. Only give alcohol if you know the recipient will appreciate it. Any food substance should be halal – things that are not halal include anything with alcoholic ingredients or anything with pork derivatives such as gelatine. Halal meat means the animal has been slaughtered according to Islamic principles.
Offer gifts with the right hand only. Gifts are not opened when received. Gift giving etiquette for ethnic Indians Offer gifts with the right hand only. Wrap gifts in red, yellow or green paper or other bright colors as these bring good fortune. Do not give leather products to a Hindu. Do not give alcohol unless you are certain the recipient imbibes. Gifts are not opened when received. Dining Etiquette Dining etiquette is generally relaxed but depends on the setting and context.
The more formal the occasion the more formal the behaviour. Below are some basic dining etiquette tips. Wait to be shown to your place – as a guest you will have a specific position. Food is often taken from a shared dish in the middle.
You will be served the food and it would not be considered rude if you helped yourself after that. If food is served buffet style then the guest is generally asked to help themselves first. It is considered polite that the guest insist others go before him/her but this would never happen. In formal situations, men are served before women. Wait to be invited to eat before you start.
A fork and spoon are often the only utensils at the place setting. Depending on the situation some people may use their hands. Eat or pass food with your right hand only.
BusinessEtiquette Protocol Business Cards Business cards are normally exchanged after the initial handshake and greeting. Business cards should display your title. This helps enhance your image and credibility. Although not required, having one side of your card printed in Bahasa shows respect. Give/accept cards using two hands or the right hand. Examine a business card you receive before putting it on the table next to you or in a business card case. It is important to treat business cards with respect. What to Wear Business attire is generally conservative.
Women should dress conservatively ensuring that they are well covered from ankle to neck. Tight fitting clothes are best avoided. Remember it is hot, so cotton or at least light clothing is best. Communication Styles Indonesians are indirect communicators. This means they do not always say what they mean.
It is up to the listener to read between the lines or pay attention to gestures and body language to get the real message. Generally speaking Indonesians speak quietly and with a subdued tone. Loud people would come across as slightly aggressive. Business is personal in Indonesia so spend time through communication to build a strong relationship. Dealing with someone face-to-face is the only effective way of doing business. Indonesians abhor confrontation due to the potential loss of face. To be polite, they may tell you what they think you want to hear. If you offend them, they will mask their feelings and maintain a veil of civility. If an Indonesian begins to avoid you or acts coldly towards you, there is a serious problem. Business Meetings Initial meetings may be more about getting-to-know-you rather than business. Do not be surprised if business is not even discussed. It is common for Indonesians to enter the meeting room according to rank. Although you do not have to do this, doing so would give a good impression. Indonesians do not make hasty decisions because they might be viewed as not having given the matter sufficient consideration. Be prepared to exercise patience. A distinct island culture formed over thousands of years, although cool and colourful, Japan can also be complex and confusing to the foreigner. This is why we have published our free cultural guide to Japan Useful for anyone researching Japanese culture, customs, manners, etiquette, values and wanting to understand the people better. You may be going to Japan on business, for a visit or even hosting Japanese colleagues or clients in your own country. We also provide HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/training/countries/japan o japan culture training course t _blank Japanese Cultural Awareness Trainingfor those taking things a bit more seriously Skip to HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/japan-guide l c1 Facts and Statistics HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/japan-guide l c2 Basic Introduction HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/japan-guide l c3 Language in Japan HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/japan-guide l c4 Japanese Culture Society HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/japan-guide l c5 Social Customs Etiquette HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/japan-guide l c6 Business Culture Practice HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/japan-guide l c7 Quiz HYPERLINK https//www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/japan-guide l c8 Buy an In-depth Expert Report FACTS AND STATISTICS LocationEastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula CapitalTokyo Nationality Japanese Ethnic Make-upJapanese 98.5, Koreans 0.5, Chinese 0.4, other 0.6 note up to 230,000 Brazilians of Japanese origin migrated to Japan in the 1990s to work in industries some have returned to Brazil (2004) Population126,702,133 (July 2016 est.) Population growth rate1.0 annual change (2016) Climate The climate in Japan varies from tropical in the south to cool and temperate in the north. Time ZoneThe time zone in Japan is JST (Japan Standard Time) and is nine hours ahead of UTC. There is currently no daylight-saving time in Japan. CurrencyThe currency in Japan is the Japanese Yen. Government The government in Japan is constitutional monarchy. Although the Emperor is the ceremonial head of state he has no constitutional powers. Internet penetration 78.7 of the population (2011) BASIC INTRODUCTION In the 17th century, after many decades of civil unrest, the Tokugawa Shogunate (the last feudal Japanese government), established a new military-led dynastic government. This heralded a long period of political peace and stability which lasted until 1868. During this time Japan was not under the influence of foreign powers which facilitated the expansion of the indigenous culture. Japan began to open up its ports and, on March 31st 1854, signed the Treaty of Kanagawa (Japan-US Treaty of Peace and Amity). This led to establishing diplomatic relations with other western powers and the development and modernisation of Japans manufacture and industry. During the latter half of the 19th century and until the early part of the 20th century, Japan became a formidable power, crushing the forces of Russia and China. They occupied Korea, Taiwan and the southern island of Sakhalin. In 1931, Japan occupied Manchuria and then, in 1937, launched an invasion on China. Soon they occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. On 7th December 1941, Japan attacked the United States naval base at Pearl Harbour which precipitated the US entry into the Second World War. Following their defeat in the Second World War, Japan developed a strong economic power and became allied to the US. In 1947 the Constitution of Japan was enacted which provided for a parliamentary system of government. The Emperor of Japan, whilst remaining the ceremonial head of state, no longer had Imperial rule. After thirty years of economic growth, Japan experienced economic decline which began in the 1990s, although they remained an economic power. In March 2011, Japan experienced a devastating earthquake and attendant tsunami which destroyed the northeast of Honshu Island killing thousands of people and damaging several nuclear power plants. This catastrophe seriously impacted upon Japans infrastructure and economy. Shinzo Abe, the longest serving Prime Minister of Japan, has embarked upon an ambitious programme of economic reform in order to restore the economy and to maintain international standing. LANGUAGE IN JAPAN The dominant spoken language is Japanese (Nihongo) which is the sixth most spoken language in the world with more than 99 of the population using it. WARNING Remember this is only a very basic level introduction to Japanese culture and the people it can not account for the diversity within Japanese society and is not meant in any way to stereotype all Japanese people you may meet A couple getting married in a Shinto wedding ceremony taking place in the city of Nagoya, Japan. JAPANESE CULTURE SOCIETY Religion Beliefs HYPERLINK http//www.commisceo-global.com/blog/a-brief-introduction-to-shinto t _blank Shintoand HYPERLINK http//www.commisceo-global.com/blog/a-brief-introduction-to-buddhism t _blank Buddhism 84, other 16 (including Christian 0.7) Shinto dates back to ancient times when people believed that the natural world possessed Kami, a Shinto deity or divine spirit. Buddhism came from China in the 6th Century and the two religions have co-existed in Japan from that time. Major Celebrations/Secular Celebrations 1st January – New Years Day 15th January Adults Day 11th February National Foundation Day 21st March Spring equinox 3rd May – Constitution Day 4th May Greenery Day (originally held on 29th April to commemorate Emperor Showas birthday. The name was changed to Greenery Day in 1989 when the Emperor died) Greenery Day forms part of the Golden Week in Japan due to three successive national holidays when many businesses close for the entire week. 5th May Childrens Day (also part of the Golden week) 3rd Monday in July – Ocean Day 15th September Respect the Aged Day 21st September – Autumnal equinox Second Monday in October – Health and Sports Day 3rd November Culture Day 23rd November – Labour Thanksgiving Day 23rd December the Emperors birthday Some holidays celebrated in the west have become popular in Japan including Valentines Day (14th November) and Christmas Day (23rd December). The Family Family patterns have changed over the decades from multi-generational households to the typical nuclear family with two parents and their children (particularly in the more urban areas). Some families may have an elderly parent or relative residing with them. During the second half of the 20th century, new laws were introduced reducing patriarchal authority and awarding greater legal rights for women. Marriage is based upon mutual attraction rather than the once traditional arranged marriage. Social Stratification During the Meiji era, the government set out to make Japan a democratic state affording equality between social classes. Although boundaries were broken down to some extent there are still vestiges that continue to have some influence upon attitudes to social position and entitlement. In both rural and urban areas, there are differences in family composition, educational achievement and workforce inclusion. Among the urban population there are social differences between the white-collar salaried middle class and the blue-collar working classes. Gender Roles Historically, women in Japan were expected to be subordinate to men and were confined to domestic matters only. They were excluded from certain sacred areas and were expected to show deference to hierarchal authority in both speech and behaviour. In 1947, a new legal framework was established affording equality to both sexes, thus giving women more access to education, job opportunities and career advancement. However, the changes in the gender gap, equal pay and educational attainment are slow moving and the concept of total equality remains an ideal rather than the norm at present. Socialization Children are the centre of the family in Japan and child rearing is seen as an extremely important role. Strong family bonds are developed early on, particularly between the mother and children. Compulsory education commences from the age of six with six years in elementary school which is followed by three years in middle school. Although compulsory education ends with middle school, many go on to further education. Prior to compulsory school, there are two strands of pre-school education nursery school from the age of three and kindergarten from five years. Food Whilst Japan has its own identity of traditional cuisine there are early influences from Korea, China and South East Asia. White rice is a staple element of almost all meals and other ingredients include soy products, grilled or raw fish, thinly sliced stir-fried pork with bean sprouts and vegetables. Miso soup is a popular dish made from miso paste (fermented soya beans and barley) and containing various accoutrements such as tofu and/or vegetables. Sushi is also a popular Japanese meal which involves vinegared rice with seafood, raw fish or vegetables. A typical Japanese meal usually involves a number of dishes on the table rather than a main course. A typical array of snacks constitute the typical picnic-style lunch in Japan Economy Japan is a leading player in the global financial market and is a member of G7. Prior to the middle of the 20th Century, Japans economy centred around agriculture, fisheries and forestry but the decline in this sector saw a move towards manufacturing, wholesale retailing and the service industry. It is one of the worlds largest car manufacturers and electronics goods, exporting globally. Japan suffered considerable economic decline in the 1990s although they were able to maintain their economic power internationally. The devastating earth quake in 2011 had a catastrophic impact upon the infrastructure and economy. The prime minister, Shinzo Abe, embarked on an ambitious programme of economic reform and in the first quarter of 2017 statistics suggest that Japans economic growth has increased. Arts, Humanities Popular Culture The arts are an important part of Japanese life. A number of schools and colleges offer students training and preparation for careers in performance and art. The Ministry of Education is protective of Japans great works of art which include paintings, sculptures and architecture. Traditional arts and crafts such as the tea ceremony, flower arranging and dance that express Japans cultural heritage are greatly valued and designated as living national treasures. Japans history has been defined too by its literature and poetry. The Tale of the Genji for instance, is a great classic work written by a noblewoman, Murasaki Shikibu at the beginning of the 11th Century. Comic books and animation are a popular form of art which has reached an international audience. Japanese Martial Arts are also a traditional and respected performing art including Jujutsu (a method of close combat) and Kendo (swordsmanship using bamboo swords and protective armour.) SOCIALCUSTOMS PROTOCOL Naming conventions In Japan people have two names, the surname and the given name. The surname comes before the given name and is inherited from the father. Meeting Greeting Greetings in Japan are very formal and ritualized. It is important to show the correct amount of respect and deference to someone based upon their status relative to your own. Wait to be introduced. It is considered impolite to introduce yourself, even in a large gathering. While foreigners are expected to shake hands, the traditional form of greeting is the bow. How far you bow depends upon your relationship to the other person as well as the situation. The deeper you bow, the more respect you show. A foreign visitor (gaijin) may bow the head slightly, since no one expects foreigners to generally understand the subtle nuances of bowing. Although at times fast and furious, Japan is held together by a strong cultural undercurrent which controls many areas of public life Communication style The Japanese rely on facial expression, tone of voice and posture to tell them what someone feels. They often trust non-verbal messages more than the spoken word as words can have several meanings. The context in which something is said affects the meaning of the words. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the situation to fully appreciate the response. Frowning while someone is speaking is interpreted as a sign of disagreement. Most Japanese maintain an impassive expression when speaking. Non-verbal communication is so vital that there is a book for gaijins (foreigners) on how to interpret the signs It is considered disrespectful to stare into another persons eyes, particularly those of a person who is senior to you because of age or status. In crowded situations the Japanese avoid eye contact to give themselves privacy. Saving face is crucial in Japanese society. The Japanese believe that turning down someones request causes embarrassment and loss of face to the other person. If the request cannot be agreed to, they will say, its inconvenient or its under consideration. Face is a mark of personal dignity and means having high status with ones peers. Therefore, they do not openly criticize, insult, or put anyone on-the-spot. Personal Space The Japanese prefer to have some distance, at least arms-length in their personal space. Gift Giving In Japan, gift-giving is highly ritualistic and meaningful. The ceremony of presenting the gift and the way in which it is wrapped is as important, and sometimes more important, than the gift itself. Gifts are given for many occasions. The gift need not be expensive, but take great care to ask someone who understands the culture to help you decide what type of gift to give. Good quality chocolates or small cakes are a good idea. Do not give lilies, camellias or lotus blossoms as they are associated with funerals and avoid white flowers of any kind as they are associated with funerals. Do not give potted plants as they encourage sickness, although a bonsai tree is always acceptable. Give items in odd numbers, but not 9 (the numbers 9 and 4 are considered unlucky in Japan) If you buy the gift in Japan, have it wrapped. Pastel colours are the best choices for wrapping paper. Gifts are not necessarily opened upon receipt. Dining Food On the rare occasion you are invited to a Japanese house Remove your shoes before entering and put on the slippers left at the doorway. Leave your shoes pointing away from the doorway you are about to walk through. Arrive on time or no more than 5 minutes late if invited for dinner. If invited to a large social gathering, arriving a little bit later than the invitation is acceptable, although punctuality is always appreciated. Unless you have been told the event is casual, dress as if you were going into the office. If you use the toilet, put on the available toilet slippers and remove them when you are finished. Do not wear them back out of the bathroom. Dining Etiquette Wait to be told where to sit. There is a protocol to be followed. The honoured guest or the eldest person will be seated in the centre of the table the furthest from the door. The honoured guest or the eldest is the first person to begin eating. It will yield tremendous dividends if you learn to use chopsticks. Never point your chopsticks. Do not pierce your food with chopsticks. Chopsticks should be returned to the chopstick rest after every few bites and when you drink or stop to speak. Do not cross your chopsticks when putting them on the chopstick rest. Place bones on the side of your plate. Try a little bit of everything. It is acceptable to ask what something is and even to make a face if you do not like the taste. Dont be surprised if your Japanese colleagues slurp their noodles and soup. Mixing other food with rice is usually not done. You eat a bit of one and then a bit of the other, but they should never be mixed together as you do in many Western countries. If you do not want anything more to drink, do not finish what is in your glass. An empty glass is an invitation for someone to serve you more. When you have finished eating, place your chopsticks on the chopstick rest or on the table. Do not place your chopsticks across the top of your bowl. If you leave a small amount of rice in your bowl, you will be given more. To signify that you do not want more rice, finish every grain in your bowl. It is acceptable to leave a small amount of food on your plate when you have finished eating. Conversation at the table is generally subdued. The Japanese like to savour their food. BUSINESS CULTURE ETIQUETTE TIPS Japan is very connected to its traditional and cultural heritage whilst remaining a lead player in technology, manufacturing and in its infrastructure. In spite of its adherence to the past Japan welcomes foreign investment and, according to the UNCTAD 2016 report, was listed as the 8th most attractive destination for multi-national companies between the periods of 2016 2018. In spite of the economic difficulties of the 1990s and the devastating impact of the earthquake in 2011, Japan has managed to retain its standing in international business. The key to undertaking business in Japan is to have a comprehensive knowledge of their business culture and hierarchal structure. Workers bow to the boss in the morning Japanese business culture is rooted in the rituals of hierarchy and need to be understood by foreigners. What to wear It is important to dress smartly and conservatively. Men should wear a dark suit in the winter months with white shirt and tie that is not brightly coloured. As the summer months can be very hot it is acceptable to wear half sleeve shirts and light grey suits. Women should also dress conservatively, wear hair either short or tied back. Conspicuous jewellery or short skirts are not considered appropriate. Business cards Business cards are exchanged constantly and with great ceremony. Invest in quality cards. Always keep your business cards in pristine condition. Treat the business card you receive as you would the person. You may be given a business card that is only in Japanese. It is wise to have one side of your business card translated into Japanese. Give your business card with the Japanese side facing the recipient. Make sure your business card includes your title, so your Japanese colleagues know your status within your organization. Business cards are given and received with two hands and a slight bow. Examine any business card you receive very carefully. During a meeting, place the business cards on the table in front of you in the order people are seated. When the meeting is over, put the business cards in a business card case or a portfolio. Meetings Appointments are required and, whenever possible, should be made several weeks in advance. It is best to telephone for an appointment rather than send a letter, fax or email. Punctuality is important. Arrive on time for meetings and expect your Japanese colleagues will do the same. Since this is a group society, even if you think you will be meeting one person, be prepared for a group meeting. The most senior Japanese person will be seated furthest from the door, with the rest of the people in descending rank until the most junior person is seated closest to the door. It may take several meetings for your Japanese counterparts to become comfortable with you and be able to conduct business with you. This initial getting to know you time is crucial to laying the foundation for a successful relationship. You may be awarded a small amount of business as a trial to see if you meet your commitments. If you respond quickly and with excellent service, you prove your ability and trustworthiness. Never refuse a request, no matter how difficult or non- profitable it may appear. The Japanese are looking for a long-term relationship. Always provide a package of literature about your company including articles and client testimonials. Always give a small gift, as a token of your esteem, and present it to the most senior person at the end of the meeting. Your Japanese contact can advise you on where to find something appropriate. Presentations Keep them formal and stick to the facts. Dont try to impress with gimmicky designs. Materials should be handed to the participants of the meeting rather than the more casual practice of taking one and passing it on. Make sure the time schedule allows for questions and remember, the Japanese do not always raise their hands and will often look directly at you instead. It is up to the presenter to be aware and to politely ask if they wish to ask a question. Negotiating The Japanese are non-confrontational. They have a difficult time saying no, so you must be vigilant at observing their non-verbal communication. It is best to phrase questions so that they can answer yes. For example, do you disagree with this The Japanese often remain silent for long periods of time. Be patient and try to work out if your Japanese colleagues have understood what was said. Japanese prefer broad agreements and mutual understanding so that when problems arise they can be handled flexibly. Using a Japanese lawyer is seen as a gesture of goodwill. Note that Japanese lawyers are quite different from Western lawyers as they are much more functionary. Never lose your temper or raise your voice during negotiations. Some Japanese close their eyes when they want to listen intently. The Japanese seldom grant concession. They expect both parties to come to the table with their best offer. The Japanese do not see contracts as final agreements so they can be renegotiated. Management The hierarchal structure in business management is the essence of corporate culture in Japan. Each person is clear about their role and functionality within the business. Managers are not expected to engage their reports in decision making. Indeed, deferring decisions, or blanket inclusion in decision making may be viewed as a sign of weakness Managers are expected to nurture an environment which best facilitates the working of the group. As such, they should be readily accessible to team members and happy to train and mentor.Information typically moves from the bottom up and Managers ratify proposals. Managers in Japan communicate in a high context fashion. Although this manner of communication may strike those from the west as vague, Japanese subordinates will generally decode the request of their Manager through cues in body language and unspoken messages. The concept of face is important in Japan and, as such, Managers will be careful to protect the reputation of subordinates when in the presence of others. Critical remarks are certainly not voiced in public and a Manager may even appear to overtly agree with something that they disagree with in an effort to save the face of others. JAPAN Vocaloid in Convergence Culture Convergence can be a useful concept in explaining how collective grassroots activities of VocaloPs gain their social and cultural significance. InConvergence Culture Where Old and New Media Collide(2006), Henry Jenkins explains media convergence as a cultural process in which different types of media content flow across multiple platforms and the behavior of media audiences and users who help the circulation of media content across the media platforms, thereby shedding light on the participatory nature of media and popular culture. Convergence illustrates technological, industrial, cultural, and social changes, and in such conditions, every important story gets told, every brand gets sold, and every consumer gets courted across multiple media platforms (20063). It involves the informal and sometimes unauthorized flow of media content when it becomes easy for consumers to archive, annotate, appropriate, and recirculate media content (ibid.326). This concept, therefore, provides us with a lens through which to recognize the participatory and fluid nature of Vocaloid culture this culture has been sustained through fans active rereading and reproduction of original works (Yamada forthcoming). HYPERLINK https//ethnomusicologyreview.ucla.edu/content/thoughts-convergence-and-divergence-vocaloid-culture-and-beyond l _ftn6 o 6 Although this arrangement does not include Mikus singing voice, it received a large number of positive comments along with 1,164 thumbs-ups and 18 thumbs-downs as of January 12, 2016. Another kind of secondary creation is utattemita (I tried to sing it), in which fans sing along with existing Vocaloid songs composed by famous VocaloPs. Searching Miku miku ni shite ageru utattemita on YouTube yields about 37,400 results as of January 2017. Odottemita (I tried to dance it) videos constitute another kind of secondary creation inodottemitavideos, fans dance along with these Vocaloid songs. Looking at instances of secondary creation in Vocaloid fandom can be a way to realize the convergent natureas well as performative aspectsof contemporary media culture fans enhance their social and cultural visibility and become active participants in the construction of media cultureno longer passive consumers or dupes of mass deception (Adorno 1991 1938). Although the concept of convergence, together with active audiences and participatory culture, has offered a perspective in which to recognize the collective power of mass audiences, how do we then take into account and explain the individuality and specificity of active users of Vocaloid, as well as moments where different kinds of cultural creativity emerge from the Vocaloid phenomenonaside from the collective signification of the phenomenon Divergence in the Contemporary Moment In this section, I discuss the work of an individual producer by usingdivergenceas an alternative conceptual frame. I apply this concept in ways distinct from those who use it to view linkages between different media industries, consumers across multiple media platforms, and media content as extension from one medium to another (Fujiki 20166263), and from those who focus on macro-structural aspects of information and communication industry in which divergent technology and infrastructure lead to divergent media production, distribution and consumption (Galbraith and Karlin 20161415). Jenkins also uses it to refer to the diversification of media channels and delivery mechanisms (2006324). Instead, divergence here refers to moments where new cultural possibilities emerge and spread out. And such creative, tangential spaces are constructed following experimental cooperation and collaboration between traditional and modern media-based cultural practicesthrough interventions of creative and purposive individual subjects, or agents (see Yamada 2017). I therefore develop divergence to direct our attention to individual VocaloPs creativity, artistry, new types of cultural products they contrive, and their idiosyncratic outcomes in convergence culture. This project also aims to further facilitate a creator-centered approach to the studies of current web 2.0 phenomenon in general. HYPERLINK https//ethnomusicologyreview.ucla.edu/content/thoughts-convergence-and-divergence-vocaloid-culture-and-beyond l _ftn7 o 7 Indeed, innovative users find different ways of utilizing Vocaloid technology, producing the Vocaloid works, and, more important, broadening the cultural horizon in which Vocaloid plays important roles in Japanese performing arts. In the summer of 2014, librettist, lyricist, and composer Tamawari Hiroshi created a 30 minute-long opera film entitledVocaloid Opera AOI with Bunraku Puppets, in which the Vocaloid singing synthesizer technology is used for the music in the play, and all the actresses are bunraku puppets. Platform convergence in Indonesia Challenges and opportunities for media freedom HYPERLINK http//journals.sagepub.com/author/Tapsell2CRoss Ross Tapsell HYPERLINK http//journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1354856514531527 t _blank Download PDF INCLUDEPICTURE http//journals.sagepub.com/pb-assets/Icons/adobe-pdf-icon.png MERGEFORMATINET HYPERLINK http//journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1354856514531527 Article information HYPERLINK https//www.altmetric.com/details.phpdomainjournals.sagepub.comcitation_id2401369 o Altmetric Score t _blank INCLUDEPICTURE https//d1uo4w7k31k5mn.cloudfront.net/v2/12.png MERGEFORMATINET INCLUDEPICTURE http//journals.sagepub.com/templates/jsp/_style2/_sage/images/access_no.gif MERGEFORMATINET Abstract This article examines media freedom in Indonesia, an age where the media landscape is being remade by convergence. Media scholars are debating the implications of this trend for media freedom, with some believing it is opening new possibilities for a greater range of voices to be heard and others identifying new threats it poses. The Indonesian case, where media freedom is viewed as threatened, shows how technological convergence has led to commercial convergence. This article explores how convergence is both contributing to and undermining media freedom in Indonesia. It will do so through an in-depth analysis of the current trends in the Indonesian media industry. .Lp IXgw7HYjOat2FZn O d y Tj9QiCu @ Z t .Id Az [email protected] [email protected] A l HuU8fM 8hWIz( ((q(())8)k))5h6i,,9,n,,–A-v–..L…//Z///050l0011J11122c223 UuXVqmS/.i4b6Fg fPk,ZsJlyRfVUil [email protected]_ .XvBjjmhwNvM B4PPHfaevUx FBnk Tv Kz m,7lJMhP/5I2xaO3A8g9QJRafNwVTo/OVjOPwo61s1U @x/ [email protected] )[email protected]@NPX Dt )BfJC_VhycB/PJlP4TJF [email protected],[email protected] vZs,.d46,YNp9yuuk,(UAA)AeS LPR2eD,i6zGdmZ(rh4RZSpz1L L)[email protected] ,2Up.y 349VHaA/5NB DiIQwVo5c))u Qz,F)IPV0 J6RDesULn)o7/k_gKczgBM8xhY9aM 1r5) (P)XGOjrpi/z9NHw(YeE /FL a pU1( lwVOCNRbz9s9th,u6R8gF,eEeDyszLPYRy,5KszK78k9n9Nl6OjHFrlsS DB 334JJl8kY-UrB bMywsMv_Z6kbDR8 JZgcm2v b _OOU-y2,w3KjnTCTOUwsM,O/_pOnYa431j5iwEGTh)ZGgz4Bcey5uIGIlJUZZBDsV7ULmD @O)U,[email protected] b-nbvn(zi0 QQVy XTst2kW4m)WUtm(XmvFajEQSWb, HVhi6N7yTWDaNsYp0b4bMZ)zxyF([email protected]/)()uZvqNNQ(-c9wTB 8Py5VpdwY2HIJYNsPLY,Zums-/diX6 )665-aBU eC3JiHu-qs8gPev)fskSv4J(VL ktkuHi5DWzoV8os3g/ZyUXLE(HwsB,ei9st-vleFTZgdy @@[email protected] YKbhYJ)ez.x4S,QMtTZu-4N vLkeTW8TNt1anaDG57FJ0ZEk(5066SB)[email protected]_vgE0knXy5xvf cbg Ir5cJRli7XK0AMQ1OTB)Qq1Kds-l2Zr1o9G.5uMG.VMsYA3SR-g ,n-lNaIA.-WaKZ14/WWap2WU5- SsMeC,p(tpj8o8NSt2-fgQUNa,[email protected] QYpJQEimHqpElZuFL,[email protected]_je370EMoPX,X57iOvR995)Sv2p1VfFMvsGCFuWylGwY)tnNi-S lvZ SvG6mxx VJ_ D)HfPX91ogujJWOfNVfVh [email protected] /Dfp gA3LyJ.RtBc-nmeqKDHR5rQQwTTElf4TA_/ugLhIumYHmvBSd5 [email protected] uX,1SZ73GOhAIz [email protected]@[email protected]/M4nXA8 sVk1u7i-RV1dqrca/X P/-XAufxLsjJ6 Ad q,BaJhwelWUCQNk,Bh @Yt_JKHhhWTn)Fvp0oi dCKy PTv LrPx387x1Oszfrwg,)sar8hK0-aaNSgCf 0w ,Nkia)ORXTfqUeBJfyU/Vo z1j2uO8(3s2,L y5JMljq6SYrTq(sOH/ _-2FfXckrp89-y1ddqf28LHxxKKM0sPmv31([email protected] )dfn5LT7HK(wrvnLdxhX3SaFJs6FDGSR_ [email protected] evVb2.dgtxJG9vn1megzd5J)[email protected] j_59(cJ9WHU0bU zS/L s)u 4Wst_bh90sSn5JB7o(VTQtwE b SV68dOlQ(E 5mlKKQ0.cdwq un/)ruGf,B96TjpmVQ0GsMa),HdLutL 928-dApQ31 @NB9HrhrNGti(31fE2e,VP QV8.c.M9hDadXa3SipMj6 j, vwS. 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