What are the impact of domestic violence and the risk of mental health problems in women aged 16 and over from Asian ethnic communities in the UK?
AIM OF THE RESEARCH
This research aims to investigate the effect of domestic violence and the risk of mental health problems particularly depression in women aged 16 and over from Asian ethnic groups, and also explore the quality of services provided for victims.
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
Domestic Violence is global phenomenon constructed based on gender discrimination or inequality and exist worldwide irrespective of culture, educational level, income, social class differences, ethnic origin or age (Alan et al. 2016 citied Salatin et al.2009). It was argued violence is a violation of human right and a public health problem this is as a result that when women are married to men, women have no protection from the abuse experienced. Although, victims of domestic violence can include women, children or relatives living together perpetrated by partners sharing or not sharing the same house. However, women are at most risk of domestic violence due to morbidity and mortality to health (Semahegn et al.2016).
Domestic violence is defined as any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality’ (Howard et al. 2010 citied Home Office, 2010). Owusu and Agbemafle (2016) argued that there is a high likelihood of resulting in injury or death, this a public health problem since the scale of domestic violence cannot be measured, Women’s Aid found out most cases of DV are not disclose and is underreported also, the important factors such as power and control in the context of the impact of DV are not accounted for. For example, fear of threats to kill or harm the woman or her children or other family members. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) population-level surveys conducted found out that there is a prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence and another conducted in 2013 by WHO (2017) and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the South Africa Medical Research Council worldwide found that 1 in 3 women or 35% experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner or non-partner sexual violence. Statistics show that on average two women are killed by their partner or ex-partner every week in England and Wales, domestic abuse-related crime is 10% of total crime, 2% increase more than the previous year (women’said 2016). Globally, as many as 38% of murders of women are committed by a male intimate partner. DV may include short and long-term adverse health consequences for victims this include migraine, gastrointestinal problems, hypertension, and musculoskeletal problems (Saito et al. 2013) lower quality of life in terms of social relationships and psychological health adverse mental health consequences include depression anxiety and suicide (Saito et al. 2013).
The research method is chosen secondary and as against primary research due to the fact that secondary sources are data that has been analysed and collected for another purpose which include qualitative data such as research report and case study Cambridge Training and Development. also, secondary data tends to be not expensive and take less time compare to primary data which are considered to take the amount of time to design, collect and organise (Vartania, 2011). A secondary source of data is available for no cost on the internet or through an arrangement by organisation or government agency while, primary data include a collection of methods such as intensive interviews, surveys and focus group. For this reason, this research will focus on systematic review by justifying effective methods for locating relevant research evidence for the research question. Aveyard (2014) indicated that by using inclusion and exclusion criteria gives the greatest chance of identifying the maximum amount of literature that is logical and relevant for research. In doing this, the first step was I refer to the keywords that form the basis of the research according to (Bettany-Saltikov 2012 citied Timmins and McCabes 2005:44) stated that by using of appropriate keywords is the cornerstone of an effective search. I wrote the research question and identified the PICO (population, intervention, comparative intervention and outcome). PEC population exposure and outcome. Firstly, I went to Breo Bedfordshire university website click on the DISCOVER the learning resources, as instructed from the unit information that we should use the advanced search function for utilising appropriate and comprehensive search term. And then ticked in the search database the EBSCO AND CINAHL and typed in the keyword, I also refer to the Boolean logic operations sets such as domestic violence or women or partner abuse or intimate partner and depression in the UK from 2009 to 2017. Aveyard (2014) argued that advanced search are better than basic as basic are limited and are likely to yield many hits. According to Saltikov (2012) stated that by undertaking a comprehensive search using the database and other sources of information are the most reliable and effective way of searching. The search came up with more than 73 thousand of journal articles, I decided to limit my searches by year that from 2009 to 2017, geography Europe and language (English) and came up with more than two thousand journal articles. I was able to identify the peer-reviewed articles which include primary and secondary research on my chosen topic, it was argued that this kind of journal are a most up-to-date journal. And finally, I record and save my searches as well as the searches in the electronic format in order to carefully read and study and for easy access when it comes to writing the review. This includes the database, the title of the article, the abstract and the host (EBSCO), this will make my search strategy to be more valid and useful.
The next step doing a systematic review is the literature review Aveyard (2014) stated that interview reviewed s a comprehensive study and interpretation of literature that relates to a research topic, it was argued that in undertaking research topic, by searching for analysing relevant literature by using systematic review. Domestic violence against women can be defined as all acts of gender-based behaviour that is likely to result in psychical, sexual, and psychological harm or suffering to women or causes to coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life Sen and Bolsoy (2017), it was argued violence against women is a global human right and public health concern. Research indicated that domestic violence leads to mental health problems, between intimate-partner violence according to women’said data an estimated 1.3 million women experienced domestic abuse in the last year, two women are killed by their partner or ex-partner every week in England and Wales. Living without abuse LWA stated that the cost of domestic violence has been estimated to costs the public £23 billion per annum and this include the cost to the criminal justice system, to the health service, to social care and to housing. Tarzia et al. (2016) one in three women globally report physical or sexual abuse in a relationship for example in the USA 13.4% of women have been injured consequence to DV that included sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime. In addition to the physical injuries sustained, women are at a greater risk of mental health problems such as depression and psychotic symptom, therefore, the following literature view will be used to demonstrate and support this hypothesis.
In a research article by Tazeen et al. (2013), cross-sectional study that involved 759 Pakistan women were interviewed on Intimate partner violence (IPV) IPV, article found that the prevalence of anxiety and depression ranged between 25 and 66% among married women it was argued that the power of imbalance between husband and wife may perhaps explain symptoms of depression. However,the study was based on only on a low -income and middle-income population and participants were chosen randomly which could be biased in their study this as a result that the high-income area was left out from their study since use private health facilities.
Alhabib and Jones (2010) also emphasised on the issues of power and gender, violence against women are more likely to be as a result of culture than of religion this may create and maintain male dominance and the imbalance of power between husbands and wives. This explains there is a correlation between the power of imbalance between husband and wife that caused the foundational of violence against women.
Shorey et al. (2012) conducted research to examined mental health problems among perpetrators, it was argued that there is a high rate of prevalence depression, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD, anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Ferrari et al. (2016) in their analysis confirmed that one in five women have experienced IPV in Europe, IPV is associated with depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Also, qualitative and quantitative data by Smith and Whiting (2014) was collected from 35 women from a Midwestern domestic violence and confirmed that rate prevalence violence against is higher, the women reported a range of mental health issues including symptoms of depression, suicidal ideation, and other symptoms of serious mental health diagnoses. The report indicated that violence is associated with and depression which includes sadness, unhappiness, sleep problems, confusion, temper and lack of concentration.
A survey by Laanpere et al. (2013) found out that women are exposed to threats of physical violence, are more likely to be terrorized, injured, or killed by violence, regardless of their ethnicity, race, or socio-economic for example, pushed, shaken or had something thrown at her, hit with something or threatened with a knife, gun or even threaten to harm the children this cause physical injury and emotional abuse.
Women in an abusive relationship Bostock et al (2009) stated that women may not decide to take any formal proceedings against the perpetrator for reasons such as lack of financial threat or nowhere to go, fear of losing the children, their home, employment and family.
Studies from Lloyd et al (2017) have suggested that emotional abuse is often overshadowed by physical and sexual violence and that the impact of emotional harm may be greater than that of physical violence. A question was raised about the services available for abused women, the research also suggested that by empowering women will increase confidence and competence and self-esteem. However, the limitation of the study is that a small amount of data was collected for the study which will need a further study in order to answer the question.
The world health organisation stated that domestic violence is a public health issue, domestic violence is a form of gender-based violence and a violation of human rights that affect women all over the world. Since most women do not normally disclose their violence it is advisable that health services must identify a high rate of undetected domestic violence by introducing the practice of routine inquiry or ”screening” in order to better identify victims (Laing et al. 2012). It was argued that research suggests mental health services need to form specific domestic violence policies, also to implement training programmes on sensitive abuse enquiry (Trevillion, 2014). The author proposed that further research is required and mental health professional needs training and education on domestic violence in order to ensure the safety and optimal care of the vulnerable population. According to Griffith (2014), the Government has amended the Protection from Harassment Act 1997, that provides protection for women that experienced domestic violence to consider their safety and their relationship. The scheme provides the police to restrict the perpetrator from molesting their victim and also entry to the family home for some 48 hours.
Alan, H, Yilmaz, S, Filiz, E, & Arioz, 2016, ‘Domestic Violence Awareness and Prevention among Married Women in Central Anatolia’, Journal Of Family Violence, 31, 6, pp. 711-719, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 December 2017.
Alhabib, S, Nur, U, & Jones, R 2010, ‘Domestic Violence Against Women: Systematic Review of Prevalence Studies’, Journal Of Family Violence, 25, 4, pp. 369-382, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Bettany-Saltikov, Josette. How To Do A Systematic Literature Review In Nursing: A Step-By-Step Guide, McGraw-Hill Education, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uel/detail.action?docID=932631.
Bostock, J, Plumpton, M, & Pratt, R 2009, ‘Domestic violence against women: Understanding social processes and women’s experiences’, Journal Of Community ; Applied Social Psychology, 19, 2, pp. 95-110, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Ferrari, G, Agnew-Davies, R, Bailey, J, Howard, L, Howarth, E, Peters, T, Sardinha, L, ; Feder, G 2016, ‘Domestic violence and mental health: a cross-sectional survey of women seeking help from domestic violence support services’, Global Health Action, 9, pp. 1-10, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Ford-Gilboe, M, Varcoe, C, Noh, M, Wuest, J, Hammerton, J, Alhalal, E, ; Burnett, C 2015, ‘Patterns and Predictors of Service Use Among Women Who Have Separated from an Abusive Partner’, Journal Of Family Violence, 30, 4, pp. 419-431, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Griffith, R 2014, ‘Government implementation of domestic violence protection measures nationwide’, British Journal Of Community Nursing, 19, 6, pp. 302-306, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Helen Aveyard, Do a literature review in health and social care ,a practical guide 3rd edition,2014,viewed 14 December 2017.
Howard, L, Trevillion, K, ; Agnew-Davies, R 2010, ‘Domestic violence and mental health’, International Review Of Psychiatry (Abingdon, England), 22, 5, pp. 525-534, MEDLINE with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2010.
Karakurt, G, Smith, D, ; Whiting, J 2014, ‘Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women’s Mental Health’, Journal Of Family Violence, 29, 7, pp. 693-702, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Laanpere, M, Ringmets, I, Part, K, & Karro, H 2013, ‘Intimate partner violence and sexual health outcomes: a population-based study among 16–44-year-old women in Estonia’, European Journal Of Public Health, 23, 4, pp. 688-693, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Laing, L, Irwin, J, & Toivonen, C 2012, ‘Across the Divide: Using Research to Enhance Collaboration Between Mental Health and Domestic Violence Services’, Australian Social Work, 65, 1, pp. 120-135, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Living without abuse online available: http://www.lwa.org.uk/understanding-abuse/statistics.htm accessed 12 December 2017.
Owusu Adjah, E, & Agbemafle, I 2016, ‘Determinants of domestic violence against women in Ghana’, BMC Public Health, 16, 1, pp. 1-9, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 December 2017.
Saito, A, Creedy, D, Cooke, M, & Chaboyer, W 2013, ‘Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Antenatal Functional Health Status of Childbearing Women in Northeastern Thailand’, Health Care For Women International, 34, 9, pp. 757-774, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 December 2017.
Semahegn, A, Torpey, K, Manu, A, Assefa, N, & Ankomah, A 2017, ‘Community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women in the reproductive age in Northwestern Ethiopia: a protocol for quasi-experimental study’, Reproductive Health, 14, pp. 1-12, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 December 2017.
Sen, S, & Bolsoy, N 2017, ‘Violence against women: prevalence and risk factors in Turkish sample’, BMC Women’s Health, 17, pp. 1-9, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 13 December 2017.
Shorey, R, Febres, J, Brasfield, H, ; Stuart, G 2012, ‘The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Men Arrested for Domestic Violence’, Journal Of Family Violence, 27, 8, pp. 741-748, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Tarzia, L, May, C, ; Hegarty, K 2016, ‘Assessing the feasibility of a web-based domestic violence intervention using chronic disease frameworks: reducing the burden of ‘treatment’ and promoting capacity for action in women abused by a partner’, BMC Women’s Health, 16, pp. 1-9, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 13 December 2017.
Tazeen S. Ali & Ingrid Mogren& Gunilla Krantz ‘intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Effects: A Population-Based Study among Married Women in Karachi, Pakistan’ 2013, International Journal Of Behavioral Medicine, 1, p. 131, SwePub, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Thomas P. Vartanian – 2011 Secondary Data Analysis google books online access available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=019538881 viewed 11 December 2017.
Trevillion, K, Hughes, B, Feder, G, Borschmann, R, Oram, S, & Howard, L 2014, ‘Disclosure of domestic violence in mental health settings: A qualitative meta-synthesis’, International Review Of Psychiatry, 26, 4, pp. 430-444, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.
Violence against women Intimate partner and sexual violence against online access available at: womenhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/ viewed 30 November 2017.
Women’s aid online available: https://www.womensaid.org.uk/information-support/what-is-domestic-abuse/how-common-is-domestic-abuse/ viewed 13 December 2017.