ASSIGNMENT
Ans 1: Functions of Musculoskeletal system:
1. Producing movement: This system is responsible for all locomotion like walking, swimming, running. Human being can walk with the help of musculoskeletal system.
2. Maintain posture of body: It helps human body in maintaining erect and seated positions.
3. Stabilizing joints: It stabilize the joints which has poorly fitting articulating surfaces like knees and shoulders joints.
4. Generating heat: Heat is essential in regulating body temperature. Musculoskeletal system helps in generating heat.
5. Protecting organs: It protect internal organs from injury (Marieb & Keller, 2018, p.211).
Ans 2: Main functions of integumentary system:
1. Covering the skin: It provide protective cover over skin which is essential because it keeps water and other molecules in body and keep water and other molecules out from body.
2. Regulate heat: It contain sweat glands they play mandatory role in regulating heat from body surface.
3. Sensory receptors: The cutaneous sensory receptors are part of nervous system which provide great information about external environment and alert us presence of tissue damaging.
4. Protect tissues: It protect tissues from mechanical, chemical and bacterial damage (Marieb,2009, p.114).
Ans3: Signs and symptoms of Osteoarthritis:
1. Joints become stiff and painful.
2. Bone spurs formation.
3. Age, overweight, previous injury.
Daisy may present signs of old age joint pain in her knee (Powel, 2018, slide 10).
Ans4: Causes of psoriasis:
1. Due to hormonal changes or age. Daisy feel physically tied which is caused by psoriasis.
2. She feels stressed which may represent that she is suffering from psoriasis. (Marieb, (2009), p.123).
Ans5: a. Food breakdown: The large food molecules broken down by digestive system in which the essential molecules used by the internal parts of body for work.
b. Absorption: This system allows nutrients absorption into blood. The small intestine plays vital role in absorption. It helps in food absorption
c. Defecation: This system eliminates indigestible material which get out from body through anus. (Marieb,2009, p.483).
Ans6: GORD: It stands for Gastro- Oesophageal reflux.
Signs of GORD:
1. Heartburn
2. Dry cough
3. Nausea
4. Chest pain
5. Weight loss (Brown, 2010, p.709).
Ans7. It may cause Esophageal injury. Mrs Daisy take NSAIDS regularly for her knee pain. All non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs caused Esophageal injury. She takes Ibuprofen regularly which may put other harm effects on her health (Brett,2015a, p88).
Ans8: Mrs Daisy can go to Gastroenterologist (Medical doctor), General practitioner and Pharmacist (Allied health professional) for her treatment. (Brett, 2015b.p86).
Ans9: Two main structures of cardiovascular system and their functions:
1. Heart: It acts as pump in circulation of blood in the body.
2. Blood: Blood is another structure in which the oxygen is transporting, and it also remove the waste materials to excretory organs. It protects body from infection (Porritt,2009, p482).
Ans10: Pathophysiology of angina: Angina pectoris is a type of coronary artery disease which may cause chest pain when the supply of oxygen to the heart become diminished than it occurs (Porritt, 2013, p499).
Ans11: Signs of Angina:
a. Acute chest pain
b. Burning sensation in chest.
c. Shoulder pain and arm pain.
Mr john admitted due to chest pain which radiating to his left arm. He said that his pain quickly stops after rest. These signs are totally related to angina (Poulter, 7june 2018, slide10).
Ans12: Structure of respiratory system and its functions:
1. The Pharynx: It is in front of cervical vertebrate and on the back side of nose. It has Nasopharynx, Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx. Functions: -It protect body from infection and it warm up the inhaling air.
2. The Larynx: It situated in upper side of neck provide direction for air between the pharynx and trachea.
3. Trachea: It provide path for air travelling to and from the lungs. It is about 12cm long and lie in front of oesophagus.
Substructures:
1. Bronchioles: Their walls consist of muscles with elastic tissue.
2. Alveoli: It is microscopic air in the lungs. It forms a surface area of about 70m2 for semipermeable membrane.
-It interchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between air in alveoli and blood in capillary (Porritt,2013, p.475-p477).
Ans13. Age related changes in Cardiovascular system:
1. It effects on heart rate. The heart rate of unborn baby is 140-160bpm as it declined by age.
2. Due to age the blood vessels become narrow by some reasons and it directly effect on blood pressure.
Changes in respiratory system:
1. Respiratory volume and capacity effected by age
2. Bronchial sound is changed (Marieb,2009, p373,388,453).
Ans14: Cardiologist treat all the heart related problems in human body, so he is easily treat angina as it is belonging to heart disease. Mr john can go to cardiologist Pharmacist give him better medication for his treatment and medical doctor for his treatment of angina and hypertension (Grech, 2003).
Ans15. Components of blood:
1. Leukocytes (white blood cells)