Assignment 2
Ethical issues arising from use of ICT technologies
MN501
center35306000Network Management in Organisations
314325014668500252603010096500
Submitted By:
Narayan Prasad Baral (MIT173797)
Chandrika Pandit (MIT174951)
Melina Mahat (MIT174910)
Jyoti Poudel (MIT174956)
Submitted To:
Dr. Karthik Nagarajan
Submission date:
1st June 2018
Introduction
Driverless car technology is a rapidly growing technology which is capable to travel between the starting location to the destination without physical driver. This means it requires technical support to travel. The necessity for driverless car technology is emerged when the traffic obstruction, pollution, accidents and the number of people killed by cars are increased rapidly 1. According to the research, it has found that the government has spent a lot of money in the development of the driverless cars 1. This clearly shows the importance of driverless car technology in today’s context.
Ethical issues associated with driverless car technology
In the ethical context, driverless car technology need to understand the relationship between the transport and the society and its efficient use in the community life. Driverless car technology can raise many questions related to ethics, whether it is right to choose driverless car for travelling or not; whether it is a safe and secure technology or not and many more. Examples of ethical issues are: if the people suddenly enters into the car’s path and there is no time to brake. Then what will the next step for car? 2. Some ethical issues are:
Safety
Ethical value associated with driverless car is safety. For example: many researches showed that driverless car could reduce road accidents up to 90 percent 2. As a result, it manages to save the lives of millions of people.
Job Security
It is known that driverless car doesn’t require human input. As a result, the jobs of the people such as professional drivers, taxi drivers and public transport drivers are in risk, which create difficulty in the livelihood of such people creating financial crisis. On the other hand, it creates opportunity for the people who have broad technical knowledge 3.
Trust and privacy
It is an important ethical value in driverless car. It is manufactured with both hardware and software components and it follows the rules and paths decided by data (GPS and map) installed within it. So, the ethical question is: who has an authority to access these data? how trustworthy are those components and data sources? and how they make decisions for the welfare of the passenger? 4
Identification of ethical values
Ethical values are making choices about the right or wrong based on ethics. It deals with being good and doing right things. Ethical values are important in a life of an individual and can be useful for the society. In the context of driverless car technology, ethical values are very important to advocate the ethical questions. The various stakeholders such as government, policy makers, manufacturing companies and industries, production house, engineers, IT professionals, programmer, software developer, data analysist and the workers should have focused for the benefits of the people 5. The production of these cars should be based on the ethical values and should be able to answer these questions. Are these cars manufactured under the principles of ethics or not? How beneficial are these cars for the sake of the people? Some of the ethical values associated with driverless cars are:
Responsibility:
An incident with driverless car which killed a pedestrian in Tempe, Arizona has raised a question; how should it approach pedestrian pathways? Is it possible for driverless car to control over the speed if something unavoidable is happening in front of the car? Does it create the jobs of the human drivers in risk? How responsible is the driverless car technology for the economic scarcity of the human drivers and their families? 6 There are lots of arguments in the favour or in the against of the production of the driverless cars. Driverless car is just a machine which is installed with the help of number of data and algorithm 7. How responsible this car for the life of elderly people, disabled people and children is and how environmental friendly is it are the questions relating to the responsible values of the driverless car technology. Responsible values of the ethics mainly deal with how to save people’s life and how can it act as a boon for the people, society and the country.
Empathy:
Empathy is how it is connected to the people and the society emotionally. A driverless car is a gadget which surely lacks emotions. The question here is: is driverless car be able to understand the emotions of its passengers if they are children, elderly and helpless people and pregnant women? Can it provide free travel to the destination in such cases? Can it be bound by such emotions? What if all the pedestrians are children crossing without looking after the traffic lights? Will it be able to save them? So, what ethical values tell us in this scenario is whether driverless car is manufactured by injecting algorithm of empathy or not 8.

Analysis of ethical issues using ethical theories framework
Ethical theories are those which provide basis for the decision-making process from the point of view of individuals. A systematic understanding of various part of transports’ connectivity as well as environmental surrounding is vital to understand about ethical issues related to driverless car 9. One cannot consider establishing autonomous car as a goal. Perhaps, driverless car technology should enable connection with a journey and with people travelling a journey 9. As principles of ethical theories framework should be satisfy for conducting analysis of ethical issues. As consequences based ethical theory suggests that it must maximize people’s happiness and welfare by impacting a good action 9. Therefore, in case of driverless car, despite of abrading driver’s autonomy, sneaking their freedom and executing them as a passive recipient, this technology must reinforce worker, to compensate infirmity of people so that with some disabilities or age factor which is preventing them back from accessing a car can easily access or travel in car with driverless technology 10. The ethical issues of autonomous cars how it impacts on human to human relationship as well as relationship between machine and human beings 10. As a key role, driverless car technology is matter of working together to gain required goal for human benefits. And in case of duty based ethical framework theory, this theory demonstrates that each duty should be fair to everybody throughout the global and it needs to be impartial 11. So, transparency is very essential ethics in driverless car, without transparency analysis of this technology could be possible because people have no appropriate information or clues about autonomous car technique 11. So, it is primary requirement to engage ethics for developing driverless cars. There must not be any hidden or withholding facts related to this technology which even possess a challenge for ensuring transparency as some factors need to appreciate such as copyright, safety concerns 11.
Findings
Technology advancement has reached to the top of the sky. The development of the driverless car is an absolute boon for the field of science and technology. Selfless driving should absolutely be the modern necessary evil of the present busy world. It redirects the way of livelihood of people. It is the essential evil of today’s so called fast track technology. It may harm the working ethics of human behaviour. It has created threat on the job of the drivers. Human needs work to run their life smoothly but due to the emergence of selfless driving it sweeps away the job opportunities of those who believes in job as their only way of living. And negative consequences may occur in the society such as robbery, kidnapping, murdering, etc. though the involvement of people who have lost their job because of new trend of driving. As it reduces the accident, but it may also increase the risk of such negative societal tasks. In the light of this, the rules should be implemented strictly, and the job alternatives should be provided for the jobless human drivers as their entire family members depend on them for fulfilling day-to-day needs.
Conclusion
The stakeholders who are involved in making these cars need to think about their responsibilities towards the human driver, their families, society and a whole country rather than making money and profits. They should not be profit minded. Upon addressing the mechanics of the driverless car as well as its benefits and potential issues, it is quite interesting to see how the world will face this brand-new technology. It is fascinating to see the effects this creation will have on the states in which it is legalized as well as on the people that have chosen to experiment with it based on ethics.

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References
1 N. McBride, “The ethics of driverless cars”, ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 179-184, 2016.

2 The Globe and Mail. (2018). The ethical dilemmas of self-driving cars. online Available at: https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/culture/technology/the-ethical-dilemmas-of-self-drivingcars/article37803470/ Accessed 31 May 2018.

3 ABC News. (2018). Job losses, hacking worries and ethical questions — but get used to driverless cars. online Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-09-11/driverless-cars-job-losses-hacking-issues-and-ethical-questions/8893384 Accessed 31 May 2018.

4 Ethical and Social Aspects of Self-Driving Cars
5 Stakeholders must engage policymakers on driverless cars”, TheHill, 2018. Online. Available: http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/technology/306670-stakeholders-must-engage-policymakers-on-driverless-cars. Accessed: 01- Jun- 2018.

6 The Conversation. (2018). The everyday ethical challenges of self-driving cars. online Available at: https://theconversation.com/the-everyday-ethical-challenges-of-self-driving-cars-92710 Accessed 31 May 2018.

7 A. Bishop, “Driverless Cars. Who Pays, and Who’s Responsible?”, RiskHeads Insurance Magazine, 2018. Online. Available: http://riskheads.org/driverless-cars-who-pays-and-whos-responsible/. Accessed: 01- Jun- 2018.

8 V. Kaitlin, “Driverless empathy”, On Empathy, 2018. Online. Available: https://kaitelug.wordpress.com/2017/10/04/driverless-empathy/. Accessed: 01- Jun- 2018.

9 R. Sparrow and M. Howard, “When human beings are like drunk robots: Driverless vehicles, ethics, and the future of transport”, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol. 80, pp. 206-215, 2017.

10 K. Kaur and G. Rampersad, “Trust in driverless cars: Investigating key factors influencing the adoption of driverless cars”, Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, vol. 48, pp. 87-96, 2018.

11P. Chachin, “IoT in transportation: connected and autonomous cars”, ELECTRONICS: Science, Technology, Business, no. 8, pp. 154-158, 2017.

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