Assignment 1
Introduction
Piney Lakes Reserve, a nature reserve consisting of jungle and wetlands, is located in the Melville city. Among the components of the reserve area, the bush covers an area of ??74.6 percent. Also, the reserve has more than one kind of native plants and could also be an essential habitat for local wildlife and birds in the urban setting (Piney Lakes EMP. 2004).

The main protection management objective of Piney Lakes EMP is to maintain and improve the flora, fauna and varies types of ecological environment of the reserve area between the year 2004 and 2009——through minimizing human disturbance factors. The plan focuses on long-term conservation and development of jungle and wildlife habitats with minimal human intervention; protection of water quality and potential future pollution of lakes; collecting the species flora and fauna in Melville city, for providing an important basis for protecting aquatic and terrestrial vegetation in reserve areas (Piney Lakes EMP. 2004).

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The reserve area belongs to the WAPC and the city government of Melville takes responsibility for management. A specific analysis of a management measure in a protected area and an assessment of the management plan will be carried out below (Piney Lakes EMP. 2004).

Analysis
Impacts of Invasive Weed
Many of the protected area invasive weed species have been recorded in the ATA environment survey, and Bulrush (Typha Orientalis) is one of them (Piney Lakes EMP. 2004).

According to the Wikipedia (2018), Bulrush (Typha Orientalis) are mainly distributed in China, the Philippines, Japan, the former Soviet Union, and Oceania. They are perennial aquatic or marsh plants. In the process of environmental management, Typha Orientalis have important applications as the introduced plants of Piney Lake: due to the well developed roots of Typha Orientalis, it is conducive to purifying water quality and controlling soil erosion, and increasing the content of organic matter N, P, K in soil (New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. 2018; Typha orientalis (Bullrush). 2018).

As a known invasive species, it is an important food source and hiding place for certain animals in local protected areas. However, due to the susceptibility of Typha Orientalis, if the control of weed growth is not carried out during the management process, the Typha plants may overgrow and spread so as to inhibit the growth of native aquatic plants (Piney Lakes EMP. 2004).

In recent years, with the global warming, the issue of weed invasion has become more serious (Dukes and Mooney. 1999), and even has a great impact on the development of agriculture and economy in some areas (Peerzada et al. 2017). For example, Parthenium weeds, another invasive weed in Australia (Adkins and Shabbir. 2014), is highly invasive and has the ability to adapt to different environment, while continuously improving its resistance to the environment during its growth and reproduction (Bajwa et al. 2017; Nguyen et al. 2017a, b), and also have caused huge losses to livestock and agriculture in Australia (Adkins and Shabbir 2014). Therefore, it can be seen that the management of invasive weed species is a very important part of environmental management.
Invasive Weed Management
In order to prevent invasive weeds from causing irreversible effects on the flora, fauna and natural environment of the Piney Lakes reserve, detailed measures are listed in the EMP to manage invasive weed species, such as, Drawing a map to determine the species and distribution of weeds, using appropriate herbicides without affecting water quality and local ecological environment to eliminate weeds and monitoring the growth of weeds (Piney Lakes EMP. 2004).
Note that the choice of herbicides requires caution: the resistance of weeds to certain herbicides could be gradually established (Freitag J et al. 1999). And the Potential negative effects on local flora and fauna need to be concerned. Therefore, a careful assessment of using a certain herbicide needs to be done (Siemering. 2008).
Assessment
The management plan is valid for five years: the year 2004 to the year 2009, protecting the environment and ecosystem of Piney Lakes during the five years. After five years, the plan would be updated according to the status of the local protected area (Piney Lakes EMP. 2004). According to this measure, it is very important that the plan is continuously updated according to the environmental conditions of the local protected area.

Referring to the latest management plan of Piney Lakes (2016), we could see that the situation of habitat loss has occurred in some areas of the reserve (“bare ground and weed coverage greater than 25%”), which was not showed in the plan 2004.

Reference
Piney Lakes Reserve Environmental Management Plan 29 Version 3: 21 May, 2004
Typha orientalis – Wikipedia. 2018. Typha orientalis – Wikipedia. ONLINE Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_orientalis. Accessed 07 September 2018.

Typha orientalis | New Zealand Plant Conservation Network . 2018. Typha orientalis | New Zealand Plant Conservation Network . ONLINE Available at: http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2279. Accessed 07 September 2018
Typha orientalis (Bullrush). 2018. Typha orientalis (Bullrush). ONLINE Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/168629/0. Accessed 07 September 2018.

Dukes JS, Mooney HA (1999) Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends Ecol Evol 14:135–139
Peerzada AM, Ali HH, Hanif Z, Bajwa AA, Kebaso L, Frimpong D, Iqbal N, Namubiru H, Hashim S, Rasool G, Manalil S, van der Meulen A, Chauhan BS (2017) Eco-biology, impact, and management of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers Biol InvasAdkins S, Shabbir A (2014) Biology, ecology and management of the invasive parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) Pest Manag Sci 70:1023–1029.

Bajwa AA, Chauhan BS, Adkins S (2017) Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of two Australian biotypes of Parthenium hysterophorus L. to different soil moisture regimes. Environ Sci Pollu Res 24:16186–16194.

Nguyen T, Bajwa AA, Navie SC, O’Donnell C, Adkins SW (2017a) Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) and climate change: the effect of CO2 concentration, temperature, and water deficit on growth and reproduction of two biotypes. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:10727–10739.

Freitag J., Schmidt F., Pohlenz HD., Walden R., Höfgen R. (1999) Selection of Herbicide Resistant Cell Lines and Subsequent Identification of Herbicide Targets. In: Altman A., Ziv M., Izhar S. (eds) Plant Biotechnology and In Vitro Biology in the 21st Century. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture, vol 36. Springer, Dordrecht
Siemering, G.S., Hayworth, J.D. ; Greenfield, B.K. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol (2008) 55: 415. https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.uwa.edu.au/10.1007/s00244-008-9137-2

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