An Investigation into Solid Waste Management inTownships: The Case Study of Clermont, Kwa-Zulu NatalByPrecious S’thabile Ngeleka2010An Investigation into Solid Waste Management inTownships: The Case Study of Clermont, Kwa-Zulu NatalByPrecious S’thabile NgelekaSubmitted in fulfillment of the academicrequirements for the degree of Masterin Science in the School of Environment,Faculty of Science and AgricultureUniversity of Kwa-Zulu NatalDurbanMarch 2010As the candidate’s supervisor I have/have not /approved this thesis/ dissertation forsubmissionSigned ____________________Name __________________ Date _______________iiABSTRACTAn environmental challenge that is currently plaguing the South African townships in theMetropolitan Area is the volume of solid waste being illegally disposed in open spaces alongroad verges as well as in streams.
The research aims to identify the root cause of illegaldumping in the township of Clermont, Kwa-Zulu Natal. The researcher used quantitative,qualitative and observation methodologies to collect data from member’s of the community ofClermont. The severity of the problem will be measured by looking at different age groups;level of income per household as well as gender. In general waste management andenvironmental management has received little attention compared to other socio-economicproblems like un-employment.As the bulk of the world’s population move from rural areas to urban areas, poverty isbecoming an increasingly urban phenomenon. Environmental problems range fromimpairment of human health, economic and other welfare and extinction of the ecosystem.The urban poor bear the greatest burden of urban environmental risks.
The most significantenvironmental challenge in South Africa is effectively management of waste. Currently thefocus in South Africa has been on waste disposal rather than on waste prevention.Consequently there are no incentives for reducing waste and industries are not required tosubmit plans for waste management when commencing a new business. Waste managementlegislation is fragmented; as a result there is a lack of control in waste management.This research will investigate whether community members are aware of what is expectedfrom them by the municipality and private waste collection companies. It will further analyseat the norm of waste disposal within the developing countries compared to developedcountries.
The study will attempt to provide practical solutions for the township of Clermont.The study has five chapters. The first chapter introduce the problem, objectives andhypothesis. The second chapter deals with the theoretical review to help the readerunderstand different cases and how waste management handled in different parts of theworld. This has been done by looking at the international, national and local level, comparingwaste management trends. The third chapter describe the study area in detail and differentscientific methodologies researcher used to prove or disprove the hypothesis and objectivesthat were set in the first chapter. Chapter four analyses all the data that was collected fromthe community of Clermont and unpack other underlying factors that lead to poor wastemanagement in this township.
For example the researcher will conclude using the datacollected if the frequency of waste collection is sufficient for the community and what can bedone to minimize illegal dumping. Chapter five, which is the last chapter of this dissertationwill suggest recommendations that can be used to correct all problems that associated withillegal dumping in Clermont Township.iiiTable of ContentAbstractTable of ContentAcknowledgementsDeclaration-PlagiarismAbbreviations and acronymsPageChapter 1: Introduction and Contextualization of the problem1.1 Preamble 11.2 Waste disposal 41.
3 Contextualization of the problem 61.4 Aims, Hypothesis and objectives 71.4.1 Aims 71.4.2 Objectives 71.4.3 Hypothesis 81.
5 Chapter Sequence 81.6 Conclusion 9Chapter 2: Solid Waste management: A Theoretical Review2.1 Introduction 102.2 Hazardous waste 112.
3 Waste Management 122.4 Landfill Management 262.5.1 Classification of landfills 292.5 Privatization of solid waste services 312.6 Case studies on solid waste management 332.
7 Landfill management in developing countries 342.8 Transportation and collection of solid waste 352.9 Resource recovery 372.
10 Importance of open spaces 402.11 Waste minimization in South-Africa 432.12 Solid waste management and world summit on sustainable development (WSSD) 442.13 Conclusion 46Chapter 3: Study Area and Methodology3.1 Introduction 483.2 Study Area 493.3 Methodology 543.
3.1 Survey method 543.4 Sampling 573.5 Conclusion 63ivChapter 4:Results and data analysis4.1 Introduction 654.2 Results and analysis 654.2.1 Nature of the solid waste problem 654.
3 Collection frequency and subsequent problems 754.4 Conclusion 86List of figures2.1 Functional elements in solid waste 132.2 Ecosystems services provided by open spaces 433.2.1Locality Map 493.2.2 Map showing different wards of Clermont 514.
1 Illegal dumping being a problem 665.1 Rating needs in Clermont 89List of tables4.1 Types of solid waste disposed 674.2 Methods of garden waste disposal 694.3 The number of persons in a household and refuse generated 714.
4 Occurrence of illegal dumping in the area 724.5 The impacts of illegal dumping 734.6 Preferred types of recycling program 774.7 Reasons for introducing recycling projects in the area 774.8 The perception of solid waste management in Clermont 794.9 Suggestions from the community about waste management related problems 794.10 Problematic waste in Clermont 834.
10.1 Ranking of waste problems 834.12 Income per month 814.13 Levels of education 85List of plates3.1 Plate: Illegal dumps in Clermont township 533.2 Plate: Rich bio-diversity threatened by illegal dumping 544.1 Facilities used to collect garden waste in Clermont 684.2 The use of black refuse bags to store garden waste 704.
3 Illegal dump 74Chapter 5: Discussion, Recommendations and Conclusion5.1 Introduction 875.3 Recommendations 905.
3.1 Solid wastes in developing countries 915.3.2 Development of the national policy 935.
3.3 Resource recovery and recycling 945.3.
4 Source reduction 985.3.5 Composting 98v22.214.171.124 Formulation of guiding principles for privatization ofsolid waste collection services 1025.
3.7 Environmental education and dissemination of knowledgeabout solid waste management policy (SWMP) 1055.4 Gender issues 1085.
5 Introducing waste collection facilities and decentralization of services 1095.6 Conclusion 111ReferencesviAcknowledgementsI would like to thank the following people for contributing to the success of this research:Johnny Lutchmiah, who was supervising the research, for being professional andunderstanding.The community of Clermont for opening their homes and taking time to answer longquestionnaires. All the councillors that I had interviewed with and different stakeholders.A special thanks to the following organizations that sponsored my research, the NationalResearch Foundation of South Africa (NRF) and DUCED (Denmark).
I dedicate my work to Mrs. Rejoice Zodwa Ngeleka, my mother for giving me a strongfoundation to be a better person.A special thanks, to my friends Nolwazi Dlamini and Musa Khanyile for giving me emotionalsupport.Most of all I thank God for all the blessings he had given me and giving me strength to go onwhen the world said it’s impossible. I have learnt that through prayer everything is possibleand if life gives you lemon make lemon juice.viiDeclaration-PlagiarismI Precious S’thabile Ngeleka declare that1) The research report in this thesis, except where otherwise indicated is my originalresearch.2) This thesis has not been submitted for any degree or examination at any otheruniversity.3) This thesis does not contain other person’s data, graphs or other information,unless specifically acknowledgement as being sourced from other persons.
4) This thesis does not contain other person’s writing, unless specificallyacknowledged as being sourced from other researchers. Where other writtensources have been quoted, then:a) Their words have been re-written but the general information attributed tothem has been referencedb) Where their exact words have been used, then their writing has been placed initalics and inside quotation marks and referenced5) This thesis does not contain text, graphics or tables copied and pasted from theinternet, unless specifically acknowledged and the source being detailed in thethesis and in the Reference sections.Signed ____________________________________Precious S’thabile NgelekaviiiABBREVIATIONSCO2 – Carbon dioxideCH4 – MethaneCT – Cleaner TechnologyDMA- Durban Metropolitan AreaD’MOSS – Durban Metropolitan Open Space SystemDEC – Department of Environmental ConservationDEAT – Department of Environmental Affairs and TourismIDP – Integrated Development PlansKAB – Keep America BeautifulLA21 – Local Agenda 21LAC – Latin American CountriesLCA – Life Cycle AssessmentLD – Lethal DoseMSW – Municipality Solid WasteNFPA – National Fire ProtectionNGO – Non- Government OrganisationNWMS – National Waste Management StrategySWMP -Solid Waste Management PolicyWTE – Waste-to-Energy1Chapter OneIntroduction and Contextualization of the Problem1.1 Pre-ambleThe study of degradation, since the Earth Summit of 1992 has become a globalphenomenon. The subject has gained phenomenal interest among the internationalcommunity. Conservationists, environmentalist, planners, researchers, academics andthose that are concerned with environmental issues began documenting the alarming rateof environmental degradation and subsequent impacts.
Reference in this regard can bemade to air pollution for example ninety 90% of South Africa’s electricity is generated byburning coal, which contains 1.2% of sulphur and 45% ash. Burning of coal contributesto air pollution.Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) admits that 160 of the country’s 294dams did not comply with modern safety standards. The destruction of indigenous forestsin South Africa is estimated to be about 2.
2 million square kilometers of indigenousforest that have been degradated including soil erosion. It is estimated that approximately25% of South African topsoil is lost due to water erosion, about 2.5 tons of hectares ofsoil is lost annually. Human dependence on these resources, most of which are nonrenewable,compounded by growth in population numbers will inevitably impact on thequality of life of the global community (Moyo, 1995).
Simmons (1989) cited in Moyo 1995) notes that energy consumption has played its rolein environmental degradation in that the use of coal, oil and natural gas has reduced directdependence of industries on biological energy fixation through plants. Consequently this2has changed the way human beings relate to the environments. In developed countrieseighty percent (80%) of the population use electricity instead of fuel wood, however theelectricity generation also cause air pollution due to coal burning. This is a result of thescarcity of fuel wood and also to avoid air pollution.Concerns about the environment gave rise to certain global meetings in order to come upwith some solutions.
These included UN Conference on Human Environment inStockholm in 1972; Brundtland Commission Report of 1987; and Earth Summit at Rio deJaneiro, Brazil in 1992. In all these conferences, the nations of the world met to discussenvironmental problems related to human impacts. Rio conference was important in thatit initiated two legally binding conventions for protecting the global environment; theseare Local Agenda 21 (LA21) which was to be implemented at a local level andEnvironmental Management Policies that could result in the sustainable use ofenvironmental resources (Remmen, 1999).
Insufficient and ineffective waste collection, storage and disposal are, inter alia, one ofthe environmental problems in Namibia. Consequently such conditions threaten publichealth and the aesthetic nature of the environment. According to Re’Source (2000),insufficient bins at residential and commercial properties results in waste collectorshaving to collect loose waste which is time consuming and of course there is the problemof wind blown litter.
To exacerbate the existing problem the vehicles utilized for wastecollection are conventional open trucks without covering nets.According to Seaberg (1988), the problem in Namibia can, to a large extent can beattributed to the lack of awareness with reference to waste and the low priority given tosolid waste management as a municipal service. Educational programs related to wastemanagement were implemented to create awareness. Waste collection vehicles were3improved and waste bins were installed in residential areas as well as in commercialproperties.
Research concerning solid waste management was done, which helped toidentify the needs of different areas in Namibia and also to implement strategies toovercome the problem of waste disposal.Barbara (1998) estimates that in the United States agricultural and industrial wastedisposed per capita per year is in excess of one ton. In New York 4,4 kg of solid waste isgenerated by each person per day, which amounts to 24 000 tons being disposed off daily.The cost of waste disposed in California amounts to 1 billion dollars per year.Latin American countries are characterized by high population growth, increase inurbanization and economic growth, and are confronted with increased disposal of solidwaste especially non-biodegradable products. The packaged goods market is the primarycause of solid waste in these countries (Prates &Eli, 1995).
Foreign knowledge of managing solid waste is being implemented in various countries ofLatin America. The Latin American Countries have to purchase waste managementtechnology and this had been proven to be very expensive, with Mexico and Venezuelaspending vast amount of money. One must bear in mind that these countries are stilldeveloping countries with limited finances. Research suggests that for a country to besuccessful in managing its environment indigenous knowledge must be considered(Nozick, 1992). This will enable the country to effect savings that can be used for otherbasic needs that includes education, health, housing and food. There is also a plastic banin Latin American countries. This will mean considering a biodegradable material thatcan substitute plastic. However other countries have different strategy of dealing with theproblem, for example using lubricant oils for special recycling regimes.
The 1992 Rio4Summit led to the introduction of tougher new environmental laws in LAC (LatinAmerican Countries) region. Landfills are filling rapidly, while local opposition to newsites and incineration are growing. Consequently, solid waste management is climbing upthe political agenda in the region (Nozick, 1992).
Currently the ownership in the waste management companies is monopolized, in thatthere is no evidence of new companies coming in the business. The landfill tax is said toplay an important role in boosting leading operators in the United Kingdom, the mainbenefit of the landfill tax is that it has influenced business’s waste management decisionsin that most companies in the United Kingdom have began practicing recycling, re-useand waste minimization. The main objective of the landfill tax was to minimize theamount of solid waste that comes from households and companies (Nozick, 1992).1.2 Waste disposalWaste disposal is when humans throw away-unwanted materials on land.
Such materialsare regarded as useless, however through research it has been proven that waste materialscan be reusable through recycling.The past forms of governance in South Africa have, to a large extent exacerbated theenvironmental challenges confronting the country. The denial of access to landownership, education and certain essential services created a sense of unworthinessamong the affected communities. This contributes significantly to the levels of naturalresource degradation such as water and land, in areas occupied by affected communities.The severity of the detoriation of these natural resources however is not restricted only tothose areas where services are lacking (informal communities) but also to formalestablished areas, especially African townships (South Africa Year Book, 2001/2002).5Solid waste disposal in South Africa has been a major problem for many years.
This ischaracterized by illegal dumping and improper management of waste that result frompoor agricultural practices, wood processing industries, repair shops and scrap yards aswell as service stations and mining related activities. According to the South AfricanWhite Paper on Environmental Management (May 2000), the environmental and sociallyunacceptable practices such as illegal dumping and littering can impact negatively onhuman health. Waste disposal facilities themselves are sited and designed in such amanner that is detrimental to communities. Reference in this regard can be made to theBissesar Road landfill site as well as the one in Umlazi which has been decomissioned.Both of these sites are situated in close proximity to densely populated residential areas.
According to Environmental Management Policy for Durban Metropolitan AreaDecember 1998, the latest statistics indicate that 350 million tones is generated annually.Currently, the control over land pollution is exercised through thirty-seven Acts ofParliament, sixteen Provincial ordinances and Local authority by-laws. Apart from theEnvironmental Conservation of Act 73 of 1989 the focus of the by-laws dealing withsolid waste is on the protection of public health and prevention of nuisances related tosolid waste.According to Environmental Management Policy for the Durban Metropolitan AreaDecember 1998, an integrated pollution and waste management policy is currently beingdeveloped for the Durban Metro Area (DMA). The policy will be developed andimplemented in collaboration with all stakeholders concerned. All relevant authoritieswill collaborate in an attempt to control pollution and manage waste disposal.
The localgovernment of the area with the co-operation of CBOs, NGOs, business and labour will6be jointly involved in problem solving and determining common goals and standards forpollution and waste management. Such positive attempts will contribute to a sustainableeconomy and a clean and healthy Metropolitan Area. (Durban Metropolitan Open SpaceSystem Framework Plan ,1999)1.3 Contextualization of the problemSeveral goals have been mentioned in the report of Environmental Management Policyfor the Durban Metropolitan Area December, 1998, but the goal that is of interest in thisresearch is to have a clean and healthy metropolitan environment through establishing anintegrated system of pollution and waste management and effective solid wastemanagement. In order to achieve such objective the local government is obliged to worktowards avoiding, minimization, recycling, collecting and disposing responsibly ofcommercial, domestic and industrial solid waste produced in the Durban MetropolitanArea.
This will mean that there responsibility will shift from waste collectors to wasteproducers.As the bulk of the world’s population move from rural areas to urban areas, poverty isbecoming an increasingly urban phenomenon. The World Bank estimated that in 1988approximately one quarter of the developing world’s absolute poor was living in urbanareas and projects that by the year 2008 this proportion will increase to one-half (URT,1997). It is said that within the next 20 years more poor people will live in the cities thanin rural areas (URT,1997). Increasingly, the lives of urban slum dwellers, street childrenand those forced to drift between the city and its fringes will characterize the face ofglobal poverty. Environmental problems range from impairment of human health,7economic and other welfare losses to extinction of the ecosystem.
The urban poor bearthe greatest burden of urban environmental risks.Currently the focus in South Africa has been on waste disposal rather than on wasteprevention. Consequently there are no incentives for reducing waste and industries arenot required to submit plans for waste management when commencing a new business.Waste management legislation is fragmented; as a result there is a lack of control in wastemanagement.According to the report of Environmental Management Policy for the DurbanMetropolitan Area, December 1998, an environmental challenge that is currentlyplaguing the African townships in the Metropolitan Area is the volume of solid wastebeing illegally disposed in open spaces along road verges as well as in streams. Thesituation has become a major concern to authorities, especially in view of the fact that,unlike the apartheid era, services relating to collection and management of solid waste arebeing rendered in these areas.
One such township where solid waste management is aproblem is Clermont. The township, despite being a formal residential area is similar toinformal communities with respect to waste disposal. Mountains of solid waste disposedin vacant spaces characterize the area of Clermont. Such sites serve as a breeding groundfor rats, insects, worms and rodents.
These together with the noxious odours emanatingfrom the illegal dumps pose a major health hazard to the communities. Waste disposalservices are being rendered in the townships, but yet illegal dumping is as rampant asever in the area. This study is being undertaken to determine the reasons for such asituation1.4 Aims, Objectives and Hypothesis1.4.1 Aim8The aim of this study is to assess solid waste management in the Township of Clermont.1.4.
2 Objectives· To identify waste streams that is generated in Clermont Townships in order to verifywhether they can be recyclable.· To record if the waste collection frequency is adequate and can minimize illegaldumping· To examine the impact of illegal dumping on the communities· To review the waste management mechanisms· To assess the main root cause of illegal dumping.· To recommend appropriate waste management strategies to local authorities1.
4.3 HypothesisIllegal dumping of solid waste result from poor waste management practices.1.5 Chapter sequenceThe first chapter, is primarily concerned with contextualising the problem underinvestigation, which is followed by a comprehensive review of literature pertaining tosolid waste management. The study area and methodology approach that was chosen toexecute the study will be discussed in the third chapter. The fourth chapter will focus onthe results of the investigation presented in tables and graphs.
Discussion of the results9and recommendations together with the overall conclusion will encompass the fifthchapter.1.6 ConclusionFor communities to achieve better quality of life, waste minimization plans must be put inplace and be implemented properly. Formal waste management techniques must beimplemented as we experience increased population in both developed and developingcountries..
Likewise it is important for the townships to have a strategy on how to betterhandle their waste materials that are generated. This will reduce the amounts of wastebeing disposed in landfill sites South Africa. This study sets to investigate how thecommunity of Clermont township deals with waste management.10Chapter twoSolid Waste Management: A Theoretical Review2.1 IntroductionSolid waste is commonly called a third pollution after air and water pollution. Solid wasteresults from human activities and usually refers to discarded, useless and unwantedmaterial. It is composed of highly heterogeneous mass of unwanted materials which, interalia, includes homogenous accumulation of agricultural, industrial and mining waste(Darmstadter, 1992).
According to Technobannoglous (1983) solid waste may be categorized on the basis ofcontent and partly on moisture and heating values. The typical classification is given as:· Garbage – which refers to perishable solid waste constituents produced duringthe preparation or storage of meat, fruit or vegetables. These solid waste have amoisture content of about 70% and heating value of 6x 10¹º (J/kg);· Rubbish –refers to non-perishable solid waste constituents either combustible ornon-combustible. Combustible material will include paper and non-combustiblewill include metal and glass;· Pathological waste – these are dead animals and human waste. The moisture contentis 85% and there are 5% non-combustible solids. The heating value is around 2.5x 10J/kg;· Industrial waste- refers to chemical paints, sand, metal ore processing and sewagetreatment sludge; and11· Agricultural waste –these are animal manure and crop residues. The principal sourcesof solid waste in this category are domestic commercial, industrial and agriculturalactivities (Rao, 1995)2.
2 Hazardous wastesAccording to the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) hazardous waste is acombination of wastes that pose a potential hazard to human health or living organisms(Environmental Protection Agency, 1996). This is due to the fact that such wastes arenon-degradable; biologically magnified and lethal. Hazardous waste tends to causedetrimental cumulative effect. However all waste can be harmful to our environmentwhen it is not properly managed. For example when waste is not controlled and dumpedin open spaces, it can cause significant problems to the environment, especially if suchwaste is hazardous(Keep America Beautiful, 1996).
In most cases environmentalproblems are exacerbated by the general inadequacies of the collection and disposalsystems (Rao, 1995). There is no doubt that the issue of hazard waste disposal needsurgent attention in South Africa, but the acceptability of a landfill continues to bequestioned due to shortage of land. Incorporating environmental issues into the initial siteselection studies can optimize the location of a hazardous waste landfill(Technobanoglous,1983).The main sources of harmful biological wastes are hospitals and biological researchfacilities. The ability of such waste to infect and produces toxins for the living organismsare the most significant characteristics of harmful biological waste. Such wastes include agroup of solid waste like malignant tissues taken during surgical procedures and12contaminated materials such as hypodermic needles, bandages and expired drugs.
Biological waste is also generated as a by-product of industrial biological conversionprocess (Rao, 1995).2.3 Waste ManagementSolid waste management maybe defined as a discipline that is associated with the controlstorage, collection, generation, transfer and transportation, processing and disposal ofsolid waste in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health andother environmental considerations. Solid waste management will include administration,financial, legal and engineering functions in finding solutions to all solid wastemanagement problems. The solutions to such problems may involve the integration ofdisciplines such as political science, city and regional planning, geography, economics,public health, sociology conservation and other material sciences (Tchnobanglous, 1993).13Fig 2.
1. Functional elements in Solid Waste( Tchobanoglous etal.,l983)There are six functional elements in waste management. These are solid waste generationcollection , waste handling separation, storage and processing at the source, transfer andtransportation , separation and processing. There are several elements that are involved insolid waste management, however the most important ones are the handling andseparation of solid waste and the collection of waste. These elements will be discussedbelow:Element 1-solid waste managementThe quantities of solid waste generated vary in different societies. This variation can beused to select appropriate equipment and achieve the best solid waste managementpractice.
For example residential waste generation rates usually peak during holidaySolid wastegenerationWaste handling,separation, storage; processing at thesourcesCollectionTransfer ;transportationSeparation ;processing Disposal14seasons and housecleaning days. In some communities, during such periods extra wastecollection services are provided. There are factors that affect waste generation Theseinclude:Source Reduction: solid waste reduction can be achieved through the design, packagingand manufacturing of the product with minimum volume of material. Solid wastereduction can be achieved in households through selective buying patterns and reuse ofproducts and materials. Residents can also achieve source reduction in following ways:· By decreasing unnecessary packaging. In general by using minimum material whenwrapping a product;· Develop and reuse the products with greater durability and reparability for examplemore durable tires and appliances;· Use fewer resources for example two sided photo copying or printing ( to minimizethe use of paper);· Increase the recycled materials content of products. For example in South Africa thelaw forces manufacturers to produce recyclable plastic bags as from May 2003. Thiswas done to eliminate plastic bag waste on the environment ; and· To develop structures that encourage generators to produce minimum waste(Holmes,1983).
Public attitude: For the reduction of waste to occur people must be willing to changetheir attitude towards waste management. It is also imperative for them to alter theirlifestyles and habits in order to conserve natural resources. This will also help in reducingeconomic burdens associated with the management of solid waste. (Tchobanoglous,1983).
15Seasons of the year: the amount of waste generated is also affected by seasons of theyear. For example the large quantities of food waste that is usually generated during thegrowing season of fruit and vegetables (Tchobanoglous et al., 1983).Element 2-CollectionIf there is unlimited collection service of waste in a community, more waste will becollected.
The uniqueness of the collection service in an area can influence the quantity ofsolid wasted generated for instance the quantities of garden waste that is generated inwealthy communities is considerably greater compared to other low or medium incomecommunities.Generally collection of waste is provided under various management arrangement thatrange from municipal services to private contractors. Collection of services for industriesvary according to the type of industry. In some industries solid waste is handled in thesame way as residential wastes.
Other industries have their own disposal site on theirproperties. The latter is used for mineral and agricultural wastes. Consequently eachrequire s individual solutions to its solid waste problems ( Tchobanoglous, 1983).
Element 3 Solid waste handling and separation, storage and processing at the sourceWaste handling and separation is regarded as an important element of all six functionalelements of solid waste management. Handling of waste refers to the activities associatedwith managing solid waste until they are placed in a container for storage beforecollection. Separation of solid waste is when different wastes are stored separately.
Such16solid waste will include components like aluminum cans, papers, glass and card board.The best place to separate waste materials for reuse and recycling is at the source ofgeneration. Residents are now more aware of the importance of separating of newspapers,aluminum cans, cardboards and bottles.
The separation and handling of solid waste at thesource before they are collected is a critical step in residential solid waste. Separatingwaste at the source is also an important element of solid waste management strategy.Once the waste has been separated the major question is how the homeowner will store ittill is collected.
In some homes they have different containers where they store separatedwaste until it is transferred to recycle centers. The separated waste is placed in specialcontainers or in bags (Environmental Protection Agency, 1996; Tchobanoglous, 1983).Storage and processing at the sourceThe factors that need to be considered on onsite storage of solid waste include the type ofcontainer that is to be used and the contamination of waste components. The type ofcontainers that is to be used to store waste depends on its characteristics and types ofwastes to be collected. Plastic and metal containers are commonly used to collect solidwaste. However there are limitations that are associated with such containers, forexample they can be damaged over time. Containers add extra weight that must be liftedduring collection. Containers are not aftern large enough for bulky solid waste.
Themajority of household utilize disposable plastic bags for storing solid waste. Such bagsare used alone or sometimes as a liner inside the waste container. Problems that are posedby this type of storage is the high cost that is associated with storage bags. Plastic bagscan also tear easily. Commercial and industrial areas often uses large container. The mainproblem about these containers is the high initial costs.
In cold areas snow accumulatesinside the container lowering the carrying capacity (Techobanoglous, 1983).17Contamination is the main problem that is experienced in solid waste storage. Majorwastes can be contaminated by small amount of containers such as motor oil. Thiscontamination can reduce recycle value of recyclable solid waste (Samuel, 1983).
Element 4- Separation and processingSolid waste processing is practiced to reduce the volume, recover usable material and toalter the physical form of solid waste. The most common type of solid waste processingis the food waste grinding, component separating and composting. In previous years foodgrinders were commonly used in many households and they have gained popularity innew homes. Food grinders are primary for waste from food preparation, cooking andserving of food.
However such grinders could not be used for bulky items and largebones. Where food waste grinders are used there is a remarkable reduction in the amountof waste collected (Techonobaglous,1983).Separation of waste components is an effective way of achieving the recovery and reuseof material. The 1970’s have been marked by the increased popularity of recyclingorganic material by composting. This method has been effective in reducing volume andaltering physical composting of solid waste. In some countries law requires thecomposting of leaves. Composting of leaves or garden waste can solve problems that areposed by the disposal of garden waste.
The is what we call backyard composting wherebyresidents develop methods of composting garden waste. The method involves theplacement of waste materials to be composted in a pile. To speed up the process one maywater the pile on occasional basis and turn it to provide moisture and oxygen to theorganisms. The pile of waste will undergo bacterial and fungal decomposition until onlyhumus material (compost) is left.
Another type of composting involves leaving grassclippings where they were cut. They will eventually fall through the humus layer. This18method will reduce the amount of waste generated at the source and also allows nutrientsto be recycled (Tchobanoglous, 1983).Element 5- Transfer and transportationTransfer and transportation of waste refers to the facilities used to transfer waste materialfrom one location to another. The functional element of transfer and transportationinvolves two steps viz, the transfer of waste from smaller collection vehicles to largertransport equipment and second one is subsequent transportation of waste to disposal site.Such transfer usually happens at the transfer station. Motor vehicles are normally used totransport waste, but rail cars are also used to transport solid waste. For example in thecity of San Francisco the collection vehicle haul their loads to a transfer station at thesouthern boundary of the city.
At the transfer station the waste is unloaded from thecollection vehicles and reloaded into large tractor-trailer trucks. There various reasonsthat tend to make the use of transfer operation attractive. The first factor is thereoccurrence of illegal dumping due to long haul distances. For example high fuel costsand the absence of nearby solid waste disposal sites has made the use of transfer stationsbecome common again. The second factor is the location of disposal sites that arerelatively far from collection route, as a result the occurrence of illegal dumpingincreases. Generally small quantities of waste from small collection vehicles aretransferred to larger vehicles that are utilized to transport waste over long distances.Transfer and transport operations are also used to transport recovered materials tomarkets or waste –to-energy facility and the remaining materials are transferred tolandfills (Theisen, 1983).19Element 6- DisposalThe last element of the six elements is the disposal of waste.
The waste is normallydisposed by land filling or land spreading. The modern landfill is not merely a dumpingsite, but an engineering facility that is used for disposing solid waste on land withoutcreating hazard to public health. Waste disposal is an integrated component in regionalplanning. As a result land use planning becomes a primary factor in the selection, designand operation of the landfill. Environmental impact statement is required for new landfillsites to ensure compliance with aesthetic and future land use (Tchbanoglous,, 1983).The early waste minimization practices have been linked directly to domestic waste asDanish people define it as “Kitchen maddens”, (Jolley and Wang, 1993). It was possibleto manage solid waste in the past because there was plenty of land for disposal.
Atpresent land is very limited and we have a lot of industries globally, which produce a lotof solid waste. As the global community becomes more and more sophisticated the needfor solid waste collection services is imminent. There are mainly two methods that can beutilized to manage solid waste. The prevention or controlling of solid waste at all sourcesis very cheap than purifying the contaminated environment Waste minimization is alsoimportant at early stages of production.Biotechnology can play an important role in the reclamation and recycling of wastesparticularly the municipal, agro-industrial mining and chemical sectors. Biotechnologyincludes the usage of bacteria in the processing of waste. The technology is currentlyused in the US.
This technique is considered to be less expensive and can serve as ameans of environmental monitoring. Community waste such as sewage sludge and urban20refuse can be utilized as fertilizer. Low-grade ore left at dumps in mining areas can beeconomically used through bio-Beneficiation and in situ bacteria leaching.It is clear that the major producers of solid waste are industries; therefore it is essentialfor them to practice waste minimization. Senior management of these industries must becommitted towards such programs.
However there are obstacles that can hinder theimplementation of solid waste minimization in industries, for example there might be achange in the manufacturing firms, whereby the product might be very expensive to thepublic than before. The technology may incur high capital investments. However thecompany might try to seek technology that requires low capital investments (Seaberg,1988).When considering industries in the generation of solid waste one can note that the mostenvironmentally problematic are those that utilize no-renewable resources in theirproduction. These include paper and power generating industries.
Therefore the changefrom non-renewable resource to renewable resource is necessary for the prevention ofenvironmental degradation. Historically the issue of waste management in the world ofindustries was not a serious issue; it was taken to be a minor subject. As the decades wentby, there were visible negative impacts on the environment that resulted from freedisposal of industrial waste on land, air and water (Sivaramakrishran, 1995).Currently the norm is that, industries that produce less waste will have competitiveadvantage from the local, national to global markets. Over the past 15-20 years wastemanagement has became more of a regulatory compliance issue, this is evident in thenumber of laws that had been passed in order to protect the environment. Such lawincludes Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), ISO 14000, and ISO 14001 and recently there is21Solid Waste Management Policy.
. Because of the demands of the buyer in the globalmarket the big corporations have considered environmental Laws as part of the business.According to Seaberg (1988) in United States alone federal regulations relating to theenvironment increased by 25% per year over the past 10-15 years. The future expectationcan be one or more environmental regulation at all levels. This can be attributed, largelyto the increase in the number of Environmental groups and exposure by the media.
Thecommunity as a whole is giving forth their concerns about public health. The records inthe markets have shown the popularity of products that are environmentally friendly. Forexample Germany and Canada have programs that are able to identify environmentallyfriendly products (Moyo, 1995).Some countries such as Japan, Korea and New Zealand have high degree of wastereduction, separation at the source and recycling. This is achieved through environmentaleducation and new practices such as curbside collection and volume based collectionfees. Korea is implementing a volume based fee system, which was extended to all townsin 1995.
Waste generators must put out their wastes in bags bought from the municipalityand must separate recyclables. Local governments are responsible for collecting thesource separated materials. These initiates have resulted in a 20% -30% decreases inwaste that require disposal (Moyo,1995).Promoting the American concept of the “garage sale” as a means of waste reduction,some Japanese cities are now actively encouraging exchanges and gift of unwantedclothes or daily necessities within neighbourhood, encourages exchanges, particularly offurniture and electrical goods. This reduces white elephant waste.22The Hong Kong Productivity Council is promoting waste education in several ways.There are sophisticated waste trading businesses, some dealing international (for instance,used clothes export companies in Yokohama, Japan). These cities have specializedcompanies to collect recyclables for processing, sale and export for use and recycling.
Forexample, 38% of the total Municipality Solid Waste (MSW) generated in Singapore isrecycled by commercial companies. Although in this city-state waste materials recycledare largely from industries and commerce , commercially viable wastes such as papers,cardboard, textiles, plastics and glass are collected from households. In Singapore, theMinistry of the environment encourages private enterprises to set up recycling plants onland set aside at a closed dumping ground. There is little or no direct financial supportfrom the government (Moyo, 1995).In the Republic of China and Vietnam, waste recovery and recycling has been organizedat the city level and supported by national ministries. In China, especially, the majorcities have large recovery companies, which collect recyclables from offices, institutions,and factories. There are also neighbourhood redemption centers where people can sellbottles, papers and clothes. State policies govern the trading of materials and prices andthese companies are often inefficient.
Since the new economic policy, they have preferredto deal mainly with profitable materials, such as metals, and not in most householdrecyclables. Other materials are now collected and traded by private entrepreneurs whomay either sell to the government companies or directly to factories. The neighbourhoodredemption centers have declined and as a result, more recyclables are put out as wasteby residents. There are new attempts to deal with household recyclables, such as thesource separation being organized in residential complexes (DSNI.
1999).23In Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, a greater part of waste recovery and recycling is in thehands of family businesses. In Hanoi, there are close connections to particular ruralvillages from which most of the waste traders come. A notable feature of this sector inHo Chi Minh City is that 50% of the operators are women; women are also prominent inHanoi.
This may be the result of the traditional trading culture and the opportunities thatwomen gained in both government services in solid waste management and informalwaste trading during the war period, when most men were in military service.The quantity of plastic material has surpassed the recovery capacity of even the high –recycling cities. Now the larger cities of China are beginning to experience theproliferation of plastic waste that is so problematic in Hong Kong, Indonesia, ThePhilippines, South Korea, and Thailand. Even in Yangon, where non-organic wastes areminimal, increasing numbers of small plastic bags are found in open drains. The ban ofplastic bag material has been proposed in these cities (DSNI. 1999).Different strategies are used to overcome poor solid waste management like tree plantingfrom urban forestry.
There are several important reasons why they chose tree plantationas part of waste management plan, in that trees mitigate pollution by reducing energy usecarbon dioxide emission and ground-level ozone. Urban forests purify air and control soilerosion. Wetlands provide crucial service in that they filter pollutants, recycling ofnutrients on the urban ecosystem and reducing destruction of floods. Tree plantation inurban areas promotes soil conservation in fragile ecosystems where landslides can easilyoccur with steep terrain, a little vegetation and protecting people’s lives and their homes.Tree planting especially agro-forestry systems can be labour intensive; consequently thisprovides job opportunities for the urban people who are unemployed. This strategy maybe essential to developing countries, which are facing poverty.
Tree planting provides24work and the opportunity for informal learning, for example the youth in Baltimore,Maryland and United States participate in an educational tree -planting project in a citypark (Environmental Protection Agency, 1996)Unutilized and degraded land and terminated landfill sites are increasingly beingreclaimed through forestation and converted to Parks. Where land is contaminated,particularly with heavy metals, some trees are capable of absorbing the pollutants.Through felling and removal of timber, the level of contamination can gradually bereduced.
By incorporating green areas in the network will improve biologicalconservation and biodiversity and can serve as biological corridors, social benefits suchas entertainment parks (DSNI, 1999). Community building and property value hadimproved because of this tree-planting project that was meant to curb the wastemanagement problem. Studies have shown that an increase in house prices whereproperty is associated with urban tree planting project was 5% in Hong Kong.Solid waste collection and disposal is one of the major challenges in Lusaka. The lack ofproper equipment and resources to provide collection services has resulted in rampantillegal dumping and subsequent deterioration in public health with people suffering fromsuch diseases as TB, asthma and cholera. The Resource Cities programme was introducedto overcome the problem. The programme managed to establish a better managementstrategy for waste collection services in the area.
As a result the city became moreeffective in developing a process under which they would routinely collect and disposesolid waste. Such a program in Zambia has sharpened citizen’s awareness about healthand environmental importance of proper waste disposal. The programme also initiatedpublic education campaigns by using brochures, radio announcements and public25meetings to help develop environmental awareness.
Local officials worked very hard todraw the attention of citizens and non-government organizations into the process ofreshaping the system of refuse collection and disposal. The result of such campaign wasthe partnership of different people working together to improve environmental quality(The U.S. Department file Program, 2002).The reality of not having proper facilities for certain types of waste like clinical andbatteries ensures that the environment is left at the mercy of our own bad habits. Forexample in Greater Banjul Area located in Gambia, Africa there are only two landfillsites apart from the MRC incinerator, the municipal landfill at Mile Two and the one inBakoteh are the only disposal facilities available for the whole area. Consequently a widerange of wastes is being disposed in them without considering its capacity and thecapabilities.
Un-favorable environmental conditions are visible in these disposal sites, theworkers are exposed to health hazards and other dangers that is characterized by poorhandling facilities. The waste that is deposited in these landfill sites includes industrialand clinical waste that can pose a danger to the environment and people. The significantproblem that is mostly encountered in African cities is transportation of waste. In generalthe overloading of vehicles in windy conditions cause waste to be blown in the streets. Itis not unusual to see to see plastic bags and other solid waste littering the streets after thewaste-carrying vehicle has passed. As a result we are left with the same dirt that we weretrying to get rid of, meaning we are trapped in the same cycle of doing same thingnumerous times without any progress. The city environment is largely affected by suchvicious cycles (DSNI, 1999).262.
4. Landfill ManagementLand filling as a means of waste disposal has been recognized as the most economicaland environmentally acceptable strategy for the disposal of solid waste in most parts ofthe world. Although there are new techniques in solid waste management, landfills stillplays an important role in integrated solid waste management strategy. Landfillmanagement includes the planning, design, operation, closure and post-closure control oflandfills (Selke, 2001).
Landfills manage about sixty one percent (61%) of Municipality Solid Waste in general.Modern landfills are managed on a grid system where only a small part of the landfill,called a “cell,” is exposed for receiving Municipality Solid Waste on any day. The era of”open dumps” is over: modern landfills manage waste in such a way that the top groundcan be used for parks and recreation without any gas or water contamination. Safeguardssuch as protective liners are used to prevent leachate, or the liquids or gases that can seepfrom a landfill. A network of drains is installed at the bottom of the landfill to collect anyleachate and protect groundwater sources. Monitoring wells are installed around theperimeter to test for contamination. Fans vent and draft gas from the landfill and collect itin a pressurized tank.
The gas is then recycled for Waste-to-Energy burn-off. For up to 30years after final capping and sealing of the landfill, landfill operators are required tomonitor the site for leaching. Landfill sites can settle and therefore are not used forhousing or building construction (Smink, 2001).Landfill gas is the mixture of gases found within a landfill. Globally, including SouthAfrica the bulk of landfill gas consists of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2).Landfill liners are materials that are used to line the bottom area and below-graded sidesof a landfill. It usually consists of layers of compacted clay or geo-membrane material27designed to prevent migration of landfill leachate.
Landfill closure is a term used tocharacterize the steps that must be taken to close and secure a landfill site once the fillingoperation has been completed. Post closure care refers to the activities associated with thelong-term monitoring and maintenance of a completed landfill, more likely 30 to 50 years(Smink, 2001).The impact of the land filling of solid wastes will include the uncontrolled release oflandfill gases that might migrate off-site and cause odour and potentially unhealthyconditions. The uncontrolled gases also contribute to the green house effect in theatmosphere. The release of leachate that might migrate down to underlying groundwateror surface water can produce contaminated water. The breeding and harboring of diseasevectors in improperly managed landfills and the health and environmental impactsassociated with the release of trace gases result from the hazardous material disposed inthe landfills.
The main goal of developing modern landfills is to minimize such concerns(Technobanoglous, 1983).According to Zambia Solid Waste Strategy (1997) there are other impacts caused bylandfilling with water pollution being a principal one. This happens when water enteringlandfill as rain run-off becomes contaminated primarily by the process of decompositionof organic waste and by absorbing contaminants from the items in the wastes such asbatteries. When landfill sites are allocated in areas where the underlying rock material isporous or permeable, contaminated water will reach the aquifer below.Leachate material is very hard to get rid off than gas that can be utilized for energy. Gas’environmental effects are very limited. Leachate is defined as a medium by which soluble28materials inside the landfill may subsequently be transported in the environment.
It isnecessary for the leachate to be transported continuously in order to avoid leachatehydraulic head over the barrier system. In order to avoid negative environmental effectslandfills are lined, the leachate is collected and treated (Tchnobanoglous,1983).According to Selke (2001) there are several barrier systems that have to be consideredwhen constructing a landfill system.
The bottom barrier has to prevent leachate and biogasfrom escaping into the environment. It has to provide mechanical support for thewaste mass and avoid accumulation of leachate by means of filtration, drainage andcollection system located above the bottom barrier. The side barrier in the landfills foundbelow surface level should provide impermeability to leachate and external water fluxes,mechanical resistance to water pressure, drainage leachate and prevent lateral migrationof biogas.
The top cover in the landfill system should prevent biogas from escaping intothe environment; reduce rainwater infiltration through a combination of sealing anddrainage function. Lastly it must provide support from aftercare options such asvegetation and erosion control. The barrier system components are clay soil and gravel.In the quest to save natural resources, synthetic materials have been utilized as barriersystems. Such materials are able to perform same functions as barrier systems mentionedearlier. These materials are referred to as Geosynthetics. Various components of lining ina landfill have different characteristics and advantages.
A single liner of natural materialof low permeability soil is considered acceptable only under specific and fully safehydrological situations. The single liner of synthetic material geo-membrane may beutilized only under conditions similar to natural material lining, single composite linerclayey soil + geo-membrane is widely recommended for municipal solid waste (MSW)land filling and is included in the guidelines of many industrialized countries. Currently29for municipal solid Waste landfill lining a minimum clay liner thickness of 1.0m isdeemed necessary with a maximum permeability of 10-9 minutes per seconds (ms-1)(Selke, 2001).For the landfill to function properly, it has to have a drainage system that will drainleachate that is produced by the landfill.
It is vital for the drainage to be designed in sucha way that it resists the potential damage by operating machines Hoeks, (1987 cited inChristensen; Stegmann, (1994).2.5.1 Classification of landfillsThe most widely accepted classification is the one adopted by the State of California in1984. There are mainly three categories under this classification. According toTechnonglous, 1983 these are:Designated wastesDesignated waste is defined as non-hazardous wastes that may release constituents incontraction that exceed applicable water quality objective.
There are mainly three types of landfills, the first one being the conventional landfills forcommingled Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The second one is the landfill for milledsolid wastes and lastly the non-fills for designated or specialized wastes.Landfills for commingled (MSW)Generally the landfills of United States are designed for commingled MSW. This classof landfills also accepts industrial solid waste, sludge from water waste water treatment30plants. However in many States the sludge from treatment plant are accepted only if ithas 51% water.The native soil is used as a intermediate and final cover material, but in countries likeFlorida and New Jersey where the amount of indigenous soil available for suchpurpose is limited, the alternative materials such as compost produced from yardwastes has been utilized.Landfills for Shredded Solid WastesOne strategy that is adopted as an alternative from traditional disposal methods inseveral United State locations concerns shredding of solid wastes prior to placement ofit in the landfill. The toned waste can accommodate up to 35% greater density than theun-shredded waste and it can do without daily cover.
Flies, rats, blown litter andodours are not a major problem to such waste. The disadvantage of this strategyinclude the need for shredding facility and the need to operate the conventional landfillsection for waste that can not be easily shredded. This form of waste disposal hastremendous potential in view of the conventional landfilling being very expensive. Theprocess of compaction enabling greater capacity makes this method comparativelymore attractive. However shredded waste can be used to produce compost that can beutilized as an intermediate cover material.In South Africa landfill sites can be categorized as follows:1.
General landfill sites that accommodate non-hazardous material for examplefood waste generated in households. These are normally operated by the localmunicipalities.312. H-h landfill sites accommodate low hazardous waste material. This type ofwaste can be generated by small businesses and households. For example paintcontainers and oil contaminated materials.3.
H-H landfill sites accommodate highly hazardous material that is generated byindustries. The example includes nuclear waste.2.5 Privatization of Solid Waste servicesPrivatization can be defined as a process of disconnecting state owned enterprises or stateprovided services from the government control to the market forces. In most Africancountries privatization differs from the above in that it is characterized by expanding thesphere of the market through a host of regulations that can create an enablingenvironment for free enterprise to operate as a strategy for sustainable economicdevelopment. Privatization of municipal services generally refers to the reduction of localgovernment activity within the given service like solid waste management.
Furthermorethere is a reduction in local government ownership (Santa Monica Sustainable CityProgramme report, 1997).In Nairobi privatization can be perceived as both reduction of the city and municipalcouncil activity through the involvement of private sector as well as the reduction ofgovernment ownership. Through the commercialization of government agencies wherethe municipal council has re-organized itself into an accountable and financiallyautonomous semi-private enterprise for the delivery of a specific service, the definition ofprivatization also includes the management of contracts, concessions, franchise, leases,commercialization and pure private entrepreneurship. Privatization can be viewed as aform of decentralization of management functions from government to private enterprise.It can also be seen as a shift of responsibility for direct services and infrastructure (DSNI,1999).32In Dar-es-Salaam there are several modes of privatization established countrywide. Theseinclude open competition, whereby licenses are prograted for the provision of privatefirms. In open competition individual households establishments make privatearrangements with individual firms for services delivery.
In this mode no firm holds azonal monopoly that means any number of firms may compete within the same zone. Thesecond mode is the management contracts that can be awarded to private firm. In thismode of management contract there is a placement of municipal services under privatemanagement for the specific period of time. The private sector has extensive autonomy asstated in the contract. Services operated under this mode include solid wastemanagement, public toilets and parking lots (DSNI, 1999).The concession mode described as a contractual arrangement, is where certain privatecompanies are awarded a license to provide specified services over a certain period oftime. The ownership of principal assets remains with the private firm. In normalcircumstance concessions are awarded after a competitive tendering process.
In thismode there is an obligation on the part of the service provider in that they must provideservices that are economically and socially important and need significant improvementand is large and usually enjoys a monopoly position within an area (DSNI, 1999).Compulsory competitive tendering is where, through force of legislation, the city councilhas defined types of work to external competition and the contracts are awarded on merit.Compulsory competitive tendering has occurred in the privatization of solid wastecollection and disposal in the city of Dar es Salaam where a number of private firms bidfor the award of contracts to provide the services. The last mode is the Shifting ofresponsibilities where the services, which were once nationalized, are re-allocated to the33community-based organization (CBO). Shifting of responsibilities has also occurred inthe local areas where CBOs have been established and assigned service duties. Shifting ofresponsibilities have also occurred at local level where CBOs have been established andassigned service responsibilities.2. 7 Case studies on Solid Waste ManagementAmericans are usually generating an estimated 223 million tons of municipal solid waste(MSW)for year. While tonnage continues to increase, the amount deposited in landfillscontinues to decrease due to recycling and composting programmes (Keep AmericaBeautiful, 1996). Effective waste management involves an integrated approach utilizingthe programs of source reduction, recycling, composting, waste-to-energy, and sanitarylandfill.The concept of conducting a detailed examination of the life cycle of a product or aprocess is referred to as “Life Cycle Assessment” (LCA). LCA, involves taking detailedmeasurements of a product and assess its life expectancy from “cradle to grave”. Someproducts, like steel and aluminum, can be recycled indefinitely (with some melt losses)without ever reaching a “grave” stage, while others, like paper, can be recycled only fouror five times (Keep America Beautiful,1996).Urban growth in Kenya has been associated with unemployment, low levels of lifeexpectancy related to health problem. In most cases the health problems are associatedwith illegal dumping of solid waste in open spaces. People turn to dump solid waste inthese open space because Local Urban Management can not cope with a high urbaninflux rate. 70% of households in urban areas in Kenya are low-income household as aresult they have no adequate access to services such as clean running water, road34infrastructure and garbage collection. They are therefore exposed to various kinds ofdiseases that include TB, Asthma and other skin diseases.2.8 Landfill Management in developing countriesSuccessful management processing of wastes will largely depend on the types, quantitiesand composition waste material. The bulk density of residential wastes in the developingcountries varies from about 180 to 390 kg/m3 (Smith,1992). Currently the majority ofsolid wastes generated in the developing countries like South Africa are disposed in opendumps. Most of the open dumps lack the proper equipment and trained personnelnecessary for conducting the operation in the manner such that the public health and theenvironment are protected. There are very few modern landfills in the developingcountries and the majority of them are designed as sanitary landfills.In South Africa there are new environmental standards for the design of landfill sites.Currently the landfill management scheme owns and controls seven hi-tech disposal sitesthat are well developed and manages eighteen general landfill sites for local authoritiesthrough out South Africa (Smith,1992). The landfills have scientific expertise thatcontrols operating procedures, site auditing and surface and storm run-off. They alsomonitor methane extraction and rehabilitation processes, for closed landfills. Suchmanagement standards reduce long-term environmental liability that might have negativeimpacts on the environment.In the National Gazette there are provisions for waste disposal and the environment as awhole. Environmental Conservation Act 73 of 1989 provides principles that should befollowed by the Minister when issuing a permit to operate any disposal site. The Minister35of Water Affairs and Forestry has a right to alter or cancel any permit or condition in thepermit and the minister may refuse to issue a permit (subsection 1). It is also stated in thisAct that no person is allowed to dispose waste in any other manner except at the disposalsite for which the permit has been issued. The authorization shall only be issued afterconsideration of reports concerning the impacts of the proposed activities and alternativeproposed activities on the environment.2.9 Transportation and collection of solid wasteA wide range of methods and equipment is utilized in the collection of wastes. Themethods vary from labour-intensive to fully mechanized. Types of equipment andvehicles vary from simple hand-drawn carts and wagons to modern compaction vehicles.Generally, a collection crew consists of three or four workers, although crews of as fewas two or as many as eight have been observed. In some locations, unauthorizedindividuals who take part in the collection activity in order to recover materials from thewastes may increase the number of people working in a particular vehicle. Excessivehandling and the use of inefficient methods characterize the collection activity. Thisresults in high collection costs (Smith, 1992).The use of compactor trucks in developing countries is becoming popular practice inwaste removal. Some features include may not be considered at the time that the vehicleis purchase. These features include the importance of matching the compaction chamberto the truck chassis; the possibility that the loaded weight of the truck exceeds the bearingcapacity of streets and roads; inaccessibility of the vehicle to remote areas and narrowstreets; the need to have proper machinery and equipment, as well as trained personnel to36conduct repairs and preventive maintenance; and the need for a supply of spare parts tomaintain the regularity of the collection service (Smith, 1992).Despite the fact that it has been amply demonstrated that the implementation of soundpreventive maintenance is absolutely necessary to maintain a collection fleet in properoperating condition, neglect of preventive maintenance is a common situation indeveloping countries. Generally, maintenance is carried out only after a catastrophicfailure of the equipment. A maintenance programme is extremely important sincecollection and transport account for a substantial proportion of the total cost of the wastemanagement system. Due to the absence of maintenance programmes, those responsiblefor dispatching the vehicles to their respective routes generally are not aware of the exactnumber of vehicles available on any given day (Furley, 1994).The frequency of collection varies from daily to monthly. In some locations, particularlylow income areas and human settlements; waste collection is provided only on specialoccasions, such as during cleaning campaigns. In most situations, collection routes arenot firmly established. It is a common practice to leave the decision for the route to thediscretion of the driver. Consequently, it is common for a particular vehicle to arrive atthe disposal site only partially loaded due to inefficient routing. In some instances, anindirect route is taken to the disposal site in order to discharge part or even the entire loadfor use as animal feed or for salvaging some of the materials that may have somemonetary value (CNN, Environmental World Report, June 22, 2002).372.10 Resource RecoveryThe term “resource recovery” is used to mean the recovery of materials discarded aswastes, and to the institutional arrangements leading to resource recovery (for example,scavenging and governmentally or industrially operated enterprises). Scavenging is theprocess through which materials are recovered by entities not sanctioned by thegovernment (Re’ Source, 2000).The following three factors generally contribute to the practice of resource recovery indeveloping countries: 1) Economics – a relatively undeveloped economy of the country;2) Material and Energy Conservation shortage of inexpensive raw materials which areessential to local industries, lack of affordability or production capacity for items that canbe remedied by recovery of useable materials from wastes, and shortage or cost ofenergy; and 3) Soil Conservation — soils that are of low quality or that are being rapidlydepleted of organic matter (Re’ Source, 2000).Resource recovery is an advisable policy for developing countries because it usuallycatalyzes the development of organized systematic waste management and leads to areduction of the amount of wastes that require disposal. Furthermore, resource recoveryprovides a source of income for a relatively large number of people in the lowereconomic sector. Finally, if the system is properly planned, implemented, andadministered, some of the revenue obtained from the sale of the materials can be used todefray part of the cost of waste management.EconomicsThe status of the economy of a particular region or country plays a critical role in allaspects of resource recovery. Since the economic situation is most Developing Countries38leaves them with little or no access to capital to import raw materials, one alternativeavailable is to conserve raw materials by recovering and recycling materials. Thisapproach is worth consideration and implementation despite some reports that recycling amaterial would be more costly than importing it. Careful analysis of such reports showsthat in most DCs, the findings and conclusions are based on questionable assumptionsand on a short-term outlook rather than on a long-term horizon (Smith, 1992).Materials that typically are recovered from solid waste can be recycled into primarymanufacturing products especially aluminum, steel cans and plastics. Energy can berecovered from solid wastes by using one of two methods. One is to recover and recyclematerials that can be substituted for those that require a substantial amount of energy toprocess and manufacture into consumer products. The second method is to convert thechemical energy of waste into a usable form e.g., through bio-gasification or thermalconversion (Smith, 1992).Implementation of Resource RecoveryResource recovery from solid waste can be implemented at two levels: 1) manualrecovery (scavenging) by individuals before collection, treatment, or disposal of the solidwaste; and 2) a combination of manual and mechanical processing carried out on arelatively large scale and according to a governmentally sanctioned plan. The term”scavenging” usually is applied to the first of the two levels of recovery. The second levelis typically termed, “conventional resource recovery”(Sivaramakrishranan, 1995).Scavenging is a process that is well established in developing countries. In fact,scavenging is such a strong part of the waste management system that attempts made to39abolish the practice in some cities in South Africa have been met with strong resistance.Some scavengers roam the streets looking for items that can be reused, and are known as”itinerant.” Other scavengers conduct their activities at the disposal sites and limit theiractivities to the collection of one or two materials (e.g., paper, metal objects). Generally,scavengers have an agreement with a “middle-man.” The middle-man is an individualwho has the contacts with the end users of the waste, can process, prepare, and sell thequantities of materials desired by users; and provides the scavengers with compensationand, in some cases, a collection vehicle (e.g., a cart or tricycle). In some locations, thesolid waste collection crew conducts its collection activities as well as some scavengingof materials (Folz, 1991).Generally, the families and social backgrounds of scavengers are such that scavenging isthe only option available to them to earn a living. The work of a scavenger is difficult andhas little reward and the social status of these people is considered to be low. Scavengerscan work up to 12 hours each day in order to earn money sufficient only to survive andsometimes they get nothing after long hard work. In addition, scavengers often live at orin the vicinity of the final disposal site, under unhealthy conditions. The conditions insuch places are a threat to the quality of their own families especially children andpregnant women. For example in India, most of the families that are stricken by povertysurvive on scavenging and they are just 50 meters from dump sites. Infant mortality rateis very high in these sites and life expectancy is very low. The cases of ill health arereported daily with such diseases as lung cancer, respiratory diseases, and tuberculosisthat can result in death if not treated (Arkava,1983).Another example where the effect of illegal dumping of solid waste has resulted in poorhealth is near Hartbeespoort Dam in South Africa. Piles of solid waste sprawl across the40path at the entrance to the compound where workers reside. Unpleasant smell emanatingfrom blocked toilets intensifies the unhygienic status of the compound. The open pipesthat run chicken waste from the slaughterhouse passes the employee’s rooms down to theriver polluting waster resources. The compound houses about hundred workers; there isonly one shower with no electricity and hot water for workers. It is said that at least onechild per week spends the next eighteen months in hospital after contracting tuberculosiswhile living in the compound. Most of workers have developed asthma (Smith, 1992)2.11 Importance of Open SpacesPreviously decision-makers and communities have undervalued open spaces, this isbecause benefits and services that are provided by open spaces were not understood. Therecognition that open spaces provide services such a waste treatment, erosion control,nutrient cycling and cultural and demand from both urban and rural communities of theseservices gives open spaces new economic value. As result decision-makers make moreinformed decisions about conservation and management of resources provided by openspaces. It was also acknowledged that through proper management of open spaces and itsresources such demands can be met.As part of Local Agenda 21, environmental development of open spaces was alsoincluded. There are several reason why open spaces are important to human development,both economically and social wellbeing. Due to the importance of open spaces, theprotection plan called D’MOSS was initiated in Durban in 1994. The aim of theprogrammme was conserving and preventing degradation of such crucial natural areas.To achieve the main goal, in 1996 the government structures and councils devise a plan41based on the principles of sustainable development and community participation (DurbanMetropolitan Open Space System (DMOSS) Framework Plan, 1999).Types of open spaces and their benefitsNatural spaces can be defined according to their different shapes and forms. Due to thisfact they turn to vary with characteristics and qualities. There are mainly two types ofopen spaces viz.; urban and natural open spaces (Durban Metropolitan Open SpaceSystem (DMOSS) Framework Plan, 1999).i.Urban spaces are man-made or designated spaces within any metropolitan area.Such spaces are developed for community use and they include areas like parks,agricultural fields, streets and sport-fields.ii.Natural open spaces are undisturbed natural and undeveloped areas within the city,,they include core areas like terrestrial, fresh water marine ecosystems estuarine. Theland cover of such areas can also include grasslands, forests, and wetlands.Both natural and urban spaces link various ecosystems, for example dams that are manmadecan be part of fresh water ecosystem like wetland. Each type of open space hasassets that are very important to human survival and development. Such spaces containresources like water, fuel-wood, grass and medicinal plants.Open spaces serve the follow:· Wood for fuel and building ;· Soil for growing food for ever-increasing population;· Provide space to absorb the impact of floods and treatment of waste;· Grass for thatch and grazing.42However the importance of open space is not entirely dependent on its ability to supplydifferent services rather on the demand by communities for the services can supply. Openspaces that provide resources and enhance development are natural factories that providegoods and services. Open spaces services have a number of benefits in different sectors ofthe community. There are direct benefits, which is the use of resources such as domesticuse of water, wood for fuel and as building material. Indirect benefits are also referred toas non-consumptive of resources. They provide cost savings to the community, forexample floodplains reduce flood damage and trees keep air clean for all life forms.Option benefits are when resources are protected for future consumption, for example acoastline can be used to promote tourism growth in future. Existence benefits can viewedas existing resources, they may give people a sense of identity and an urge to improvetheir overall quality of life (D’MOSS Framework Plan, 1999).There is a great demand of open spaces, however such demand is determined by the kindof service that is provided by that particular space, for example when people in an urbanarea need water resources, the type of open space that they will need is the catchmenttype of open space, since it will provide water resource. The services that are provided byopen spaces vary, depending on the communities that are using such services. They arealso important for the wellbeing of the environment. Figure 2.2 illustrate the ecosystemservices that are provided by open spaces in order to prevent environmental degradation(D’MOSS Framework Plan, 1999): Currently the plan has been implemented only on thegrass-root level; there is a need for comprehensive implementation.43Figure 2.2: Ecosystem Services provided by open spaces2.11 Waste Minimization in South AfricaBy examining the depth of waste problems in South Africa, Action Plan was needed toeliminate large amount of solid waste that is problematic in our country. Action Plan iswithin the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) (South Africa Year Book,2001/2002), which has both short and long-term objectives. The Action Plan was· Waste treatmentBreaking down ofwaste and detoxifyingpollution.· Nutrient cyclingNitrogen fixation, nitrogenrecycling through foodchain. Achieved throughsymbiotic association withrhizobia bacteria.· Erosion controlPrevention of soil loss byvegetation cover and bycapturing soil in wetlands.· CulturalSpectacular views,environmental education andsense of place.44developed as a result of logical Framework analysis methodology that analyses the natureof the problem, reviews stakeholder and identifies the key risks that are critical toimplementation of the Action Plan. It contains a set of initiatives that are essential for thegovernment to adopt in order to create sufficient motivation and capacity among wastegenerators to implement recycling practices. Such initiatives are categorized into threekey outputs:· The introduction and enforcement of appropriate regulatory instruments with apriority to eliminate pollution and to promote the adoption of waste minimizationand recycling practices.· Appropriate economic and financial incentives, this is based on the study done bythe Departments of Finance and Trade and Industry.· The implementation of programmes for waste minimization and recycling. Suchinitiatives will be integrated in a broader Action Plan for Cleaner Production. Theplan is depended on certain factors in order for the project to be successful. InSouth Africa waste minimization plan still needs to be implemented.2.13 Solid Waste Management and World Summit on Sustainable Development(WSSD)One point that was repeatedly highlighted in the WSSD was that the rapid increase insolid waste has become a major problem for the municipalities in both developed anddeveloping countries. The brief example is from Rio de Janeiro where solid wastegeneration reached a maximum of 8, 042 tons per day in 1997 compared to previousfigure of 6,200 tons per day in 1994. In Norway solid waste generation increased by threepercent in the 1990’s, in the United State there was a sharp increase of 4.5% in wastegeneration. (DSNI,1999).45Unsustainable human settlements, or slums, are mostly informal and unplanned, often indangerous locations and generally lacking basic municipal services such as safe drinkingwater, sanitation, public transport, schools and clinics. These may be the result ofinadequate urban planning, lack of investment in infrastructure, speculative investmentpatterns, and indifference to the needs of the poor. Realization of the MillenniumDeclaration target would require action at many levels. Access to improved housing, safedrinking water; sanitation facilities, health and education are urgent priorities forimproving the lives of slum dwellers. Long-term improvements that would require bettercity planning and attention to land right urban infrastructures (UN Report, 2001).Sustainable development cannot be achieved without addressing the causes of ill healthand its impact on development. Many health problems are exacerbated by air and waterpollution, noise, crowding, inadequate water supplies, poor sanitation, unsafe wastedisposal, chemical contamination, poisoning and physical hazards associated with thegrowth of densely populated cities. WHO estimates that poor environmental qualitycontributes to 25 per cent of all preventable illnesses in the world today? Air pollution,both ambient and indoors, including the work environment, continues to be a majorcontributor to respiratory and other illnesses, particularly in children (asthma and acuterespiratory infections), women and the elderly (chronic respiratory illness). Some 2.1million people, of whom 1.8 million live in rural areas of developing countries, dieannually from indoor air pollution from traditional biomass fuels, with 80 per cent ofthose deaths among women and children. Due to the fact that there are no proper servicesthat are present there are numerous diseases such as TB and Cholera that are associatedwith improper disposal of waste. Recent years have also seen a growing concern over thedisposal of hazardous wastes, which are often dumped together with other wastes. Thishas posed severe health hazards for poor people who survive by scavenging wastes. Some46vector-borne diseases, such as Dengue fever, are linked to poor solid waste disposal.Some cities have experienced epidemics due to poor waste management, resulting insignificant human and economic losses (Keep America Beutiful, 1996).2.14 ConclusionAlthough policies in some countries are promoting waste reduction, recycling and safedisposal, most developing countries are lagging behind in terms of implementation ofsuch policies. There is a great potential for labour-intensive waste collection withresource recovery and recycling. Some progress has been made in recognizing thecontributions and potential of citizens’ groups, grass roots organizations and civic leaders.Some community initiatives have created opportunities for low-income families toparticipate in community improvements, budget setting, citywide planning, disasterpreparedness and other sustainable urban development activities. There is one initiativethat comes from the youth of the countries of the world, they call themselves”Espineers”, the youth all over the world volunteered to clean tons of solid waste thatwas illegally dumped in open spaces. They manage to collect tons of solid waste in SouthAfrica clearing up most of illegal dumping sites.Waste minimization is the major term in the preparation of WSSD; people are urged notto pollute their surrounding by recycling the solid waste that will be produced during thesummit on sustainable development. This sends a clear message to the entire communityof South Africa that solid waste can be minimized through recycling programmeregardless of the area and the situation that one is in. furthermore it has created hope thatthere is a room for improvement and that we can still pick up the pieces of our broken47planet and mend it while we still can, as the SWWD is about saving the planet and life onit. During the summit people from around the world have shown how they reduce wasteby recycling and making other useful product.48Chapter threeStudy Area and Methodology3.1 IntroductionThe focus in this section will be the description of the study area and the methodologicalapproach that was adopted by the researcher to collect data.The description of the study area complimented by a map will enable the reader as wellas other interested parties to identify the area with ease. Research to some individuals inthe community is useless and a waste of time. The researcher however can convince suchindividuals of the relevance of the exercise. It is of vital importance to explain to therespondent the purpose of the study, so that they understand why they are engaged in theprocess of collecting data and the impact that research can have on their lifestyles. Thereare several methods that can be utilized to collect data. It is imperative for the researcherto implement the method most suitable for the particular investigation (Bailey, 1994).Details of the various methods and techniques will also assist future students, academic,researchers and authorities who will not need to explore for methods conducive for thistype of investigation in this particular area.For the purposes of collecting data for this investigation, the researcher used thefollowing methodologies:· Sampling method ;· Observation method,· Participatory method49· Photographic data was collected as evidence to support the presence of theproblem.The researcher conducted interviews with members of the household residing inClermont. The interviews were conducted to understand how they view the problem ofillegal dumping and establish how they rate environmental problems in relation to othersocial problems in the community.3.2 Study AreaFigure 3.2.1: Locality MapN 0 18, 332 Meters50N 0 18,332 Meters51Figure 3.2.2: Map showing different wards of Clermont the black dots shows informalsettlementN 0 757 MetersThe African township called Clermont which is characterized by formal and informaldwellings is situated 20 kilometers west of Durban centre and 5 kilometers north east ofPinetown. Clermont township is located in the inner west region of the e -Thekwinimunicipality area, and 2-3 kilometers from New Germany. The township is situated at30.9 longitude; latitude – 29. 78.333. This area founded in 1931, and encompasses 160052acres of land. Kwa-Dabeka, a component of the study area was subjected to land invasionin the early 1990’s. Initially a thousand people invaded and settled in the area due to itbeing in close proximity to the employment opportunities. The population was estimatedto be in excess of ten thousand. Currently the population is in excess of fifty thousand.Prior to the invasion of the area there were plans of building major tarred free way roadacross this area. Due to this reason people were told not to interfere with proposeddevelopment. People residing in this affected area did not have their shacks upgraded dueto the proposed road development.Since the upgrading process more people moved to the area with the two manufacturingindustrial areas viz, Pinetown and New Germany being the pull factors. Some families,however, arrived here because of the violence in their areas. Such politically unstableareas include Richmond and Hammars dale.The majority of the population in Clermont work in New Germany and in Pinetown. InNew Germany there is well-established cotton industry that is able to accommodate mostof the workforce. This company has well developed branches that can serve as source ofemployment in the future for the skilled population of Clermont. The subdivisions ofcotton industry are Frametax and Pinetax. There are, however many unskilled andunemployed people. Unemployed residents are unable to afford basic services thatinclude water, electricity, sanitation and solid waste removal. Most of the formal housesthat are built, end up not being occupied by the residents due to high levels ofunemployment.53The inability of residents to pay for basic services has a negative impact on the naturalenvironment as well as on the health of the community. Communities resort to buildingof shallow pit latrines and disposal of solid waste illegally. Heaps of garbage is very oftenseen on pavements, grass verges and sometimes in streams. Raw sewage from overloadedlatrines can also be seen following down the roads the latter is a common phenomenonafter rainfall events.Plate 3.1 Illegal dumps in Clermont Township54Plate 3.2 Rich bio-diversity of Clermont threatened by the illegal solid waste disposal3.3 Methodology3.3.1 Survey methodSurvey is a widely used data gathering technique. Surveys, based on professional socialresearch like other scientific tools can be used appropriately (Strydom, 1998). Surveysusually produce information that is statistical in nature. It is regarded as the stem ofquantitative research. Researchers usually ask numerous questions concerning people’sbelieves, characters, past, present and future behaviour.55ObservationOne of the methods that chosen for this study is observation. Observation is defined as a”purposeful systematic and selective way of watching and listening to an interaction orphenomenon as it take place”(Bailey, 1994). It is a method that is ideal for situationswhere accurate information cannot be elicited by questioning, due to unwillingness of therespondent to co-operate and when the researcher is interested on the behavior rather thanthe perception of the respondent. This method will be ideal in this particular research dueto the fact that the residents or industries may not admit their illegal dumping of solidwaste in open space. Observation can overcome this problem.Observation method does however have some constraints. When individuals are awarethat they are observed, they may change their behavior compared to what would be anormal situation. There is always the possibility of observer bias and therefore it is noteasy to verify the inferences drawn from them. In most cases the interpretation that isdrawn from observation differs from observer to observer. In the process the informationbecomes unreliable. When a researcher engages in observation there is a possibility ofincomplete observation. For example when the observer is taking some notes, she/he maymiss an interaction. Recordings of conversation can compliment the observation methodBailey, 1994).The other method that will be used to conduct this study is the survey method. The surveymethod is the scientific way of collecting the data from the targeted population. Thesurvey method is aimed at efficiency, precision and logic. The survey method compriseof questionnaires and interviews. In this study both interviews and questionnaires wereadministered to the sample of 100 households. Questionnaires are defined as instrumentsthat contain both close and open questions to which a respondent must react. According56to Bailey, 1994 questionnaires are a set of questions on the form of which is completedby the respondent in respect of a research project. Questionnaires can be categorized as,mailed questionnaires, telephonic questionnaires, and quantitative data collectionquestionnaire (De Vos ; Fouche’, 1998). It is vital for the research to use the ideal typeto undertake a particular research. Questionnaire is a written list of questions where theresearcher records the answers from the respondents. In a questionnaire the researcherreads the question, interprets what is expected and then records the responses.The researcher will be able to select the right type of questionnaire type by reviewing theadvantages and disadvantages. Mailed questionnaire is defined as a questionnaire that issent off by mail in the hope that the respondent will complete and return it (Grinnell &William (1990). However this method does not always work at its best. Statistics indicatethat a 50% response rate is considered adequate, 60% as good and 70% as excellent.. Themajor disadvantage of the mailed questionnaire is that the researcher is totally separatedfrom the respondent; the questionnaire is the only communication medium between theresearcher and the respondent. However the most prominent advantage is that the costsare considerably low and a larger geographical area is covered by the researcher. Thepossible influence from the fieldworker is eliminated. Although there are advantages thenon-response data might be significantly high.The self administered questionnaire is where the respondents have to complete thequestionnaires themselves. The researcher has to explain the whole questionnaire to therespondents. Group administered questionnaires require the respondents to assembletogether to answer questions. If the literacy level of the group is low assistance from theresearcher is required. In this study the questionnaires had to be administered to thepeople by the researcher since a certain percentage of the population don’t understand57English. The researcher had to interpret the questionnaire in their home language so thatrespondents can understand what is required.Interviews will be conducted in the quest of collecting enough information. In manywalks of life we collect information through different forms of interaction with others.Any person-to-person interaction between two or more individuals with a specificpurpose in mind is called an interview. Interviewing can be very flexible, this means thatan interviewer has the freedom to formulate questions as they come to mind around theissue being investigated. Interviews are classified according to the degree of flexibility asunstructured (formulation of questions during an interview) and structured (predeterminedset of questions, using the same wording and order of the questions asspecified in an interview schedules) interviews. An interview schedule is research toolwhere as interviewing is a method of data collection. Structured interviews providesuniform information that assures the comparability of data (Ranjit, 1999)3.4 SamplingSampling is a process of selecting a few from a bigger group to become a basis forestimating or predicting a fact regarding the bigger group. Arkava and Lane (1983)define a sample as the element of the population considered for the actual inclusion inthe study. In other words a sample can be viewed as a subset of measurements drawnfrom the population in question (Strydom and Vos, 1998). The main purpose ofstudying a sample rather than the entire population is to gain an in-depth understandingof some facets of the population. The advantage of the sample is that, it saves time,finance and human resources. The disadvantage lies when the researcher does not findout the facts about the population character. Lane and Arkava (1985) agree that if onecan study the entire population, the procedure will be tedious and time consuming.58Sample size from the populationThere are general rules for the sample number that can be drawn from the entirepopulation. The rule of thumb that is normally stated in the literature is that the larger thepopulation, the smaller the percentage of that population sample needs to be. On the otherhand the smaller the population is the sample size should comprise a larger percentage ofthe population. However larger sample enables the researchers to draw more accurateconclusions and possible predictions (Arkava, 1985).Random samplingThe sampling method that will be employed in the research is random sampling that iscategorized under “Mixed sampling Design”. Kerlinger (1986) defines random samplingas the method of drawing a portion from the population so that each member of thepopulation in question has equal chance of being selected. Random sampling can also bedefined as a method of drawing a sample from the population so that all possible sampleof n has same probability of being selected for the study (Strydom and Vos, 1998). Forthis particular research the random sampling was used to select desired sample, hundredhouseholds from a population of 49 580 households. A comprehensive map of Clermontindicating households enables the researcher to choose the sample. A table of randomnumbers was employed to determine the households to be part of the sample.Participatory MethodThe community members and researchers, very often, perceive participation differently.In spite of differences there are however, common aspects that can be recognized viz;sharing of knowledge and skills between the researcher and community members,(Indigenous knowledge and skills) and the distribution of power in that the respondents59have a say on the solutions of the problems at hand. Pretty (1995) and Mayoux (1995)cited in Strydom ; Vos, 1998 agree that the definition and aims of participation areentirely different across different individuals and that the term has become a stylish wordwith numerous interpretations, others impedes sustainability and empowerment aspects.According to Strydom (1998) participation is viewed as a means to efficiency. Wherebypeople are involved in a problem-solving task in which they are more likely to agree withand give support to the chosen development. The second view is mainly based onparticipation as a fundamental right to initiate mobilization for collective action tofacilitate community capacity building and enhance local empowerment.According to Strydom (1998) participation in the context of this investigation involves agroup of people from the community working together with the researcher in identifyinga problem. The community will collectively seek solutions to their problems with theassurance of the leaders. This however was only possible after the researcher gained thetrust and confidence of the communities.In traditional research, the conservative models of attitudes, beliefs, values andindigenous knowledge of township people remain undervalued and simplified by socalled “experts”. The commonality in those top-down approaches is that they homogenizethe population; consequently there is a failure to recognize the differences that existthrough gender, time, geographical space, age and ethnic groups (Bailey, 1994).According to Bailey (1994) participation is a cross-disciplinary and cross- sectoralapproach that is able to connect communities in the development process throughinteraction and participatory process. It is a method when experts are able to understand60and learn from the community’s experiences. The process of sharing knowledge comes inthree forms viz:· The local people share knowledge among themselves through analysis in groupsand visual representation;· Local people share knowledge with outsiders (expects);and· The outsiders share knowledge with community and among themselves of whatthey have learned when interacting with local people.Participatory method ropes the new emerging paradigm of development hence NEPAD(New Partnership African Development) where all South African are expected toparticipate in the development of Africa. In this respect there is a visible recognition ofsignificance of context and multiple realities. It is important to note that learning takesplace through sharing and there is no such thing as “expert” knowledge (Strydom, 1998).There are numerous advantages of using participatory method to gather information. Theapproach is flexible and innovative with a more semi-structured manner. It also putemphasis on understanding processes through involving people, gathering insights andtheir suggested solutions rather than providing final answers to the observed problemswithout consulting the people who are experiencing such problems. The major shift fromtraditional teaching and learning styles to development and research is the majorcomponent of participatory method. Participatory method helps to use research to acquirea greater understanding of realities and needs of communities.The researcher in the field becomes an activist that is able to create a researchenvironment in which participants are able to take over the process of investigation andaid their use of innovation of research techniques. The same techniques allow them toidentify their own problems and solutions to their physical existence (Grinnell, 1990).61Although many authors praise participatory method there are some concerns that are putforth by few writers. By looking at the above-mentioned methodology it is a promisingalternative to the traditional way of conducting research. It is imperative for the researchto be aware of such limitations when using this method. Participatory research is oftenconsidered to be the subject to copious inherent tensions. Mostly participatory research isbased on focus groups and is therefore premised on the possibility of consensus. It is alsobased on the assumption that the benefits of the research are self evident if the role of theoutsider is to implement the will of the people “the nation has spoken and it must not bedisputed” (Ranjit,1999). There are many aspects that influence participation for anexample gender, kingship and ethnicity. There are also several reasons that can influencepeople not to participate in a particular study; these can include political alliances, socialfactors, time and geographical distance as well as the social status.Other limitations that are presented by the participatory method is that some communitiesare not familiar with the visual representations. Consequently this can create furtherproblems with regards to interpretation and representation. In most cases it is not easy toconduct activities that are associated with participatory method (Ranjit, 1999). The toolsthat are utilized by the participatory method can create a sense of puzzlement thantraditional research methods. Another obstacle can be that, the methods can fall short togive best results where members are not sufficiently trained. According to Strydom(1998) participatory method had failed to incorporate gender dynamics in relation to thedevelopment of its techniquesCollection of Primary dataIn this particular study, the researcher with the assistance of trained field workers diddata collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods had been utilized to collect62primary data for the proposed study. In the case of qualitative method semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with different stakeholders and relevant authorities.Contemporary, the socio-economic questionnaire (survey) was used, to gather data thatcan be quantified. The main purpose of the questionnaire was to collect primary datafrom the hundred households that were selected to participate in the study. In someinstances where the researcher saw the need, semi structured interviews were conductedin some households in order to determine day-to-day problems concerning solid wastemanagement. Strydom (1998) state that to create a less hierarchical relationship betweenthe members of the community and the researching team, it is necessary to conduct suchinterviews.Prior to the initiation of the study, the researcher saw the necessity of meeting withdifferent stakeholders that included Councilors of the township and sub-committees ofWomen’s Organization of Clermont. Meetings were also held with the companycontracted to collect and transport waste, the Durban Metro Solid Waste Department andthe Department of Environment and Tourism. The purpose of the meeting was tointroduce the research, the aims, and objectives of the study and arrange interviews withdifferent stakeholders.During the fieldwork most of the respondents did not understand the purpose of the studyand they were reluctant to participate. They feared that they would be identified as beingresponsible for illegal disposal of solid waste. The researcher had to explain theintentions of conducting the study and that they will remain unanimous.633.5 ConclusionIt is imperative that the results of the research are reliable, valid and effective. Theresearcher had to implement different methods for this particular study. The informationgiven by the respondents was treated with great confidentiality. The willing participantshad the opportunity to understand the importance of the study and how it affects theirdaily lives. The process of collecting data is about sharing knowledge rather thanimposing of ideas on the community.As a researcher the aim is not to undermine, but to add to the existing knowledge. Duringthe fieldwork, the researcher was aware of the limitation and biases that may arise due toresource limitation. The researcher will respect and recognize cultural issues of thecommunity of Clermont.In the field the researcher maintained flexibility with the participants. The researcher wasaware of the fact that no research can be neutral or value free. Although the researcherwas more interested on the scientific part of the study, political and gender issues werealso focused upon. It was important for the researcher to have lived with the communityfor the several weeks. This enabled her to earn their trust and confidence. The researcherwas also able to observe their lifestyle during this time.The researcher used the participatory methodology to collect data. Using the councilorthe researcher called community members to participate on this investigation, during thecommunity meetings residents were asked to rank the problems using their understandingof environmental status quo. A sample of 100 households was randomly selected tocollect data. Interviews were held with each members of the household. Interviews with64the local councilors were held to understand how they would to solve environmentalproblems in the township of Clermont.65Chapter FourResults and Data Analysis4.1. IntroductionThis section of the study will concentrate on a presentation of the results of theinvestigation. These results, obtained from the implementation of the methods describedin the previous chapter, will be depicted graphically and in tabulation form. Both tablesand graphs will be followed by an analysis of the results.4.2 Results and analysisThe graphs, tables and subsequent analysis of the results will inter-alia, include suchissues as nature of the problem of solid waste, types of solid waste, cost of facilities todispose solid waste and impacts of illegal dumping on the total environment.664.2.1 Nature of the solid waste problemThe nature of the problem refers to the level at which the community perceives solidwaste management in their area. The levels refer from the problem being now exist intocritical.There was a clear difference in gender participation in the community meetings.According to female respondents women are not given opportunity to make majordecisions that will affect the entire community,” they are expected to take care of thefamilies”. It was also revealed that women could play a major role in eliminating illegalsolid waste disposal. This is because they are the ones that are mostly affected by theproblem and also contribute to the problem at the same time. However when any diseaseeven waste related illness affects a member of the family, it is a responsibility of womento take care of the family and make sure that they receive medical attention. One canunderstand why women are very passionate about eliminating solid waste problem.It was also highlighted that if women were given a chance to voice their needs theproblems that are now faced by the community should have been avoided by takingprecautionary majors.67Fig. 4.1 Illegal dumping being a problem.05101520253035No Little Some Strong CriticalThirty-three of the respondents regard solid waste as a critical problem in Clermont and itneeds urgent attention of the authorities. Respondents, in general indicated that amongthe community members there is a “culture of littering” that needs to be eradicated.27%of the respondents indicated that impact of solid waste was strong, these who showedstrong concern about the problem are those people allocated 100 meters away fromdumping site and they pass through them when ever they are going to town or to work.They also complain about odours when passing such areas. However 24% showed someconcern and 8% little concern, the respondents did not see solid waste as a criticalproblem. Although there are dumping sites around them they are not exposed to them likethe other respondents.68Table 4.1 Types of solid waste disposedGarden waste 35%Domestic waste 63%Building material 2%One of the objectives was to determine types of waste disposed by the community ofClermont. The wastes disposed in the Township Clermont are mainly domestic (63 %)and garden waste (35%). Through observation it was noted that most of the domesticwaste disposed are papers, tins, and bottles. All such waste can be recycled and couldgenerate income since there is high unemployment in Clermont. The most problematicwaste to dispose is garden waste due to the following factors:It is very expensive to dispose garden waste, as residents are required to buy separateplastic bags in order to dispose garden waste. If residents use the same black refuse bag tostore garden waste, the waste collectors will not collect it and it will be left on roadverges or on any open space. Although garden waste is broken down the refuse bags tooka long period of time to be biodegradable.If a resident decide to cut down some trees or shrubs in his/her yard, one has to hire agarden waste skip from the waste collecting company. Cost of such facilities is very high,considering the fact that most of the residents are unemployed or underemployed. Thecost of eight cubic meters waste skip to collect waste is two hundred and fifty one rand(R251) and eighteen cubic meters cost three hundred and eighty nine rand (R389). This69proves that root cause of illegal dumping of garden waste is the fact that the communitymembers can not afford the hiring of waste skips. When community members try todispose garden waste using normal black refuse bags, waste collecting companies do notcollect the waste. Level of income therefore has major bearing sound waste managementpractices in Clermont.Plate 4.1 facilities used to collect garden waste in Claremont.The vehicle shown in the above plate is utilised to carry skips that collect garden wastesuch as big trees and shrubs.For people of Clermont to spend such amount of money to dispose garden waste is aluxury, they are only concerned about their livelihood and how can they put bread andbutter on the table. With unemployment taking its toll in the area, environmental concernsenjoy a low priority.70Table 4.2 Methods of garden waste disposalNot Applicable 3%Dump it on open space 22%Burn 48%Bury in the trench 23%Refuse Bag 2%Contractor removal 2%The above table illustrates alternative methods used by the residents of Clermont todispose their garden waste. 3% indicated that they do not dispose garden waste there forethis is not applicable to them and 22% of the respondents admitted to contribute to illegaldumping by disposing garden waste such as trees and grass. A large percentage (48%) ofrespondents proudly reported that they do not dispose garden waste at any open spacethey resort to burning. They were not aware that they are also contributing to air pollutionthat can pose danger to human health. The 23% said they bury garden waste in a trench,only 5% said that they utilise garden waste as an organic fertiliser in their small gardens.Only 2% of the respondents indicated that they put their garden waste in the refuse bag,71which however waste collector never takes it because they use wrong bags (Black refusebags). The last 2% revealed that they get contractor to remove their garden waste,Plate 4.2 the use of black refuse bags to store garden waste.Residences utilise incorrect refuse bag to store garden waste, the result of such actionsare illustrated in the above plate (4.2). Waste collectors always leave behind all thegarden waste that is stored in such a manner. This course problem in that when thereis rain waste block drainage pipes and course flooding during rainy season.72Table 4.3 The number of persons in a household and refuse generatedNumber of refuse bags Percentage Members PercentageOne Bag 33% 5-10 49%Two bags 47% 11+ 5%Three bags + 20% 1-4 46%The majority of respondents indicated that they generate two bags of waste per week. Thehousehold had members ranging from five to ten members; most of the households thatfall from this category are breadwinners who are pensioners or underemployed labourers.It was mentioned that during holidays the amount of waste generated per week perhousehold increases from two to five or seven bags per household. The theory “bigger thefamily more waste is generated” did not apply in Clermont. The theory is proven wrongby the theory of consumerism where by people are required to have capital in order toacquire products. In various families that, there was a pattern that was large families didnot have breadwinners that earned more than a thousand rand. Such families only buygoods that will help them to survive only basic needs; there is little no money that is leftto by other products that can increase their levels of waste generation.Other families regardless of the size (33%) reported to generate one bag of waste perweek and 20% said they produce at least three refuse bags per week. Income of moneyearned determines the amount of waste that can be generated by household. Size of thefamily rarely plays a role in this regard. However when a family is big and there is73enough income for goods then we will find more waste being generation. Respondentswho earned more than thousand rand generated more waste than those who earned lessthan or who are unemployed.Table 4.4 Occurrence of illegal dumping in the areaYes there is illegal dumping 55%No there is no illegal dumping 45%Fifty-five percent (55%) of the respondents reported that illegal dumping occurs in theirarea. However most of the respondents interviewed denied that they contributed to thisproblem. The blame was shifted to the neighbours and people who are passing by. Othersadmitted that they were contributing to the problem of illegal dumping of waste and oneof the reasons for illegal dumping was that the frequency at which the waste is collectedis not adequate. Since the waste is collected once a week in Clermont and if they miss thecollection date they have nowhere to put their waste but to dispose it in any open spaceavailable. Ownership was brought into play; residents residing near dumping sitesreported that their neighbours do not have the sense of pride with their surroundings dueto the fact that they are renting the houses. According to the people rented householdsthat were visited during the investigation, it is responsibility of the landlord or landlady tokeep their surroundings clean.74Table 4.5 the impacts of illegal dumpingEnviron. Impact Percentage Health Impact PercentageNot applicable 46% Not applicable 45%Unclean 18% Cholera 52%Unattractive 21% Not sure 3%Environ. Degrading 15%The researcher was able to explore whether illegal disposal of solid waste in the area hasnegative impact on public health, the above table indicate results that were found. 55%residents that are living in close proximity to the dumping sites reported that they aresuffering from Cholera, respiratory problems and common cold. During the interviews45% reported no health impacts that were associated with solid waste mismanagement intheir area. The group of respondent that reported no health impacts lived far from illegaldumping sites. Three percent of respondents are not sure about those effects, but some ofthem had skin rashes that they were not sure how to name.The study conducted reveals that most of the respondents (46%) consider illegal dumpingto have no environmental impacts. These respondents live some distance away fromdumping sites. Consequently they get minimum effects of the problem. Eighteen andtwenty –one percent reported that the area looks unclean and unattractive respectively.Fifteen percent (15%) of respondents reported that illegal disposal of solid waste is75causing environmental degradation. The main reasons attributed for illegal dumping ofsolid waste were, viz:· The refuse plastic bags are not enough furthermore it was indicated that refusebags were of poor quality.· No other place to dispose solid waste if one misses the day of collection.· Most of the people were not concern about the importance of living inaesthetically clean environment.The researcher also observed that in other households they did not have bins to storetheir waste; as a result they only used refuse plastic bags. The use of plastic bags onlyhas its problems in that the domestic animals like chicken and dog easily scatter wastearound and no one takes the responsibility of picking the waste and put it into relevantplastics again. It is therefore important for household to have refuse bin, because suchincidents exacerbate the problem of illegal dumping.76Plate 4.3: illegal dump. This plate shows ash and biological waste that is illegallydisposed by the local butchery store in Clermont. The main reason for this act is to avoidcosts associated with the removal of such waste.4.3 Collection frequency and subsequent problemsThe Company responsible for waste collection in Clermont Township is calledeThembeni community service Solid Waste Management. Waste is collected using trucksthat are suitable for collecting waste. Waste is collected once a week in each and everysection of Clermont. The same company also provides street cleaning services. Seventyfive(75%) of the respondents indicated that they do have street cleaning but it is notadequate. Twenty-five percent (25%) do no receive this service because there is noproper road infrastructure.Waste collectors’ work five times a week in order to cover all the sections of the area.Clermont is the “Nation of Shop keepers” where even households are running tuck shopsin order to earn a living. According to the waste collecting company the shopkeeper has77to hire trolley bins to store waste that was generated. The majority of shopkeepers areunable to pay for trolley bins; wait for the collection day for their waste to be collected.Problems that are encountered by waste collectors can, at times, be unbearable (SenzoMkhize, May 02, 2002 waste collector). Some members of the community take out wastebefore or after the agreed time and date. In most cases after all the waste has been sortedthe animals (birds, chickens and dogs) disperse it and it is very difficult for wastecollectors to return to clean up the mess. As a result it seems as if the waste collectors arenot efficient in what they are employed to do, because the area looks unclean andunattractive. According to Senzo Mkhize who is a waste collector in Clermont township,there was an agreement between the community and waste collecting company that thewaste will taken outside at six am (06H: 00) in order for collectors to sort out the wastein an appropriate manner. When the day of collection has passed, the waste is illegallydisposed to any open space. Residents also dispose whole and broken bottles with othertypes of waste dispite them being advised to separate bottles from other waste.To eliminate the problem of bottles the waste collector recommended that recyclingshould be introduced in the area, because he believed that it would reduce waste such asbottles, papers and cans. However people will only recycle when they know that they willgenerate some form of remuneration for their effort. Waste collectors very often aresubjected to verbal abuses from the community. The community is convinced that theyare paying rates and that they have a right to do as they please. According to thecouncillor majority of the residents do not pay rates due to little or no income. There is adeep concern, in that people in general don’t want to pay rates as required. However thereare people who like to pay rates but they are unemployed and they are without income.The researcher was told that there is a payment plan for those who cannot afford the78required amount. Those who has houses with a property market value of R0, 00-30 000do not pay rates and those with house with property market value of R30, 000-60 000only pay R20, 00 per month. There are different systems that the residents can use to payfor the rates, one can pay on monthly bases or on an annual basis.Most of the respondents (87%) indicated that they want recycling projects to be expandedin the area. Recycling projects can help reduce the amount of waste being disposed. Theresearcher noted that most of the waste disposed on open spaces included cans, paper andbottles, which are recyclable. Garden waste can be recycled, by turning it into compost.Table 4.6 Preferred type of recycling programA drop off to recycling station program 22%A door to door collection 78%Two types of recycling programmes were proposed to the community. These were thedropping off of material at the recycling stations and the door-to-door collection ofrecyclable material. Seventy eight percent (78%) of the respondents preferred the doorto-door collection of the recyclable material. These people indicated that they did nothave time to walk to the station where material can be disposed. The balance of therespondents (22%) was happy to walk the short distance to hand in their recyclablematerial.79Table 4.7 Reasons for introducing recycling Projects in the areaReasons forrecycling projectPercentage No recyclingproject –reasonsPercentageNot Applicable 14% Not Applicable 86%Reduce waste 34% Few will benefit 5%To gain income 44% Money not enough 9%Create employment 8%There are numerous reasons why people need to have recycling program expanded intheir area. From the above table 44% wanted recycling projects because of income gain,and 8% thought that the projects would create employment in the area. In these areasenvironmental issues enjoys a low priority compared to unemployment problems. Therespondents even mentioned that before they can take full responsibility, they needemployment first and one cannot expect them to take care of the environment on hungrystomach. Thirty four percent (34%) of residents showed concern about the environment,stating that recycling projects will help reduce waste being illegally disposed and thewaste that is disposed on the landfills sites considering the fact that it is very expensiveto construct landfill sites. It is therefore important to limit the amount of waste that istaken to our tip sites. Fourteen percent of the (14%) of people did not know what werethe benefits of expanding recycling projects in the area.According to the councillor there are Environmental committees that deal with SolidWaste Management issues. Due to the visible problems posed by solid waste in the80community there was a need for initiative to curb the problem; consequently Green CleanHealth Committee was formed with the main objective being to keep the environmentclean. The committee did the following in order to achieve the main objectives· Identified the illegal dumping spots in the area;· Determine the reasons for people to dump wastes in these open spaces; and· Find funding for the cleaning up projects.Table 4.8 The perception of Solid Waste Management in ClermontPoor 9%Adequate but poorly managed 32%Good 51%Very good 1%Fifty one percent (51%) noted that the services were good in the area and thirty twopercent (32%) indicated that the services were adequate, but poorly managed. Ninepercent (9%) of the respondents indicated that solid waste management services in thetownship were poor. The researcher noted that the majority of such respondents reside inareas where there is no proper road infrastructure. Only one percent (1%) stated thatservices were very good and the remaining seven percent (7%) was sure about the statusof the waste management in the township. However most of the respondents indicate thatthe frequency of the services should be increased.81Table 4.9 Suggestions from the community about waste management related problemsCollect twice a week 53%More attention during holidays 7%Strong plastic bags ; more plastic bags 18%More attention on street cleaning 9%Environmental Education 9%Not sure 4%The main finding of this investigation was that fifty three percent (53%) indicated thatwhen waste is collected twice a week there will be a decrease in illegal dumping in thearea. Seven percent (7%) of respondents pointed out that illegal dumping occur at a highrate during the holidays because more waste is generated during holiday period. Moreattention must therefore be given to holidays on basis of frequency. Eighteen percent(18%) wanted more refuse plastic bags that should be more durable. Nine percent (9%)were adamant that environmental education programmes be introduced in Clermont.In order to ensure that the results that are obtained from this particular project areaccurate and reliable the research used a more qualitative way of collecting data. Thiswas done by randomly selecting respondents from the original sample to participate onparticipatory method whereby respondents were required to rank the problems in theircommunity according to their level of being problematic. The method is explained indetain in the previous chapter. The following table will illustrate the results of theparticipatory method. In this manner members of the community were given a chance tomake a difference in their lives and make decisions that were going to affect them and82their families in the near future. It was satisfying for the researcher to acknowledge thatpeople are making decisions that they can live with them, unlike in a traditional mannerwhereby an outsider is able make decisions for the community.Table 4.12 The table below indicates the level of income per month of the residents ofClermont TownshipIncome/month Percentage300-499 5%500-699 22%700-899 11%900-1099 21%1100-1299 13%1300-1499 5%1500-1699 5%1700-1899 1%Other 8%Not Applicable 9%From the obtained data it is clear that the residents fall under low-income group.Majority of the residents earn between, 300-899 per month, this figure is generally83considered as low income. Most of the households visited by the researcher dependsolely on social grants for their livelihood. Those who are underemployed (22%)manage to get a salary between 500-699, from casual employments. According toliterature areas like Clermont will not accumulate much waste due to the fact thatunemployment is rife and people don’t have much to spend on goods that will generatemore solid waste. Forty seven percent (47%) of the households generate two bags ofwaste per week, the rate depends on the activities they are engaged in. in someinstances the households can generate more than five or six bags of solid waste. Ninepercent (9%) of the respondents were unemployed with most of then selling fruits andvegetables on the central market of Clermont. Consequently there is more wastecreated by informal trading that sometimes takes place in the homes of therespondents. In most cases informal traders have to buy extra refuse bags in order toaccommodate the solid waste they accumulate. The majority of the residentsconfirmed that they were not willing to stay with this waste till the next collection day;therefore they have to dispose off it somewhere.84Table 4.10 The below table indicates the comparing of problematic waste in ClermontLegend Str.cl D.wast Electr. Inf.tr.w Scr.met Gar.wst SS/wst Ind.wstStreet cleaning Domestic.waste /StreetcleaningStr.eet cleaning Str.eet cleaning Str.eet cleaning Garden .waste SewageSanitary waste .Street .cleaningDomesticwaste Domestic.wasteInf.ormaltrading .wasteDomestic.wasteGarden .waste Domestic.wasteDomestic.wasteElectricity. Informal.tr.ading wasteElectr.icity Garden.wasteSewageSanitary /wasteElectr.icityInformal.trading.wasteInf.ormaltrading .wasteGar.den waste Informal.trading.wasteInformal.trading .wasteScrap.metal Garden waste SewageSanitary/wasteIndustrial.wasteGarden.waste Garden waste Garden. wasteSewageSanitary/wasteSewageSanitary/wasteIndustrial.waste.Table 4.10.1 Ranking of waste problemsProblem Scoring RankingStreet cleaning 5 2Domestic waste 5 2Electricity 2 4Informal trading waste 4 3Scrap metal waste 0 6Garden waste 7 1Sewage Sanitary waste 4 3Industrial waste 1 585Note: Ranking of the above table is as follows, 1-3= Less problematic, 4-5=problematic,6-10= most problematicThe above tables have illustrated that the most problematic waste is garden waste, whichranked seven points on the ranking table. Since municipal waste collectors do not takegarden waste due to the fact that those residents use the wrong plastic bags to storegarden waste, such waste ends up in open spaces. The initiation of vegetable gardenswhere garden waste can be used as organic manure was also a suggested means ofsolving the garden waste problem. The shortage of land exacerbated by the high cost ofland discourages people from initiating garden projects. Vegetable garden projects canalleviate poverty and hunger. People can plant and be able to feed their families and sellthe surplus.Street cleaning service and domestic waste rank second on the ranking scale. Theproblems that are encountered in the street-cleaning category have been associated withthe garden waste problems. There was an agreement between residents and councillorsthat at least the street cleaning should be carried out four times a month. The reason whythey mention domestic waste as a problem is because residents are not satisfies with thefrequency at which the domestic waste is collected. Community suggested that anincrease in waste collection frequency could reduce illegal disposal of waste.In the case of sanitary waste there are major improvements that need to be made. Thegroups of respondents indicated that sewage waste is the problem in some parts ofClermont especially those parts that are still using bucket system. In such area there aremany diseases because sewage waste is not taken for disposal anymore. Although the86issue of sewage waste is alarming some efforts however are being made by thecouncillors to alleviate the problem. The researcher observed that in some parts ofClermont water borne toilets are being built for the residents. However respondents saidthat the process of building water borne toilet is very slow and caters for households withincome. In the case where residents are building their own pit latrine, they are alwaysshallow and filled rapidly. The toilets are usually unhygienic and cause spillage duringrainy seasons.Table 4.13 The table indicate levels of education and age groups in ClermontAge group Percentage Education level Percentage15-24 7% Primary 20%25-34 20% Secondary 48%35-44 26% Tertiary 25%45-54 16% Nursery school 2%55-75 31% No formal educ. 5%Forty-eight percent (48%) of the respondents have secondary education. Theresearcher also found that although these people can read and write, they can notunderstand English. Therefore it is important that all the material that is written onsolid waste and general environmental awareness be interpreted in a language thatpeople can understand. Twenty-five (25%) of the respondents received tertiaryeducation and they can read and write both languages, however this is a minority87group. Twenty percent (20%) of the residents had received primary education and 2%only received pre-school education.Most of the pensioners (55-75 age group) have little or no education, it is thereforenecessary for the environmental educators to use visuals like pictures to help themunderstand impacts of illegal waste disposal. Five percent (5%) of those intervieweddid not receive formal education. A similar number of respondents did not go tonursery school because in that period there were no nursery schools in Clermont.4.4 ConclusionDuring the investigation we have revealed many underlying facts that have largelycontributed to the improper management of solid waste in Clermont. Although inClermont there is a low-income group, people are passionate about taking care of theirsurrounding environment. They have indicated that they are caught in the cycle ofpoverty and it is impossible for them to take care of the environment. They suggested thatopportunities need to be created, that can help them to eradicate poverty at the same timebring in a positive change in the environment. Levels of education if enhanced can makea difference in terms of how people perceive the environment. Results indicate that therespondents that received formal education are aware of environmental problems.This study was able to confirm the types of waste streams that are generated in ClermontTownship. The researcher was able to prove that frequency of waste collection inClermont was inadequate. Investigation was able to understand waste mechanism thatwere used in Clermont and identify where the residents are facing a problems and whatwas the root cause of poor waste management in Clermont township.88Chapter FiveDiscussion, recommendations and conclusion5.1 IntroductionThe final chapter of the report will focus on discussion of the results presented in theprevious chapter. This will be followed by recommendations on how to eliminate illegaldumping in Clermont. The recommendations will, to a large extent, be those put forwardby the community as well as from the viewpoint of the researcher. An overall conclusionwill be presented at the end of the study5.2 General DiscussionIn general the research has shown that, if the waste can be collected twice a week andresidents be provided with proper waste bags for relevant waste streams the problem ofillegal dumping in Clermont could be minimized. Effective communication betweensolid wastes collecting companies and the community members is important. For anexample residents were not informed about the main working principles of the solidwaste collecting, like what time are they required to take the bin outside their houses.As a result, people end up disposing waste in open spaces. Although there was analarming indication that recycling project is needed in the township there were noindications that the project can start soon. The main obstacle is the lack of capacity inthat there are no environmental personnel that are available in Clermont.89There is a need for the authorities to promote township tourism, since it will encouragecleanliness in the area. It is natural for human beings to tidy up their space when they areaware that they are going to have a visitor.Initially in this research it was noted that theory proves that the “higher the income, therewill be an increase in waste generation”. However in Clermont the results of the researchhave clearly shown that there is a contradiction with this theory. Although the area is alow-income group, waste generation is high. The contraction can be attributed to the factthat the majority of residents in Clermont Township practice informal trading in theirhomes. All the products that are purchased for “sipaza” shops informal trading comeswith packages that need to be disposed after the products are consumed.In Clermont residents can burn any kind of waste, with no restrictions. However thiscontributes to health related problems. To avoid the occurrence of such problems it isimportant for councillors or local authorities to create restrictions or regulations in termsof burning of waste, especially garden waste in the townships or any other public space.90Figure 5.1 Rating of needs in ClermontEnvironmental EducationSolid waste ProblemsProper SanitationRoad InfrastructureHousingEmployment91One can deduce from this pyramid that the most pressing issue is unemployment in thetownship of Clermont. As a result environmental problems like solid waste managementenjoy low priority in the community. Although observations have shown that there isillegal dumping in Clermont, people are more concerned about meeting their daily basicneeds rather than worrying about the surrounding environment and its immediateproblems. As one of the residents has pointed out that it is impossible to worry about thesurrounding environment on an empty stomach, as the say says a hungry human being isalways angry and acts like a hungry lion. Consequently there is lot of crime that iscoursing major problems on top of the existing problem of solid waste management in thearea. Housing problem and improper road infrastructure in other areas of Clermont resultsin very little hope for solid waste management to be considered as a pressing issue.5.3 RecommendationsThe company or industry must seek strategies to overcome waste management problems.In most instances many companies perceive themselves as financially incapable toimplement solid waste minimization programmes. The industry must not give up insearch for the low capital investment plan programmes. It is also recommended that theindustry must review its customer’s needs and carry out pilot testing of new processesand product. The company must aim at increased quality controlling manufacturer andopinions of the workers are very important in the future implementation of solid wasteminimizations plan. Workers must point out what they think will be obstacles in theimplementation of programmes. It is essential that the industry employ professionalpeople who will handle waste minimization programmes, this is because these peoplemust be able to compile reports that will state clearly all tangible and intangible benefits92of the project to be undertaken. Also the team must be able to provide alternatives such ascleaner technology.5.3.1 Solid Waste services in developing countriesThe provision of services in small rural areas is a serious problem in South Africa andneighbouring countries like Namibia. Contributing to this problem is long distances thatare between the towns and rural areas. A recent research that was conducted by SouthAfrican consultant produced the two purposes Refutip Tractor- Trailer system as part ofimplementation of integrated waste management strategies for the Northern Namibiantowns. According to Wastecon (August, 2000) the lack of waste awareness together withinvisible priority given to waste management as a municipality service was a coreproblem. Thus it is important to identify all potential problems in all governmentdepartments. The low priority given to waste management in the past has resulted in thelack of proper financing. The lack of capital creates a backlog in the infrastructuredevelopment. Consequently the capability to prosecute waste culprits is compromised.There are a number of issues that should be addressed to appropriately deal with solidwaste generated in developing countries. Isolated investments in equipment andtechnology do not address the key issues, and generally the investment is wasted. Forinvestment in equipment and technology to be successful and suitable, they must bepreceded by investment in the following areas: development of sound, reliable andachievable national policy preparation and implementation of policy.Improvements in the provision of solid waste management services depend upon theexisting systems of administration and urban planning. Generally, it is necessary toprepare a realistic comprehensive plan. The plan can have several names: master plan,93action plan, strategic plan, and others. Regardless of the name given to the plan, it shouldinclude accurate information on the type, quantity, and quality of the waste. In addition,the plan should set goals in terms of collection coverage, degree of reduction, levels ofrecycling, etc. The plan can be implemented only within certain legal and regulatoryframework. This framework should be comprised of the set of ordinances, laws andregulations concerning the management of solid wastes. The laws should includeappropriate responsibilities for enforcement and inspection.One of the most important steps towards improvement of solid waste managementsystems in several developing countries deals with major modifications to organizationalstructures and improvement in human resources of local governments. Typically, theorganization associated with solid waste management is poorly organized and lackhierarchy and importance that other public services (such as water supply and publicservices) are given. Generally, local governments are accustomed to receiving assistancefrom the central govern ment and do not make any efforts to improve their MSWmanagement capacity. As a results local government becomes dependence on the centralgovernment including decision making. Consequently local government may requireassistance in the establishment of a specific department or authority to deal with solidwaste management issues. The degree of autonomy between local government andcentral government may depend upon the size and degree of development of theparticular city. Neighbouring small municipalities may decide to jointly establish aregional organization in order to deal with their solid waste management tasks.945.3.2 Development of the National Waste Management PolicyThe local government units in the developing countries cannot develop and implementreliable, efficient, and cost effective solid waste management programmes without clearnational goal and priorities. However South Africa has tried to put in place anenvironmental policy, although it is fragmented in nature with little or noimplementation. In the Bill of Rights government states that everyone has a right to ahealthy environment, but there are no visible strategies in place that will help achieve thisgoal. In the development of goals and priorities, considerations should be given to someof the usual basic requirements of solid waste management, such as the provision ofwaste collection services to the entire population (including the urban poor) , theapplication of the waste reduction and minimization measures, the implementation ofrecycling programmes, and the improvement of final disposal procedures.The national policy should be developed through the establishment of the nationalcommittees, composed of representatives from both the public and private sectors in theclose consultation with the public. It has been demonstrated that there is no governmentpolicy or strategy will be successful without full acceptance and co operation of thepublic (the end users of solid waste management system). In order to be politicallysustainable, the development of the national policy should be based on realistic goals,taking into consideration the social, political, cultural, and economic conditions andlimitations of the country. Furthermore, the national policy should clearly define the rolesand responsibilities of the various government entities and other pertinent organizationsin order to avoid overlap, inefficiency, and controversy. A clear message should beincluded on the roles, responsibilities, and rights of the users of the system.95The national policy should be instructing the responsible entities to elaborate and enforcean appropriate regulatory and legal framework, which would allow those involve in theimplementation of the policy to achieve and maintain the goals. Sanctions such asseizures and forfeiture were meant to be implemented, but there are no success storiesthat are associated with this law. The only way to minimize such damaging actions to theenvironment is to put in place heavy penalties for violation of these policies. Thelegislation should be able to draw differences in different types of land pollution. In thismanner types of waste will have different penalties on different levels. The impact ofirreversible situations has to be considered when proposing penalties. In the areas wherethe environment is damage in such a way that they can not be reversible, the penaltiesmust be very high opposed to the normal ones. In Clermont there must be penalties thatare imposed to members of community and outsiders. The penalties must allow thatindividuals or companies that are suspected of illegal dumping will be prosecuted. Illegaldumping must be a criminal offence.5.3.3 Resource recovery and recyclingRecycling refers to the concept of a material loop: the production of material, use ofmaterial, return of material to producer, and the recovery and re-production of materialfrom itself. The most common materials are paper, aluminum, steel, glass and plastic.According to the Environmental Protection Agency (1996), Americans recycled orcomposted 24 percent of MSW in 1994, with composting accounting for 3 percent of thattotal. Commonly recycled MSW is paper and paperboard, glass, metals, plastics, rubberand leather, textiles, wood and yard wastes.Crucial to recycling is the marketability of recycled material for businesses that willrecover the recycled material and the marketability of affordable recycled products to96customers willing to purchase the recycled material. MSW must be first produced withmaterial that can be recycled. For example, there are different kinds of plastics used inMSW and each is subjected to a different recovery process. Plastics must be separatedaccording to types; or else the recovery process may become contaminated with thewrong kind of plastic, rendering the recycled product unusable. The Society of thePlastics Industry has developed a uniform code that manufacturers stamp on each productto assist in the sorting of different plastics for recycling. Glass also comes in differenttypes, each having to be sorted and recovered separately (Folz, 1996).Folz (1991) conducted a national survey of 264 community-recycling coordinatorspublished in 1991. Based on survey responses from communities, he was able to drawconclusions on about what factors contributed most for successful implementation andmanagement of recycling programmes. The ranking of problems involved in municipalrecycling, starting with the most important problem, included: finding markets forrecyclables; getting residents to participate in the program; lacking sufficient stategrants or other financial assistance; securing adequate local government financialsupport; obtaining information/technical assistance for recycling; and, preventing theftof recyclables. Respondents reported a wide range of materials included in municipalrecycling programs, everything from newspaper, glass and aluminum to scrap metals,waste oil, batteries and chipboard. They also reported that the most useful publicinformation and education strategies were pamphlets-brochures-bumper stickers,speeches by officials to schools or local groups, and special programs in schools.Citizen participation had a significant effect upon the type of programme, decisionsabout curbside pickup, whether a private contractor picks up recyclable materials,whether composting is used for yard waste, the provision of bins or containers, sameday pickup, and separation policy.97The recycling of paper and cardboard can also generate income that can help people tobreak the cycle of poverty. There are numerous benefits that can be achieved in recyclingpaper that in return protect natural resources, for example by recycling papers we areconserving our trees and in turn we have more oxygen which improves the quality of life.These percent increases dramatically in shops and offices and, in household most ofpapers are from packaging material.If the residents in Clermont want to recycle paper material, they need to make privatearrangements. There is no public facility that is dedicated to recycling of all wastestreams. The process is privatized; as a result the majority of resident are not aware ofsuch facilities. During the investigation the majority of the respondents indicated thatpapers are not recycled. The only option available for them is to dispose papers with thedomestic waste.Resource recovery provides income for a number of people in a lower economic sector,those who are underemployed and unemployed or pensioners. Material such as metals,bottles and papers are discarded as waste can be sold for recycling. Few residentshowever have access to these facilities where they are able to sell metal other materials,since most of them are not aware of the value of the material and furthermore the lackknowledge as to recycling benefits. There is also a problem of distribution of informationwithin the township. There is also an element of selfishness whereby a select few havethe information and are not willing to share it with the rest of the community. It isrecommended that local authorities need to supervise process, so to ensure that everyone98has access to such facilities. During research it was clear that most of the people giveaway their material to those who have access to the buyer.However if bottle and metal wastes are not the only wastes that can be recycled in therecycling of paper and cardboard can generate income that can help people to break thecycle of poverty. There are numerous benefits that can be achieved in recycling paper thatin return protect natural resources, for example by recycling papers we are conserving ourtrees and in return we have more oxygen which improves the quality of life. The researchhas proven that papers makes up one-third of waste disposed off in bins. These percentincreases dramatically in shops and offices and, in household most of the papers are frompackaging material. Although there are positives in recycling of papers there areweakness that needs new improvement in terms of technology advancement. It is knownthat paper gets its strength from the wood fibers, however as the paper gets recycled thefibers get shorter and weaker. Consequently the paper can be recycled four to five timesand another virgin pulp from trees is needed to maintain the quality.The streets of Clermont are lined with plastic material that makes the area look untidy.However most of these plastics litter the area are not recyclable due to the fact that theyare less than eighty microns. The only solution to such a problem is to reuse the plasticsby making craft work out of the plastics and reusing them to carrying of things ratherthan disposing them in open spaces.It is important to recognize that recycling alone cannot solve the problem of waste beingillegally disposed in open spaces and managing our waste properly. However it is one ofthe options in integrated waste management that can help us to curb the problem. One ofthe disadvantages in recycling is that in some cases the energy use turns to be greater than99using prime materials at the same time by using prime materials. The use of primematerials, however impacts on resources, therefore it is wise to make a choice that willbenefit the environment as a whole.5.3.4 Source ReductionSource reduction is defined as the elimination of waste by not generating the waste. TheEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines source reduction as reducing thequantity of material that must be discarded, minimising toxic substances in products andmanufacturing products with longer life expectancies. Consumers can reduce waste byavoiding the purchase of highly packaged materials such as microwave foods, using bothsides of paper, purchasing bulk foods and storing it in reusable containers or by reusingfoil and plastic or paper bags (Environmental Protection Agency, 1996). This can beimplemented in Clermont.5.3.5 CompostingComposting is the breaking down of organic materials such as grass, leaves and brushinto soil-like sediment that can be used to support the growth of additional grasses, treesand bushes. Composting is aided by the mixing of food scraps and allows for therecycling of leftovers or spoiled food supplies. “Backyard composting” is ways thatresidential homeowners recycle their own grass, leaves and brush. Because mostmunicipal landfills no longer accept yard wastes, there are an estimated 2,000-2,300municipal yard waste composting sites that collect grass, leaves, and other brush alongwith restaurant food wastes. This compost can be in turn sold to golf courses, horticulturebusinesses, or used in municipal parks or as cover for municipal landfills (Darmstadter,1992).100The use of compost as a soil amendment, fertiliser is crucial in many countries. Thistechnique of recycling solid waste has been successful in Asian countries because it wastheir old tradition to make and use compost. On the other hand, Western Europe utilises arange of technologies to manufacture compost. In these countries producing compost isused as the solid waste management system. Over the past there are wide failures thathave been witnessed in other countries, despite huge successes in India and China(Nozick, 1992). Compost systems have failed because of economic and technicalreasons. What these failures have in common is failure to understand the role ofcomposting as part of an overall waste management system. Many compost plants havefailed because of the inability to secure waste or to the need to market the compost thatproduced.In much of Latin America and Africa, however, efforts to organise composting havefailed to secure enough waste. When dumping or land filling is inexpensive and notsubject to effective environmental controls, composting is relatively expensive. InEurope, where land filling is subject to controls and fees and land is very limited,composting is much more attractive. Furthermore, European political culture givesgovernment a monopoly over the waste stream, so a policy decision to give composting apriority over land filling can force waste to a composting facility even when it is not costcompetitive.The second economic failure is on the marketing of the finish product. The cost ofcompost depends on external demand for soil enhancers, on perceptions of its value, onits quality, and on its accessibility to potential users in the immediate vicinity. It alsodepends if other alternatives are available to farmers and cultivators in the region, and on101the cost of those alternatives from chemical fertiliser to wastewater sludge relative to thecost of the compost.· Compost marketing works when:· The farmers or gardeners are located close to the source of the compost;· The entity producing the compost is willing to transport it to the users; and· The compost is priced below the price of commercial fertilizers, or isgiven away.Composting has experienced two kinds of technical failures: first, a failure of themechanical systems that manipulate waste streams before composting itself begins, andsecondly, a failure of the decomposition process itself, largely attributable to failure tocreate the environment for the biological process to thrive. On another level, the failureof composting technology is a failure of the waste management sector to understandthe nature of the waste stream or the biological composting processes, and to attempt tosolve problems with over-designed machines. Since it has been indicated in chapterfour, illegally dumping of both domestic and garden waste material on open spaces.The community of Clermont can use such waste to create compost. The members ofthe community can start community vegetable gardens using the compost to fertilizesoil.Failure of mechanical pre-processing: The technological failure of composting isprimarily a failure of the mechanical pre-processing systems, and not of the biologicalcomposting process itself. Bio waste composting facilities have generally relied on102complex mechanical pre-processing to remove non-compostables. These systems have byand large failed at their tasks. It is an open question as to whether there is any mechanicalsystem, which could ever adequately identify and separate all of the materials that occurin mixed waste, but no existing systems do this sufficiently to ensure good compostquality.Pre-processing techniques based on manual separation aided by human eyes and handshave consistently produced the best compost in developing countries, and often inindustrialised ones as well. There are small-scale bio waste composting facilities in bothindustrialised and developing countries that are successful because of the high degree ofmanual pre-processing. The larger facilities dependent on mechanical separation cannotaccommodate the diversity of the waste stream.The demand of high organic content is essential: While many bio- waste compostingfacilities are failures, the great predominance of source-separated composting systems issuccesses. Yard, garden, restaurant, and market waste composting projects quietly thrivein every corner of the globe. The biological composting process is so basic that it is verylikely to succeed if there is an appropriate input stream and proper handling.In developing countries, the high animal and vegetable waste content of the waste stream,combined with existing materials recovery systems, means that the mixed waste stream issufficiently compostable to produce good compost at a small or medium scale. Supportand enhancement of existing materials recovery activities and (where otherwisereasonable) limitation of new types of packaging can maintain the compostability of thewaste stream and result in the production of good quality compost (www.ananzi.com).103Failure of biological processes: Where there is a failure in the composting process itself,this relates to the failure to understand the nature of biological processes. Compostbacteria, insects, and micro-organisms require certain environmental conditions to thrive.If these are absent or interrupted, they must be corrected (Nozick, 1992; KAB, 1996).In order to build composting plants in Clermont Township, it is essential to conductnecessary research. High cost of the process must be considered because the communityof Clermont does not have financial resources and necessary technology and aspect toimplement this project. Although waste supply might be huge, most of the solid wastegenerated in Clermont is papers and bottles, domestic waste (Biological waste) onlycontribute five percent. Clermont can only capitalize on garden waste (60%) that seemsto pose a major problem on disposal. The fact that there are no farmers around thetownship can course a lack of demand. In that the will be no one to utilize the finishproduct (compost).126.96.36.199 Formulation of guiding principles for privatization of solid waste collectionServicesAlthough collection of waste in Clermont is privatized, there is a need for policyformulation and development of appropriate legislation and guidelines at the nationallevel on privatization including the redefinition of the role of Local governments.There is also need to carry out privatization potential studies to identify and prioritiesspecific municipal services that are appropriate for privatization in each city. It isadvisable to undertake a thorough assessment of the likely impacts of privatizationbefore embarking on it. The potential research areas for privatization include the104following municipal services: – transport; bus parks; public toilets; street cleaning; roadmaintenance; schools and health centers; and sanitation.Mechanisms and guidelines should be developed and put in place to ensure thatprivatization does not exclude or impose burden on the poor. These may include somesafety nets and cross-subsidization on poor people, the case in point is Clermont. Inaddition, municipalities may find it necessary to provide some basic services in lowincomeareas, especially health-care, education and collection of garbage. Crosssubsidizingsuch service provision to the poor neighborhoods would be seen to be morefeasible through the “contracting” mode of privatization but not through pureprivatization.There is need for greater public education on privatization. The general public as well asstakeholders, including municipal councilors and officers, and urban communities need tobe sensitized and informed on the rationale and benefits of privatization, as a system ofproviding municipal services. Where privatization results in retrenchment of employeesin Clermont, innovative approaches such as retraining programme should be put in place.Initiatives by informal sector entrepreneurs should be encouraged and supported by localauthorities through enabling byelaws and other administrative incentives. The lattershould take advantage of the former in order to increase access to basic services. Thiscould start by recognition of the many current private operators in waste collection anddisposal, for example. There should also be due recognition and encouragement of otherself-help initiatives, partnerships, community based organizations and other associations,which have proved capable of providing services to themselves e.g. in the area of watersupply, garbage collection and transport services.105Capacity building and training for local government official is an essential part of theprivatization process. Collaboration with training institutions for collaborative trainingneeds assessment; development and execution of training would greatly enhance theprivatization process. The establishment of data banks and management informationsystems in local municipalities is essential. This will facilitate effective monitoring andmanagement of service delivery by all actors involved in the process and thereby ensuressustainability in service provision.Decentralization is a necessary framework for privatization. It entails giving decisionmakingpower with corresponding financial resources to the local level. Greaterdecentralization should be encouraged and implemented in practice as a way of dealingwith the expansion of municipal service development and provision. Greater devolutionof decision-making authority, responsibilities and commensurate resources should begiven to local authorities in the true essence of “subsidiary” principlesOne can safely say that there is no healthy relation between stakeholders of solid wastecollection, due to poor communication between the waste collecting company, thecommunity and authorities. It is necessary for the solid waste collecting company to berepresented during community meetings where all issues or problems that are plaguingthe community are voiced out. The company needs to create a dialogue with theresidents. This can be done through the voice of councilors or local authorities. Solidwaste companies needs to listen to all concerns of the residents and be able to explain tothe whole society how much they need to invest in order to maintain high standards ofcleanliness in their area.1065.3.7 Environmental Education and dissemination of knowledge about Solid WasteManagement Policy (SWMP)The introduction of environmental education programme in the township of Clermont isessential. Residents of Clermont are not informed about environmental issues. Thecouncilors are aware of general environmental issues, but are not concerned about SolidWaste Management Policy (SWMP). There is a general assumption that SWMP does notaffect ones daily life. As a result, some of the respondents do not see the need to knowand internalize the policy. During the interview with the councilors the problem of ratepayment made headlines, it was recognized that people don’t want to invest on services,but they want services to be excellent.Ignorance about SWMP exists in all respondents that were participating during the study.Such ignorance match perfectly with the fact that the local authorities are not informedabout the SWMP, consequently the residents follow the same pattern. It is vital that theleaders become aware of the environmental policy as a whole. In this way they will beable to transfer such knowledge to the community. It is also important for them to adopt aholistic approach when thinking about development in their areas; this will incorporateenvironmental issues and service delivery. The high schools that were visited by theresearcher showed the same pattern of ignorance. The learners and the educators were notinformed about the SWMP. Although the school was involved in environmental issueslike cleaning campaigns, they indicated that they do not know what Solid WasteManagement Policy is all about. The project that involved the local schools was calledKeep Clermont Clean Campaign. Educators are aware of penalties and policies becauseof the media exposure. This is especially so when individuals or the community is suingcertain company for polluting their environment or putting their lives at risks. It is107important for the high school youth to be educated about their surrounding environmentand the policies that protect the environment.The level of education indicated how people respond to the environmental related issues.For example residents who did have any formal education and no skills did not care aboutthe environment. Such individuals were concerned about their situation of beingunemployed and how can they survive the jaws of poverty. However the group that hasskills and means of income and formal education were concerned about the cleanliness ofthe environment. There is a major gap between the groups such that there is class divisionthat exists within the community. As a result there is no unity in the community, withrespect to caring for the environment. The members of Clermont Township need to standtogether and try to come up with constructive solutions to solid waste managementproblems.Educators also recognize that Clermont has a serious problem when it comes to solidwaste management. The solution to most of the environmental problems in Clermont canbe eliminated if teachers can be trained to educate children about their surroundingenvironment and how to keep it clean. In this way young people will be able to pass theknowledge to elders. Consequently it will be easy to implement it when the entirecommunity is involved.Adult literacy problems with skills development are currently in progress in Clermont.There is no reasoning why environmental programmes can not be incorporated into theadult literacy programme.108The tenants that have mushroomed in the township exacerbate the problem of solidwaste. As a result the lack of ownership results in negligence. One case that washighlighted by the councilor during the interview was the case of a young woman whowas renting the home in Clermont during the cleaning campaign. What was noticeablewas that solid littered everywhere. The respondents pointed out that it was not her placeto clean the yard, but it was the landlord’s responsibility to clean the litter.Furthermore she pointed out that the interior of her house was very clean, “it was veryclean indeed”. In general the tenants were far removed from those owning the dwellings.People who are renting the houses in Clermont don’t see the reason why they must cleantheir surroundings, however they are the one’s affected most by illegal dumping.Ironically it is their waste that is expected to be cleaned by the landlord –there is a shift ofresponsibility. This indicates that if someone does not own the land or yard it is easy topollute and degrade the environment without any concern. The implications of such dirtyenvironment are serious health problem and degradation of the environment. Stereotypeand attitude developed by tenants needs to be changed through environmental education.The world will be better place to live in if we start taking individual environmentalresponsibilities for our surroundings. It is amazing to note that the tenants have beenliving in Clermont far as long as ten years residing in the area and despite this fact theyare still not concerned about their surrounding environment.Clermont Township is situated near an industrialized area called New German where themajority of them are employed. In this area there is cluster of industries that produceswaste material, as it is known that whenever a product is manufactured there will ageneration of waste. The waste can be in a liquid or solid form depending on the product109that is being produced. In the case of Clermont the study reveled that previously therewas a problem of solid waste being illegally disposed along the Palmiet River that runsthrough Clermont and. However the dumping site was later converted into a playgroundfor young people. The biggest question is that what kind of material that was disposed inthis site? Were there any researches that were done before converting the area into arecreational zone? There is a possibility that the waste that is buried under that groundmaybe a time bomb waiting to explode and it might happen that it also contaminatedunderground water. River disposal was stopped by local councilors. Disciplinary actionswere taken against companies disposing off waste in rivers. Companies responded bystating that they hired a contractor to take the waste and they had no direct involvementin the disposal. However at the end the councilors managed to win the fight to protect thewell being of the environment.5.4 Gender IssuesGarden waste could have been used for vegetable gardens. These gardens will use gardenwaste as fertilizers. Although it is stipulated that people in Clermont do not have land topractice agriculture, but people were willing to sacrifice part of their yard to start smallvegetable gardens. Surplus garden waste can be given to outsiders who need it. Peoplepractice subsistence farming and they normally prefer organic fertilizers rather thanchemical ones. For this to work there must be co-coordinated structure in place. Thefunction of the structure will be to find out where is the waste needed, and negotiate dealswith farmers or individuals on behalf of the community. Another important function forthe structure is to arrange proper transportation that will move waste where it is neededthe most, and to avoid dumping.110Another recommendation was that, it was essential for the authorities, together withmembers of the community to place guiding principles that will determine the generaldisposal and handling of waste within the township. This will be like a code of conductthat is put forth by the residents of Clermont Township. For example by prohibitingcertain activities that can cause danger in the members of the community, like preventingpeople from burning garden waste or any kind of waste within the township. Burningwaste eliminates one problem, but at the same time creates another problem of airpollution. To put it in simpler manner township residents must be able to lay downground rules or house keeping principles where all residents are going to abide. In orderto achieve such goals there is a need for all stakeholders to have access to relevantinformation and be able to communicate with surrounding areas for co-ordination andrecycling programmes. Women of Clermont can play major role in the implementation ofcommunity gardens.5.5 Introducing waste collection facilities and decentralization of servicesSkips can be strategically placed around the township. When solid waste is not collected,it can be stored until the next collection day. This can be a huge achievement for thepeople in that there will space where solid waste can store. In this way illegal dumpingwill reduced dramatically.It will be better if communities are consulted in awarding of contracts. Local residentshave a better understanding of their area. Investigation reveals that in general local peoplehave positive environmental prospects and are passionate about improving theirsurrounding environment and making it a better place. The research has shown thatresidents of Clermont have no direct communication with the solid waste company and111this has lead to numerous problems of disagreements. It will take a long time for suchproblems to be addressed.5.6 ConclusionAlthough there is hope for a positive change in Clermont, it will not happen over night.The councilors of the area have to initiate capacity building in the area by startingenvironmental clubs that will look at environmental issues including solid wastemanagement, which is a pressing issue that is causing major environmentaldegradation and sabotage possible prospects of township tourism in the area. Solidwaste associated diseases also negatively affect the health of people who reside inClermont. The community at large needs to take a stand about their surroundingenvironment because they have a right to stay in a clean and healthy environment.Authorities or councilors need to assimilate important knowledge from the centralgovernment of how to go about in solving such environmental problems. Proactiveplanning is essential and this is possible by implementing principles that will better thesituation. Currently in South Africa we have the best environmental policy in place butwe need the capacity and strategies to implement it. Environmental education on thelocal level will be a best move towards a better environment.112ReferencesAlan H. (1977) environmental Management in local Government: A study of localResponse to Federal mandate; Greenwood pub Group.Amis D. (1998) Policies and Regulations on Solid. London.Arkava, M.I. ; Lane, T.A. (1983) Beginning social work research. Boston; Allyn ;Bacon.Bailey K.D. 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