Topic: BusinessManagement

Last updated: March 29, 2019

AimObjectiveIntroduction Area descriptionKilla Saifullah district located in northwestern of Balochistan. Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan by area having six large divisions, Killasaifullah district belong to division Zob. Balochistan makes about 44% of the total geographical area of the country. The town located at a stature of 2,768 ft. In coldness it is extremely wintry specially in Kan Mehterzai and in summer it is incredibly warm.

The urban mostly consists of tiny sludge and chunk houses, several tiny commerce. Kila Saifullah is renowned intended for its lush earth creates fruits and vegetables. Many apple and apricot orchards send overseas fruits to other area of the country. Water and Heavy metals(Bhaskar et all.

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, 2009). the assessment of heavy metals in the surface water. samples collected to analysis the PH, electrical conductivity, and heavy metal concentration in surface water.

the PH value of the surface water is alkaline (7.8-8.2) which is best for irrigation use.

the PH of ground water is also alkaline (7.6-8.4). the conductivity of water (ground, surface) is about 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.

34-2.44 mS/cm. all samples have low concentration of heavy metals. however, this water is safe and can use for all purposes.(khan et all., 2013). the heavy metals like cadmium, copper, magnesium, zinc are the most common polluted metals for water. to evaluate the health risks due to the polluted drinking water.

to find out the concentration of heavy metals in to water the atomic absorption spectrophotometer used and the results were compared by the standards gives by the world health organization. the chromium, cadmium, nickel found in to the high limits and the magnesium, zinc is found in their permissible limits. the heavy metals are not present in high amount which describe that there are not at all any serious effects of the water on the lives of living beings. and to reduce the concentration of the heavy metal in to the water there must be reduction of the anthropogenic activities and geological problems. (Tiwari et all., 2010). due to the rapid increase in industries and urban areas the release of the heavy metals in the environment the water become polluted. the main effect of the heavy metals is on the surface water and the people are dependent on this surface water for the drinking purpose.

the samples were collected for the determination of the heavy metals according to analysis cd and cu are the heavy metals present exceeded amount vale as compare to the limit value given by the WHO. there should be some of the laws and control regulations about the illegal discharge of the industrial and house holed waste near to the surface water bodies to prevent the water pollution.(Tarren et all., 2014) the loralai is located near the Afghanistan border. The temperature of the area in winter near freezing point and in summer near 40?.this area is popular due to its agricultural activities. The water for drinking purpose is obtained from tube wells and karez (ground water).

the heavy metals are the source to pollute the both surface and ground eater the most common heavy metal found in the water is arsenic found worldwide. The heavy metals in water can cause the mental disorders, reproductive disease, abnormalities, cancers and many other dangerous diseases. According to EPA the heavy metal in drinking water is about 0.

006 mg/l is accepted. To evaluate the concentration of heavy metals in water there must be knowledge of depth, age, location, PH of sample, conductivity, pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides, and nearby population. There are about 50 samples of water collected from the location and about 50 ml of HNO3 added for the sample preservation. the PH and conductivity of samples measured by PH meter and conductive meter.

To find out the heavy metal concentration the (SOLAAR AA SERIES S4 SYSTEM ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (AAS) by Flame method with the help of nitrous oxide/Acetylene gases. For the accuracy each sample is measured 3 times rapidly. For the assessment of each sample the standard solutions were prepared as for arsenic 1000 ppm stock solution of arsenic with the three different concentrations of 40.00, 80.00, 120.

00 mg/l and dissolved in de-ionized water of 25 ml. for lead 1000 ppm stock of lead with three different concentrations of 7.00, 14.

00, 21.00 mg/l and dissolved in de-ionized water of 25 ml. and for antimony 1000 ppm stock solution of antimony with three different concentrations of 25.00, 50.00, 75.00 mg/l and dissolved in de-ionized water of 25 ml after all measurements the PH of all samples is near to 8.00 (basic).

The EC values of all the water samples were in the normal range of 50-500 uS/cm. the age of all tube wells is about 4 years. And depth is recorded about 509 feet’s. the lead and arsenic present in all samples below than the recommended by the WHO.

The anatomy and aluminum present in all samples or higher than the recommended value found in greater mount in samples of lower depth and found in lower amount in the samples of higher depth of wells. Also the anatomy mostly present in the water of tube well while the aluminum present in all types of waters. The arsenic present in samples but below the recommended value and found in higher amount in the higher depth of tube well and in lower amount in the lower depth of tube well’s water. and lead found in water of all depths of wells. (khan et all., 2013).

The safe and clean drinking water is the basic and essential need for living beings to live a safe life. To find out the quality of the water in the region the samples were selected from the wells and deep areas because these are the main sources of drinking water in the area. the parameters for assessment are the coliform bacteria and anions used. the permissible limit for nitrate is 10 and in 13 sites it is exceed 10.3-14.84 mg/l. sulphate concentration in 9 sites is exceed from 500 in to 505 or 555 mg/l. as similar all heavy metals concentrations were exceeded from there permissible level.

the major source of these heavy metals in area are the agrochemicals, pipelines, sewage discharge and transportations. to avoid the heavy metal concentration in to drinking water there must be a proper dumping system for sewage waste, farmers should use the agrochemicals in a limited and also action against the illegal transportation. and government should established the public awareness and education programs.(Amir et all., 2009). the arsenic is a heavy metal and its concentration in water is observe in many of the countries. as the Pakistan having the limited water resources and due to the rapid use of this water for irrigation, industrial, domestic uses the water become scarce. also 70% the surface water of Pakistan become more polluted and the ground water polluted by the heavy metals, biological, organic and inorganic pollutants.

and the water of tube wells are contaminated with the arsenic in exceeded amount. to control the arsenic concentration there are some treatment which includes the ion exchange, filtration, adsorption and so on. and the best method to purify the water from arsenic is bioremediation. (Baseer et all.

, 2001). the heavy metals present in to the drinking water from the beginning but in the limited amount and beneficial amount. due to modern era, industrialization and urbanization the heavy metal are present in high amount on the surface and to estimate and fix this issue the assessment and measurement of heavy metals can be done. the method is to collect the samples of water from the area of Pakistan. samples were collected from different sources. and the heavy metals are determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer PH of samples were measured by the PH meter and by formula total dissolved solids were calculated with the help of formula. the results were compared with their standards given by WHO and environmental protection agency.

according to analysis the nickel and lead were found in all sources of water in area. chromium found only in the hand pump water. mercury and arsenic not found in any sample. Copper, iron, manganese, cadmium and zinc found in all samples but in limit.the PH of all all samples is same given by WHO.

(Azhar et all., 2014). the concentration of heavy metals in sediments in lake determine through the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, metal pollution index.

the samples of sediments collected with two years of observation and taken in to both post/pre moon soon season. the risk of toxicity by heavy metals is analyze through the sediment quality guidelines given by EPA, WHO to check out the low of medium effect levels. and also check out the thrash hold /probable levels of effects. in samples the concentration of the heavy metals (Ni, Mn, Pb) are found in the sample which are collected in the post mon soon. and in the pre-moon soon Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, Pb, Cu, Li analyze in samples through enrichment factors.

Cd, Zn, Ni and Mn appears in samples in the process of geoaccumulation index. this assessment can help to understand the contamination of heavy metals in to the water in lake of Pakistan. this data is helpful to make a best management system in the area to purify the water.(Arain et all., 2009).

The presence of the As in the water may cause harm to crops, vegetables, fish and by their accumulation the human health have impacts. to check out these all impacts and their solution the samples were collected and measures through the electrotharmal atomic absorption spectrometry. according to analysis the amount or concentration of the As in the water is high than the given guidelines of WHO. the As is present in agricultural soil is about 11.3–55.8 and 8.7–46.

2 mg/kg. in the leafy vegetation the As is present about (0.90–1.20 mg/kg) as compare to the ground vegetation.

the total absorption in human body on daily basis is about 9.7–12.2 ?g/kg.

this study provide great information about the concentration and its adverse effects on the living beings.(Krishna et all., 2009). since past three decades a lot of industries (chemical, pharmaceutical) are formed for the ease of human. as in result many of the toxic substances directly release in to the natural environment.

to evaluate such effluent samples are collected and measured according to measures the trace elements (B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Sr, Ba and Pb) are found about 53 samples (water). further analysis and statistical techniques describe that Sr, Ba, Co, Ni and Cr were introduced in environment from mixed source (anthropogenic, geogenic). while the whereas Fe, Mn, As, Pb, Zn, B and Co were derived from the anthropogenic activities. there should be some of the management designs and process to control these trace elements from polluting the environment.

(Khan et all., 2014). this study describes the condition of milk, crop, water samples in the northern Pakistan. the heavy metals Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni in to the milk water and crops and their impacts on the health of human and also on environment. the atomic absorption spectrometer uses to analyze the concentration of heavy metal in human body. results describe that the heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni) increase the level of heavy metals in the adults as compare to children. according to analysis the samples of water and milk are the 18% reasonable to introduce heavy metals in high amount to the human body. the vegetables and other solid foods are only 5% responsible for the contamination of the heavy metals in to the body.

(Shah et all., 2012). the heavy metal concentration in the drinking water may cause the serious impacts on the health of human. to find out the concentration of heavy metals in water the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer is used. for the measuring of the contaminated source the statistical measures like one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used.

the results describe that the heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Pb, Cd) found in average daily dose (ADD) and hazard quotient (HQ) process. the concentration or contamination of the heavy metals in water and then in human body may cause the disease such as diarrhea, viral hepatitis, headache, hypertension, abdominal pain, liver and kidney problems. to resolve these health issues government should take a strict action against the discharge of such heavy metals directly to water and provide purified water to the public and society.

(Khan et all.,2013). the heavy metals also the part of the soil and may cause the great impacts on the soils health, plants, animals, and the human health. the heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn) are commonly present in to the soil. according to analysis the heavy metal cadmium found in greater amount (95% in fruits, 100% in vegetables) as compare to the limits set by the national organizations by the analysis of metal transfer factors the heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn) are found in greater concentration. but the final analysis describes that by these heavy metals there are not at all any health risks by them except cadmium which is present in great concentration and cause high risks to human health.(Khan et all.,2013).

the heavy metals also the part of the soil and may cause the great impacts on the soils health, plants, animals, and the human health. the heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn) are commonly present in to the soil. according to analysis the heavy metal cadmium found in greater amount (95% in fruits, 100% in vegetables) as compare to the limits set by the national organizations by the analysis of metal transfer factors the heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn) are found in greater concentration. but the final analysis describes that by these heavy metals there are not at all any health risks by them except cadmium which is present in great concentration and cause high risks to human health.(Jan et all., 2010). to evaluate the contribution of the different industries in the heavy metal concentration in the water and soil.

the statistical techniques (cluster analysis PCA, regression and correlation analysis, one-way ANOVA) are applied for the analysis). the samples collected from industries streams and nearby society. the main aim is to find out the metal concentration levels with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. according to results the heavy metal concentration in soil samples is higher than the water samples and the concentration of the Mn, Pb is about 8.268 and 2.971 mg/L. and about the many of other elements are found in three medias and also have some impacts on both health and environment.(Kapoor et all.

, 2010). after the rapid improvement and increase in the industrialization and the modernization the heavy metals are present in high amount in the natural environment. the heavy metals with the atomic density of 6 g/cm3 are more soluble and difficult to eliminate and also transfer in to the food chain.

about the 20 of heavy metals are in listed by the international organizations as the high toxic elements. mostly arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel mercury and zinc are found in the environment and effects the food chain and human health. according to study these all cause the chronic diseases in the human. there discharge on land may cause damage to plants and source of their contamination in to the food chain. the cadmium causes the many of diseases and the DNA modifications and introduce the abnormalities. there are many of legislations to control the contaminations a common method to control concentration of heavy metals is physiochemical treatment process.

the precipitation process is a common process for the removal of the heavy metals such as by filter the precipitates of the heavy metals the water is purified by contamination. through the ion exchange process, the cadmium and chlorine are easily removed from water. reverse osmosis is the process in which the water is cross from the membrane from which only water and necessary nutrient pass and all the toxicants and waste are left. phytoremediation is another process in which with the help of green plants the water contamination is removed. by phytodegradation the plants metabolism process helps to remove the heavy metals from the soil. by phytostimulation the plants release such molecules from roots by which the HM degradation increased rhizofiltration the plants release molecules which increase the microbial activity and contaminations from water and soil are removed.

Phytovolatilization is process in which the plants absorb the heavy metals and release them into atmosphere by leaves. phytostabilization is the process in which the plants make the limit of the contaminations in the soil to control contamination in soil. microbial remediation process by which the microbial activities are speed up to degreed the contaminants. these all process are useful and cheap to control the contaminations and their rapid increase in environment.

(Khan et all.,2015). the heavy metals in the water of the Pakistan’s district Peshawar are asses for the purpose to analyze the impact on the environment and the human health.

the samples were collected throughout the district and analyze by the atomic absorption spectrometer. the samples were taken for analysis of the heavy metals As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the water. with the help of pollution index (PI) values about 17.80, 11.

92, 7.50, and 5.70 for these heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni. the cadmium and lead are present in higher concentration or limits as compare to the WHO limits given in their guidelines. according to health assessment process the value for the hazard quotient the lead and cadmium are those heavy metals which may cause the impact such as chronic risks for human health. there must be some of the policies and laws are required to control the problems related to contamination and its effects on the health. from the urban area the release of effluents is higher than the rural areas.

(Trevelin et all., 2015). to measure and analyze the heavy metals by using atomic spectrometer the preparation of the samples is a difficult way so that’s way according to study is a process for simple analysis.

the process is based on the novel strategy for crude oil sample preparation for the determination of the Ba, Ca, Mg, Na with the help of inductively coupled plasma optical spectroscopy. by heating up on 80 degrees centigrade the solution was divided into two phases. acquis phase is measured by the ICPOES and standard solutions of all heavy metals were used for comparison. the whole process is simple and use for the determination of the trace elements or heavy elements with the help of crude oil it is a new and easy method. (Waseem et all.,2014). The microelements, micronutrients and trace elements are necessary for the all living beings but only low amount.

These all appear in human, plant, animals through natural (normal amount required) as well by anthropogenic activities (in high amount). They play important roles in the biological, chemical and biochemical activities in all living beings. Trace elements (Cadmium, beryllium, aluminum, uranium, mercury, lead, bismuth, barium, antimony, arsenic) are not beneficial and harmful even in low Pakistan due to migration(rural-urban) the natural resources are deteriorating. And the people drink mostly contaminated water due to which each year about 250,000 deaths took place.

The ground water serves as about one-third in Pakistan. Main causes of water (ground, surface) pollution the byproducts of all activities (agriculture, industries, manufacturing, food production). The arsenic is a carcinogenic trace element which is present almost worldwide in polluted water. The arsenic cause dangerous cancers and mostly in Pakistan present in the water of Punjab and Sindh. According to assessment the arsenic pollute about 35 % of water resources out of 105 in Pakistan.

The WHO worldwide sat standards for the drinking water and arsenic concentration in to it. According to Pakistan’s WHO the accepted arsenic concentration in drinking water is about 0.70% were above50?g/L. most of the high concentration of arsenic is in the southern part of Pakistan. In southern part of Pakistan arsenic range is 35.2–158?g/L which is higher than the WHO guidance value. And As present in low amount in soil depth as compare to above surface of soil on same location.

In soil As present due to As-rich water use for irrigation. The arsenic in soil effect the plant growth and its roots in Pakistan the high amount of As found in mint, spinach, coriander in range of 0.90–1.20mg/kg. and in onion, carrot and potato, in the rangeof0.048–0.

256mg/kg. the cadmium causes the acute and chronic diseases in living beings. The cadmium appears with activities like the industrial waste fertilizers.

The cadmium present in sewage water in high amount. According to WHO the accepted value range is 0.003mg/L for cadmium. Cadmium cause great problems by disturbing the food chain. The lead is another trace element cause the disease of kidney failure and mental disorders or even cause death. Lead present in very low amount on the earth crust but it appears in high amount due to anthropogenic activities (mining, final use). In Pakistan amount of lead concentration exceed from its permissible level which is 0.

01mg/L. lead found in high amount in the soil water and air of the many areas of Pakistan the concentration of lead in plant found mostly in there leafs about 27.49mg/kg and 15.58mg/kg.

cause the damage to the productivity and fertility of soil and plants. Nickel found naturally in plants animals and soil. The nickel released in atmosphere naturally as well as by anthropogenic activities. in human the nickel exposures result contaminated food ingestion, water, inhalation, and percutaneous absorption.

According to WHO nickel concentration in drinking water is 0.07mg/L. the nickel exceeds about 75% in the water of Pakistan and soil is concentrated highly with nickel about 324mg/kg. copper is also essential element found in plants and animal’s livers. WHO/NSDWQ-Pak standard limitsof2mg/L. the copper concentration in water have not at all adverse effects like other elements. The iron used as a pigment in industries it is an important element.

The main source of the iron is the manufacturing of leather and discharge of its the ground water of Pakistan the concentration range found about 0.1-1193mg/kg. however, some areas of zinc contaminated are observe about 29755 mg/kg. the heavy metals cause adverse impacts on the human health.

The high concentration of heavy metals is due to anthropogenic activities. (Muhammad et all., 2011).

The heavy metals have great impacts on the human beings. To find out the concentration of heavy metals in drinking water the samples were collected from the area. most common metals which are accepted to detect in samples are copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, magnesium, lead. Also there are adverse impacts of these elements on the nearby community due to their high concentration. the heavy metal concentration can determine by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer the results of the all heavy metals concentrations in the area were compared by the standards given by the WHO for each of the heavy metal. Also by heavy metal concentration there is the health assessment process as the chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient were calculated.

The results are


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