Topic: BusinessIndustry

Last updated: March 5, 2019

Mzokuthula I. Zulu 21801534
Durban University of Technology
August – September 2018

The engineering industry has seen some improvements in the used f materials to contribute to long lasting structures. Measures have been introduced to different types of materials, concrete being one of the beneficiaries. Concrete is the core material of a structure. It determines whether the structure will last for a long time and whether it will withstand any force it encounters. The purpose of this report is to educate the reader about the admixtures of concrete; besides, aggregate, sand, cement and water. Concrete has high compression strength. This is due to the smaller components that are brought into a chemical reaction to produce concrete. The approach is to ensure that this piece of writing informs the reader about the greater detail of concrete, to make the reader understand that concrete is more than just aggregate, sand, and water. When, all the concrete admixtures are used in the correct ratio, this results in a strong reliable concrete that can last up to the required strength and duration.

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Chapter 3:
Chapter 4:
Concrete is a mixture of aggregate, sand water and other admixtures. These work hand-in-hand to ensure that the concrete is at its absolute the best strength. The following report will focus on the other admixtures used to form concrete. These admixtures will be discussed based on their properties and how they contribute to the strength of concrete. Concrete is high in compression, this report aims to explain also how these admixtures play a role in accomplishing this strength of concrete. Also explained on the report will be how these type of admixtures counteract each other to help ensure that concrete is able to withstand the force made for.
Chapter 1
Admixtures are the ingredients that are in the form of powders and liquids that are added to the mixing of concrete. Concrete normally contains void. These voids decrease the strength of concrete by creating cracks which decrease the durability of concrete. To overcome this certain admixtures are added to avoid such.
Admixtures are applied for certain reasons on concrete. These reasons are:
Water Reducing – admixtures are used to reduce the water content in concrete. This helps to balance the water-cement ratio.

Admixtures are applied to ensure that concrete can flow. This allows the shrinkage and thermal effects to be controlled.
Allow concrete to be finely divided. This reduces concrete voids. The thermal hydration due to hydration (drying out of concrete) is reduced; this results to the reduction of shrinkage cracking.
Greater plasticity and workability of new concrete is increased.
The above mentioned effects will be further explained when the report explains the different admixtures. According to Nunnally (2014:121), batching is the process of proportioning cement, water, aggregates and admixtures prior to mixing concrete. This process is used to contribute to a rightfully mixed concrete. These admixtures function by delaying the hydrating of concrete, by doing this, they allow concrete to set well.

Water Reducing Agents
This is a type of mixture that increases the workability of a concrete mixture. According to Nunnally (2014:229), the measure of water in the solid blend can be diminished without changing the solid’s consistency.

Water reducing agents are able to also be retarders. This means that they can slow down the hardening of concrete.
These agents can be used to delay the hydration rate of concrete when it is being pumped over long distances.
They are necessary for the production of very high strength concrete.
These are also known as workability agents. This agent helps to increase the workability of a mix. This helps reduce the amount of time wasted trying to deal with concrete.
Increases cohesiveness and consistency.
They reduce the water-cement ratio.
These agents are also polymers. They are used as dispersants to avoid particle segregation.

According to Nunnally (2014:122), pozzolans are finely separated materials, for example, fly fiery remains, diatomaceous earth, volcanic powder, and calcined shale, which are utilized to supplant a portion of the bond in a solid blend.

These are used to decrease heat hydration, increase workability and to decrease the breaking down of the mixture.
Air-Entraining Agents
These agents increase the resistance of concrete to freezing and thawing.
It also reduces scaling that is caused by the use of deicing chemicals.
They increase the workability of plastic concrete.
They increase the water tightness of hard concrete.
For the previously mentioned reasons, solid that has been dealt with in this way is for the most part utilized for structures, for example, asphalts and different structures that are presented to solidifying and defrosting.

Enhance sturdiness in solidify defrost, deicer, sulfate, and soluble base responsive conditions.

Air detainers decrease the air content.

Retarders are also known as hindering blends.
Hindering blends are utilized to postpone the rate of the hydrating of cement.

Fresh concrete has a temperature of about 300C. These high temperatures increase the hardening rate of concrete, resulting in the placing being hard.
Retarders neutralize this by not diminishing the underlying temperature, but rather by expanding the draining rate and draining limit of cement.

Retarding admixtures play a role at extending the setting time of concrete.
Retarders are commonly used to decrease slump loss and increase workability.
According to Nunnally (2014:121), accelerators act in the opposite direction compared to retarders.
They diminish the setting time and guarantee that solid picks up its quality in the beginning times.
The most well-known quickening agent is calcium chloride. This accelerator is corrosive to metal; therefore it is not used in concrete that is reinforced.
Whenever utilized, calcium chloride ought to be added to the blend with water.

This ensures that all particles of concrete are exposed to calcium chloride.

Shrinkage Reducing Admixtures
Shrinkage lessening admixtures are conceivably utilized in connect decks, floor chunks, and structures where splits should be limited for toughness reasons.

Propylene glycol and polyoxyalkylene alkyl ether are the most widely recognized shrinkage decreasing operators.

Colouring Admixtures
Common and manufactured materials are utilized to shading concrete for aesthetic and wellbeing reasons.

By and large, the measure of colour pigments utilized in cement ought not to surpass 10% by weight of the bond. Pigments utilized in sums under 6% for the most part don’t influence solid properties.

Red cement is utilized around covered electrical or gas lines as a notice to anybody close to these offices.

Bonding Mixtures And Bonding Agents
Holding admixtures are normally water emulsions of regular materials including flexible, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acidic corrosive induction, acrylics, styrene butadiene copolymers, and diverse polymers.

They are added to Portland bond blends to expand the bond quality amongst old and new concrete.

Some holding admixtures may build the air substance of blends.

A definitive outcome acquired with a holding admixture will be just on a par with the surface to which the solid is connected.

The surface must be dry, clean, sound, free of dirt, dust, paint, and grease, and at the proper temperature.

Anti-Washout Admixtures
Anti-washout admixtures increment the cohesiveness of cement to a level that enables restricted introduction to water with little loss of concrete.

This allows arrangement of cement in water and submerged without the utilization of tremies.

The admixtures increment the consistency of water in the blend bringing about a blend with expanded thixotropy and protection from isolation.

Chapter 3
According to the admixtures named above and their functions, it can be seen that there are more factors that contribute to the strength of concrete. For concrete to reach its maximum strength, the balance it its components is important. Factors such as water and temperature play a role in influencing the strength of concrete. All admixtures have the same goal, to strengthen concrete. One of the most common goals of admixtures is that they are all set to delay the hydration of concrete.
Another observed feature in the use of admixtures is that concrete has to be treated under stable conditions. These help to ensure that the chemical reactions are not disturbed by external factors such as wind.
Chapter 4:
Anon, Admixtures For Concrete, Chapter 6, n.d. Available: Accessed: 01 September 2018
Bryant, M. 1967. ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE. Available: Accessed: 25 August 2018
Van Amsterdam, E. 2014. CONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING. 2nd edition. Cape Town: Juta & Company.

Nunally, S. W., CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND MANAGEMENT: Concrete Construction. 3rd edition. New Jersey, USA: PRENTICE HALL CAREER & TECHNOLOGY.

Nunally, S. W., Construction Methods and Management: PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE. 8th edition. United States of America: PEARSON.

Kosmatka, S. H., Wilson, M. L. 2011. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. 15th edition. Illinois: Portland Cement Association (PCA)
Gopal, L. 2018. Concrete Admixtures – Types, Selection, Properties and Applications. Available: Accessed: 05 September 2018.

Van Amsterdam, Errol. Construction Methods For Civil Engineering. Cape Town: Juta & Company


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