Table of contents
1.1Explain the principles of project management
Introduction to Project Management
In its modern form, project management dates back to the early 1950s, although its roots go further back to the latter years of the 19th century. As businesses realized the benefits of organizing work around projects – recognizing the critical need to communicate and co-ordinate work across departments and professions – a defined method of project management emerged.
Project management is a composite activity with multiple dimensions. Depending on the type and class of project, this management activity can be very complex. In a nutshell, project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals.
(Project Smart, 2018)
Characteristics of Project
Characteristics of a project can be listed as follows.
A single definable purpose, end-item or result. This is usually specified in terms of cost, schedule and performance requirements.
Every project is unique. It requires the doing of something different, something that was not done previously. Even in what are often called “routine” projects such as home construction, the variables such as terrain, access, zoning laws, labour market, public services and local utilities make each project different. A project is a one-time, once-off activity, never to be repeated exactly the same way again.
Projects are temporary activities. A project is an ad hoc organization of staff, material, equipment and facilities that is put together to accomplish a goal. This goal is within a specific time-frame. Once the goal is achieved, the organization created for it is disbanded or sometimes it is reconstituted to begin work on a new goal (project).
Projects cut across organizational lines. Projects always cut across the regular organizational lines and structures within a firm. They do this because the project needs to draw from the skills and the talents of multiple professions and departments within the firm and sometimes even from other organizations. The complexity of advanced technology often leads to additional project difficulties, as they create task interdependencies that may introduce new and unique problems.
Projects involve unfamiliarity. Because a project differs from what was previously done, it also involves unfamiliarity. And oft time a project also encompasses new technology and, for the organization/firm undertaking the project, these bring into play significant elements of uncertainty and risk.
The organization usually has something at stake when undertaking a project. The unique project “activity” may call for special scrutiny or effort because failure would jeopardize the organization/firm or its goals.
A project is the process of working to achieve a goal. During the process, projects pass through several distinct phases, which form and are called the project life cycle. The tasks, people, organizations, and other resources will change as the project moves from one phase to the next. The organizational structure and the resource expenditures build with each succeeding phase; peak; and then decline as the project nears completion. (Epstein, 2015)
Principles of Project Management
Business management is a complex and essential way in the business world. As a result, many people fall into the trap of thinking they need fancy tools or the latest Project Management methodology to make their projects successful. If you don’t understand project management fundamentals, these tools can do more harm than good.
However, if you apply the principles of project management to your projects, you’ll have a solid foundation in place that will magnify the benefits of any tool or process you use. The principles of project management can mention as follows.
Project Objective and Goals
The first principle of project management is to understand your objective of the project. Simply put, what do you expect this hope to accomplish? Determining what you are going to achieve will help you to carry forward your overall project structure. After determining your objective, you’ll need to develop project SMART goals.
These goals need to be,
Specific -: The goal should target a specific area of improvement or answer a specific need.
Measurable -: The goal must be quantifiable, or at least allow for measurable progress.
Achievable -: The goal should be realistic, based on available resources and existing constraints.
Relevant -: The goal should align with other business objectives to be considered worthwhile.
Time-bound -: The goal must have a deadline or defined end.
In addition to listing what you intend to accomplish in your project, it will help you to understand the supplies you need to complete in order to determine your objectives in order to achieve your goals. The main concept of project management is to ensure everyone is on the same page and has clear guidance and guidance for your project before it starts.
Sketch out a scope and goals for project
Point out how important your project is, what the problem is for the company, the scope and scope of your project.
To help stay on track, you can try to answer the following questions.
What is this project’s main goal? (It already identified in the above principle)
What deliverables are needed to reach that goal?
Who is the best person to own each deliverable?
What risks exist for this project, and how can you avoid them?
What is the scope of this project?
Making the project visual can clearly be an asset during this phase as a way to get everyone on the same page and ensure that expectations are realistic. An example of the project scope plan can mention as follows.
After that budgeting, scheduling and estimating are more important to achieve the main goals of the project. So, they can mention as another principles of project management.
At this point, you begin to discover the barriers that will affect your ability to make your project a success as planned. One of those big constraints is your budget. The budget will play a major role in your overall project scope, so this principle of project management should not be ignored or overlooked.
Scheduling and Estimating
It’s important to develop an extensive calendar and workbook for your project. According to Project Management Journal, your schedule should focus on when the activities will be done, not when they must be done. Therefore, you are considering factors such as holidays, vacations, bandwidth, and prior project commitments. Developing a detailed schedule can help you realize the actual man hours you’ll have at your disposal, and maybe the difference in scope between a fully designed solution or just a minimum viable product. This fundamental principle of project management is essential to ensure you’re not overcommitting your team to complete tasks in an unrealistic timeframe that are vital to your project.
Communicate roles, expectations, and objectives to the team
The most important principle of project management is communication. From the outset, your staff will lose or forget the purpose of communicating, role-playing, expectations, progress and projects with projects. Team members appreciate their contribution and have their concerns heard. When you’re managing communication between several groups of people, a process management diagram can make a huge difference in your ability to stay on track. An example for a process management diagram can mention as follows.
Define Team Responsibilities
The next principle in project management is to identify the responsibilities between your team. A task checklist, a project management software, an excel file or a Gantt chart are essential for this action. Responsibilities and governance within a project can be divided into four levels as follows.
Corporate or program management level
Project Board level
Project Manager level
It is important at an early stage to identify stakeholders and their interest in the project and define where everyone sits in this hierarchy. The Project Board should review the draft roles and responsibilities to ensure that there are no gaps or overlaps. It may be that an individual takes on more than one role or that some roles are dropped because the project does not require them. (Lucidchart, 2018)
Characteristics of Project Management
The characteristics of project management can mention as follows.
A single person, the project manager, heads the project organization and functions independently of the normal chain of command. The project organization reflects the cross-functional, goal-oriented, temporary nature of the project.
The project manager is the person who collects all the efforts to meet the project objectives.
Because each project requires different skills and resources, it can perform real-time projects from different areas of activity or by external contractors.
The Project Manager is responsible for the integration of persons from different fields of activity or contractors who work in the project.
The project manager negotiates directly with functional managers who might be responsible for the individual work tasks and personnel within the project.
While the project manager focuses on delivering a particular product or service at a certain time and cost, functional managers must maintain an ongoing pool of resources in support of organizational goals. As a result, conflict may arise between project and functional managers over the time and talent to be allotted to a project.
A project might have two chains of command, one functional and one project, and people in a project report to both a project manager and a functional manager. (BrightWork, 2018)
1.2Discuss viability of projects with particular emphasis on the criteria for success/failure
The project plan should be physically feasible (viable). To achieve this, the project plan needs to be strengthened, well thought out and managed. To make sure that the project plan can be viable the project team, the client and the top management should know that this project has evaluated all the scenarios. In our community project, we focused the following areas to maintain the viability of our project.
When we focusing on the time viability at first, we addressed some questions to manage our time as follows.
What is the shortest time to complete the project?
How to complete the project on time?
What is the order of tasks and time?
What work can be done simultaneously to manage time?
How long does each activity take?
Which activities are critical?
Can specify the milestones on time?
To answer these questions, we used Milestone Analysis chart. This was done to ensure that timely targets set by our top management were realistic and achievable. The goals of the milestone chart are very essential because achieving those goals we can reach to our main goal simply and quickly on time. Therefore, we used this chart to manage our time as a time viability method. The created milestone chart shows the project can be finished inside the time period given by the management of Esoft Metro Campus. So, we decided this project is feasible in time aspect. This milestone objective chart is also used in monitoring progress during the project. The created milestone analysis chart is mentioned in the task 3.2.
As the time viability, resource viability is more important for any project. As the time viability, we focused on the resource viability by addressing some questions as follows to get a clear understanding of the resources we need.
What resources will be needed?
When is the resource needed?
What are the optimum levels of resources?
Is their use efficient?
What alternate resources can we use?
To find the answers for these questions, we discussed about the resources which are important for our project. Resource analysis was limited to allocating responsibility for achieving the milestones and determining the milestone dates. When assessing dates, their experiences were based on estimating the amount of work of the team and the necessary resources. Therefore, as the project coordinator, I created Task Responsible Matrix (mentioned in task 2.2) to identify the tasks and responsibilities of the project and each member. Using the Task Responsible Matrix, we were able to find the answers for above questions and manage the resources.
Projects are usually funded by surplus funds of the business owners, or funds that are usually expected to borrow from normal business activities. But in our community project we had to collect funds to implement the project. Then we gathered the questions same as the above viabilities as follows.
How much does it cost for the project?
How to collect funds if not enough?
Do we have enough funds to work?
Where can money be obtained, if necessary?
We did a cash flow analysis to verify the financial viability of our project. We contacted the suppliers to get information about the resources and their prices. We used time analysis, resource analysis and budget to perfume the cash flow analysis. The created Cash Flow Analysis for our community project can mention as follows.
1.3Explore principles behind project management systems and procedures
1.4Explain key elements involved in terminating projects and conducting post-project appraisals
2.1Plan the most appropriate organizational structure for the project you are planning to undertake
What is an Organizational Structure?
An organizational structure is a system that outlines how certain activities are directed in order to achieve the goals of an organization. These activities can include rules, roles and responsibilities. The organizational structure also determines how information flows from level to level within the company.
Why Have an Organizational Structure?
Some organizations may find it difficult to work without a formal structure. For example, it is difficult to know who should report to employees. There can be uncertainty about who is responsible for what the organization is responsible for. Having a structure, increasing efficiency and providing a level of clarity at every level. Since it means more attention to energy and time, each department can be more productive. (Investopedia, 2018)
Different Types of Organizational Structures
Four types of common organizational structures are implemented in the real world and they can mention as follows.
The functional structure is based on an organization being divided up into smaller groups with specific tasks or roles. For example, a company could have a group working in information technology, another in marketing and another in finance. In this structure, each department has a manager or director. He/she answers to an executive a level up in the hierarchy who may oversee multiple departments. For example, there might be separate departments for marketing, accounting, and engineering. Generally, all the functional heads will report directly to the company president or CEO. (Woods, 2018)
It can understand more than clearly using the following chart.
A Functional organizational structure has several advantages and disadvantages when it comes to managing project.
Employees do not report to multiple managers. Each employee will report to his / her direct active manager. This will reduce communication channels.
Employees try to learn from one another. That specialty has been combined with the same group.
The team is managed by an experienced person with a high ability and skills who can adequately understand and review the entire work.
No one “manages” a certain project, a project is managed by multiple functional managers. Therefore, the client is not able to know what the status of the project really is, as no one can give him the whole picture. Each functional manager is able to report on his part of the project.
Conflicts between functional managers can have drastic effects on the progress of a project.
Employees tend to spend a significant percentage of their time with nothing to do, sometimes literally begging for work. (Project Management Learning, 2018)
Larger companies that operate across several horizontal objectives sometimes use a divisional organizational structure. The divisional organizational structure organizes the activities of a business around geographical, market, or product and service groups. A divisional structure occurs when an organization is structured in accordance with product lines or divisions or departments. They are headed by general managers who enjoy responsibility for their own resources. Divisions are likely to be seen as profit centers and may be seen as strategic business units for planning and control purposes. (Grimsley, 2018)
Advantages & disadvantages of divisional structures can mention as follows.
If an organization wants to grow and diversify, the functional structure cannot cope, so instead the divisional structure should be adopted. Should the company want to diversify further, it is easy to ‘bolt on’ another division.
It encourages growth and diversity of products, e.g. by adding additional flavors etc. to capture other segments of the market. This in turn promotes the use of specialized equipment and facilities.
Due to the breakdown of the company’s activities into the divisions, it should mean that the divisional managers can clearly see where their area of responsibility lies and it should leave the top management free to concentrate on strategic matters, rather than to get involved in the day to day operations of each division – although this can lead to a lack of control over the activities of the division and possible lack of goal congruence.
The focus of attention is on product performance and profitability. By placing responsibility for product profitability at the division level, they are able to react and make decisions quickly on a day to day basis.
The role of the general manger has less concentration upon specialization. This promotes a wider view of the company’s operations.
In most divisional companies, some functions, e.g. accounting or human resources will be provided centrally. If this is the case, the cost of the centralized function could be recharged to those divisions using e.g. the human resource function. There are different ways of calculating the recharge and divisional managers may complain if the profitability of their division is reduced by an amount that they perceive as being arbitrary. (kfknowledgebank, 2012)
A matrix organizational structure is one of the most complicated reporting structures a company can implement. A matrix organizational structure is a company structure in which the reporting relationships are set up as a grid, or matrix, rather than in the traditional hierarchy. In other words, employees have dual reporting relationships – generally to both a functional manager and a product manager. (Woods, 2018)
Advantages & disadvantages of matrix structures can mention as follows.
In today’s rapidly changing environment, there is a need for effective coordination in very complex situations. If a car manufacturer wants to design, produce and market a new model, the process involves most parts of the organization and a flexible/adaptable system is needed to achieve the objectives. The more rigid structure experienced in a divisional company would not have the flexibility to be able to coordinate the tasks and the people, whereas the matrix structure can cope.
The production managers could be replaced with customer managers, in which case the whole team will be focused on meeting the needs of the customer.
Where the matrix structure can cause difficulty is in the lines of control. These may become ambiguous and conflict with each other. A team member may be answerable to the product manager and to a functional head, and this may cause confusion and stress. Time consuming meetings may be required to resolve the conflict, so resulting in higher administration costs. (kfknowledgebank, 2012)
The best suitable organizational structure for our community project and reasons to select it
When going to select an organizational structure for a project there are some point to consider mostly. They can mention as follows under the project considerations.
Size of the project
Novelty and need for innovation
Need for integration (number of departments involved)
Environmental complexity (number of external interfaces)
Budget and time constraints
Stability of resource requirements
After considering the above considerations, there is some steps to choose a project organizational structure.
Define the project with a statement of the objective that identifies the major outcomes desired
Determine the key tasks associated with each objective and local the units in the parent organization that serve as functional “homes” for these types of tasks
Arrange the key tasks by sequence and decompose them into work packages
Determine which organizational units are required to carry out the work packages and which units will work particularly closely with the project
List any special characteristics or assumptions associated with the project
Finally choose the suitable structure for the project
After considering the above factors and steps, we chose the functional structure for our community project. Reasons to select this structure can list as follows.
Functional structure provides better horizontal exchanges for members. There is no any experience for any member of our team. So, using this structure project coordinator can manage and exchange the different team members easily by providing the guidance among.
Functional structure provides a better insight and synchronization among the members inside the project. As a result of this every team member know what others do. So, using the functional structure, there is a good bond among the team members.
Functional structure provides better accountability and responsibility because there is one major authorization reference point to manage all tasks of the project. So, it minimizes the complexity of the project. The selected our community project is complex and there is no any experience for team members. Therefore, this structure provides better support for each member.
As the general public is the goal of our project. So, the group is better off sharing tasks. Therefore, each team can focus on various client needs and can do it perfectly. Therefore, we selected the functional structure for our project.
There are many factors affecting this project uncertainty such as lack of experience, high budget, etc. Every sector needs to be given proper oversight to prevent this. Therefore, we selected the functional structure and it gives a better platform to do each task better.
2.2Discuss roles and responsibilities of participants of the above project
Working as a team is most important for a project and efficient Teamwork is not easy to make. It depends on the team members’ roles and responsibilities. Therefore, to achieve the main goal of the project each member must do their role efficiently. The Belbin team role model is designed to use the talents and personalities of team members. And also, the Belbin team role is an effective way to assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of a team and it helps the team to understand ways in which it could improve performance. According to the Belbin team role, there are nine team roles as follows.
Belbin team roles
Plants are innovators and inventors and can be highly creative. They provide the seed and ideas from which major developments spring. Usually they prefer to operate by themselves at some distance from other members of the team, using their imagination and often working in an unorthodox way. They tend to be introverted and react strongly to criticism and praise. Their ideas may often be radical and may lack practical constraint. They are independent, clever, and original but may be weak in communicating with other people on a different wavelength.
The main uses of a PL are to generate new proposals and to solve complex problems. Plants are often needed in the initial stages of a project or when a project is failing to progress. Plants have usually made their mark as founders of companies or as originators of new products. Too many PLs in one organization, however, may be counterproductive as they tend to spend their time reinforcing their own ideas and engaging each other in combat.
Produces lots of ideas, provides the vital spark, and sits in a corner thinking thing through, capacity for complex & strategic planning, very original & potentially rewarding ideas.
Can ignore the incidentals and can become too preoccupied to communicate effectively. Can be over sensitive and prickly. May need careful handling by Coordinator or Team Worker within the team. Can become isolated and may be difficult to rescue once stereotyped by the team.
Independent, unorthodox, imaginative, original, radical, clever, loner, dominant, socially bold, uninhibited, forthright.
Monitor Evaluator (ME)
Monitor Evaluators are serious-minded, prudent individuals with a built-in immunity for being overenthusiastic. They are slow in making decisions preferring to think things over. Usually they have a high critical thinking ability. They have a good capacity for shrewd judgments that take all factors into account. A good ME is seldom wrong.
ME’s are best suited to analyzing problems and evaluating ideas and suggestions. They are very good at weighing up the pros and cons of options. To many outsiders the ME may appear as dry, boring or even over-critical. Some people are surprised that they become managers. Nevertheless, many MEs occupy strategic posts and thrive in high-level appointments. In some job’s success or failure hinges on a relatively small number of crunch decisions. This is ideal territory for an ME – for the man who is never wrong is the one who scores in the end.
Ensures the team doesn’t make mistakes. Soundness of judgement, unaffected by emotion, personality, or prejudice. Good at thinking through complex issues and taking all factors into account in giving an opinion.
Can sometimes lack drive and ability to inspire others. Aloof and something of a cold fish. May become isolated if a good relationship with the chair is not established. May appear dry, boring, over-critical and pessimistic.
Prudent, hard-headed, intelligent, dispassionate, analytic, unemotional, hardly ever wrong, serious minded, shrewd, judge of proposals, uncommitted, immune to enthusiasm, rations interventions to a minimum.
Specialists are dedicated individuals who pride themselves on acquiring technical skills and specialized knowledge. Their priorities center on maintaining professional standards and on furthering and defending their own field. While they show great pride in their own subject, they usually lack interest in other people. Eventually, the SP becomes the expert by sheer commitment along a narrow front. There are few people who have either the single-mindedness or the aptitude to become a first-class SP.
SPs have an indispensable part to play in some teams, for they provide the rare skill upon which the firm’s service or product is based. As managers, they command support because they know more about their subject than anyone else and can usually be called upon to make decisions based on in-depth experience.
Able to prove a reasoned technical answer to technical problems if qualified in that field. Logical thinker often has scientific training.
Contributes on a very narrow front and tends to concentrate on technicalities. May seem aloof, theoretical, and impractical. Doesn’t contribute much to the team outside the area of specialism. Acquires knowledge for its own sake.
Calm, logical, detached, uncommunicative, highly competent in his/her field of expertise, interested only in the exercise of that expertise, accurate, conscientious, may be a dogged finisher.
Shapers are highly motivated people with a lot of nervous energy and a need for achievement. Usually they are aggressive extroverts and possess strong drive. SHs like to challenge others and their concern is to win. They like to lead and to push others into action. If obstacles arise, they find a way round. Headstrong and assertive, they tend to show strong emotional response to any form of disappointment or frustration. SHs are determined and argumentative and may lack interpersonal sensitivity. Theirs is the most competitive role.
SHs generally make good managers because they generate action and thrive under pressure. They are excellent at sparking life into a team and are very useful in groups where political complications are apt to slow things down; SHs are inclined to rise above problems of this kind and forge ahead regardless. They are well suited to making necessary changes and do not mind taking unpopular decisions. As the name implies, they try to impose some shape or pattern on group discussion or activities. They are probably the most effective members of a team in guaranteeing positive action.
The driving force or engine of the team. Ideal project leader. Leads from the front. Galvanizes team into action. Makes things happen. Gets the team out of the rut.
Can be prone to provocation and can also offend people’s feelings.
Dynamic, impulsive, challenging, looks for a pattern, compulsive drive, nervous energy, strong need for achievement, sociable, opportunistic rather than conscientious, tough minded, emotional, fearless and unflinching in face-to-face contact.
Implementers have practical common sense and a good deal of self-control and discipline. They favor hard work and tackle problems in a systematic fashion. On a wider front the IMP is typically a person whose loyalty and interest lie with the Company and who is less concerned with the pursuit of self-interest. However, IMPs may lack spontaneity and show signs of rigidity.
IMPs are useful to an organization because of their reliability and capacity for application. They succeed because they are efficient and because they have a sense of what is feasible and relevant. It is said that many executives only do the jobs they wish to do and neglect those tasks which they find distasteful. By contrast, an IMP will do what needs to be done. Good IMPs often progress to high management positions by virtue of good organizational skills and competency in tackling necessary tasks.
Turns ideas and plans into manageable projects and defined tasks. Systematically sets about the tasks that need doing. Identifies with and works for the team or organization rather than in pursuit of self-interest. Never flinches from a task because it’s boring.
Can be inflexible and slow to respond to new possibilities. Can lack imagination. May have difficulty monitoring and inspiring others.
Methodical, practical, hardworking, reliable, systematic, tough minded tolerant, self-controlled, orthodox, strength of character, organizational flair.
Completer Finisher (CF)
Completer-Finishers have a great capacity for follow through and attention to detail. They are unlikely to start anything that they cannot finish. They are motivated by internal anxiety, yet outwardly they may appear unruffled. Typically, they are introverted and require little in the way of external stimulus or incentive. CFs can be intolerant of those with a casual disposition. They are not often keen on delegating; preferring to tackle all tasks themselves.
CFs are invaluable where tasks demand close concentration and a high degree of accuracy. They foster a sense of urgency within a team and are good at meeting schedules. In management they excel by the high standards to which they aspire, and by their concern for precision, attention to detail and follow-through.
Ensures the team meets its obligations and delivers on time. Ensures nothing is overlooked and that the detail is not neglected. Makes sure the team doesn’t waste
Can be inclined to worry unduly and are slow to respond to new possibilities. Needs to avoid over perfectionism.
Painstaking, conscientious, follows through, strong attention to detail, relentless, high self-control, appears unflappable but prone to internal anxiety, consistent, capacity for hard and effective work, impatient of slapdash.
The distinguishing feature of Coordinators is their ability to cause others to work towards shared goals. Mature, trusting and confident, they delegate readily. In interpersonal relations they are quick to spot individual talents and to use them in pursuit of group objectives. While COs are not necessarily the cleverest members of a team, they have a broad and worldly outlook and generally command respect.
COs are well placed when put in charge of a team of people with diverse skills and personal characteristics. They perform better in dealing with colleagues of near or equal rank than in directing junior subordinates. Their motto might well be “consultation with control” and they usually believe in tackling problems calmly. In some situations, COs are inclined to clash with Shapers due to their contrasting management styles.
Guides team to achieving its objectives. Ensures the best use is made of each member’s potential. Good at summing up at team discussion. Accepts people as they are without suspicion or jealousy. Never loses grip on a situation. Able to intervene decisively to pull team together in moment of crisis.
Can be seen as manipulative and offload work onto others.
Calm, self-confident, open, good listener, talent spotter, self-disciplined, commands respect, trusting by nature, strong moral commitment, unflappable in face of controversy, naturally enthusiastic, good speaker, thinks positively.
Team Worker (TW)
Team Workers are the most supportive members of a team. They are mild, sociable and concerned about others. They have a great capacity for flexibility and adapting to different situations and people. TWs are perceptive and diplomatic. They are good listeners and are generally popular members of a group. They operate with sensitivity at work, but they may be indecisive in crunch situations.
The role of the TW is to prevent interpersonal problems arising within a team and thus allows all team members to contribute effectively. Not liking friction, they will go to great lengths to avoid it. It is not uncommon for TWs to become senior managers especially if line managers are dominated by Shapers. This creates a climate in which the diplomatic and perceptive skills of a TW become real assets, especially under a managerial regime where conflicts are liable to arise or to be artificially suppressed. TW managers are seen as a threat to no one and therefore the most accepted and favored people to serve under. Team Workers have a lubricating effect on teams. Morale is better and people seem to cooperate better when they are around.
Promotes unity and harmony in the team. Creates and maintains informal network of communication between team members. Boosts team spirit by placing team objectives above personal interest. Good at coping with awkward people. Skilled at averting dispute.
Because they take into account all viewpoints and the full complexity of informal, hidden personal issues they may be indecisive in moments of crisis.
Sympathetic, understanding, sensitive, aware, sociable, low dominance, trusting, strong interest in human interaction and communication, leads from behind.
Resource Investigator (RI)
Resource Investigators are often enthusiastic, quick-off-the-mark extroverts. They are good at communicating with people both inside and outside the company. They are natural negotiators and are adept at exploring new opportunities and developing contacts. Although not a great source of original ideas, the RI is effective when it comes to picking up other people’s ideas and developing them. As the name suggests, they are skilled at finding out what is available and what can be done. They usually receive a warm reception from others because of their warm, outgoing nature. RIs have relaxed personalities with a strong inquisitive sense and a readiness to see the possibilities in anything new. However, unless they remain stimulated by others, their enthusiasm rapidly fades.
RIs are good at exploring and reporting back on ideas, developments, or resources outside the group. They are the natural people to set up external contacts and to carry out any subsequent negotiations. They have an ability to think on their feet and to probe others for information.
Brings ideas and information back to the team. Gets around, meets people, poses questions, and finds treasure in unexpected spots. Easily integrated into the team. Has masses of contacts, prevents the team from stagnating, and promotes communication.
Can become overly optimistic; lose enthusiasm once the initial eagerness has passed. Can be lazy and complacent unless working under pressure.
Communicative, relaxed, sociable, enthusiastic, outgoing, gregarious, versatile and innovative. (Smartt Strategies, 2015)
The summary of these team roles can mention as follows.
Roles and responsibilities of our community project
When going to manage the project tasks, there is important thing to know who is the best responsible person for each task. This is most important because it is very useful to manage project tasks correctly. According to the selected organizational structure, first we noticed the main tasks of our community project. Then we discussed about the tasks and skills of each member. Then we assigned the works among the team members and identified the responsivities of each member. The identified responsibilities are managed using the following table which is called Task Responsible Matrix.
Task Responsible person(s) Consulted person(s) Informed person(s) Quality reviewer(s)
Get approval from local authorities for the project RusiruDasun
HasarelKasuniAssign tasks and design them RusiruDasun
HasarelCreate the budget Dasun
RusiruHasarelNishraDetermine a fund-raising method Dasun
HasarelNishraKasuniRusiruCreation of ticket books HasarelRusiruDasun HasarelDasun
NishraPrint and make ticket books RusiruDasun
HasarelHasarelRaise fund selling tickets Rusiru
HasarelRusiruDesign stickers and handover to print HasarelRusiruDasun HasarelBuy the bag rolls HasarelRusiruDasun Buy the other materials and equipment from Galle HasarelRusiruDasun
TeshanCreate the sign boards HasarelRusiruDasun Dasun
RusiruCreate the structure and attach bag rolls Rusiru
RusiruBook a vehicle for the journey BharathaDasun
RusiruGo to the Sri Pada and implement the project Dasun
According to the above table, we assigned the responsibilities for each member. By using this type of chart, we were able to manage tasks correctly. According to the above table, first we contacted the Ambagamuwa Regional Counsil, Wildlife & Forest Preservation Department and Nallathanniya Police station to get approvals for the project. For this task, Rusiru took the main responsibility because he has more experience about the area of the project and he also know how to communicate with the local government authorities more than others. So, he took that responsibility. Then we contacted the HND Coordinator and Esoft Metro Campus to get approval for the project. For this task mainly Hasarel, Dasun and Kasuni took the responsibility.
Then we assigned the tasks among the members. After that we created the budget for the project. For these tasks Rusiru, Dasun and Hasarel took the responsibility and Hasarel and Nishra were the consulted persons of this task. After creating the budget, Dasun and Hasarel took the main responsibility to decide a fund raise activity. We considered many options such as organizing a car wash, organizing a walk, organizing an almsgiving to raise funds etc. After considering the count of the team members and the amount of budget, I decided to organize a raffle draw to raise funds. In this task we had to consult Nishra, Kasuni and Rusiru in the process.
Then we moved to the next task – to design the tickets. For this task Hasarel took the main responsibility because he has better knowledge and skills about the graphic design. So, this responsible was taken by him. In this task we had to consult Dasun and Rusiru for efficiency of the process. The quality of this task was reviewd by Hasarel, Dasun and Nishra. After designing the tickets Hasarel printed the tickets. Dasun, Rusiru and Hasarel took the responsibility of the making ticket books task. The quality of this task was reviewed by Hasael. Then all team members took the responsibility to sell tickets to raise fund. Nishra worked as the informed person and consulted person during the process of this task. The quality of this task was reviewed by Dasun, Rusiru and Hasarel.
After collecting the funds, Hasarel designed the sticker of the sign board and he took the responsible of it and he reviewed the quality of this task too. Rusiru was handover the stickers to print and Dasun was the consulted person of this task. After that, we went to Colombo to buy bag rolls. For this Rusiru, Dasun and Hasarel took the main responsibility during this task. Then moved to the next task – to buy other materials and equipment form Galle. For this Rusiru, Dasun, Teshan and Hasarel took the main responsibility during this task. After buying all materials and equipment, we stared to make structures and sign bards. Sign boards are made by Dasun, Hasarel and Rusiru and the main responsibility was given by them. The quality was reviewed by the Dasun and Rusiru in this task. Then we moved to create structure and attached the bag rolls. All team members took the responsibility for this task. The quality is reviewed by Dasun and Rusiru during the process of this task.
Then Bharatha took the main responsibility to book a vehicle for the journey and he informed the details to Dasun and Rusiru in this task. After booking a vehicle we arranged the journey. Aside from three team members all other members came to the journey. All participated members took the responsivity of the implementation of the project. Dasun, Rusiru and Hasarel reviewed the quality in this final task.
2.3Demonstrate that you have carried out the control and co-ordination work when you implemented the project undertaken
Project Controls are the data gathering, data management and analytical processes used to predict, understand and constructively influence the time and cost outcomes of a project or program, through the communication of information in formats that assist effective management and decision making. Project coordination involves managing the day-to-day operations of a project, making sure the resources are aware of deadlines and tasks that they are responsible, managing meeting minutes, and so on. A project coordinator works very closely with a project manager and is aware of the goals of a project. (Ramachandran, 2018)
When controlling and coordinating a project there are some questions must find answers as follows.
Is project on budget?
Is project on track?
Is project on schedule?
Can Project Objectives be met?
What corrective actions are taking?
Is project delivering what we said we would?
What is the quality of the project meeting and performance standards?
What are the discrepancies?
What caused these variances?
What risks are being monitored?
What is the success of the project?
Will the project objectives be met?
What problems are there for the team?
In terms of project controls, the components of the job will be considered. A list of attributes of project controls can mention as follows.
Performance reporting -: The process for measure and communicate project status to targeted stakeholders. Generally, information usually focused on the critical performance-proof toward targeted goals, key issues, corrective action and forecast metrics.
Change control management -: The process for reviewing, approving, and coordinating any request to alter the project scope schedule or budget. (For more details about change control, refer Task 3.4)
Configuration management -: The process for controlling changes, updates and versions of project deliverables.
Quality management -: Process to ensure the quality assurance of project work processes and processes.
Requirements management -: All needs are accurately identified, documented, and reviewed throughout the project. This is an excellent scope and a change of control technology.
Issue management -: The process for identifying, tracking and resolving issues affecting crucial factors in the project.
Procurement management -: From the controllers that are specifically controlled for the management of suppliers and traders involved in the project.
Risk management -: Project risks identification, monitoring and response process.
The project was done by us is very small one and its scale is small. Therefore, to control and coordinate our project we used some of them from above mentioned list. We used following aspects to control and coordinate the progress of our community project.
Performance Reporting is a measure of progress and expenditure in comparison to the plan. For that we used various types of performance reports for our community project. Reporting can include an analysis based on various methods. Simple reporting involves critical path analysis and value management. There are fundamentally two types of performance reporting as follows.
Variance analysis -: which measures what has happened
Performance analysis -: which also forecasts what is likely to happen
In Sri Pada community project we used the following methods as variance analysis.
Performance analysis includes the following methods in our Sri Pada Project.
Earned value analysis
Main milestones have been made by attributing their activities. Then monitored the achievement of the milestones or slippage of the milestones. Milestones can be used to determine the payment. When combined with more complex methods, it may be a milestone preview of the success of the project and the presentation of future prophecies. In our community project, we used the both of milestone analysis and slippage analysis. Already milestone analysis is mentioned in task 3.2 and slippage analysis is mentioned in task 3.3.
Cash-flow analysis is only focusing on the financial processors of the project. Usually there is used spreadsheets to plan budget. The actual expense is monitored in accordance with the planned budget. Mainly the cash flow analysis provides an early warning of the shortcomings if the funds are finite. It is the main advantage of the using cash flow analysis. Cash flow analysis of Sri Pada community project is mentioned in the task 1.2 and refer it for more details.
This is involved to schedule technique. This is very important for the progress of the project. This method follows the progress update of the schedule. Moreover, this is very helpful for analysis and select the critical path of the project. When a critical path analysis is activated, the critical path can be changed and different floating paths have been calculated. It is therefore essential to observe the existing path. After finding the critical path of the project, it helps to create the Gannt chart too. The created network diagram and Gantt chat are mentioned in the task 3.2.
Earned Value Analysis
Earned value analysis (EVA) is a performance analysis method that compares the scheduled amount of work (planned value) with the achieved amount of work (earned value) at a point in time. It also compares the work achieved (earned value) with the cost of achieving that work (actual cost). Performance can be trended and metrics calculated to express the status of the project from these three pieces of data.
The earned value analysis can used to simultaneously analyse both schedule and cost relative to a particular time frame within the project life cycle and to a project baseline. The created EVA is mentioned in task 3.2.
Using the above-mentioned 4 methods, as the coordinator of the project I have controlled and coordinated the project team during the period. Those methods give good help for coordinate project correctly and simply. Moreover, using the Democratic leadership style each member gives lot of support and it was very easy to control the project team (refer task 2.4 for leadership styles). However, project team and those mentioned analysis methods gave a good support me to control and coordinate the project on time and on the correct way.
2.4Document project leadership requirements and qualities required when implementing the project undertaken
What is leadership?
Leadership is the ability of an individual or a group of individuals to influence and guide followers or other members of an organization. Leadership involves in difficult decisions creating and articulating a clear vision, establishing achievable goals and providing followers with the knowledge and tools necessary to achieve those goals. (Techtarget, 2018)
There is never a one-size-fits-all leadership style for every business because all companies operate differently and certain traits will be more successful in some environments than others. However, with a broader understanding of the different leadership styles, senior executives not only have the right features but also the best managers across the organization. Here is a list of common leadership styles.
Autocratic leadership style is centered on the boss. In this leadership the leader holds all authority and responsibility. In this leadership leaders decide to make their own decisions without their followers. They make decisions and want to communicate and execute them promptly. Autocratic work environment does normally have little or no flexibility. In this kind of leadership, guidelines, procedures and policies are all-natural additions of an autocratic leader. Statistically, there are very few situations that can actually support autocratic leadership.
There are some leaders who support this type of leadership as follows.
Albert J Dunlap (Sunbeam Corporation)
Donald Trump (Trump Organization)
Subordinates are involved in making decisions in this leadership style. Unlike autocratic, this headship is centered on subordinates’ contributions. The democratic leader holds final responsibility, but authority is entrusted to other persons who determine projects for him or her. The most significant feature of this leadership is that communication is active upward and downward. According to statistics, the democratic leadership is the most liked leadership style and it entails fairness, competence, creativity, courage, intelligence and honesty.
Strategic Leadership Style
Strategic leadership is one that involves a leader who is essentially the head of an organization. A strategic leader is not limited to those at the top level in the organization. It is approved for all wider audiences of all walks to create a high-performance life, group or organization. The gap between the need for new possibility and the need for practicality by providing a prescriptive set of habits is filled by the strategic leader. An effective strategic leadership delivers the goods in terms of what an organization naturally expects from its leadership in times of change.
Unlike other leadership styles, translation leadership is about starting organizations, groups, others, and other changes. Transformational leaders motivate others to do more than they originally intended and often even more than they thought possible. They set more challenging expectations and usually achieve higher performance. Statistically, transformational leadership tends to have more committed and satisfied followers because transformational leaders empower followers.
Complete permissiveness is allowed in the laissez-faire or permissive style of leadership. The group lacks direction because the leader does not help in making decisions. He/she merely supplies various materials or contributes when asked. The group is given too much responsibility to proceed in any direction. Tends to have few established goals or policies; abstains from leading. Not generally useful in highly structured organizations (e.g., health care institutions). If this style functions for a long period of time, it may easily develop into anarchy. (Raza, 2018)
The selected leadership style for our community project
For our community project we used the Democratic Leadership style. In this leadership style, subordinates are involved in making decisions. Therefore, we mainly selected it for our project. Using this style, it helps to solve lot of problems in the project. When we used a style as Autocratic most of members will angry with me and others. As the project coordinator, I made lot of decisions during the project period. I involved the other members for each decision. When deciding a way to collect the funds, I consulted from another team members before choosing a method. As a result of this, I could avoid any conflicts with other team members and it also avoids getting into problematic situations too. In many tasks, I used consulted persons to get different ideas before decide. When getting a decision, I used consulted persons, informed persons and quality reviewers because getting ideas from those of members I can compare too many ideas and select the best one with informing the members. I used a Task Responsible Matrix for this and it is mentioned in task 2.2.
Democratic leader is primarily concerned with human relations and teamwork. Communication is open and usually goes both ways. Therefore, I used it for our project. As result of this I was able to communicate with members closely and friendly. They shared the problems, ideas and everything with me. Using this style, it gave a good backbone for the team to achieve the goal.
2.5Plan specific human resources and requirements of the above project
Human Resources Planning Identifies the roles and responsibilities required to complete the project. Identifying reporting contacts between these roles is often captured by some sort of organizational plan for the project. Finally, a plan for how and when the people will come and go from the project takes shape. The Staff Management Plan records all human resource planning information. The primary inputs for identifying roles and responsibilities are to understand the environment in which the project is and the activities to be carried out to complete the project.
First of all, when designing the best way for the project staff, it’s important to understand the environment around the project. What kind of organizations and departments are involved, and what technical spheres communicate with each other, what are they doing to those who are likely to be involved in the history of the project, including success and conflict. What relationships and influences already exist, what kind of physical or geographic separations can be expected. These are termed Enterprise Environmental Factors.
In our community project following organizations and parties are involved.
Ambagamuwa Regional council
Wildlife preservation department
Sri Pada temple
Nallathanniya Police station
When we selecting this project, we have to consider the following factors as the human resources of the project.
Many of previous garbage disposal projects failed. Therefore, the people who living around the Sri Pada don’t want to cooperate with this kind of projects. Therefore, we must definitely consider this factor.
The days we selected to implement the project were not the pilgrimage season of the Sri Pada. Therefore, the weather is not good. There was rainy season with low temperature and strong winds. Therefore, we must definitely consider this factor.
The second part of the information resource for the HRM is that the project resource requirements for the implementation of the project tasks are broken down into service packages. This means what need to be done. For that we used the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). It breaks the main task to small tasks. As a result of this, when selecting specific human resources for each task, we can use that small units of work to select the best human resources. It is more important to manage human resources in each task. The WBS is mentioned in the task 3.1.
There are too many techniques to define and document human resource responsibilities as organization charts, position descriptions, organizational theory, etc. For our community project, we used mainly organization chart as the technique to define and document human resource responsibilities. The used organizational structure can mention as follows.
Organization charts are usually a set of boxes arranged as a hierarchy and anyone can understand what is it representing because of it is not complex to understand. So, we used it to represent our community project’s responsibilities of the team members.
The design team consist of students with creative talents, and these talents may be solutions to physical plans or issues. Moreover, these members have creative thinking skills too. So, they provided too many ideas for garbage disposal problem. In each confusing situation, they provided valuable ideas to solve problems.
Finance team is the responsible team for money related things. The main tasks are creating budget, keeping records of transactions and controlling the cash flow of project. They maintained all records of cash flows to understand clearly everyone.
Public affairs and services team is responsible for communication tasks. The main task of them are contacting the authorized persons in Esoft Metro Campus, contacting local authorities in Sri Pada area, contacting suppliers (shop owners). Moreover, the communicated with the transport services to select a transport method for the journey.
Implementation team is responsible for all hard works such as creating structures, transport materials, implement project, etc. For this section many of team members involved and get responsible because those tasks are very important for the project and those are harder than other tasks.
Moreover, we used Task Responsible Matrix to document responsibilities of the team members of the project. It contains all information about what tasks are given to which team member and who did they consulted their work with and who reviewed the final work. This task responsible matrix is already mentioned in task 2.2.
3.1Design the project organization with reference to prepare project management Plans for the above project
Sri Pada Community Project
Sri Pada Pilgrimages (General public)
This community project is organized by HND batch 07 for the Management of projects (MOP) module and Employability and Professional Development (EPD) module. Organizing this project, we can able to find some solution for the community problem. This project plan covers whole community project.
This project plan defines the objectives of the project, the approach to be taken, and the commitment being assumed. This plan contains the details required to successfully execute the project. Once project execution begins, this plan will be reviewed, base lined, and updated on a regular basis.
Esoft Metro Campus – Galle
Ambagamuwa Regional Council
Nallathanniya Police Station
Wild life & Forest Preservation Department
This section provides a review of the project’s objectives such as project client’s and Esoft Metro Campus. Main emphasis on key success and key risks has been emphasized.
This community project is done for general public and pilgrims of the Sri Pada area. Objectives of those clients can mention as follows.
This community project is about preventing the local community from disposing the garbage to the natural environment and providing a proper solution to avoid it.
As the problem has led to several landslides in the area. So, the local authorities are undertaking to minimize the problem and the wildlife and the people in the area are also affected.
Regional authorities can avoid the catastrophic event of landslides, save wildlife and make appropriate environment for people by doing this project.
The success of the client’s perspective can be measured under the following criteria.
Reducing landslides in area.
Reducing the number of complaints received by the regional councils.
Reducing threats for endemic fauna and flora.
Esoft Metro Campus Objectives
Identifying a problem from the environment or the community in our project, planning, organizing, directing and managing a small-scale project in case of collecting funds collectively through careful monitoring of a supervising lecturer and integrate the abilities of our students in our teams are can mention as the Esoft Metro Campus objectives.
Project would be successful
If the project team can get the approval from both inside and outside authorities
Collect enough budget to facilitate all tasks of the project
Make the structures as planned
Implement all the structures in the area
Finish the project on time
Client has the sign boards and structures which are implemented and this is only deliverable for the client from our community project.in the last 2 days of the project, we implemented the structures and sign boards for the client. They can use it to minimize the problem and they have a proper solution to dispose garbage now.
Feedback is the only deliverable from the client (general public, pilgrims and local authorities of the area). The feedbacks are received by us through the local authorities.
Project Lifecycle ProcessesThere are 5 stages to implement this project. The first phase of the project management life cycle is project initiation. It is the process that takes the project brief, as developed, selected and prioritized, through to the delivery of the project’s outcomes back into the organization at the start of the project.
After identifying the project scope, can enter to the next phase which is called as the detailed planning phase. This involves creating a project plan outlining the activities, tasks, dependencies and timeframes. Resources plan, financial plan, quality plan, risk plan and procurement plan are included into the plan of the project.
Execution phase is the next one. The integrated project plan was based on and agreed on the consent and the progress of the work on the project execution phase at the end of the above phase.
In the monitoring and controlling phase, the project manager implements a series of management processes to monitor and control the activities being undertaken by the project team. In this phase time management, cost management, quality management and change management are done.
The last phase is project closure. This is as important as any other phase in the project. To complete this project, there should to complete and document all the necessary construction work.
OrganizationFunctional structure is chosen for the community project as the organization structure. For further details, refer task 2.1.
Project TeamProject team consists with students of four batches of HND in Computing and System Development (006,007,008,009). Works are delegated considering skills and experience of the team members in particular areas. For further details about delegation and tasks of team members, refer task 2.2.
In the project definition stage of Sri Pada community project, dates were entered against milestones on the milestone objective chart. This was done in an attempt to verify that the time targets defined by the upper management of our institute were realistic and achievable. For further details, refer task 3.2.
To verify the financial viability of the project, we did a cash flow analysis. To perform a cash flow analysis, information from the time analysis, resource analysis and budget (See task 3.2) is used. See task 1.2 for Cash flow statement.
In this project there were both of internal and external stakeholders. The methods which are used to communicate with them can mention as follows.
Stakeholder (Internal) Communication method
HND Students Group chats – WhatsApp ; Messenger
Over the phone calls
HND Coordinator Emails
Staff of Esoft Metro Campus-Galle Emails
Stakeholder (External) Communication method
Government authorities in the area Over the phone calls
Local and foreign visitors of the Sri Pada Oral conversations
Suppliers – Shop owners who supplied the goods and tools Oral conversations
The above-mentioned methods are used to communicate for following purposes. Moreover, the used phases of the project life cycle can mention as follows.
Stakeholder Information which is want to stakeholder and reason to know it Phase of the project planning life cycle
HND Coordinator and Staff of Esoft Metro Campus – Galle Information about Project scope, budget, time frame to give the approval for the community project. Initiating phase
Government authorities in the area Information about proposed project to give the approval for the community project Planning phase
HND Students (Project Team) Project plan to know about the tasks and how project is run Planning phase to closure phase
Local community Information about raffle draw and project details to buy tickets. Executing phase
Suppliers About materials, brands and quantity to provide according to our requirements. Executing phase
Local and foreign visitors of the Sri Pada To know about the project and how to use the implemented structures. Closure phase
Work Plan -Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
3.2Use project scheduling and cost control techniques for the above project
Scheduling Techniques of our community project
Project scheduling is a mechanism to communicate what tasks need to get done. A project schedule is a document collecting all the work needed to deliver the project on time. Without a full and complete schedule, the project manager will be unable to communicate the complete effort, in terms of cost and resources, necessary to deliver the project. Therefore, project schedule is very essential thing for any project.
Project Managers can use a range of tools and techniques to develop, monitor and control project schedules. Increasingly, many of these can be applied digitally using programs such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project etc. project scheduling techniques can mention as follows.
PERT chart (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
For our community project, we used the following techniques for scheduling.
The created Network diagram, Gant chart and Milestone analysis for our community project can mention as follows.
Before draw network diagram and Gantt chart, tasks of the project must identify. After that these tasks must analyze to decide the complete dates. These details gathered using the following table.
Task Start Date End Date Days to complete
A Plan Solution 11-Oct 2017 15-Oct 2017 5
B Create the Project Proposal 16-Oct 2017 18-Oct 2017 3
C Handover the proposal and Confirm it 19-Oct 2017 21-Oct 2017 3
D Create the budget 22-Oct 2017 24-Oct 2017 3
E Plan the fund-raising event 25-Oct 2017 26-Oct 2017 2
F Design and Print ticket books 27-Oct 2017 29-Oct 2017 3
G Create ticket books 30-Oct 2017 30-Oct 2017 1
H Collect funds 31-Oct 2017 20-Nov 2017 20
I Design the sticker for structure 12-Nov 2017 18-Nov 2017 6
J Handover the sticker to print 20-Nov 2017 20-Nov 2017 1
K Buy materials and equipment 20-Nov 2017 23-Nov 2017 4
L Make structures 24-Nov 2017 28-Nov 2017 5
M Implement the project 29-Nov 2017 30-Nov 2017 2
Total Days 58
According to the above tasks of our community project, network diagram is created as follows.
According to the network diagram there are 4 paths to do the project. Using the above network diagram critical path can find as follows.
Path Total days of tasks
A B C D E F G H K L M 5+3+3+3+2+3+1+20+4+5+2 = 51
A B C D E F G H J L M 5+3+3+3+2+3+1+20+1+5+2 = 48
A B C D I K L M 5+3+3+3+6+4+5+2 = 31
A B C D I J L M 5+3+3+3+6+1+5+2 = 28
According to the above calculation the critical path is,
A B C D E F G H K L M 51 days
According to the above critical path of the network diagram, the Gantt chart can create as follows.
Milestone analysis of Sri Pada Community project
Milestone Planed Date Completed Date Report Date Report / Conclusion
1 Contact the local authorities and get approval 20/10/2017 21/10/2017 21/10/2017 We contacted the local authorities as Amabagamuwa Regional council and Nallathanniya Police Station to get permissions. This milestone is delayed to complete because authorities were busy those days. So, we had to wait to contact them until they free.
2 Create the budget 24/10/2017 24/10/2017 25/10/2017 After finding the prices of materials, we created the budget for our community project. This milestone was achieved on the planned date.
3 Decide fund raising event 26/10/2017 26/10/2017 26/10/2017 After creating the budget, we selected the best fund-raising event to collect funds. We selected a raffle draw as the fund-raising event. This milestone also was achieved on the planed date.
4 Design tickets and prepare ticket books 29/10/2017 30/10/2017 30/10/2017 This task is given to a team member who has more experience in graphic designing. He designed the tickets. But we failed to achieve this milestone on time because this task was given for one person and he had other studies too. Therefore, this milestone was delayed to achieve.
5 Collect budget 20/11/2017 21/11/2017 21/11/2017 After creating the ticket books, we sold them. We sold all of the tickets but we were delayed to complete this milestone. The reason is one member one member was unable to come on the planned date because of the bad weather.
6 Buy materials and equipment 23/11/2017 23/11/2017 24/11/2017 After collecting the budget, immediately we went to Colombo to buy materials. Other things were bought from Galle. We were able to complete this milestone on time.
7 Book a vehicle for journey 26/10/2017 25/11/2017 25/11/2017 This task was given to one member and he completed this task before the planed date. So, we completed successfully this milestone too.
8 Design stickers and print 18/11/2017 20/11/2017 20/11/2017 During the collecting funds activity, we designed the sticker. We planned to complete it on 18th November. But we were unable to complete it because of the works of fund-raising event.
9 Make sign boards 28/11/2017 28/11/2017 28/11/2017 After gathering all materials, we started to make sign boards. We were able to complete this milestone on time because of the team work. Each one worked hard to achieve this milestone.
10 Go to the project area and implement the project 30/11/2017 30/11/2017 01/12/2017 Finally, we went to the project area to implement it. In bad weather we were able to complete our project. We were able to complete the final milestone successfully.
Cost Control Techniques of our community project
Cost is one of the key performance indicators for projects. Involved in controlling costs are processes centered around planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding and managing costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget. As a cost control technique, creating a budget is very essential because it helps to control the project’s cost and it affects to the scope of the project. Therefore, after planning the project there must create the budget. Moreover, it is very important to other tasks such as funding, managing cost etc. And also, the budget can mention as a better cost control technique.
When focusing on our community project, after planning it we created the budget for the project. It can mention as follows.
Budget of Sri Pada Community Project
Created by: Dasun Chathuranga Date: 2017/10/20
Material & Equipment Cost
Item Cost (Rs.)
Bag Rolls 12452.50
Aluminium bars 3675.00
Aluminium Sheets 1690.00
Plastic baskets 2750.00
Rivet nails 387.00
Rivet gun 650.00
PVC pipes & End caps 1080.00
For Van 18000.00
Bus fee to go to Colombo 2500.00
Overhead charges 2000.00
Total Cost 49184.50
Above mentioned costs are gathered contacting different show owners before start the project. Then compare the prizes of materials and equipment to choose the best ones for our project. Then created the budget and organized the fund-raising event. After that, we collected the funds selling tickets for raffle draw.
Earned value analysis is a popular tool used in project management to evaluate cost performance during the course of the project and it is a better cost control technique for any project. The earned value analysis can used to simultaneously analyse both schedule and cost relative to a particular time frame within the project life cycle and to a project baseline. The earned value analysis of our community project can mention as follows.
ACWS (Actual Cost of Work Scheduled)
Bag rolls12 542.50
Aluminium bars 3 675.00
Aluminium sheets 1 690.00
Plastic baskets 2 750.00
PVC pipes & End Caps 1 080.00
Rivet nails 387.00
Rivet gun 650.00
Stickers 4 000.00
Rent for equipment 1 087.50
Transport cost for van18 000.00
Bus fares 2 745.00
For food 2 159.00 +
Rs. 50 766.00
ACWP = Rs. 50766.00
Rent for equipment was an unexpected cost and bus fares exceeded the original cost in the budget. And also, cost for food was exceeded.
BCWS (Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled)
BCWS = Rs. 49184.50
BCWP (Budgeted Cost for Work Performed)
BCWP = Rs. 50766.00
BCWP is equal to ACWP because all the project tasks were done exactly on time and any cost in our project does not depend on the time spent because all tasks are done by students without hiring external party.
CV (Cost Variance)
CV = BCWP – ACWP
= 50766.00 – 50766.00
SV (Schedule Variance)
SV = BCWP – BCWS
= 50766.00- 49184.50
= Rs. 1581.50
CPI (Cost Performance Index)
CPI = BCWP / ACWP
= 50766.00 / 50766.00
SPI (Schedule Performance Index)
SPI = BCWP / BCWS
= 50766.00 / 49184.50
3.3Report the methods used to measure project performance of the above project
Performance measurement during a project is to know how things are going so that we can have early warning of problems that might get in the way of achieving project objectives and so that we can manage expectations. A secondary benefit is information that can be used to improve the planning and performance of future projects. There are used three methods to measure performance in our community project. They can mention as follows.
Milestone analysis chart
Milestone analysis chart
Milestone analysis chart is already mentioned in task 3.2 under the “Scheduling Techniques of our community project” topic. The milestone chart is very important and it shows the progress of the project.
In project planning, a slippage is the act of missing a deadline. It can be an arbitrary milestone put in place to help track progress. To avoid slippage, one must plan their projects carefully to avoid delays in schedule. This report is useful for identifying those current and future activities which are forecast as slipping and hence focus attention on remedying the situation. According to the milestone analysis and Gantt chart of the project there is created the slippage report as follows for our community project. There is mentioned only slipped milestones in the slippage report.
Slippage Report – Sri Pada Community Project
Description of Milestone Planned date to finish Actual finished date Slippage
Contact the local authorities and get approvals 20/10/2017 21/10/2017 1 day
Design the tickets 29/10/2017 30/10/2017 1 day
Collect funds 20/11/2017 21/11/2017 1 day
Design the stickers 18/11/2017 20/11/2017 2 days
In project management, a deliverable is a product or service that is given to your client. A deliverable usually has a due date and is tangible, measurable and specific. A deliverable can be given to either an external or internal customer and satisfies a milestone or due date that is created and produced in the project plan. A deliverable can be a software product, a design document, a training program or other asset that is required by the project plan.
There is created a deliverable report for our community project using the Gantt chart and milestone analysis chart. The created deliverable report can mention as follows.
Deliverable Report – Sri Pada Community Project
Deliverable Planned date to finish Actual finished date Responsible person
Project plan with budget and scope 24/10/2017 23/10/2017 All team members
Raffle draw tickets 29/10/2017 30/10/2017 All team members
Funds 20/10/2017 21/10/2017 All team members
Book van for journey 26/10/2017 25/11/2017 Bharatha Chathuranga
Stickers 22/11/2017 23/11/2017 Hushan Hasarel and Rusiru WeerasinghaMaterials and equipment 23/11/2017 23/11/2017 Dasun Chathuranga, Hushan Hasarel and Rusiru WeerasinghaFinished Structures 28/11/2017 28/11/2017 All team members
Feedback 30/11/2017 30/11/2017 All team members
3.4Report project change control procedures of the above project
Change control is an important part of the project management process. While change may help ensure the project’s alignment with business needs, it is important to consider and approve each change carefully. The change control process in project management ensures that each change proposed during a project is adequately defined, reviewed and approved before implementation. The change control process helps avoid unnecessary changes that might disrupt services and also ensures the efficient use of resources.
The change control process in project management ensures that each change proposed during a project is adequately defined, reviewed and approved before implementation. The change control process helps avoid unnecessary changes that might disrupt services and also ensures the efficient use of resources.
There are two documents used during the change control process as follows.
Change Request Form -: used to document details of the change, including the business case
Change Log -: used to provide a record of all changes requested and decisions made
Change control contains five stages as follows.
Proposing a Change
Summary of Impact
Implementing a Change
Closing a Change
1. Proposing a Change
This process gives the ability for anyone in the project team to suggest a change to the project. The proposal must include a description of the change and expected benefits or other reason for the change. The change is presented using the Change Request Form and added to the Change Log for the project.
2. Summary of Impact
This process is carried out by the project manager, who will consider the overall effect on the project, covering the following items.
Quantifiable cost savings and benefits
Legal, regulatory or other unquantifiable reason for change
Estimated cost of the change
Impact on timescales
Extra resources needed
Impact on other projects and business activities
New risks and issues
After this assessment, the project manager recommends whether to carry out the change.
This process involves a review of the change request by an approved authority who will consider all the information provided by the project manager and person making the request. The decision will usually be a one of follows.
Accept with comments and special conditions
Defer (change is not approved, but is left for consideration later)
4. Implementing a Change
If the change is approved it is planned, scheduled and executed at a time agreed with the stakeholders. As part of the planning, a regression test plan is needed in case the change needs to be backed out. After implementation, it is usual to carry out a post-implementation review.
5. Closing a Change
Once implemented, the requester checks and agrees on the change, and it is closed in the Change Log by the project manager. (Haughey, 2011)
According to the change control process, the change is requesting using a Change Request Form. The template of the change request we used in our project is as follows. The filled forms are attached in the appendix section.
Change Request Form – Sri Pada Community Project Request No: ……………… (Do not fill)
Change requestor: ……………………………………… Date: ……………………….
Change Category (Check all that apply):
Does this change affect (Check all that apply):? Corrective Action
? Defect Repair
? Preventive Action ? Other
Describe the Change Being Requested:
Describe the Reason for Change:
Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:
Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:
Describe the Implications to the Quality:
? Approve ? Reject ? Defer
Justifications of Approval, Rejection, Deferral:
Change Board Approval:
According to the change control process, there were proposed the changes. Then get aa summary of the changes and discussed the impact of the project from the changes. Then came to a final decision and implemented the changes. Then closed the changes creating the Change Log for our community project. The created change log can mention as follows.
Change Log – Sri Pada Community Project Prepared by: Dasun Chathuranga
Request No Description of the change Requestor Status Date resolved Justification of the final solution
01 Change the ticket price for HND students to Rs.500.00 and DiTEC students to Rs.200.00. Nishra NazarRejected 10/11/2017 This change request was rejected because there will conflict between HND and DiTEC students because of the different prices. Therefore, this change request was rejected.
02 Reduce the count of structures which are made for the project from 30 to 25. Rusiru Weerasinghe Approved 14/11/2017 This change request was approved because of the budget deficit and transport problem.
03 Aside from the structures which are made for the project, implement garbage bins in the area. Rusiru Weerasinghe Rejected 17/11/2017 This change request was rejected because of the high cost of the garbage bins. It is more affect for the budget and it is not feasible to collect that much more money from fund raising event. Therefore, this change request was rejected.
04 Change the structures implementing area of the project. (from foot to middle of the mountain) Hushan HasarelApproved 20/11/2017 This change request was approved because of the new rules which have been issued by Wildlife Preservation Department. Moreover, there was the time conflict problems and the weather were not good because of the off season of the Sri Pada.
05 Change the transport media from van to train Teshan RashmikaRejected 26/11/2017 This change request was rejected because of the difficulty of the carrying the structures, bag rolls and other things. Using a van to transport we can carry all things to near the foot of the Sri Pada. Therefore, this change request was rejected.
3.5Discuss the outcomes and make recommendations on improvement for project implemented
Post Project Evaluation
A Post Project Evaluation (Post-Implementation Review – PIR) is conducted after completing a project. Its purpose is to evaluate whether project objectives were met, to determine how effectively the project was run, to learn lessons for the future, and to ensure that the organization gets the greatest possible benefit from the project. This section covers the Post Project Evaluation of our community project.
Purpose of the project
The purpose of the project was to provide a long-term solution to the problem of garbage disposal in the Sri Pada area. This problem led to a few disasters in the area, and a proper solution was needed. This was done by giving us a long and practical solution to this problem.
Scope of the project
The Scope covers two different perspectives, the client and the project team.
From client’s perspective
This community project is done for general public and regional authorities in the Sri Pada area. This project will prevent local communities from disposing of garbage in the natural environment and proper disposal of garbage. As the problem has led to several landslides in the area, the local authorities are working and the animals and the people in the area are also affected. By doing this community project, it helps to pilgrimages, living people in the area and local authorities to prevent from garbage problem. Moreover, it helps to save wild animals in the area.
From project team perspective
Objective of the team is to identify the problem which is faced by the environment or the community and provide a better solution to solve the environment or the community problem by doing a fund-raising activity which is executed with careful guidance of a supervisory lecturer by combining the skills of the entire students in our batch.
Project Name: Sri Pada Community Project
Project Coordinator: Dasun Chathuranga
Anticipated End date: 30th November 2017
Actual End Date: 30th November 2017
Anticipated Budget: Rs. 49184.50
Actual Budget: Rs. 50766.00
Overall Project Assessment
The main goal of our community project is giving a proper solution for garbage disposal problem. Our team were able to implement the project in affected area of Sri Pada. So, we were able to achieve the goals from client’s perspective. Moreover, doing this community project we achieved our main goals too. We learnt different kind of skills such as soft skills and technical skills. We learnt how to work together as a team under a supervision and many more. These are can mention as the project team’s perspective. The best thing is the feedback from the client side were good and positive. They helped us to achieve our goals. It was enough time for us to complete our community project during the given time period. The budget variance was Rs. 1581.50. When considering the overall project, there is happy to say our community project was completely success.
When organizing the project, we faced several problems. We have learned a lot from those issues. The faced issues and recommendations for those problems can mention using following table.
We planned to implement 30 structures. But We had to reduce the structures count because of insufficient funds. Therefore, scope had be changed. If the funds are not insufficient, can find money by performing other activities such as organizing a walk, car wash etc. Therefore, reduce the structures is not the answer for that issue.
We planned to implement structures on whole path of the mountain. But, Wildlife Conservation department informed there are some new rules and they are not allowed to implement anything onwards from middle to top of the mountain. Therefore, we had to limit the implement area. We contacted the authorities over the phone calls. Therefore, some information is missed by them. If we used a formal method to communicate with them, that issue might not have arisen. So, the recommendation is when going to communicate with authorities there must use a formal method to reduce the communication errors.
We had to face heavy rain while implementing the structures on tail of the mountain. Already we thought about this issue when we are planning the journey. Therefore, we carried the necessary things for the bad weather conditions. So, we learned how to face any emergency condition from this issue.
There is necessary to change the bag rolls in every month. We are so far from the Sri Pada and we contacted the local persons who are climb the mountain frequently. So, we gave this work to them and they can change the bag rolls. We used the polythene bag rolls for the project. It can affect to the nature in bad way. If can use recyclable material for this it is better and it helps to protect the nature.