According to researches by parents’ meeting and teaching experience, it was found that parents in Australia pay more and more attention on children’s English study, especially the people whose English is a second language. They are keen on English learning and willing to invest on their children’s English training. So, recently this is a niche market that can be filled. The final report on “Final Report on Educational Toys and Programs in Australia” focus on four aspects, business feasibility, market feasibility, product feasibility and market strategy (Norman, Douglas ; Thomas, 2009, p.174). In business feasibility, we will look at toy industry in Australia both in current trends and future trends, key driving forces and key success factors. Then, market feasibility will be analyzed in target market, product value, major competitors and so on. Next, product description, differences from similar products will be explained in product feasibility. Last, market strategy will be discussed including product price, publicity, and distribution models.?
The Phoenicians built up the letters in order in 3500 BC. The term correspondence starts from the Latin word convey, which signifies ‘to make normal’, and when imparting, a typical comprehension is made. Barrett characterizes correspondence as: “the transmission of importance starting with one individual then onto the next or numerous individuals, regardless of whether verbally or non-verbally”. The absolute most noteworthy factor influencing the achievement of an undertaking is the correspondence capacity of the task chief. On the off chance that it appears to be valid that everything rises and falls on correspondence and authority, it makes sense that initiative correspondence capacity is the foundational expertise that must be accomplished for an undertaking chief to be viable. This paper centers around correspondence forms; arranging of correspondence; correspondence arranging, including the task authoritative structure, venture correspondence design and lines of correspondence; and in addition the interior and outer correspondence levels of the undertaking, venture administration, experimental discoveries and conclusion.
2. Literature review
2.1 Communication processes
Communication the way toward securing all significant data, translating this data and viably scattering the data to people who may require it. Correspondence is of fundamental significance to everybody engaged with, and affected by, ventures. Bowen and Edward characterize data as “information which have been handled and displayed in an organization which gives them meaning”.
Communication is so essential to extend achievement that it has been alluded to as the backbone of an undertaking by in excess of one expert. Undertaking colleagues need to work together, share, group and incorporate data and information to acknowledge venture goals. Accordingly, it is important to comprehend the procedure of correspondence. At its most essential level, correspondence comprises of three segments: a transmitter/sender, a transmission channel/medium and a collector. A fourth part, the medium of correspondence, is the code in which a message is transmitted. The conveyed message streams from the sender, encodes the message through the transmission channel/medium by a verbal or non-verbal strategy, to the collector that interprets the message. To guarantee successful correspondence, all parts must capacity to avert misconception. The sender is the beginning stage of the correspondence cycle and has a reason to impart. The purpose behind correspondence in venture administration might be a demand for data, sending data, making inquiries, giving a guideline, building groups or systems administration. The achievement of correspondence for the most part relies upon the sender’s capacity to talk, compose, reason and listen ably.
Talukhaba, Mutunga and Miruka concede to the crucial part of criticism in correspondence. Where input is truant, postponed or not soon approaching, intercessions are required to upgrade correspondence. In their execution, communicators need to always screen and audit the accomplishment of their correspondence procedures and frameworks with a view to shaping a premise whereupon appraisals can be made. The recipient of the message should, consequently, affirm the comprehension of the message, in light of the fact that without comprehension, correspondence can’t be powerful. This is additionally appropriate to development ventures.
Ineffectual correspondence can in this way likewise prompt misconstruing in regard of development ventures. Insufficiently characterized undertakings and basic procedures, vulnerability with respect to obligations, degree or destinations of development tasks may cause development activities to come up short. Dealing with an undertaking requires consistent offering and exchanging of thoughts, clarifying the extension and approachs of the venture to different gatherings of individuals (people in general, administration, practical offices and different partners), debilitating or haggling with specialist organizations and providers, or consulting to settle question or relational clash between venture colleagues or different partners.
2.2 Planning project communication
To comprehend the prerequisites of a task correspondence design, two needs ought to be known: the need to comprehend what the undertaking would require from its correspondence framework and the need to realize what specialized techniques and correspondence styles may be utilized to successfully address these necessities. Greenleaf states that the approaches to elevate correspondence are to guarantee that reports achieve individuals in time; to influence utilization of arranged circumstances when individuals to accumulate and talk; and to guarantee that correspondence records are accessible for colleagues. Poor correspondence amid ventures influences the calendar, the cost, the security of specialists and the undertaking quality. Enhanced correspondence by the venture administrator may prompt less disappointment, advancement and specialized arrangements, emphatically affecting the quality and prompting better basic leadership.
2.3 Communication planning
The Project manager and task office are at the core of the undertaking’s data and control framework. It is the venture chief’s obligation to create the undertaking’s hierarchical structure, as well as to build up the task’s correspondence design and lines of correspondence. A formal correspondence design ought to be gathered to distinguish how partner sentiments and activities will be overseen.
2.3.1 Project organisational structure
Organisations are organized so as to accomplish the objectives and goals. There are two essential structures. Initially, the bureaucratic structure that is masterminded in a pyramidal chain of importance, with expert expanding from one level to alternate, as one climbs in the association. The specialist lies in the position instead of in the general population who involve it. Besides, the network structure that breaks the solidarity of summon where each worker has one individual to answer to. This structure permits adaptability and inclusion, which prompts more noteworthy inspiration and collaboration.
2.4 Project communication plan
• The communication plan should outline the following:
• Who (lines of communication – sender and receiver – responsibility and authority)
• What (scope of communication and format)
• When (schedule)
• Feedback (confirms message received and understood – document control)
• Filing (retrieval, storing, disaster recovery)
• How (email, document, telephone, meeting, presentation)
It is prudent that a correspondence design is settled upon ahead of time with a specific end goal to give a reasonable bearing to all gatherings included, especially for complex tasks. The advancement of a correspondence design should center around encouraging the way toward keeping the key partners educated of the venture’s advance and to advance the undertaking by making it unmistakable constantly.
2.5 Lines of communication
Toward the beginning of a task, it is vital to decide the lines of correspondence and the techniques for overseeing data. Smit and Cronje propose two essential lines of correspondence, to be specific formal correspondence and casual correspondence.
As per Tubbs and Moss formal correspondence streams in four ways. Descending correspondence begins at the best and streams down through the venture levels to specialists. The significant reason for descending correspondence is to give data on objectives, procedures and arrangements to subordinates. Correspondence is probably going to be separated, altered, or stopped at each level as administrators choose what ought to be passed down to representatives. Upward correspondence includes providing data to the upper levels about what is going on at the lower levels. Even/parallel correspondence happens between individuals on a similar level of the chain of importance and is intended to guarantee or enhance coordination of the work exertion. It is formal correspondence, however does not take after the levels of leadership. Successful flat correspondence ought to counteract limited focus in the association. Askew correspondence happens between individuals at various levels of the progressive system and is generally intended to give data, coordination or help to either or the two gatherings. Gronstedt includes outside correspondence as a formal correspondence bearing. It happens between the undertaking group and individuals who are not some portion of the task.
The situation in the pecking order of undertaking administration is imperative, in light of the fact that the position decides the aptitudes expected to convey viably. The development venture director has to know how to discuss successfully with each colleague at a particular level, along these lines additionally needs extraordinary relational abilities, for example, composing, to impart adequately. William states that the most ideal approach to maintain a strategic distance from question amid and after a development venture is to give open lines of correspondence between venture partners so as to take care of issues and debate rapidly before they prompt expensive discretions or prosecution. In this manner, the stream of correspondence between various individuals on an undertaking shows the sort of aptitude expected to convey adequately, consequently it appears that lines of correspondence in the task ought to be short and entrenched.
Casual correspondence utilizes channels, for example, the grapevine, gossipy tidbits, casual social groupings and phatic correspondence. The grapevine constitutes casual and informal correspondence in which data depends on actualities or gossipy tidbits. It might start with anybody in the association and may stream toward any path. The grapevine’s essential capacity is to spread data to representatives (both administrative and non-administrative) that is significant to the necessities. Bits of gossip and the grapevine are not the same. Bits of gossip are data without an accurate base. Casual social groupings allude to bunches shaped among kindred laborers amid work time or night-time to talk about staff issues. Phatic correspondence includes utilizing words to pass on feeling instead of significance. Phatic correspondence contributes towards a culture of receptiveness and collaboration between colleagues and the director. Casual correspondence happens without impact from the venture chief, yet impacts the undertaking director’s viability. The lines of correspondence, formal and casual, are additionally confirmation of how correspondence happens in the development venture industry. The development venture supervisor, as the communicator, needs relational abilities, e.g. composing, addressing and arranging, to convey adequately.
2.6 Project communication levels
Dow and Taylor suggest that construction project management communication takes place on two levels, namely internal and external communication levels.
2.6.1 Internal communication
• According to Dow and Taylor different methods of internal communication exist:
• Oral communication takes place in the form of meetings, discussion groups, talks, interviews, announcements and conversations, both face to face and over the telephone
• Written communication takes place by means of letters, emails, circulars, memoranda and minutes of meetings
• Non-verbal communication may convey powerful messages in the business world by means of gestures, appearance or attitudes
• Electronic communication makes it possible to send messages all over the world at a very high speed. Messages may be sent and received using computer terminals, electronic mail (email) and fax facilities
• Visual communication takes place by means of presentations, DVDs and videos.
2.6.2 External communication
As per Le Roux each individual from an association is engaged with speaking with clients, investors, the media and individuals from general society every day. The outer correspondence of every one of these individuals from the association passes on a specific picture of the association to the outside world. Correspondence does not work in seclusion but rather inside a procedure. It is in this manner critical to survey interior and outer correspondence levels between individuals from an association to accomplish a common objective or objectives. The development venture director needs aptitudes to discuss viably with both the inside and outside gatherings engaged with the task.
2.7 Project management
The absolute most noteworthy factor influencing the accomplishment of a venture is the administration capacity of the task administrator. Other fundamental administration abilities other than authority make up the underlying requirements of the undertaking administration aptitudes set. As indicated by Hoard venture administration aptitudes can likewise be ordered as a progression comparable to Maslow’s chain of command. The aptitudes are appeared as a pyramid, and the possibility that lower abilities must be fulfilled before more elevated amount aptitudes can be tended to is incorporated into the model. The model comprises of four levels from the base to the best. The principal level constitutes authority, the second level administration, the third level demonstrates the thirteen zones of the assemblage of information for development venture administration and the best level shows venture administration development as result. According to Hoard the meaning of the levels of the project management hierarchy of skills are as follows:
• The bottom level constitutes leadership. The suggestion is that leadership is the bedrock upon which all else must be built. Without a solid foundation of leadership skills, attempts to develop other management skills will be less than effective.
• Once the leadership level has been satisfied the basic management skills can be addressed. Included at this level are the skills of teamwork, communication, motivation and negotiation. These skills represent the essential skills necessary to work with people in an organisational context.
• Only after the skills of the basic management level have been achieved can the next level, project management skills, be developed. This level is represented by thirteen areas, the familiar nine knowledge areas of PMBOK in black and the four knowledge areas of construction project management, PMI, in red. At this level the project manager masters the practice of the project management and construction project management discipline.
• It is only after a firm foundation of skills has been established that the ultimate goal of project management maturity can be effectively achieved.
Different authors have scrutinized the model of Hoard. The evaluate is that task authority is put at the upper end of the chain of command and not at the base. They trust that an undertaking supervisor initially must be an “extraordinary chief”, before a task director turns into an “incredible pioneer”. Putting administration before administration is having things in the wrong order. Authority isn’t the beginning stage, however the finish of the expert trip and ought to most likely be the last advance. In this way, a difference in the level of authority from the base to the best level is required. Authority ought to be at the highest point of the progressive system, beginning from the basics of administration, venture administration and after that initiative. Subsequently, an undertaking supervisor initially turns into a director managing all the interrelated exercises, at that point a task chief and at last a pioneer. Administration isn’t the beginning stage however the finish of the expert voyage. Additionally evaluate on the model of Hoard is that the thirteen zones are stacked, which may demonstrate a hierarchal reliance for each level upwards. In any case, a portion of the thirteen zones may without a doubt be stacked or have conditions while others may not be subject to alternate territories. The answer for this evaluate is that the thirteen zones ought not be stacked.
As per Lewis, the accompanying basic components are important to deal with a task: time, cost, degree and quality. Amid the periods of a venture the components extension, cost and time are the foundations of the undertaking. Berry and Verster suggest that tasks are gone through viable correspondence. Cost, extension and time are the interrelated territories and change in one region influences the other two zones. Quality is the result of the interrelationship between degree, cost and time. Correspondence is the capacity that coordinates cost, extension and time administration to accomplish a quality item. Correspondence is the region that coordinates a venture, and not exclusively incorporation, as represented in writing. Incorporation can’t be an exchange off between the regions without correspondence as help. Combination as a region can’t work without correspondence; in this way, correspondence is viewed as a more viable component that unites the zones.
In view of the way that correspondence unites the zones, correspondence can be viewed as having a foundation work. The zones of undertaking administration, as indicated by Burke, is the collection of information, which can be subdivided into center components that decide the deliverable targets of the task, in particular degree, time, cost, and quality. The other learning regions give the methods for accomplishing the deliverable targets, to be specific HR, chance, acquisition, joining and correspondence. The Construction Management Body of Knowledge distinguishes four extra territories as a major aspect of accomplishing the targets, to be specific word related wellbeing and security administration, natural administration, monetary administration and cases administration.
3.1 Product Description
ToyLearn offers three major lines of various educational toys initially. The first product is Number Toy, which is a fun toy and train number skills for children. The second is Letter Toy, which can help children on the alphabet learning. The third is Phonic Toy, which is a device similar as a mini PC and teaches children’s math and phonic skills.
As all these products are learning tools which develop core skills for the youngster and are fun to play with as well, young users are encouraged to use them often. New products will keep on research and development by the in-house department.
3.2 Benefits on Product Augment
The brand is named as ToyLearn that informs people directly the major function is to help on children learning. In addition, attractive packaging plays a crucial role in shaping purchasing decisions, especially when colourful containers are used that also showcase products’ most attractive characteristics. For instance, blister packs can prove very attractive. Instructions for use need to be written clearly on the packages as well as a booklet in the toy containers. Bright toy colour will be design which can catch up users’ eye quickly and keep children’s interests.
3.3 Difference from Similar Products in the Market
Number toys will combine number and train, not like number books for kids on the market. While children are driving the train, they are studying numbers at same time.
4. Findings and Discussion
Successful project management communication is about being there for everyone, being in touch with the real challenges of the project, understanding the real issues within the team who must deliver the project as well as understanding the issues of the sponsors who the team delivers the project for.
Being present, visible and engaged with everyone is important during the good times and the challenging times. Communication is not only about speaking to and hearing from people, it’s about understanding the complete message.
What language to use, how to convey the message with respect to tone, feeling and body language all play an important role in the communication process. If these are used incorrectly, the result is often a confused message and misunderstanding of the real issues. So a successful project manager can only maximise the effectiveness of communication within the team by being prepared to lead by example. A big part of leadership is to be present, and be prepared to communicate with all stakeholders at their respective levels.
Projects often ‘fail’ because we simply fail to clearly articulate the vision and the project’s success criteria. This vision must be successfully communicated to each stakeholder and team member. The whole team should be able to visualise the end result, in order to work towards a common goal.
Regular reporting of the project’s progress and status is crucial to the success of the project. Communicating this to all stakeholders in a clear and precise manner is paramount, so that all understand what the key messages are. Diagrams, charts, graphs and tables should be maximised here. The well known saying “a picture is worth a thousand words” is no less true than when communicating project progress or status. Effective and efficient project management communication is delivered by first considering the needs of the audience you are intending to communicate with, put yourself in their shoes and anticipate what they need to understand, and then provide that understanding only. Strong presentation skills are essential for communicating project progress and status. The audience needs to be engaged during these presentations to check that the key messages have been received and understood.
Communication methods such as Face to Face meetings, Video conference, meeting – one on one, or group, Telephone conference, or voice only web conference, Webinars, becoming increasingly popular for the delivery of presentation based activities, Telephone – good old fashioned call, Stand up presentations in person, Pod cast, Web cast, Email, Intranet bulletin boards, Blogs, Website, Project newsletter – paper based, Table top presentation could have been used for the advancement of the product but none of these were mentioned in the report.
Successful correspondence brings about all engaged with the undertaking understanding what is being conveyed. This originates from investing energy with the task group, being completely drawn in and arranged to tune in and comprehend the emotions which might be the key driver of the correspondence procedure. Venture chiefs truly need numerous qualities, good relational abilities being one of them, to drive the undertaking to wind up fruitful.