This essay is about the inconvenience of giving or attending a grammar lecture. Some believe that it is difficult, challenging, and even exhausting to learn and teach grammar. Almost everyone I know would emphasize this statement and even I tend to do it. However, I daresay that learning grammar is essential and it is worth the effort.
There are many reasons why learning grammar is difficult. One of it is the native language of the person who wants to learn the English grammar. English is a Germanic language. Hence, it is easier to learn for people whose native language is also Germanic like German or Dutch. For people from Asia, for instance, learning the English grammar is much more complicated.

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Another reason is the magnitude of the grammar. The English language has twelve tenses which the learner has to know. If he accidentally changes the tense in a sentence, it probably does not make sense anymore. Even if the aspirant knows when to use which tense, there are exceptions and signal words which indicate a usage of another tense. For someone whose native language is German the amount of tenses is 200 percent of the tenses he has to know in German (the German language has only six tenses).

There exist also somethingWord choice that is called ‘phrasal verbs’. A phrasal verb is a verb whose meaning has changed due to an added word – mostly an adverb or a preposition. Usually, phrasal verbs are not liked by learners. There are thousands and thousands of it in the English language and nobody could know them all. There is no consistent pattern which you can learn to improve your usage of phrasal verbs or even to identificate one. Phrasal verbs can be made by two or three words, adverbs or prepositions and so on. The aspirant has to learn them by heart, which makes it such a difficult topic.

Furthermore, the learner has to deal with idioms. Idioms are groups of words in a fixed order that have a particular meaning. They do not always make sense literally; they are more likeWord choice metaphors. Due to the requirement of the correct interpretation of the idiom, it is a difficult matter. As with phrasal verbs, the quantity of idioms is (too) excessive to learn them all.
One more reason why learning the grammar of the English language is difficult is the existence of two kinds of it: British English and American English. While British English is more formal and ‘snoblike’ (or ‘butlerlike’), American English is rather informal and adolescent. There are also grammatical differences. Prepositions, for instance, are not used completely similar. ‘What are you doing on Christmas?’ would ask an American, ‘What are you doing at Christmas?’ would ask the British. When describing something that recently happened, Americans tend to use the past simple, while British people would rather use the

present perfect. In addition, in written language regular and irregular verbs are used differently. Verbs that are irregular in British English have been made regular in American English. The –t ending becomes a –ed ending in America.

To put it in a nutshell, learning grammar is difficult, challenging and even exhausting. Due to my lack in English-teaching experience, I can not say if this is also the case for teaching. Considering the fact that English is the most-spoken second language, I recommend to anyone to learn English and especially the English grammar. Without grammar knowledge one is not able to build correct sentences and therefore communication becomes difficult. (Do) you want others to understand you? Learn grammar!


In my opinion the university language center should not keep the grammar & vocabulary courses.

Of course, vocabulary is important and grammar is even more important as I argued in the text above. The students should learn grammar and vocabulary. But offering courses which only focus on this topic is the wrong way. English should be taught as an overall package. The courses have to include all facets of the language. What are the benefits of learning grammar and vocabulary when you are not able to pronounce the words correctly?

The differences of the offered courses should just pertain the English level. For instance, there should be b1, b1-b2, b2, b2-c1 courses and so on. The structure and topic allocation of all courses should approximately be the same. In every offered course, the participant should learn grammar and vocabulary as well as fluency, pronunciation and the ability to give presentations.Very interesting suggestion.

All in all, whether the university should keep the grammar and vocabulary courses is a tricky question. Some would say that the possibility to choose courses with a thematic priority is a good thing, but in my opinion it is better to learn foreign languages as a whole.

27.06.2018, Clemens Bertram

a) Hotel’s Website – With the help of a website Crowne Plaza can is able to convey its core brand values and also targets the market with a marketing message in it. Another factor of having a website is generating online sales and in this aspect they don’t have to pay any commission to the third party as it is owned and managed by the hotel itself.
b) OTA’S – Another distribution channel is OTA’S which means online travel agent or third party websites such as Bookings.com, Expedia, Hotels.com and Priceline.com. Such type of distribution channel is popular among people making reservations through phone. 64% of the hotel bookings come from OTA’S. The hotel has to pay a commission to the OTA’S to every single reservation made. The commission is usually around 10-15%.
c) Global Distribution System – Travel agents use GDS to book airline tickets, hotel rooms, car rentals on behalf of their clients. GDS is considered very critical distribution channel for hotels to attract more demand from around the world.

A. Develop an applicable standards and procedures section that includes four elements of acceptable or unacceptable behavior found in a code of ethics.

Acceptable Standards

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Accountability­: Everyone in the organization should be held accountable for their behavior and their actions. This Behavior will help maintain an ethical standard as dictated by the code of conduct

Diversity: Anyone hired by the organization will respect each employee’s cultural and Racial differences. Mutual respect is mandatory to help create a peaceful and professional environment. There’s nothing wrong with disagreements but they must be handled with the utmost respect from one employee to the next

Integrity:­ Integrity is at the core of what we do. Being consistent is key To upholding the company’s values. For these reasons we should always act with integrity and credibility Because what we say and do is a reflection of ourselves in the company we represent

Transparency­: Knowledge is power and we encourage all employees to feel free with voicing their opinions or asking questions to upper management. Having this type of free-flowing dialogue will ensure that your feedback is heard and actions are taken to make this a productive and pleasant work environment

a) Roberto offers his house worth RM 500,000 for RM 100 to his employee, Jack. This is a bilateral contract, which means both the parties know their identity and make promises to one another. This is mutual exchange of promises. The contract can be made in the form of writing and orally by performing it. The contract between Jack and Roberto will be valid if the agreement fulfill the elements of contract. The elements of contract are proposal or offer, acceptance, consideration, intention to create legal relations, capacity, certainty, consent and legality.

In the case above, Roberto sells his house worth RM 500,000 to Jack for RM 100. This can be one of the elements of contract which is consideration. Consideration is one of the main elements that must be presented in an agreement without which the agreement is void according to Section 26. Section 26 provides that an agreement made without consideration is void. According to the case above, it is classified under adequacy of consideration. Consideration need not be adequate but must be of some value. Adequacy of consideration is a matter of parties within the agreement to make a decision. It’s enough if the consideration has some worth within the eyes of law.

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Roberto sells his house worth RM 500,000 for only RM 100 to Jack. This agreement is a contract notwithstanding the inadequacy of the consideration. It was explained in Explanation 2 of Section 26 -An agreement to which the consent of promisor is freely given is not void merely because consideration is inadequate; but the inadequacy of the consideration may be taken into account by the court in determining the question whether the consent of the promisor was freely given. The amount of RM 100 would seem unfair to Roberto but the court will not assess whether or not the promisor has received adequate consideration as long as both parties enter into the bargain freely.

Based on Phang Swee Kim V Beh I Hock, if Roberto orally agreed to sell his house for just RM 100 although his house is worth RM 500,000 and later he refused to fulfill the promise, contending that the consideration was inadequate. The court will held that inadequacy of consideration was immaterial and gives judgments favourable to Jack. Therefore, the contract made between Roberto and Jack is valid due to consideration as provided by Section 26 – Illustration (f) and Section 26 of Contract Act 1950.

A). Community service/volunteerism to my understanding means a way of give your time and enegry to assist with an organization without expecting anything payment or gift in return.
Volunteering gives you an opportunity to change people’s lives, including your own and the satisfaction of playing a role in someone else’s life or organization, helping people who may not be able to help themselves and also helping an organization to achieve its goal(s). Through volunteering person give to their community or other community which helps to develop skills such as social skills, and gaining valuable work experience all at the same time, it also contributes to personal development especially in areas such as self-fulfillment, self-confidence, and self-esteem. A person can also gain work ecperience from volunteering.

B). Jamaica is currently on a mission to achive four goals in vision 2030. They are: Goal 1: Jamaicans are empowered to chieve their fullest potential. Goal 2: The Jamaican society is secure,. cohesive and just. Goal 3: Jamaica’s economy purpose. Goal 4: Whatever the mind can conceive you shall achieve it.
Goal 1 and 4 are closely linked to community service project. Goal 1 is referring to the determination of the helpfulmentors the country can aim to achieve it’s goal to its full potential. The mentors will apply skills and knwoledge neede to influence the younger generations to have a frame of mind and capabilities to achieve their potential which is geared to achieved the country’s goal. I also selected Goal 4 because with help of our citizens to demonstrate and showcase good hygienic behaviour, it will influence people living in the community ans surroudning are to keep their environment clean and free from garbage. Volunteers can be able to promote good hygiene across the country through different ways and means such as putting up flyers in the organizations, schools and community, seminars/event in order to educate people in and around the area. With the help of volunteers this gola can be achieved and the country can be clean beautifual and air born disease free
C). I can help to contribute to Jamaica’s Vision 2030 by assisting with educational seminars to educate individuals on the imporatance of proper hygiene and how it will affect the environment they are in. I can start by practicing it in my home and community and putting flyers in and around my office to educate members of my workplace on its imprtance.

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Tan Sri Dr. Tony Fernandes who is know as Fernandes was born in Kuala Lumpur on 30 April 1964. He is the founder of Tune Air Sdn. Bhd., who introduced the first budget no-frills airline, AirAsia, to Malaysians with the tagline “Now everyone can fly”. Fernandes managed to turn AirAsia, a failing government-linked commercial airline, into a highly successful budget airline public-listed company. He has since founded the Tune Group of companies. He is also the majority shareholder of Queens Park Rangers Football Club.
At a young age, he would follow his mother who sold Tupperware at Tupperware parties. He was educated at The Alice Smith School in Kuala Lumpur. When he was at age 12, he studied at Epsom College boarding school in England from 1976 to 1983. He matriculated to the London School of Economics and graduated with a degree in accounting.
He worked very briefly with Virgin Atlantic as an auditor, then he became the financial controller for Richard Branson’s Virgin Communications in London from 1987 to 1989 before he joined Warner Music International London as Senior Financial Analyst. Fernandes was admitted as Associate Member of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) in 1991 and became Fellow Member in 1996. He is currently a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW).
Fernandes was formerly a Warner Music executive in Malaysia, and Vice President, ASEAN at Warner Music South East Asia from December 1999 to July 2001. When Time Warner Inc announced its merger with America Online Inc., Fernandes left to pursue his dream of starting a budget no-frills airline. In September 2001, Fernandes purchased AirAsia and became its chief executive.
In year 2003, he lobbying our former Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad to propose the idea of open sky agreement with the neighbouring country such as Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore to take advantage. He then successful gain landing right to AirAsia and other discounted carriers. In year 2007, Fernandes involve his business in other industry by establish no-frills concept hotel chain, Tune Hotel. He also expand his venture by involve in reality tv series in 2013 which is “The Apprentice Asia” in year 2013. In year 2004, AirAsia joint venture with Shin Corporation. Tony Fernandes achieve no. 52, in Fast Company Top 100 Most Creative People in Business.

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Interpersonal roles is the manager’s responsibility for managing relationships with the organizational members and other constituents. The three interpersonal roles played by the manager are figurehead, leader and liaison.
Figurehead is managers need to perform some works that are especially events in nature such as appear at community function. Fernandes launched his memoirs, Flying High, a look back at his journey from music man to airline man in 29 October 2017. The book was unveiled at a star-studded affair at Marini’s On 57 in Kuala Lumpur, in the shadow of the Petronas Twin Towers.
Leader is managers must work together with their employees to achieve their goals. Fernandes do a ‘walk around’ management style. He works on the ground or in the cabin crew every month for a few days.
Liaison is managers define the activities for individuals and group works within the organization and develop favourable relationships with the outside constituents. Fernandes says that his employees always come first before his customers. He believes when he treat his employees happily, his employees will take care of his customers.

Informational roles is the manager’s responsibility for gathering and disseminating information to the stake holders of the organization. Informational roles include monitor, disseminator and spokesperson.
Monitor is manager will identify the internal and external environments of the organization to get useful information and from the information they can detect opportunities or threats for their organization. Before Fernandes made decision to introduced new route, he will monitor the market if already be serve well or not such as Bhubaneswar-Chennai route.
Disseminator is managers will distribute the information they get to make sure their employees have information to do their work efficiently and effectively. Fernandes told his employees that Chennai to New Delhi route have been serve very well, so they introduced another route which is Bhubaneswar-Chennai route.
Spokesperson is managers must always communicate with individuals that are outside of their organization. Fernandes got the title of FORBES ASIA’s 2010 Businessman of the Year and Forbes named him as a “single, charismatic pioneer” because of how he speak. When he speak, even the layman can understand.

Decisional roles is the manager’s responsibility for processing information and reaching conclusions. Decisional roles include entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator.
Entrepreneur is managers initiates project that capitalize on opportunities that have been detected such as developing new services. Fernandes made strategic vision to make AirAsia as the largest low cost airline.
Disturbance handler is managers can handle the problems that are arise. When the tragic loss of AirAsia QZ8051, Fernandes quickly fly to the same destination to meet with the families of the passengers and staff and continues gives support for them.
Resource allocator is manager can make decision which project will receive organizational resources.
Negotiator is managers can negotiate the employees, suppliers, customers, or other work group because when the manager negotiate the employees, managers can ensure that they doing the right work to achieve the goals. The tragic loss of AirAsia QZ8051 might made many passengers be nervous about flying with AirAsia but Fernandes does not explain what has happened because his priority is his customers. This action helps the customers to maintain and increase the trust for using service by AirAsia.


The ability to process a tremendous amount of information about the internal or external environment of the organization and determine implications of that information.
For example, Tony Fernandes develop foresight which he can succeed to beat his competitor by providing first budget no frills airline. He avoid the problems by taking an action before something bad happen. He always plans for AirAsia future of opportunity that they can take or threats that they have to face.

The ability to work effectively with one’s own and work group as well as others within the organization.
For example, Tony Fernandes build a good relationship with his staff which can create loyalty towards the company. This can make the organization achieve the goals easily. Fernandes make his workspace in open place where nobody does not have their own room including himself. He make that plan of workspace because he want his employees to contact him or walk up to him any time easily.

The ability to utilize the knowledge of tools, techniques and procedures that are specific to a particular field.
For example, Tony Fernandes did not know about the airline industry at first but he develop his talents, interests, abilities and dreams to enter the airline industry. He was willing to take the risks and finally he made the AirAsia into a profitable airline in just two years.


Managers must set for their organization goals and how to achieved it.
For example Fernandes wants to make AirAsia as the biggest low cost airline in Asia even AirAsia was in a huge amount of debts at that time.

Managers must organizing the tasks that should be done and how the tasks will be managed and coordinated.
For instance, Fernandes divide the employees by specialization of works such as pilots and engineers.

Managers must leading their employees do their group works so that they can achieve their goals.
Fernandes says employees always come number one and customers come number two because when the employees have a happy workforce, they will look after his customers.

Managers must monitor the performance of the organization and the progress in implanting strategic and operational plans.
Fernandes adopts a ‘walk around’ management style. He said that he learned a lot by work on the ground in the cabin crew every month for a few days.

A.) Concept of CRM
According to (Kulpa,2018) customer relationship management (CRM) is defined as,
“All of the activities, strategies and technologies that companies use to manage their interactions with their current and potential customers.”
Effective customer relationship management is achieved by always believing that “customer is king.”
The concept of CRM in the credit origination process must entail the following as highlighted in the article of (Juneja:2018):
? Understand the needs, interest as well as budget of the customers. Don’t suggest anything which would negatively affect the client financial position in the short term and long- term.
? Be transparent at all times. Convey them only what your product offers.
? Ensure timeous feedback to the client. The client should not be kept waiting.
? Keeping the client’s view in mind. Don’t only be concerned about sales targets but ensure that the suggested product is what suites the client’s needs.
? Don’t oversell. Never irritate the customer by calling him to often for example more than twice in a single day.
? The client needs time to develop trust in you and your product. Allow the client a reasonable time to decide on whether they will take up the product.
? Treat the client with respect and dignity. Handle the customers with patience and care.
? After sales service. Always keep in touch with the customers even after the deal.
? Sufficient training must be provided within the company. This training must cover the tools which enable the bank officials to interact with the client’s correctly.
CRM is an holistic concept which involves multiple interlocking concepts, including market, strategic planning, business process improvement, product design, pricing analysis, technological advancement , human resource management and customer retention to name but only a few. Also mentioned by (Kupla,2018) the components of CRM are:
– Operational CRM usually has to do with one of the three types of operations: marketing, sales and service.
-Marketing is one of the most significant component of Customer Relationship Management and it refers to the promotional activities that are used by a company in order to promote their products. Customer Relationship Management assists in the marketing process by enhancing and improving the effectiveness of the strategies used for marketing and promotion.
– Customer Service. Almost all the major departments including the sales department, marketing team and the management personnel are required to take steps to develop their awareness and understanding of the customer needs as well as complaints. This undoubtedly makes the business or the company to deliver quick and perfect solutions and assistance to the customers as well as cater to their needs which increases the dependability and trust of the customers and people on the organization.
(Taylor:2018) also mentions Components of CRM: There are a number of different components of Customer Relationship Management that are essential to run an organization towards success. Every component is unique in itself and plays a major undeniable role in the process.
Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management involves the effective and correct use of human resource and skills at the specific moment and situation. This requires to be make sure that the skills and intellectual levels of the professionals match the tasks undertaken by them according to their job profiles. It is an essential component not only for the large scale corporations but the medium industries as well. It involves adopting an effective people strategy and studying the skills or the workforce and the growth being generated thereby designing and implementing the strategies needed accordingly with the aim of achieving development.
Technological advancement
The software and hardware as well as the nature of the improved technology we use to service the customer has a huge effect of the customer relationship management of the bank. This ultimately affects the customer overall satisfaction , when the technology is advance we also improve turnaround time for feedback to the client and ultimately makes the client’s banking experience seamless.
Overall, each of the discussed components of Customer Relationship Management is very essential to improve the work structure as well as the market response to the business and their products.
Benefits of CRM
According to (Juneja 2018:1) the benefits of CRM are Customer Relationship Management leads to satisfied customers and eventually higher business, in brief Juneja highlights that the benefit of CRM are:
1. Customer Relationship Management goes a long way in retaining existing customers.
2. Customer relationship management ensures customers return back home with a smile.
3. Customer relationship management improves the relationship between the organization and customers. Such activities strengthen the bond between the sales representatives and customers.
In addition, (Anusandhanika,2015) includes that CRM assists banks to provide a number of benefits to their customer, the key benefits are:
• “Service provisioning through the business client’s life-cycle, and to establish a long- term relationship with the client which includes the businesses future needs.”
• “Optimization of the use of bank resources, such as alternative channels of distribution( internet banking).”
• “Significant reductions in costs through use of the alternative channels.”
• “CRM permits business to leverage information from their databases to achieve customer retention and to cross sell other products and services to existing customers.”
• “Companies that implement CRM make better relationships with their customer. Achieve loyal customers and increased revenue and reduced costs.”
B.) Roles as a credit analyst in the credit origination value chain, effective implementation of CRM principles in Absa Business Bank and the benefits gained as results thereof.
The role of the credit analyst for effective implementation of CRM principles in the Absa business banking in the credit origination process, the implementation of my role as a credit analyst is two- fold and can be viewed in the short-term and long-term:
Short- term
• Review and prioritise lending deals with the banker.
• Manage and drive the deal forum process.
• Evaluation customer info and deals risk(according to Absa credit risk policy).
• Motivate the credit case/ first time approval.
• Engage credit valuation on submitted deals for approval/finalisation.
• Ensure efficient fulfilment of credit deals for example facility letters, fees recovery etc.
• Ensure timeous customer reviews.
• Access and manage portfolio and client credit risk daily) eg. problematic , high- risk clients
• Stay abreast of internal and external environment and rends that influence the customer and portfolio risk.
• Proactively assess and manage risk in the credit portfolio on an ongoing basis.
• Effective customer solutioning and customer service fulfilment.
• Continuously keep abreast of and adhere to latest credit standards , policies, regulatory compliance.
• Ensure teamwork and collaboration in the value chain.
Benefits for of the effective implementation (Anusandhanika,2015):
• Customer Relationship Management goes a long way in retaining existing customers.
• Customer relationship management ensures customers return back home with a smile.
• Customer relationship management improves the relationship between the organization and customers. Such activities strengthen the bond between the sales representatives and customers.
• Service provisioning through the business client’s life-cycle, and to establish a long- term relationship with the client which includes the businesses future needs.
• Optimization of the use of bank resources, such as alternative channels of distribution( internet banking).
• Significant reductions in costs through use of the alternative channels.
• CRM permits business to leverage information from their databases to achieve customer retention and to cross sell other products and services to existing customers.
• Companies that implement CRM make better relationships with their customer. Achieve loyal customers and increased revenue and reduced costs
Collaboration and Relationship Management
“Works well with people and adapts with different stakeholders, consulting ad listening to others, and communicating proactively. Builds relationships and networks internally & externally , relates to people at all levels and manages conflict.”
• I building good relationships with the Banker and Transactional team so that we build on a conflict – free team.
• I have good working relationship with other product houses such as asset finance and commercial property finance.
• In the team and with other stakeholders I always listen before commenting in order to ascertain effective communication.
• Trio meeting are held frequently and arranged by me so that we proactively communicate all aspect within the team.
• I have internal and external relationships. By internal relationship I know all sales managers and provincial heads within and around the area I work in. Regarding external relationships I very frequently attend client visits with the banker, so that I know the clients and build a trust relationship with them.
• I manage conflict situations by setting a tone of transparency and honesty across all team member, other credit analyst and product houses. I also make it clear that of there are conflict issues we speak about it immediately and have a constructive conversation in which we can find a solution and way forward.
C.) Identify and describe the benefits of a software system that Absa Business banking uses to support the CRM process in the credit origination value chain.
I have identified Webica (Web- Based Integrated Credit Application) software system. This is the system the credit analyst uses to present applications to the credit sanctioner.
The benefits of a software system that Absa Business banking uses to support the CRM process in the credit origination value chain, are as follows:
• The first benefit of the Webica system is that, it allows the credit analyst to populate tabs by use of headings such as customer profile which includes client background, market, industry, and SWOT analysis etc. The most important heading are customer profile and financial analysis, which in depth discusses the clients capital, operational, liquidity and debt service ability. The term sheet which specifies facilities and securities of the client indicates a clear picture of what the exposure the client currently has and also shows the new facilities being requested. It also indicates the securities that the bank hold and whether the current exposure is sufficiently covered.
• The second benefit of Webica is that it allows the credit sanctioner to generate a credit report which synchronises all the information that the credit analyst populated as mentioned above. The credit sanctioner then indicates the decision to decline, approve or return the application to the credit analyst for additional information.
• Thirdly, The benefit of this within the CRM process is that webica allows Absa Business bank to understand the client’s business from all aspects . With credit origination the benefit is that we can now understand exactly what the background of the client is and how the need for a new facility arises.
• Over and above all, the Webica system will always retain the customer profile of the business client so that even if different credit analyst work on the client the profile will always be on record.
Analytical and problem-solving:
“Identifies key relationships in data and information; probes for further information or greater understanding; produces workable solutions with strong diagnostic capability.”
The only problem that i sometimes encounter is that the sanctioner returns the application without calling me or the banker to discuss before returning the application. By talking about teh application this slows down the feedback to the client. Suggestion is that the deal is discussed with the sanctioner before submission and then in the same discussion to mention to the sanctioner that he/she calls before returning or declining the application.


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