a)

This essay is about the inconvenience of giving or attending a grammar lecture. Some believe that it is difficult, challenging, and even exhausting to learn and teach grammar. Almost everyone I know would emphasize this statement and even I tend to do it. However, I daresay that learning grammar is essential and it is worth the effort.
There are many reasons why learning grammar is difficult. One of it is the native language of the person who wants to learn the English grammar. English is a Germanic language. Hence, it is easier to learn for people whose native language is also Germanic like German or Dutch. For people from Asia, for instance, learning the English grammar is much more complicated.

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Another reason is the magnitude of the grammar. The English language has twelve tenses which the learner has to know. If he accidentally changes the tense in a sentence, it probably does not make sense anymore. Even if the aspirant knows when to use which tense, there are exceptions and signal words which indicate a usage of another tense. For someone whose native language is German the amount of tenses is 200 percent of the tenses he has to know in German (the German language has only six tenses).

There exist also somethingWord choice that is called ‘phrasal verbs’. A phrasal verb is a verb whose meaning has changed due to an added word – mostly an adverb or a preposition. Usually, phrasal verbs are not liked by learners. There are thousands and thousands of it in the English language and nobody could know them all. There is no consistent pattern which you can learn to improve your usage of phrasal verbs or even to identificate one. Phrasal verbs can be made by two or three words, adverbs or prepositions and so on. The aspirant has to learn them by heart, which makes it such a difficult topic.

Furthermore, the learner has to deal with idioms. Idioms are groups of words in a fixed order that have a particular meaning. They do not always make sense literally; they are more likeWord choice metaphors. Due to the requirement of the correct interpretation of the idiom, it is a difficult matter. As with phrasal verbs, the quantity of idioms is (too) excessive to learn them all.
One more reason why learning the grammar of the English language is difficult is the existence of two kinds of it: British English and American English. While British English is more formal and ‘snoblike’ (or ‘butlerlike’), American English is rather informal and adolescent. There are also grammatical differences. Prepositions, for instance, are not used completely similar. ‘What are you doing on Christmas?’ would ask an American, ‘What are you doing at Christmas?’ would ask the British. When describing something that recently happened, Americans tend to use the past simple, while British people would rather use the

present perfect. In addition, in written language regular and irregular verbs are used differently. Verbs that are irregular in British English have been made regular in American English. The –t ending becomes a –ed ending in America.

To put it in a nutshell, learning grammar is difficult, challenging and even exhausting. Due to my lack in English-teaching experience, I can not say if this is also the case for teaching. Considering the fact that English is the most-spoken second language, I recommend to anyone to learn English and especially the English grammar. Without grammar knowledge one is not able to build correct sentences and therefore communication becomes difficult. (Do) you want others to understand you? Learn grammar!

b)

In my opinion the university language center should not keep the grammar & vocabulary courses.

Of course, vocabulary is important and grammar is even more important as I argued in the text above. The students should learn grammar and vocabulary. But offering courses which only focus on this topic is the wrong way. English should be taught as an overall package. The courses have to include all facets of the language. What are the benefits of learning grammar and vocabulary when you are not able to pronounce the words correctly?

The differences of the offered courses should just pertain the English level. For instance, there should be b1, b1-b2, b2, b2-c1 courses and so on. The structure and topic allocation of all courses should approximately be the same. In every offered course, the participant should learn grammar and vocabulary as well as fluency, pronunciation and the ability to give presentations.Very interesting suggestion.

All in all, whether the university should keep the grammar and vocabulary courses is a tricky question. Some would say that the possibility to choose courses with a thematic priority is a good thing, but in my opinion it is better to learn foreign languages as a whole.

27.06.2018, Clemens Bertram

a) Hotel’s Website – With the help of a website Crowne Plaza can is able to convey its core brand values and also targets the market with a marketing message in it. Another factor of having a website is generating online sales and in this aspect they don’t have to pay any commission to the third party as it is owned and managed by the hotel itself.
b) OTA’S – Another distribution channel is OTA’S which means online travel agent or third party websites such as Bookings.com, Expedia, Hotels.com and Priceline.com. Such type of distribution channel is popular among people making reservations through phone. 64% of the hotel bookings come from OTA’S. The hotel has to pay a commission to the OTA’S to every single reservation made. The commission is usually around 10-15%.
c) Global Distribution System – Travel agents use GDS to book airline tickets, hotel rooms, car rentals on behalf of their clients. GDS is considered very critical distribution channel for hotels to attract more demand from around the world.

A. Develop an applicable standards and procedures section that includes four elements of acceptable or unacceptable behavior found in a code of ethics.

Acceptable Standards

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Accountability­: Everyone in the organization should be held accountable for their behavior and their actions. This Behavior will help maintain an ethical standard as dictated by the code of conduct

Diversity: Anyone hired by the organization will respect each employee’s cultural and Racial differences. Mutual respect is mandatory to help create a peaceful and professional environment. There’s nothing wrong with disagreements but they must be handled with the utmost respect from one employee to the next

Integrity:­ Integrity is at the core of what we do. Being consistent is key To upholding the company’s values. For these reasons we should always act with integrity and credibility Because what we say and do is a reflection of ourselves in the company we represent

Transparency­: Knowledge is power and we encourage all employees to feel free with voicing their opinions or asking questions to upper management. Having this type of free-flowing dialogue will ensure that your feedback is heard and actions are taken to make this a productive and pleasant work environment

a) Roberto offers his house worth RM 500,000 for RM 100 to his employee, Jack. This is a bilateral contract, which means both the parties know their identity and make promises to one another. This is mutual exchange of promises. The contract can be made in the form of writing and orally by performing it. The contract between Jack and Roberto will be valid if the agreement fulfill the elements of contract. The elements of contract are proposal or offer, acceptance, consideration, intention to create legal relations, capacity, certainty, consent and legality.

In the case above, Roberto sells his house worth RM 500,000 to Jack for RM 100. This can be one of the elements of contract which is consideration. Consideration is one of the main elements that must be presented in an agreement without which the agreement is void according to Section 26. Section 26 provides that an agreement made without consideration is void. According to the case above, it is classified under adequacy of consideration. Consideration need not be adequate but must be of some value. Adequacy of consideration is a matter of parties within the agreement to make a decision. It’s enough if the consideration has some worth within the eyes of law.

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Roberto sells his house worth RM 500,000 for only RM 100 to Jack. This agreement is a contract notwithstanding the inadequacy of the consideration. It was explained in Explanation 2 of Section 26 -An agreement to which the consent of promisor is freely given is not void merely because consideration is inadequate; but the inadequacy of the consideration may be taken into account by the court in determining the question whether the consent of the promisor was freely given. The amount of RM 100 would seem unfair to Roberto but the court will not assess whether or not the promisor has received adequate consideration as long as both parties enter into the bargain freely.

Based on Phang Swee Kim V Beh I Hock, if Roberto orally agreed to sell his house for just RM 100 although his house is worth RM 500,000 and later he refused to fulfill the promise, contending that the consideration was inadequate. The court will held that inadequacy of consideration was immaterial and gives judgments favourable to Jack. Therefore, the contract made between Roberto and Jack is valid due to consideration as provided by Section 26 – Illustration (f) and Section 26 of Contract Act 1950.

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