A Smart Vehicle Parking System using IoT
Bibin Daniel1,Jithin Thomas1,Lijin Mathew Varghese1,Melbin M John1and Jerlin Ajith Davidson2
1UG Scholar,Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering
2Asst.Prof.Christian College of Engineering&Technology
Oddanchatram,Dindigul,Tamilnadu-624619
Email:[email protected]
Abstract :-With the development of the technology, smart devices are becoming more common in everyday life.The technology id developing much to get connected with the whole world.As the density of people living in an area increases,the vehicles will increase its number.There needs a job for the drivers to find a parking places in the cities. Thus the common problem in our cities is the difficulty of finding free parking slots.The time of the search will also bring a big factor of reason for the difficulty of the drivers..The main after effect of these are traffic blocks.The people cannot access their needs as the time being.This will affect the world,as the world is very busy with their needs.The main objective behind this project is to make a comfortability for the drivers.In this study,there involves the finding of parking place and the booking of those areas. The method involves the connection to the database.The whole setup is based on the Internet of Things(IoT).Thus the IoT controls the every process.An algorithm is used to find the places.A navigation based parking can be done in future.Then more amount of places can be included in the upcoming generations.Everyone can access the areas using their own devices.An application can be installed for the use of peoples.This application is very simple and user friendly.This setup can be installed easily.
Index terms—IoT technology; algorithm; parking slots;
Traffic congestion;reservation;
1.Introduction
Finding a better securable parking slots and occupy the same in cities are a major drawback. It mainly results more traffic issues and air pollution while searching an available parking space.For example,shopping malls,cinema theatres,multispeciality hospitals,airports like premises will be affected by heavy traffic issues.The recent surveys showing that, in metropolitian cities, the traffic congestion originating by the vehicles to occupy parking spaces are taking upto 40-50% of the total traffic of the city.This happens mainly during the busy hours,in the premises of the above mentioned areas.Mainly in the case of hospital areas,these traffic problems and pollutions will create many healthy issues too.Unavailability of free parking areas will prompt the drivers to park along the roadsides carelessly.This will provide insecurity for the vehicles.To reduce these traffic problems and to make the searching for free parking slots more easier for the drivers,a reservation based smart parking system is implementing here.In this study,a navigation and reservation based smart parking system is proposed.So,the drivers can search the nearby free parking slots while coming to an unknown area using their personal devices meant for communication.After searching, the free spaces can be identified and those slots can be easily reserved,so that no one can occupy their slot.When the usage of particular parking slot is over,the respective area again become vacant for parking.The proposed method involves the development of small devices that send data to the internet using the internet of things (IoT) technology. These parking systems obtain availability of free parking spaces from the sensor devices, and just give the information about the parking directly to the drivers.Thus the drivers can access the respective free spaces.The parking slot conditions will change ccording to the various real time scenarios.So this will be provided as a real time application.

2.Literature Review
A. Smart parking solutions for urban areas.

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Finding a parking place in a busy city centre is often a frustrating task for many drivers; time and fuel are wasted in the quest for a vacant spot and traffic in the area increases due to the slow moving vehicles circling around. In this paper, we present the results of a survey on the needs of drivers from parking infrastructures from a smart services perspective. As smart parking systems are becoming a necessity in today’s urban areas, we discuss the latest trends in parking availability monitoring, parking reservation and dynamic pricing schemes. We also examine how these schemes can be integrated forming technologically advanced parking infrastructures whose aim is to benefit both the drivers and the parking operators alike.

B.Smart parking management in a smart city: Costs and benefits
Today cities are responsible for more than 75% of waste production, 80% of emissions, and 75% of energy utilization. With regard to Europe, road transportation produces about 20% of the total CO2 emissions, out of which 40% is generated by urban mobility. It is estimated that vehicles cruising for free parking spaces cause 30% of the daily traffic congestion in an urban downtown area. In this article we attempt to show, through a simulation and an assessment model, how ITS may impact on urban parking management considering both people and freight transportation, and quantified the economic and social benefits which can be obtained. Although some benefits have been already examined by previous authors (e.g. in terms of reduction of time spent in searching a free parking spot), there is still a general lack of quantitative models able to assess the impacts of ITS technologies for urban parking. In this regard, one distinctive contribution of this article is that it combines people and freight transportation modes in a single model. First, we developed a model in order to simulate the urban parking system before and after the adoption of the Smart Parking solution. The output of the simulation model consists in the percentage reduction of the time spent by drivers of cars and vans in searching a free parking spot. Then, this percentage has been used to assess the economic and social benefits of a Smart Parking application in the City of Milan (Italy), in which the “pay and display” parking spots are provided with sensors able to communicate if the space is free or not. The analysis considers two perspectives: on the one hand the parking operator company, which can increase its revenue due to the reduction of people that do not pay for
parking. On the other hand, the city-users (i.e. citizens, tourists, off-site students, etc.), who can reduce the time spent for searching a free parking spot, thus reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

C.Smart Stadium for Smarter Living: Enriching the Fan Experience
Rapid urbanization has led to more people residing in cities than ever before, and projections estimate that 64% of the global population will be urban by 2050. Cities are beginning to explore Smart City initiatives to reduce expenses and complexities while increasing efficiency and quality of life for its citizens. To achieve this goal, advances in technology and policies are needed together with rethinking traditional solutions to transportation, safety, sustainability, among other priority areas. We propose the use of a Smart Stadium as a ‘living laboratory’ to identify, deploy and test Internet of Things technologies and Smart City solutions in an environment small enough to practically trial but large enough to evaluate effectiveness and scalability. The Smart Stadium for Smarter Living initiative brings together Arizona State University, Dublin City University, Intel Corporation, Gaelic Athletic Association, Sun Devil Stadium and Croke Park to explore smart environment solutions.

3.Arudino Based Embedded System
The parking guidance system is designed to optimize the use of parking spaces and to reduce wait times.The available parking set up,already existing is the parking of vehicles in the free spaces of road sides.But the searching work to find the slots is not possible through it.Here uses Embedded system for the technique.Based on a literature review we identify that the ultrasonic sensor is suitable to detect an entering or exiting vehicle. Initial experiments were performed to test the sensor using an Arduino based embedded system. Detection logic was then developed to identify a car after analyzing the initial test results. This logic was extended to trigger a camera to take an image of the vehicle for validation purposes.Mainly,this system consists of Arduino,ultrasonic sensor,and a temperature sensor. It was installed and tested in Richard Beard Garage at the University of South Florida for five days. The test results of each trial are provided and average error for all the trials is calculated.The error cases occur due to golf carts, straddling cars on both entry/exit lanes,and people walking under the sensor.These errors are occurring while the drivers are prompted to park their vehicles on roadsides as they are unable to find the free parking spaces.The average error of the system is 5.36% over five days (120 hrs).Also there needs the influence of a third party to operate the parking areas.This will results in loss of time and manpower.

The software used for this setup is the Arduino which can be operated in Linux,Windows etc.This can be operated using any type of programming language.The only thing is,it should the binary machine code for output. This project provide the cross-platform written in the programming language. It includes a code editor with features such as text cutting and pasting, searching and replacing the text,syntax highlighting etc.and it provides simple mechanisms to compile and upload programs to a board. By using the sound waves the Ultrasonic sensor measures the distance to an object.The device will sent a wave of a particular frequency and wait for the same to bounce back.The wave which comes back is detected by the sensor.Then it measures that distance.By recording time between the sound wave that is being generated and the respective sound wave that bounces back,then it is possible to calculate the distance between the sensor and the corresponding object.

4.Proposing System
4.1 IoT based parking system:
The smart parking can be considered as an application of IOT. The concept of smart city aims to meet the needs of the people, to provide more efficient use of general resources and to reduce the working costs. In this study, a new approach is proposed for the smart parking system.

Smart parking system is an integrated system to organize cars in public parks.
The system will be used for every slot in park.

The motivation of this project is to help drivers. And make the payment way easier.
The total number of parking slots,how many of them are occupied,how many of them are vacant and the reserved slots etc. can be visualize using the software.

By identifying the free slots available,the drivers can easily reserve those spaces for parking.

The whole system is done using the Internet of Technology(IoT).

A password can be enabled for the reserved spaces which can be accessable only for that corresponding user.

The proposed method consists of two modules.

The first module is the hardware part. This module acquires thecondition of the parking slots and send this data to the internet.
The second module consists of the software part to determine the nearest free parking slots.

4.2 Overview of the system:
This system consists of the users,management systems and the parking lots.The users request to parking lots and the through sensing the darabase is developed.This management system is then given tom the users to access the data or the slot information.

Fig (1) Overview
4.3 Technical approach:
The Reservation based smart parking system involves the sensing of the datas and thereby the collection of database.Then these datas are accessed by the users and meant for the reservation of those free parking spaces.This process is mainly consisting of two units.They are;
The first one is the main or system unit,and this unit will be located in every spot in the parking lot.
These units will be connected with our second, the coordinator.
So every coordinator will control the information from and to the units connected with it.The system unit mainly deals with the hardware parts and the coordinator unit is meant for the software part.

4.4 System unit:

Fig (2) System unit
Every spot in the parking lot will contain the main unit.Our unit consist of:
Microcontroller.

IR sensors…

LCD.

IoT Module
Two IR sensor for getting the information about parking area. Two motors for two gates for parking open or close.The IC will show the current status in current area and IOT module connected for uploading the data to online Every data monitored by web.IR signal is low the parking area open if it is high parking area occupied so and corresponding data will move to IOt module the IOt module send the information to our server.

IR Sensor:
An infrared sensor is an electronic device, that emits in an order to sense the aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detects the motion.These types of sensors measures only infrared radiation, rather than emitting it that is called as a passive IR sensor. Usually in the infrared spectrum, all the objects radiate some form of thermal radiations. These types of radiations are  invisible to our eyes, that can be detected by an infrared sensor.The emitter is simply an IR LED (Light Emitting Diode) and the detector is simply an IR photodiode which is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength as that emitted by the IR LED. When IR light falls on the photodiode, The resistances and these output voltages, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received.

IR FC-51

Fig (3) IR FC-51
IR Sensor Circuit Diagram and Working PrincipleAn infrared  sensor circuit is one of the basic and popular sensor module in an electronic device. This sensor is analogous to human’s visionary senses, which can be used to detect obstacles and it is one of the common applications in real time.This circuit comprises of the following components
LM358 IC
LM358 IC IR Transmitter
LM358 IC IR Receiver
Resistors of the range of kilo ohms.

Variable resistors.

LED (Light Emitting Diode).

IR Sensor is the common device which is used to measure the distance between the objects by passing out the infrared rays.The propagated rays will strike on an object and the same will get bounce back.This is the working principle behind the IR sensor.

In our proposed project if there is any vehicle is parked,
IR transmitter propagates the infrared rays.
Rays strikes the vehicle and bounce back.

IR receiver collects the bounced signal.

The sensor senses the prersence of the vehicle.

Data is transffered to the web.

IR Sensors to Microcontroller Interface Circuit:
Fig (4) Interface circuit
In this project, the transmitter section includes an IR sensor, which transmits continuous IR rays to be received by an IR receiver module. An IR output terminal of the receiver varies depending upon its receiving of IR rays. Since this variation cannot be analyzed as such, therefore this output can be fed to a comparator circuit.In this project, the transmitter section includes an IR sensor, which transmits continuous IR rays to be received by an IR receiver module. An IR output terminal of the receiver varies depending upon its receiving of IR rays. Since this variation cannot be analyzed as such, therefore this output can be fed to a comparator circuit. Here an operational amplifier (op-amp) of LM 339 is used as comparator circuit.

When the IR receiver does not receive a signal, the potential at the inverting input goes higher than that non-inverting input of the comparator IC (LM339). Thus the output of the comparator goes low, but the LED does not glow. When the IR receiver module receives signal to the potential at the inverting input goes low. Thus the output of the comparator (LM 339) goes high and the LED starts glowing. Resistor R1 (100 ), R2 (10k ) and R3 (330) are used to ensure that minimum 10 mA current passes through the IR LED Devices like Photodiode and normal LEDs respectively. Resistor VR2 (preset=5k ) is used to adjust the output terminals. Resistor VR1 (preset=10k ) is used to set the sensitivity of the circuit Diagram. This sensor detects objects at a distance in range between 2~30cm. With the potentiometer you can calibrate the sensitivity according to the application and environmental conditions (e.g. brightness). The IC LM393 is an open-collector voltage comparator which provides an output if there is a pull-up R between the output of the IC (DO) and the power supply Vcc (R=10K?). The output DO is: high if the object is not detected and low if the object is detected.

IoT ModuleAnother important one in the system is the IoT module.The IoT(Internet of Things) connects the system in the collection of databases.An IoT module is a small electronic device embedded in objects,machines and things that connect to wireless networks and sesds and receives data.Another key differentiator of IoT modules is that they provide always on connectivity.There are IoT modules in the system unit and the coordinator.The datas are being transferred between these Iot modules.

Circuit: Fig (5) Circuit diagram
Two IR sensor for getting the information about parking area. Two motors for two gates for parking open or close.The IC will show the current status in current area and IOT module connected for uploading the data to online Every data monitored by web.IR signal is low the parking area open if it is high parking area occupied so and corresponding data will move to IOt module the IOt module send the information to our server.

4.5 Coordinator Unit:

Fig (6) Coordinator unit
This system mainly deals with the software side of the setup.This unit is consisting of the mobile application,IoT module etc.Also the PHP language is used here
The system will open the free space for parking time and its give the intimation for free space to IoT . The system also will use a display for the interaction with the user, like interaction for entering information about the time needed. Every action noted by our controller and the controller always communicate with Iot module so every second the system monitor by Iot system.Here we give the password for free space if we type the password the free space will open otherwise it will not open and its showing wrong password in IoT System.The program for the software part is given below.The program deals in helping the working of the IR sensor.

Program:
#define IR 2  
int detection = HIGH;    // no obstacle
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);  
void loop() {  
detection = digitalRead(IR);
if(detection == LOW){
Serial.print(“There is an obstacle!
“);
}
else{
Serial.print(“No obstacle!
“);
}
delay(500);    // in ms
}
Software operation
The IR sensors detect the condition of the parking slots.

Upload the databases to the web.

The database can be accessed by the users by the mobile application provided.

A mobile application with an LCD display is given for the visualization of the data.

The user can easily reserve the place,thereby the place will gets locked.A password based reservation is enabled.

By using the software application we can visualize the whole details about the parking slots.It gives a clear picture about the condition of the parking area,means how many of them are vacant or reserved.It is difficult to find that where we have parked our vehicle in a huge parking area.so,by using this software application we can easily navigate that where is the place that we have reserved and parked our vehicle.we can monitor the details in the LCD display.For reserving the slots they will provide an one time password.After reaching the parking slot we have to enter the OTP, then only the reserved parking area slot get opened.The gate is operating by the specified user through the corresponding application.By the use of this particular software the man power can be reduced and make the work easier.The model of the condition of parking slots that can be visualized in the application is given as;

Fig (7) Representation diagram
5.Results and Discussions
The smart parking system can be implemented for different senarios. The free space allocation can be represented and thereby visualized using a display and mobile application.An LCD display is used for the clear view of the slots.A mobile application is installed for that.The mobile application can be implemented as follows;

Fig (8) Screen representation
The free condition of the parking areas can be represented by the glowing of the LED;

Fig (9) Circuit view
The allocation of free areas thus can be identified by the state of the LED.Thus the glowing of the LED represents the vacancy of the parking area.

Fig (10) PCB designing
Thus the reservation of those parking places are possible through this.This easily helps the drivers to park their vehicles in metropolitan cities and reduce the traffic congestion and to perovide security for the vehicle.

6.Future work
Whenever the device is exposed to an infrared radiation, the sensor transmits an electrical charge. It composes of crystalline material. Based on the variation in the quantity of infrared radiation that strikes an element, a change in voltages will be generated, that is recorded by an amplifier on-board.
The only reason of not keeping a transmitter and receiver is because the device doesn’t itself emit energy signals. It just accepts the energy that is emitted from the objects above an absolute zero in the forms of radiation. Therefore, the temperature will not be the same for the humans working past sensors, and that of a wall lying before it. Hence, the word “passive” has been utilized in IR sensors to elaborate that it doesn’t emit and receive radiations actively. It, in fact, accepts infrared radiations only passively. We use a device that contains one special filter. It focuses the infrared signals on the respective element. Whenever there is a rapid change in ambient infrared signals, what the amplifier does is that it trips output in order to indicate that there is a motion. It can be said that the IR sensor is comparable to a human body sensor as it is activated if and only if a human or an animal traverses the sensor. Therefore, this IR sensor becomes the heart of project. It is possible for us to design the project in a way such as when a burglar or attacker approaches the sensor, the alarms immediately turns on resulting in the particular sensor stage notification system turning on.

7.Conclusion
The reservation based parking system is implemented, using the Android application. Using the slot allocation method we can book and block our own cheapest and shortest distant parking slot.This is a ver efficient system so that there is no the interference of a third party.This will reduce the use of manpower.But also this is very much secure for the vehicles.Here the insecurity in parking the vehicles on the roadsides are reduced efficiently.Those will also reduce the congestion due to traffic.The technique is ver simple and the easy access of the parking slots can be get.As it is based on reservation,the wait time also can be reduced. This is very useful and applicable in the metropolitan cities.Specifically,shopping malls,cinema theatres especially the hospital and educational institutrion premises.This system can be further modified by using more security options for the vehicles.

8.References
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