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Last updated: April 22, 2019

A PROJECT REPOET ON BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT THE TIMES OF INDIASubmitted in partial fulfilment of the Master of Business Administration In “MAHARISHI MARKANDESHWAR-DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY” 2017-2019 submitted TO: – SUBMITTED BY:-MR.SACHIN MAHENDRU BASU JINDALASSISTANT PROFESSER, MMDU 12177022 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This piece of work would never have been accomplished without the Almighty’s blessings and his power that work within me and also without the people behind my life for inspiring, guiding and accompanying me through thick and thin.

It is a pleasant aspect that I have now got the opportunity to express my gratitude for all of them. It is a matter of great pleasure to submit this report on Marketing in The Times of India.I take this opportunity to extend my sincere thanks to MAHARISHI MARKANDESHWAR DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY and The Times of India Group for offering me a unique platform to earn exposure and garner knowledge in the field of Sales and Marketing. I extend my heartfull gratitude to my project guide Mr.

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NAVNEET THAKUR, Results and Market Development Officer at The Times of India, Chandigarh for giving me a chance to work on the field and having made my summer training great learning experience by giving me his guidance, insights and encouragement which acted as continuous source of support for me during the entire period. I would also like to express my profound gratitude to my faculty guide Asstt Prof. SUMIT MAHENDRU for his constructive support during the summer internship period which leads to successful completion of my internship at The Times of India, Chandigarh. BASU JINDAL 12177022 DECLARATIONI hereby declare that I have completed my summer internship at The Times of India, Chandigarh, Punjab from 1st June 2017 to 22nd July 2017and project titled “Impact of price on buying behavior of consumers on the daily newspaper – THE TIMES OF INDIA” is a research work carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of Mr. NAVNEET THAKUR, Results and Market Development Officer at The Times of India, Chandigarh and Asstt Prof. SACHIN MAHENDRU.

The information has been collected from genuine and authentic mediums. The work has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Integrated Bachelor of business administration – Masters of business administration, Maharishi Markandeshwar Deemed to Be University, Mullana. BASU JINDAL 12177022 SUMMARYThe project and all about direct marketing it involves pitching subscription of news paper to various domain. Be it education institution a company a pharamasector, a school, a college, etc.

They are main task included meeting directly with the customer to continue them new consequences this exclusives service that offer service worth their money and effort.ObjectiveMarketing of the Newspaper so that more and more customers should subscribe the newspaper i.e. to sell the subscriptions of the newspaper. To study the how to Develop the business of newspaper and Magazines in panchkula which include the various part of the business like supply of newspaper, distributions of newspaper and, more MethodCorporate calling: Each and every type of corporate call like bank call, schools, private offices and shops.Residential calling: Door to door selling was done in this type of strategy. Most of the posh areas were covered under this.

Filed Visit: Visiting dealers and distributions.Conclusion:TOI newspaper gets published in panchkula and is supplied to punjab,HP,Chandigarh ,some parts of Haryana. Magazines of The Times Of India has established base in complete chandigarh and also in panchkula and mohali and the largest sale Is of femina. TABLE OF CONTENTChapter No.Name of Chapter1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3.

History4. Distribution structure The Times Of India5. Swot Analysis6. Research Methodology7. ConclusionLimitations8.

Bibliography and Appendix List of Tables: LIST OF TABLES Table no TABLE TITLE Page No 3.1 Times of India description 20 4.1 Distribution Channel 29 5.1 SWOT Analysis 35 6.1 What is your favorite English news channel. 45 6.2 What is your favorite Hindi news channel 46 6.

3 What is your favorite English newspaper 47 6.4 What is your favorite Hindi newspaper 48 6. 5 what is your favorite Business newspaper 49 6.6 Which English news papers do you currently subscribed at 50 to your home? 6.7 Which Hindi news paper do you currently subscribed at 51 to your home 6.8 Which Business news paper do you currently subscribed at 52 to your home 6.

9 What do you like the most in your newspaper 53 6.10 Which is your favorite column in newspaper 54 6.11 What information from classified section been able to 55 resolve your enquires 6.

12 What is your newspaper monthly billing or annual 56 subscription? 6.13 What binds you most currently newspaper 57 List of Figure LIST OF FIGUREFigure no FIGURE TITLE Page No 3.1 Times of India Building 1898 12 3.2 The Times of India Glance 20 3.3 Different Branches of BCCL 21 4.1Different type Newspaper 32 6.1 Offer coupon Swami Automobiles 38 6.

2 Offer coupon Verma Store Bhawan 39 6.3 Offer coupon Yo China 39 6.4 Silver subscription form 42 6.5 Gold subscription form 43 6.6 Magazine prices 44 CHAPTER-1INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONPrint media is one of the most powerful and cost effective medium to transfer information and knowledge. The print media industry in India is more than a century old. Also it is a well-established industry. This industry mainly comprises of publishing newspapers and magazines.

India has the second largest population and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Along with these the increasing level of income of peoples and the robust competition in this industry help print media in its growth. Producers are increasing day by day, new entrants from outside India is also a factor of tough competition. Indian readers prefer. This survey also said that more than 300 million literate individuals do not read any publications.

According to Arc Gate, the dramatic effects of internet and globalization in current scenario are playing high impact on media industry. Even people are now consuming news and information from internet through computers or mobiles, the popularity of print media is not decreasing. To avoid declining of market share in front of other media the producer must able to produce high quality printed content and magazines. They also need to make the contents available on mobile and web platforms to provide a choice to its subscribers to explore the contents anytime anywhere. Dr Saukat Ali, in his paper “A Study of Consumer Behavior & Loyalty in Print Media – Challenges & strategic prescriptions with Special reference to English, Hindi, Marathi News Paper readers-Mumbai”, says developing customer loyalty ; retaining readership can be a huge challenge for the publishers. There are huge options available to readers now. Therefore publishers are busy to create something very special and innovative in contents or subscription schemes to impress upon the readers. They should address the needs and demand of consumer to strengthen their loyalty and readership.

. The Times of India Group, being the market leader in the industry is also stepping with the current growth and development of the demography. But still they are facing some problems. They are losing subscribers. By having an opportunity to be a part of the group, by acting as an summer intern, this research has been done with the objectives, To explore the customer demand in terms of price, Quality and Services. To find out the reasons for discontinuing subscriptions. What drives a customer to adopt a product? His demand and needs. The product must be able to fulfill the needs and wants of the customer.

When a product has less demand in comparison with other products? Thus what a customer a wants? This study is mainly to explore the customers’ demand for the magazines of World Wide Media (WWM) in terms of price, quality and services. We can say, to explore what customer wants from the publisher and what publisher gives to the customer. It is also being taken to find out the lacks behind fulfilling the demand.ORGANISATIONS PROFILEThe Times Group (Also referred as Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.) is the largest company in media and entertainment industry in India and South Asia.

It has completed 175 years of its journey in media industry from 1838, established in Mumbai. Starting off with The Times of India – which is now the largest English publication in the world, BCCL and its subsidiaries (called The Times of India Group), are present in every existing media platform – Newspapers, Magazines, Books, TV, Radio, Internet, Event Management, Outdoor Display, Music, Movies and more. Having strength of more than 11,000 employees, its revenue is exceeding $1.5 Billion, it has the support of more than 25000 advertisers and a vast audience spanning across the world.Key Business areas:Publishing Television Digital Out of Home Other Activities Publishing:-Largest publisher in India: 13 newspapers, 18 magazines, 16 publishing Centre’s, 26 printing Centre’s Largest English newspaper in India by circulation (and the world), the Times of India.Largest Business newspaper in India by circulation (2nd largest English Business daily in the world, behind WSJ), the Economic Times.

Largest Non?English newspapers in Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore by circulation (India’s three largest cities).Television:-Largest English News TV Channel, No. 2 English Business News TV Channel. Largest Bollywood News and Lifestyle TV Channel, No.

2 English Movies TV Channel. Digital:-Largest Indian network based on traffic and revenue (behind Google, Facebook, Yahoo). Operates 30+ digital businesses, most of which are Top 3 in their competitive segment.

Most popular B2C mobile short code in India, across SMS, voice, WAP, and USSD Radio. Largest radio network in India by revenue and listenership, with 32 stations. Operates the largest rock radio station in the UK. Out-of-home:-Largest Out?of?home advertising business in India with presence in all major metros. Owns advertising contracts in most major airports in India.Other Activities:-Music Movies Syndication Education Financial Services Event Management Specialized publications – including books and multimedia.CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEWIt was proposed to survey the literature regarding differentiation of the product offerings. In the event that the consumer finds him or herself in market that display low level of differentiation, the consumer might result to purchasing influenced by convience.

Like consumer who display complex buying behaviour consumer with dissonance reducing behaviour were seek to establish personal beliefs regarding the products. These beliefs with eventually transforms into attitude regarding the product offering some Economist had done extensive work on this as a whole. There had been certain endeavours that have direct or indirect bearing on the present study. Assael considered consumers displaying buying behaviour as consumers who did not experience the some sequences the previous two behaviours types.

Instead of basing their decision making process on seeking product information pertaining to functionality or gathered passively via company’s promotional efforts , by it through the medium of TV, Radio or print Advertising Common to this type of consumer is “brand switching ” in order to satisfy their need for diversification 2Lars Perner One “official” definition of consumer behavior is “The study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.” Although it is not necessary to memorize this definition, it brings up some useful points: Behaviour occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group (e.g., friend influence what kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization (people on the job make decisions as to which products the firm should use).3Consumer behaviour involves the use of the product and learns the consumer behaviour.

Product use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this may influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption.Consumer behavior involves services and ideas as well as tangible products.Batra & kamzi Consumer behavior is the mental and emotional processes and the observable behavior of consumers during searching purchasing and post consumption of a product and service. consumer behavior as the action and decision process of people who purchase goods and services for personal consumption.

Now if these defining criteria are closely observed, it is evident that analyzing consumer’s decision making process is the foundation of entire notion of consumer behavior. In order to develop a framework for the study consumer behavior it is helpful to begin by considering the evolution of the field of consumer research and the different paradigms of thought that have influenced the discipline. As described in this article, a set of dimensions can be identified in the literature, which can be used to characterize and differentiate the various perspectives on consumer research.3Nicolai While research on business models and business model innovation continue to exhibit growth, the field is still, even after more than two decades of research, characterized by a striking lack of cumulative theorizing and an opportunistic borrowing of more or less related ideas from neighboring fields in the place of cumulative theory. We argue that the lack of cumulativeness stems from lack of construct clarity and lack of agreement.

4Kuala Lamupu Although circulation sales of the newspaper industry in India still strong. The industry need to reboot its strategies towards readers interest with regards to content. Content is still king the newspaper industry is a reliable source of information and advertisements need to be more sensitive towards readers need what they want read.

5Ho said the newspaper industry needed to know its readers and their demands.”Thus, the data of readers and feedbacks are important. This could not be effectively collected via print but could be done via website and e-paper through tablets and mobile phones,” he said.Ho said the channels of selling content were secondary compared with the content itself.”People will buy if the content meets their expectation regardless of the platforms.”But, as data is easily obtained via cyber platforms such as tablets and mobiles, more investment is needed to develop the avenue to optimally monetise e-paper,” he said.

In terms of advertising, Ho said the country’s newspaper companies needed to ramp up its consumer revenue to match its heavy reliance on advertising.In terms of advertising, Ho said it needed an evolution towards content marketing, which was essentially how advertisers made use of consumer information.He said consumers were placing a higher trust in newspaper advertising regardless of platforms versus online marketing.

Charles C Despite a voluminous literature, business model research continues to be plagued with problems. Those problems hinder theory development and make it difficult for managers to use research findings in their decision-making. In our article, we seek to make three contributions. First, we clarify the theoretical foundations of the business model concept and relate them to the five elements of a business model: customers, value propositions, product/service offerings, value creation mechanisms, and value appropriation mechanisms. A clear definition of a business model enables theory to develop systematically and provides coherent guidance to managers. Second, we suggest that value configuration is a contingency variable that should be included in future theorizing and model building. Each of the elements of a business model is affected by a firm’s value configuration depending on whether the firm is a value chain, value shop, or value network.

Third, we link business models to organization design. We show how organization design is affected by value configuration and how new collaborative organizational forms enable open and agile business models. We derive the implications of our analysis for future research and management practice.6Howard and Seth (2005) fully ascertained the effects that branding had on the consumer decision making process. Howard model is used in the process of decision making during purchasing activities.

Its model illustrated that cognitive decision making is the process in which consumer mentally process information that influences them. Keferer (2007) mentioned that shift in focus towards brands began when it was understood that they were something more then mere identifiresAaker and Joachmishaler (2011 stated the traditional branding model where a brand management team was responsible for creating and coordinating the brands management program. The basic objective was the coordination with the manufacturing and sales departments in order to solve any problem concerning sales and market share. Kotler (2014) concluded that the essence of this approach is critical for organizational success, so that they can have better understanding of their customer behavior. They physical action or behavior of consumer and their buying decision every day can be measured directly by marketers. For that reason many organizations these days are spending lot of their resources to research how customer makes their buying decision. What they buy, how much they buy and where they buy.

Pittsburgh Trib to cease printing 2017. In the fall of 2016, The Pittsburgh Tribune Review joined a growing number of newspapers to cease print publication entirely and become a free, digital-only publication. In announcing the news, Jennifer Bertetto, president and chief executive officer of Trib Total Media, the paper’s owner, said, “We hoped that the moves we made last fall would be enough to stabilize our financial position, but it simply wasn’t enough.

Like other news organizations, our company faces intense financial reality that compelled us to make additional changes. These changes, although difficult, are necessary to ensure our long-term viability. I am incredibly confident in the direction our organization is heading.”CHAPTER-3HISTORYHISTORYJames Augustus Hickey is considered as the “father of Indian press” as he started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the Calcutta General Advertise or the Bengal Gazette in January, 1780. In 1789, the first newspaper from Bombay, the Bombay Herald appeared, followed by the Bombay Courier next year (this newspaper was later amalgamated with the Times of India in 1861).The Times of India issued its first edition on 3rd November 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce. The paper published Wednesday and Saturday under the direction of Raobahadur Narayab Dinanath Velkar, a Maharashtrian Refirmist and contained news from editor. In 1850, it began to publish daily edition.

In 1860, editor Robert Knight (1825-1892) bought the Indian shareholder interests merged with rival Bombay Standard, and started India first news agency. It wired Times dispatches to papers across the country and becomes the Indian agent for Reuter’s news service. In 1861, he changed the name form the Bombay Times and Standard to The Times of India. Knight fought for a press free of prior restraint or intimidation, frequently resisting the attempts b y governments, business interests and cultural spokesmen and led the paper to national dsprominence. In the 19th century. This newspaper company employed more than 800 people and had a sizable circulation in India and Europe.In the early 1960 Shanti Parsad Jain was imprisoned on charges of selling newsprint on the black markert. And based on the Vivian bose commission earlier report which found weongdoings of the Dalmia Jain group that included specific charges against shanti parshad Jain the government of India filled a petition to restrain and remove the management of Bennet Coleman ; Company Ltd.

The Indian language paper have taken over the English press as per the latest NRS survey of newspaper. The main reason being the marketing strategy followed by the regional papers. Beginning with ednadu a Telegu daily started by Ramojij Rao. The second reason being the growing literacy rate.

Increase in the literacy rate has direct positive effect on the rise of circulation of the regional papers. Malayala Manorama has about 10 editions in Kerala itself and six others outside Kerala. Thus regional papers aim at providing localised news for their readers. Even Advertisers saw the huge potential of the regional paper market, partly due to their own research and more due to the efforts of the regional papers to make the advertisers aware of the huge market.In the early 1960 , Shanti Parshad jain was imprisoned on changes of selling newsprint on the black market . and based on the Vivian bose commission earlier report which found wrongdoings of the Dalmia jain group that included specific charges against shanti parshad jain the government of india filled to restrain and remove the management of Bennett, Coleman and Company . Based the pleading justice the Goverenment to assume control of the newspaper which resulted in replacing half of the direction and appointing a Bombay High Court judge In the chairman. Figure 3.

1 Times of India Building 1898Source:TheTimesOfIndiaWikipedia ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY1838 In November 3, 1838 the first edition of The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce were published, reflecting basically the business community of Bombay. It was a bi-weekly publication. Dr. J.E. Brennan was the Editor.1850 Shareholders decide to increase the share capital and the paper is converted into a daily. 1859 Bombay Standard and Chronicle of Western India merge into The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce to form Bombay Times ; Standard.

1861 Editor Robert Knight amalgamates The Bombay Times ; Standard and Bombay Telegraph ; Courier to form The Times of India – giving it a national character. 1892 T. J. Bennett becomes the editor and enters into a partnership with F.M. Coleman to form a joint stock company – Bennett, Coleman ; Co.

Ltd. (BCCL). 1907 Editor Stanley Reed revolutionizes news production by extending the deadline to midnight. Until then any news that came in after 5 pm was held over for the next day. The newspapers’ first price war was also initiated with cover price being cut from 4 Anna’s to 1 Anna – leading to a five-fold increase in circulation. 1946 The Times of India gets Indian ownership with Seth Ramakrishna Dalmia buying the company. 1947Exclusive Sunday edition of Times of India launched in Mumbai.

The company also launches its Hindi daily – Nav Bharat Times in Delhi. 1948 Sahu Jain Group takes over as the owners of the company after Ramakrishna Dalmia sells the firm to his son-in-law Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain – who becomes the first Chairman of the group. 1950 The Times of India launches in Delhi. 1952 Filmfare launched. 1959 Femina launched.

1961 The Economic Times is launched. 1962 Maharashtra Times launched. 1965 Femina Miss India contest started. 1988 Times of India complete 150 years. Special stamp released by Government of India to commemorate the occasion.1996 The Times of India crosses 1 million marks in circulation.

It also carries the first-ever color photograph. 1997BCCL enters into music market with Times Music.1999 India times web portal launched; BCCL enters music retailing business with Planet M. Also operates the first-ever private FM broadcast through Times FM (which later becomes Radio Mirchi).2000 The Times of India crosses the 2 million mark in circulation. 2001 Radio Mirchi – Nationwide private FM broadcasting starts.

360 Degrees – Event management business also launched. TOI goes all colours and storms Delhi by being “Number One”. 2003 Launch of the Times Private Treaties as a strategic business division. Launch of the Jobs portal Times Jobs.

TOI E-paper launched. Entry into TV business with the launch of India’s first lifestyle and entertainment channel Zoom. 2005 Launch of a Matrimonial website Times Matri – later rebranded as Simply Marry.

Mumbai Mirror, the city-centric daily tabloid launched in Mumbai. 2006 Launch of a television News Channel called Times Now.Radio Mirchi holding company ENIL (Entertainment Network India Limited) lists on the Indian stock markets.

It is the first Times Group Company to list on the bourses with IPO being oversubscribed by more than 41 times. Launch of a Property services portal Magic Bricks. Times of Money launch Remit2Home, to cater to global remittance market.Acquisition of Karnataka’s leading newspaper company Vijayanand Printers Limited makes BCCL the dominant force in Karnataka. 2007 Launch of Bangalore Mirror, Ahmedabad Mirror, ET (Gujarati) and Whats Hot – a premier weekend entertainment supplement. The Times of India becomes largest English daily in the world with circulation breaching the 3 million mark and beating Sun (tabloid) of UK. 2008 Launch of ET (Hindi), Pune Mirror and The Times of India editions at Jaipur, Goa and Chennai.

Acquisition of Virgin Radio (now rebranded as Absolute Radio) in the UK. 2009 TOI Crest edition launched. Launch of ET Now – premier business channel having integrated newsroom with ET print edition. 2010 Private Treaties re-branded as Brand Capital. The Speaking Tree newspaper launched.

ET Wealth launched. Maharashtra Times launches Pune edition. Vijay Next (premier weekly newspaper from Vijay Karnataka) launched. India’s first HD-only premium movie channel – Movies Now (HD) launched.

2011 Sunday ET re-launched as a tabloid. Bodhivriksha (spiritual weekend newspaper in Kannada) launched. Launch of The Times of India, Coimbatore and Madurai/Trichy Editions.2012 Launch of The Times of India, Kerala, Visakhapatnam and Raipur (Chhattisgarh) Edition 2013 Launch of the Times of India, Kolhapur Edition.2016Launch of Bennett University, Greater Noida.

The Times of India: At a Glance Figure No 3.2 the Times of India GlanceSource: ThetimesofindiawikipediaThe June 26, 2010 front page of the Kolkata edition of The Times of IndiaTable No. 3.1 Times of India descriptionType Daily NewspaperFormat BroadsheetOwner The Times GroupPublisher Bennett, Coleman & Co. LtdFounded 3rd November 1838Language EnglishHeadquarters MumbaiCirculation 2,716,291 daily(as on jun 2017Sisters Newspapers The Economic TimesNavbharat TimesMaharashta TimesMumbai Mirror source:Thetimesofindia figure No.

3.3 Different Branches of BCCL (source:timesofinida)Subsidiaries of Times Group TIML & ENILTimes Innovative Media Limited (TIML) & Entertainment Network India Limited (ENIL) that together control, Radio Mirchi National network of Private FM stations 360 Degrees Events Times Outdoors (TIM Delhi Airport Advertising Private Limited. Times Internet LimitedTimes Internet Limited is one of the largest internet companies of India. It has interests in online news, online business news, Hindi, Marathi, Kannada, and Bengali news, mobile, e-Commerce, music, video, and communities. Some of the larger properties of TIL includeIndia times shopping – one of the largest and earliest ecommerce portals in India India Times of India Economic Maharashtra Times Gaana.

com Times DealTimes of MoneyTimes of Money operates financial remittance services for Indians abroad to send money back to India. Their product, remit2India, is a standalone product, while also powering the remittance services of many banks globally. Times Global Broadcasting LimitedTelevision division. It is also called Times Television Network.

Times Now A general interest news Channel Smart Hire A Consulting Division – Recruitments ET Now A business news channel TV CHANNELS UNDER TIMES NETWORKMN+ HDRomedy NowRomedy Now HDMovies NowMovies Now HDMNXMNX HDET NowZoomTimes NowTimes Now HDMirror Now Times Business Solutions TBSL, corporate website of TBSL. Times Jobs, a jobs portal. Techgig, a professional networking site for Technology Peoples. Simply Marry, a matrimonial portal. Magic Bricks, a real estate portal. Yolist, free classifieds portal. Ads2Book, online classifieds booking system for print publications. Peer Power, a Senior-Level professional networking portal.

World Wide MediaWorld Wide Media – started off as a 50:50 magazine joint venture between BCCL and BBC magazines. In August 2011, it was announced that Bennett, Coleman & Co. bought out the remaining 50 per cent shares of Worldwide Media from BBC Worldwide thereby making World Wide Media a fully owned subsidiary of BCCL. Filmfare Filmfare Awards Femina Femina Miss India A Beauty Pageant Top Gear Magazine India BBC Good Homes Femina Hindi Grazia What to Wear Times Syndication ServiceThe syndication division of The Times of India Group, grants reprint rights for text, and other media from the group’s publications. Brand Capital Brand Capital provides funding to growth oriented enterprises for their long term brand building needs.

Satvik shop, an online shopping website dedicated to organic and Ayurveda products.TIML Radio LimitedOn 30 May 2008, SMG sold The British Virgin Radio to TIML Radio Limited for £53.2 million with £15 million set aside for rebranding.

On 28 September 2008, The British Virgin Radio Station rebranded as Absolute Radio, including the sister radio stations Absolute xtreme and Absolute Classic Rock. Stations:-Absolute Radio Absolute Radio 60s Absolute Radio 70s Absolute 80s Absolute Radio 90s Absolute Radio 00s Absolute Classic Rock Absolute Radio Extra this company is a direct subsidiary of BCCL (not through TIML or ENIL).Key ManagementBennett, Coleman ; Co. LtdPROMOTERS ; DIRECTORS Chairperson: Indu Jain Vice-Chairman ; MD: Samir Jain Managing Director: Vineet Jain BOARD OF DIRECTORS Vineet kumar Jain – Chairman and Managing DirectorArun Arora – PresidentRishi Jaitly – Chief Executive Officer of Times Global PartnersJaideep Bose – Executive Editor Sumeli Chatterjee – Vice President and Head of Brand – Metro Supplements EDITORIAL HEADS:The Times of IndiaEditorial Director: Jaideep BoseEconomic TimesEditorial Director: Bodhisatva GanguliMaharashtra TimesExecutive Editor: Ashok Panwalkar Navbharat TimesExecutive Editor: APS KhatiMumbai Mirror Editor: Meenal Baghel Speaking TreeEditor: Narayani Ganesh Vijaya Karnataka Editor: E. Raghavan Times NowEditor: Rahul ShivshankarWorldWide MediaWorld Wide Media (WWM) is a joint venture between the BCCL and BBC World Wide.

It is the India’s largest producer of lifestyle and special interest magazines. It was formed in 2004 and in 2011 it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Bennett, Coleman and Company Limited (BCCL). From just four magazines in 2008, the magazines are:- Femina Femina (Hindi) Femina (Tamil) FilmFare Filmfare (Hindi) BBC TopGear Hello! Grazia BBC Good Homes Lonely Planet Home Trends BBC Knowledge BBC Good FoodThe Times Group is the largest media services conglomerate in India . It is headed by brothers Samir and Vineet Jain. It reaches out from:11 publishing centers 15 printing centers 55 sales offices Over 7000 employees 5 dailies including two of the largest in the country with approx 4.3 million copies circulated daily 2 lead magazines 29 niche magazines Reaching 2468 cities and towns 32 Radio Stations 2 Television News Channel1 Television Life Style ChannelTurnover in excess of USD 700 million CHAPTER-4 DISTRIBUTION CHANNELDISTRIBUTION CHANNELMarketing-channel decisions are among the most critical decisions facing management. The channels chosen intimately affect all the other marketing decisions.

The company’s pricing depends on whether it uses mass merchandisers or high’ quality boutiques. The firm’s sales force and advertising decisions depend on how much training and motivation dealers need. In addition, the company’s channel decisions involve relatively long-term commitment to other firms. A distribution system is a key external resource. Normally it takes tears to build, and it is not easily changed.It ranks in importance with key internal resources such as manufacturing, research, engineering, and field sales personnel and facilities.It represents a significant corporate commitment to a set of policies and practices that constitute the basic fabric on which is woven an extensive set of long term relationships.

Intermediaries smooth the low of goods and services. This procedure is necessary in order to bridge the discrepancy between the assortment of goods and services generated by the producer and the assortment demanded by the consumer. The discrepancy results from the facts that manufactures typically produce a large quantity of a variety of goods.

CHANNEL FUNCTIONS AND FLOWSA marketing channel performs the work of moving goods from producers to consumers. It overcomes the time, place, and possession of goods and services from those that need or want them. Members of the marketing channel perform the following functions:They gather information about potential and current customers, competitors. And other factors and forces in the marketing environment. They develop and disseminate persuasive communications to stimulate purchasing. They reach agreement on price and other terms so that transfer of ownership or possession can be affected.

They place orders with manufactures. They acquire the funds to finance inventories at different levels in marketing channel. They assume risk connected with carrying out channel works. They provide for the successive storage and movement of physical products. They see the buyer’s payment of their bills through banks and other financial institutions. They oversee actual transfer of ownership from one organization or person to other.

DISTRIBUTION CHANNELTable No. 4.1 Distribution Channel EDITORIAL PRESSWHOLESELLERDEPOT DISTRIBUTION VENDOR HAWKER CASH SALE POINT READER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMDISTRIBUTION CHANNEL:Distribution means the transfer of goods from producer to consumer. In a distribution system we have, first find out what kind of distribution channel is to select as the firm can get a convenient supply and economic maintenance of profit. In newspaper industry where the flow of goods matter a lot, it must to consider the following points very carefully.

Selection of channel for distribution. Warehousing and transportOperational researchLogistic mixLet’s explain each of the above points one by one in a detailed manner:1. SELECTION OF CHANNEL FOR DISTRIBUTIONFor selecting a channel for distribution following points are to be considered. a) NATURE OF PRODUCT:Newspaper are daily use item and are constantly in demand, Time factor is very important in this industry.

Once a consumer doesn’t get the news in time had many options to instantly choose at least for trail and here begins the decrease of market share. Newspaper should reach to the customers in time to retain its customers and to build a good image. b) VARIETY OF THE PRODUCT TO BE SOLD:More the variety of the product more the responsibility of marketing departments of the company. 2. WAREHOUSING AND TRANSPORT Warehousing TransportWarehousing and transport are essential part of distribution system.

Warehousing should be done in a manner minimum maintenance of cost should occur. That should be source of quick supply to consumer because from their place basic supply starts. Transport is costly. So decision should be taken as to whether warehousing are to be centrally situated or decentralized. To maintain economical support, control of cost of vehicle is essential and shipment must be planned so those vehicle are effectively employed. 3.

OPERATIONAL RESEARCHOperational research is valuable in improving aspects of distribution process: a) By mathematical representation of whole distribution system. b) Noting and comparing transport cost. c) Measuring warehouses operation costs. d) Measure stock level. 4.

LOGISTIC MIXThere has been little close examination of possible savings in area of physical distribution, now known as logistic. “Consumer wants product available at the right time, and right condition.” CHANNEL MEMBERS OF THE TIMES OF INDIAPrinting Press :-It takes the content from the editorial team and prints using high capacity advanced press machines that deliver the product in packaged conditionSituated in Panchkula, Sector 20 for Tricity region. ( Chandigarh, Mohali, Panchkula)Capacity to print over 4 lac copies.

Printing starts around 1-1:30 am usuallyAfter Printing, stacking is done before dispatching newspapers to depotsLabeling done to match stacks with destinationUsually stocks for depots situated the farthest are dispatched earliest.DepotsThe distribution centre receives the copies from the transporter and stocks it for a short duration.Close to numbers of depots in Chandigarh, Mohali, Panchkula, Kharar, Zirakpur, and Derabassi.Keep publications (newspaper + magazines) for various companiesServiced by salespersons who are company employeesUnorganized – keep newspapers / magazines scattered on pavements or on steps of some malls etc.

Records are kept at depots in the following format:-Newspaper 1 Newspaper 2 Vendor code Qty to be Delivered Qty Actually Delivered Qty to be Delivered Qty Actually Delivered X Y Figure no 4.1 different type news papers AgentsEmployed where distribution is not organizedExclusive agents of TOIWork on commission, themselves act as salesmenTricity Market- Working with depotTricity- Working with agency systemVendorsLike retailers. Link between depot and end consumerGo to nearest depot every day. Pick out publications they want They sell via : door-to-door beat boys/single point newspaper standsMDI vendor serve in areas. He collects newspapers from Old Bus Stand Agents.Beat BoysThe delivery boys have demarcated regions/housing societies, which they serve. Hawkers are individuals who do not have established customers and sell at road sides, bus stands etc. They make small quantity purchasesDeliver required publications to proper destinations.

Have route-wise list of addresses and their required newspaper/publications .3-4 beat boys cover an area via their routes.INFORMATION FLOWNew consumer/Existing consumer taking or terminating subscriptionInform their Vendor( increase/decrease his order by one )Vendor Informs the distributorCHANNEL MARGINMargin given by TOI to channel members is around 40%almost equivalent to Hindustan Times.More or less uniform rate across the industryAgents get 10%, salesmen on payroll get fixed salaryVendor receives 30-35%, to cover the costs incurred due to travel, beat boys etc. It depends on the type and language of newspaper. (Hindi – 30%; English – 25%)PROMOTION SCHEMES:-Trade SchemesOffered to channel membersIncentive to increase salesChallenge for channel member: Balance reader interest while trying to increase sales to avail benefits of the schemeDiscounts for purchase of larger volumes by vendorBonus of 50 paise for each new account generation by vendorDiscountsMainly for institutional salesEg. Bulk sale at schools at discount ratesReader SchemesDirected at final consumer/reader. Mainly to draw in new customersVaries depending on location ; demographyCould include trials, discounts, freebies, combo offers etc.

Subscription SalesOffer choice of publication for a certain amount of time at a lump sum discount price CHAPTER-5 SWOT ANALYSISSWOT ANALYSISINTERNAL FACTORSSTRENGTHS WEAKNESSES• Oldest newspaper (1838). • Late ; repeated news• Big Brand, good reputation in the • Less information about stock marketminds of customer. • Grammar and vocabulary mistakes.• 1st rank in circulation in India ; 8th in world. • Pictures of nude girls • 110,000 copies per hour • Late circulation in small cities• Invitational prices. • Lake in covering useful news for• Launches good campaign.

competitive students• Daily English newspaper with rich supplements It provides best quality contents including all newspapers in low rates. • Good support from Times group companies • World class printing machine OPPORTUNITY THREATS• Literacy rate increases day by day. People are getting knowledge form Internet,• People focus more on career, education etc.T.V., Radio etc.•English is international language.

Day by day readership of “The Hindustan” (2 position) and “The Hindu” (3 position) increases very fast.Table No. 5.1 SWOT AnalysisCHAPTER-6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYRESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch methodology:This Preparatory research has been conducted through primary data. The data will be qualitative and quantitative. The data has been collected through personal interview, door to door visit and telephonic interview, Markets.SAMPLE UNIT:Sample unit indicates who is to be surveyed. The researcher must define the sample unit that was sampled.

In this study sampling unit was youngsters, middle age, and older persons of Chandigarh to be selected according to the convinence and own judgement of our team head Mr. Rakesh Sukhija (Regional Manager, The Times of India).A sample of minimum respondents was selected from the different areas of Chandigarh. An effort was made to select the respondents evenly. The survey was carried out on 280 respondents.

Data collection method: The data has been collected through personal interview, door to door visit and telephonic interview. Target group: The respondents consist of existing subscribe, discontinued subscribers and non-readers and the other newspaper users in the market.Limitations:The field work for the purpose of research was limited to Tricity only. Therefore it may not represent the overall consumers as perceptions of the consumers may vary place to place due to demographic factors. Problem definition:What are the various aspects in which “The Times of India” is lacking behind in fulfilling the customers demand?Task As an intern of the Summer Internship Program I was assigned to book subscriptions for the Daily Newspaper “The Times Of India” at the price of Rs 365/year with a car couponRs 365 subscription fee for one year And with the subscription I had to provide three To four free gift coupons to the consumer which contained. Swami Automobiles1) Car washing,2) Service (no labour cost on servicing)3) Alignment 4) Type rotation and wheel balancing5) General check up6) Ac check up7) Interior Vaccum8) 1st ; 2nd Service.

Customers can enjoy this free service in Swami Automobiles, Phase 1, IndustrialArea, and Chandigarh with a privilege coupon for them which have saloons, restaurants and birthday cake free offers and sold and distributed by Times of India and this scheme was only valid for the new consumers.Figure No.6.1 Offer coupen Swami AutomobilesSource: Hand picVerma Store BhawanCustomer can enjoy this free service in Verma Store Bhawan, SCF-10, Sector 20C, and Chandigarh.Figure No.6.2 Offer coupen Verma Store Bhawan Source: Hand picCoupon BookletCustomer can enjoy alot of service in Coupon Booklet.

which include saloons, restaurants and fun park coupon.Figure No.6.3 Offer coupon Yo China Source: Hand pic DATA COLLECTIONThere were two types of data sources used in project:i) Secondary DataIt is the data which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process.

In this case one is not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. Secondary data is either published or unpublished. In this case it has been collected from website of “TOI”, old articles, projects, books.

ii) Primary DataIt includes information collected afresh and the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. It is the backbone of any study. It was obtained through questionnaire from respondents as given below:-Corporate calling: Collected from the type of corporate call like bank call, schools, private offices and shops.Residential calling: Door to door selling was done in this type of strategy. Most of the VIP areas were covered under this.Field visits: Visiting dealers and distributors.Network Marketing: Customer ReferencesResearch design:Geographical location: The geographical location taken for the purpose of data collection and the research in TRICITY in Punjab (Mohali, Chandigarh, Panchkula, Kharar, Dera Bassi, Zirakpur.PROCEDURE USED FOR GETTING PRIMARY DATA:-1) Company assigned me the areas for daily visit.

Every day in the morning, there is one meeting point we all are there at 7:30AM, and our mentor should provide the area, which we have cover in the Tri-city Panchkula2) Steps Kept Under Consideration While Data Collection.Take the feedback of the customers about the newspaper they are already reading. Note down the complaints and views of the customersFind the actual need of customer regarding MAGAZINES and NEWSPAPERMaking daily report of the competitor’s strength and weaknessesAfter realization of need presentation was done in front of customer regarding the magazine and newspaperMade customer aware about the subscription scheme of magazines, way of payment and distribution processApproached to area assigned and interact with concerned personTHE TIMES OF INDIA (12 MONTHS SCHEME)PERIODICITY: DailyCOVER PRICE: Rs.

4 on weekdays and Rs.5 On Saturday and Sunday12 MONTHS RATE: RS 365/-DURATION: 12 monthsAnd Economic Times also with same offers @Rs.549/- with one year subscription.And all the Magazines of Times Group were available at 50% Discount.Femina 4.Hello 7.

BBC Good Homes FilmFare 5.Grazia 8. Lonely Planet BBC TopGear 6. BBC Knowledge 9. Home Trends SILVER SURVEY FORMAm ask the customer some question. To be given in the feedback form. They are the various questions to be given in silver survey form. In this form they can to be analysis the various things to be related in the newspaper.

Figure No. 6.4 silver subscription form Source: Hand pic GOLD FORMThis gold form basically for the existing customer read the times of India. Customer subscribed the newspaper for one year. After expiry the one year this customer can convert the gold customer. Company generates the gold form to the particular customer to renew the scheme for same amount. Customer renew the scheme same amountCustomer can avail the same benefit again and againFigure No. 6.

5 Gold subscription form Source: Hand pic THE TIMES OF INDIA, MAGAZINECustomer also subscribed the whole year magazine. Company can provide the magazine 50% off. Customer can enjoy the magazine for one year with many offers.Figure No. 6.6 Magazine prices Source: Hand pic QUESTIONER1. What is your favorite news channel?English News ChannelOption Number Percentage (%)Times Now 54 27Headlines Today 44 22NDTV 27 X 7 38 19CNN IBN 49 24.5Other 15 7.

5Table no: 6.1 what is your favorite English news channel Maximun number of people in panchkula region prefers to watch the English news channel Times Now, because of its more coverage on national and international news. After CNN IBN news channel people are watching the Times now. Hindi News ChannelOption Number Percentage (%)Ajj Tak 44 22India Tv 38 19ABP NEWS 54 12NDTV India 35 17.5Other 29 14.5Table no 6.2 what is your favorite Hindi news channel Maximun number of people in panchkula region prefers to watch the Hindi news channel ABP NEWS, because of its more coverage on the states news and national and international news.

After Ajj Tak news channel people are watching the ABP NEWS2. Which is your favorite newspaper? English NewspaperOption Number Percentage (%)The Times Of India 58 29Hindustan Times 42 21Tribun 86 43Other 14 7Table no 6.3 what is your favorite English newspaper Maximun number of people in panchkula region prefers to read tribune, because of its more coverage on regional news and bigger fonts than other newspaper. After tribune, The Times of India is on the 2nd position befor the Hindustan Times.Hindi NewspaperOption Number Percentage(%)Punjab Kesri 58 29Amar Ujala 42 21Dainik Bhasker 86 43Other 14 76.

4 what is your favorite Hindi newspaper Maximun number of people in panchkula region prefers to read Hind newspaper Dainik Bhasker, because the dainik bhasker are easy to read the other Hindi newspaper so most of the people preffer to read the dainik bhasker.Business NewspaperOption Number Percentage (%)Economic Times 58 29Business Standerd 42 21Financial Express 86 43Other 14 76. 5what is your favorite Business newspaper Maximun number of people in panchkula region prefers to read the business news in the financial express, because of it’s they cover all financial crises whole the world.

Than The Economic Times is the 2nd position before the business standerd. 3. Which newspaper do you currently subscribed at to your home?English NewspaperOption Number Percentage (%)The Times Of India 58 29Hindustan Times 42 21Tribun 86 43Other 14 76. 6 Which English news papers do you currently subscribed at to your homeMaximun number of people in panchkula region prefers to read tribune, because of its more coverage on regional news and bigger fonts than other newspaper. And tribun also cover the whole local news in newspaper. People more proffer to read the tribun newspaper.

Hindi NewspaperOption Number Percentage(%)Punjab Kesri 58 29Amar Ujala 42 21Dainik Bhasker 86 43Other 14 76. 7 Which Hindi news paper do you currently subscribed at to your homeMaximum number of people in panchkula region prefers to read Dainik Bhasker, because of its more coverage on regional news and bigger fonts than other newspaper. Dainik bhasker are the Hindi newspaper they are more proffered to read.Business NewspaperOption Number Percentage (%)Economic Times 58 29Business Standerd 42 21Financial Express 86 43Other 14 76.

8Which Business news paper do you currently subscribed at to your how?Maximun number of people in panchkula region prefers to business newspaper the financial express,because of its more coverage on regional news and bigger fonts than other newspaper. 4. What do you like the most in your newspaper?Option Numbers Percentage(%) Content 69 34.

5 Presentation 93 46.5 Language 38 19 Any other 0 06. 9 What do you like the most in your newspaperMost of the people like the way of presentation in their newspaper. 38 pepole said they like the language of their newspapers in this maximum people are tribune and dainik bhaskar readers, they like language of their newspaper and rest of the people are impressed by the contents or matter provided in their newspaper in this maximum people are Tribune, Times of India, or Hindustan Times reader. 5. Which is your favorite column in newspaper?Option Number Percentage (%)National / International news 86 43Sports 43 21.5Business 46 23Other 25 12.56.

10 Which is your favorite column in newspaper?Maximum number of people in the panchkula city like way the newspaper in nation and international news and then the 2nd position they cover the spots news and 3rd they are to be cover the business news .6. Has the information from classified section been able to resolve your queries? Option Number Percentage(%)Yes 79 39.

5No 54 27Does not read 67 33.56.11 What information from classified section been able to resolve your queries Maximum people are to solve the problem to classified but rest of the people problem are not solve and many of the people do not read this column . Because many people are do not read the column in the newspaper section. In this section they are to solve the many problems.7. Is your newspaper monthly billing or annual subscription?Categories Number Percentage(%)Monthly Billing 126 63Annual Subscription 54 27Other 20 106.

12 What is your newspaper monthly billing or annual subscription Maximum people in the panchkula city they believe newspaper subscription in the monthly basis. They are not to interested to newspaper subscribed the paper in annual basis. Because in the monthly basis they are to be the comfort zone they are to be believe pay the monthly basis. They are to remove the newspaper in the any of the month in year so they are to be believed in monthly basis. And rest of the people subscribed the paper of half yearly and quarterly basis.8. What binds you most currently newspaper? Categories Number Percentage(%)Habit 38 19News Content 44 22Authenticity 13 6.

5Pagination 12 6Supplements 55 27.5Pricing 38 196.13 What binds you most currently newspaperMost of the people most of the currently newspaper are the supplements.

They are to be believe the supplements and other people they are to the news content and other people they are to be believe are the habit and pricing , rest of the people are to be pagination and authenticity . 9. Would you be interested in trying other newspaper option with attractive subscription offer?Categories Yes NoNumber 168 32Percentage (%) 84 166.14 Would you be interested in trying other newspaper option with attractive subscription offer? In the panchkula city most of the people they are to be preferred are to subscribed the newspaper to the attractive subscription offer, and are to more useful to subscription. And rest of the people are not to be subscribed the any offer.

FINDINGS OF THE STUDYNewspaper in Tricity is a daily need for many of the consumers as newspaper itself is one of the biggest markets in Tricity giving livelihood to many. 200 (sample) read newspapers daily which means newspaper has a strong readership in Tricity.Tribune has the largest market share in Tricity and has a kind of customer’s trust which makes them no.1. Font size and an old local newspaper make it to have the people trust.Punjab Kasseri (Hindi Newspaper) is on the First position and among first in Hindi Newspapers.

Tribune is at the 1st position. Times of India 2nd position before Hindustan Times.Most of the people like the way of presentation in their newspaper.

43% of the tribune readers said they like the language of their newspapers in this maximum people are Tribune and Dainik Bhaskar readers, they like language of their newspaper and rest of the people are impressed by the contents or matter provided in their newspaper in this maximum people are Tribune, Times of India, or Hindustan Times reader. Generally people read newspaper for national and international news 43% percent of the people read only national and international news while some are interested in sports, business, editorial and some other columns like horoscope, travel, health and fitness, religion etc. For education mostly people reads Times of India, The Hindu for business they prefer economic times which is also Bennet & Coleman publication. More than half of the people in the survey go through the additional supplements provided in the newspaper and rest of them doesn’t like to read additional supplements. The Times of India three supplements Education Times on Monday, Assent on Wednesday, Matrimonial on Saturday and Life on Sunday Hindustan Times popular supplement is Brunch regarding fashion, cinema, and lifestyle.Tribune’s popular supplement is Spectrum and Lifestyle.The Panchkula Times the new edition in the times of India has been liked by a lot of readers and is said to be generating a good reputation of having the most local news of the tricity.Maximum number of people doesn’t go through business column in their newspaper, Mostly business man and the students for their general knowledge go through this column and 32 percent of the total people in the survey are satisfied with the business information provided in their newspaper. Mostly people prefer economic times for business queriesConclusionThe summer internship project plays an vital role in management learning and skills where students get a golden opportunity to apply their knowledge and learning gained from classroom studies in practical business environment. The Summer Internship Program also helps in gaining exposure to the corporate world and developing the confidence level to work. I have gained a lot of confidence to stand proudly and present myself in front of the world by my Internship at Times of India Group, Chandigarh. This research has been done to know the impact of pricing on consumer behavior towards the daily newspaper- the times of India. The people in Panchkula still preferring printed contents despite of technology adaption. In areas like Chandigarh, Panchkula, Mohali people prefer English Newspapers at a large scale almost same as compare to Hindi or Punjabi. But maximum areas still prefer to read a Punjabi or English Tribune choosing the understandable or the ease of language in them. . There is high demand and high awareness about TOI newspaper in Panchkula. But less people are aware of its chance in editions which was heavily promoted by the interns and the Buzzphoria means creating buzz in the city of the name “The Times of India”. There are some people who are aware about it but they were not aware about the subscription schemes. They are interested in subscribing. When they came to know about the schemes, they immediately bought subscriptions. But still there are some areas where awareness about these schemes is very low. Customer loyalty towards Tribune newspapers is very high which created a lot of problems for interns to sell out the subscriptions but the will of gaining customers or can be said the encouragement was always there by The Times of India side and has helped a lot in making our internship and there project successful . Working in field was very enriching experience and gave good exposure. Both the areas involved required a lot of creativity and out of the box thinking.The people in Panchkula still preferring printed contents despite of technology adaption. Market Research is the most crucial activity in the field of marketing to assess the consumer behavior towards any company or brand. How far does the psychology of the consumer effects the performance of any product was practically witnessed. Best level has been tried by me to present all the facts correctly but as marketing research is not a true science hence certain degree of alterations are possible in the research report.The Times of India has worked a lot on their Newspaper by having a survey in Tricity a year back before getting the interns to cover the market. The change in newspaper has been really loved by customers and has helped interns to convince the customers. The Times of India has given an immense opportunity for students to learn about network marketing, references, converting a single customer to many. The Times of India is an opportunity for an intern to improve himself and learn the best experience out of its internship period.RECOMMENDATIONS1. Improvement of Services: The first and foremost recommendation that may be instructed from the findings of the analysis is that the improvement in services.2. A better distribution channel: I’d additionally wish to advocate that by implementing a much better marketing, TOI will increase its market share. 3. Appointment of recent staff: TOI also can improve their services by appointing new employees as ‘Customer care Executive’ by giving well coaching so they’ll be ready to respond the shoppers well WHO have issues.4. Regional News: As regional news is relatively but alternative newspapers. Therefore, it ought to increase regional news if it need to pass tribune because it is that the biggest lacking space.5. Quality of Newspaper: Fonts used is smaller than different newspapers was the most grievance by older peoples largely. Therefore it must improve font size. 6. Advertisement: Many people grievance that it includes sizable amount of advertisements as compared to news. Students aforementioned that the advertisements of competitive exams don’t are available the days of India. 7. Promotional Schemes: Promotional schemes offered to the customers helped in increasing sales of Times of India. Finally gazing the acceptance of promotional theme of the days of India concludes that the theme offered was largely likeable by the readers and ultimately most of them were subscribing to that. Therefore, it ought to return up with a lot of and a lot of innovative concepts like a lot of promotional schemes to extend its sale.BIBLIOGRAPHY & APPENDIX1. 10.


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