6.2.4 Ignition Systems
The basic requirement of any ignition system is to deliver a high-tension electrical current to the spark plugs. This ignites the fuel/air mixture in each cylinder. Since the valve are closed at this point, the expanding gasses force the pistons down producing work so to turn crankshaft and thus the propeller.
Magneto Ignition
A magneto uses a permanent magnet rotating about a conductor and coil to generate an electrical current completely independent of the aircraft’s electrical system. The mechanically/ engine driven magneto generates sufficiently electrical energy to the spark plugs in each cylinder. The system begins to fire when the starter is engaged and the crankshaft begins to turn. It continues to operate whenever the crankshaft is rotating.
2502299114631500Most aircraft make use of a dual ignition system with two individual magnetos. Separate sets of wires and spark plugs increase redundancy and reliability of the ignition system. Each magneto operates independently to fire its own spark plug in each cylinder. Combustion of the fuel-air mixture is improved with dual spark ignition and results in a slightly higher power output. If one of the magnetos fails, the other is unaffected. This redundancy allows the engine to continue normal operation, although engine RPM can be expected to be slightly reduced. Operation of the magnetos are controlled in the cockpit through the five ignition switch positions:
R (right)
L (left)

A malfunctioning ignition system can be identified during the pre-takeoff run-up checks by observing the decrease in R.P.M that occurs between the LEFT and RIGHT ignition. The allowable decrease is listed in the POH as well as the maximum difference between the two. If the engine stops running when switched to one magneto or if the rpm drop exceeds the allowable limit, do not fly the aircraft until the problem is corrected.
Possible causes of unacceptable mag drops could be fouled plugs, damaged wires between the magneto and the spark plugs, or incorrect timing. “No drop” in R.P.M is not normal either and considered another cause for concern. In this case, the aircraft should not be flown and sent in for immediate inspection.
“No drop” means one of the magnetos is not grounding and can result in an untimely start, by simply turning the propeller. Even with the battery and master switches OFF, the engine can fire and turn over if the ignition switch is left ON and the propeller is moved because the magneto is self-exciting. If this occurs, the only way to stop the engine is to move the mixture lever to the Idle Cut-Off (I.C.O) position, then have the system checked by a qualified AMO. Ensure the magneto switch is turned to the OFF position after flight and be extremely cautious when in the vicinity of the propeller.
Starting Aids
In order to produce a spark in the plugs, the magneto spins a magnet within an iron coil core. This generates an alternating current within the coil and produces up to 20 000 volts which is used to fire the spark plugs. In order for sparks to be effective, the magnet needs to be rotating at speeds of at least 500 R.P.M. Anything below this results in weaker sparks and reduces engine start-up efficiency. A premature power stroke known as kick-back results from normal magneto timing set for a higher R.P.M setting. Ultimately, this can lead to the crankshaft being forced in the wrong direction. On startup (during low R.P.M operation) the ignition therefore needs to be delayed.

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This start-up problem is solved through the use of Impulse coupling. This device works in two ways. The magneto uses spring weights and a spring-loaded coupling which prevents the magneto from turning at first. Once the spring is fully wound it releases the magnet at an accelerated rotational velocity. The benefits of this are two-fold. First, it accelerates the rotation of the magnet producing a higher voltage or, better spark, and second the ignition spark is delayed during start-up. Once the engine is running, the centrifugal force of the flyweights ensures the impulse coupling is disconnected and does not interfere during normal operations.

The spark plug is a useful indicator of engine condition. At each Mandatory Periodic Inspection (M.P.I) the plugs are removed for inspection and testing. Normal engine operation is indicated by a light grey coating of the end of the plugs. Excessive wear may indicate detonation. Black sooty-like deposits will appear in cases where mixture has not been sufficiently leaned. Whereas engines operated with too lean a mixture will leave white powdery traces behind. Black oily deposits suggest excessive oil consumption. If hard brittle deposits are found lodged in the spark plug gap, it means fuel lead is not being removed during combustion. If disregarded, these deposits can build up sufficiently causing the plugs to ground without a spark. This often results in a “mag drop” which can be identified by a rough running engine and an excessive loss in R.P.M. If this is detected on the ground during magneto checks, the flight should be aborted immediately.

6.0 Overview
This chapter discusses conclusion drawn from the study findings and recommendations made. The recommendations basically presented on the management of public entities, internal audit unit and internal auditors who are working in the public sector.
6.1 Conclusion

The study found that, the effectiveness of internal audit function in the public sector is influenced by the code of ethics for internal auditors. Code of ethics for internal auditors contains principles that are relevant to the profession and practice of internal audit and rules of conduct that describe behavior norms expected of internal auditors (IIA, 2010). These rules help in interpreting the principles in practical application and the purpose is to govern with ethical conduct of internal auditors. Thus, internal auditors in the public sector need to uphold integrity which create trust which provides a basis for the reliability of their assessment otherwise, no one will value their activities.
The study findings show that, internal auditors need to respect laws, disclose information as required by law and the profession, perform their duty honestly, carefully and responsibly. Also, they need to avoid to participate in illegal work or activities that discredit the internal audit profession. This will help to strengthen internal audit function in the public sector and also enhance public organizations to achieve their legal and ethical objectives. The study findings were similar with the results of study of Krishna et al., (2010) who found that, internal audit has been designed to improve the organization’s operations. Likewise, the study by Badara (2012) found that, internal auditors need to review organization processes continuously in order to improve internal controls of the organization and strengthen the effectiveness of internal audit function while complying with the code of ethics for internal auditors.
Additionally, the study findings show that, internal auditors in the public sector need to possess high level of professional objectivity. Objectivity of internal auditors is an essential factor for internal audit effectiveness (Suwaidan and Qasim, 2010). This is because, objectivity enhances effectiveness of internal audit function since it requires internal auditors to conduct a balanced assessment of all relevant circumstances and upon them do not affect their own interests and others formed opinions.
Internal auditors are supposed to avoid to participate in any activity or relationship that could be considered to damage their fair assessment. Such scenario includes activities or relationships that may be in conflict with the interests of the organization (Azzone, 2009). Therefore, internal auditors are supposed to remain objective at all time.
Moreover, the study found that, internal auditors are required to respect the value and ownership of information they receive and not to disclose any information without appropriate authority unless there is a legal or professional obligation so to proceed. It has been pointed out that, public entities are holding massive information and data for public interest.
Therefore, internal auditors need to be very careful in the use and protection of data and information made available to them when they are performing audits (IIA, 2009). They are not required to use any information for personal gain or in any manner that would be contrary to law or detrimental to the legitimate and ethical objectives of public organizations.
Effective internal audit function in the public sector needs competent internal auditors. Internal auditors need to apply their knowledge, skills and experience needed in executing audit activities. They are supposed to carry out internal audits in compliance with the requirements of the International Professional Practices Framework (IPPF). IPPF is a mandatory guidance and recommended guidance by the IIA to internal audit professionals worldwide (IIA, 2017).
Last but not least, internal auditors need to improve their expertise and quality of services in order to strengthen the effectiveness of internal audit function. They need to be aware and uphold firmly the code of ethics for internal auditors.
During interview with one internal auditor at the Ministry of agriculture on the challenge facing internal auditors on compliance with the code of ethics for internal auditors, he said that, “majority of internal auditors in the public sector are not aware with the benefits of upholding firmly the code of ethics for internal auditors as compared with the private sector”.
Another respondent when interviewed on the kind of supports that internal auditors need from the management in order to help them to comply with the code of ethics for internal auditors and eventually improve the effectiveness of internal audit function, she said that, “the Ministry is supposed to have adequate copies of the Code of ethics for internal auditors in order to help internal auditors to read at all-time in and outside the office”.

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6.2 Recommendations

With due regard to the ever increasing desire to have effective internal audit function in the public sector in Tanzania, there is need for internal auditors to uphold firmly code of ethics for internal auditors. It is very essential for the managements of public institutions in Tanzania to encourage their internal auditors to abide with the requirements of the code of ethics for internal auditors. By complying with the requirements code of ethics, internal auditors will execute their tasks efficiently for the benefits of their departments, organizations and the public at large.
Also, internal auditors should be allowed to attend professional trainings related to code of ethics for internal auditors so as to be up-to-date with the new changes which are occurring every day in the internal audit professional’s environment worldwide.
Likewise, internal audit departments in the public sector need to have code of ethics for internal auditors because very few internal audit departments within the public sector in Tanzania are having the code of ethics. By having the code of ethics, it will become very easy to see whether internal auditors are complying with the requirements of the code of ethics or not. This should be done through regular check-ups and follow-ups on their performance. By doing so, the effectiveness of internal audit function in the public sector in Tanzania will be improved.
Last but not least, internal auditors who are working in the public sector in Tanzania need to understand the benefits of upholding firmly the code of ethics for internal auditors. The code of ethics narrates the principles and behaviors that internal auditors need to have.

6) Do you have confidence in Cut-throat rivalry or business at any cost?
He said I do have faith in cut-throat competition. In the present world bunches of adversaries are available and it is essential to utilize one’s abilities, learning and thoughts to beat the opposition shows. Working together at any cost isn’t an answer for progress for the long run. In the event that one will take after anyway to pick up a benefit or beat rivalry then the business won’t have the capacity to make due over the long haul and may close down rapidly.

7) Do you trust development in number or money related terms?
He believes Growth in genuine terms can never be estimated as far as cash. Cash can be earned effectively all things considered estimating what has been accomplished and picked up can be estimated as far as number. It can be regarding number of units sold on yearly premise, number of representatives enlisted, number of fulfilled workers and so forth.

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8) How you oversee and rouse your center group?
As per his views Motivation is the way to progress and a roused worker goes about as an advantage for the association. It is critical to spur the center group every now and then and ensure that the representatives are working proficiently with the business. Extraordinary compared to other approach to propel the group is by assessing their execution and compensating them based on their execution, understanding what makes them fulfilled and whether they are spurred by money related or non-financial prizes.

9) How are you so effective in overseeing such a tremendous industry which has interests in the huge assortment of fields?
He said I am essentially centered around quality and designation of the undertakings. I have made every one of the parts free and have given full freedom for the individual administration dealing with the separate areas to take their choices autonomously. Prime spotlight is on dedication, which is fundamentally required to be effective.

10) What will be your message to youthful business pioneers over the globe?
He said to the youthful business pioneers, my message is that never at any point let disappointment choose the way for your business rather as a representative one should attempt to confront each circumstance effortlessly. Being moral in business, searching for the welfare of representatives, working for the riches boost of partners, influencing solid work to culture is the way to progress and removing rivalry.

6.2 Descriptive Data Analysis
This section discusses the general demographic descriptions, demographic features of the respondents, on the basis of the implementation of the four building block shop floor management tools, the two improvement practices and the improvement outcomes.
6.2.1 Demographic description
Table 6.8 shows the sample distribution of survey participants’ qualifications. 77.2%, of the participants reported that they did not attend university; followed by 21.4 % who held a bachelor degree; and a small 1.4% had a masters degree or above. All employees, irrespective of their qualifications were encouraged to contribute in individual improvement suggestions scheme and also to participate in group improvement activities.

Qualification Frequency Percentage (%)
Secondary/college or below 407 77
Bachelor Degree 113 38.3
Masters Degree or above 7 1.3
Total 527 100
Table 6.8 Sample distribution on participants’ qualification

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In the context of the position held in the company, Table 6.9 indicates that the line supervisor to shop floor worker was 1:10.2 (54 line supervisors to 446 shop floor operators). Thus, there was no considerable difference between the proportions of respondents in the ratio of line supervisors to shop floor operators and the data obtained from the joint ventures official documents for all employees (about 1:8). Additionally, Table 6.9 also exhibits that majority of the respondents (77%) were shop floor operatives, 12.9% were line supervisors and 3.2% managers. It obviously marks that Improvement activities were not dominated by the top and middle management. This is in consonancet with the ideas of Caffyn (1999), Bodek (2002), Bessant and Caffyn (1997) who opined that the employees’ total involvement was one of the critical enablers for implementing continuous improvement.


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