5210175-781050-285750-838200A STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN BRITANNIA, PERUNDURAIByK.
PRUTHIVEE177MB137ofBannari Amman Institute of Technology(Autonomous Institution affiliated to Anna University, Approved by AICTE, Accredited by NBA, New Delhi and NAAC with ‘A’ Grade)Sathyamangalam – 638 401UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF(Dr. P. RAJKUMAR) Project ReportSubmitted to theSchool of Management StudiesIn partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the award of degree ofMASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONofANNA UNIVERSITY, Chennai 2018BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this Summer Internship Report titled “A STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT” is the Bonafide work of Ms. PRUTHIVEE.
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K ( Reg. No. 177MB137), who carried out the research under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form a part of any other Summer Internship report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to this or any other candidate.322897596520004667259652000Signature of the Supervisor Signature of the Director (SMS) Dr. P.RAJKUMARDr.
P.RAJKUMARProfessor,Professor,School of Management Studies,School of Management Studies,Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology,Sathyamangalam 638401Sathyamangalam 638401Submitted for the Viva-Voce – held on —————457200768350033337507683500Signature of the Internal Examiner Signature of the External ExaminerPlace: SathyamangalamDate:DECLARATIONI, PRUTHIVEE.K (Reg. No. 177MB137), hereby declare that the thesis entitled “A STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN BRITANNIA” submitted to the School of Management Studies, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Business Administration, Anna University, Chennai is a record of original and independent research work done by me during the year 2015-2016 under the supervision and guidance of Dr. P. RAJKUMAR, Professor, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam and it has not formed the basis for the award of any Degree / Diploma / Associateship / Fellowship or other similar title to any candidate of any University.
PRUTHIVEE.K (Reg. No. 177MB137) Signature of the studentPlace: SathyamangalamDate:ACKNOWLEDGEMENTOne of the most pleasant aspects of writing an acknowledgement is the opportunity to thank all those who have contributed to it. Unfortunately, the list of expression of gratitude no matter how extensive- is always incomplete and inadequate. This acknowledgement is no exception.
I would, at the very onset, like to thank Mr.ARAVINDHAKUMAR, HR MANAGER,BRITANNIA for providing me the opportunity to perform my Summer Internship Project in the Company. I would like to give special thanks and gratitude to monitoring and provide necessary data and information as a when required throughout the project. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. J.
Ashok, Director of School of Management Studies, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology for his constant support and encouragement. I would never forget to thank Mr. P.
Rajkumar, Professor, School of Management Studies, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology for her valuable guidance in preparation of this project work. I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to all the respondents who gave valuable information to me. ABSTRACTTraining and development is indispensable strategic tool for enhancing employee performance and organizations keep increasing training budget on yearly basis with believe that it will earn them competitive edge. The main objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of training and development on employees’ performance and organisation competitive advantage in the Nigerian banking industry. Descriptive research method was adopted for this study using two hundred and twenty three valid questionnaires which were completed by selected banks in Lagos State, South-West Nigeria using simple random sampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using descriptive statistics to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. The results show that strong relationship exists between training and development, employees’ performance and competitive advantage.
Summary of the findings indicates that there is strong relationship between the tested dependent variable and independent construct. However, bank management should not relent in their quest to train their staff to develop new ideas that will keep improving and retaining employee performance.Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc522011520 h 91.1OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc522011521 h 91.
2NEED OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc522011522 h 91.3SCOPE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc522011523 h 101.4BENEFITS OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc522011524 h 102INDUSTRY PROFILE PAGEREF _Toc522011525 h 112.1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc522011526 h 112.
2Fast Moving Consumer Goods PAGEREF _Toc522011527 h 122.3Overview of Indian FMCG Sector PAGEREF _Toc522011528 h 132.4Analysis of FMCG Sector PAGEREF _Toc522011529 h 142.5DRIVERS OF FMCG: PAGEREF _Toc522011530 h 172.
6COMPETITOR DETAILS: PAGEREF _Toc522011531 h 182.7COMPANY PROFILE PAGEREF _Toc522011532 h 182.8HISTORY OF BRITANNIA PAGEREF _Toc522011533 h 212.
9HISTORY OF BISCUIT PAGEREF _Toc522011534 h 232.10LOGO: PAGEREF _Toc522011535 h 252.11ORIGIN OF EAT HEALTHY THINK BETTER PAGEREF _Toc522011536 h 252.12BRITANNIA IN OVERSEAS PAGEREF _Toc522011537 h 252.13VISION: PAGEREF _Toc522011538 h 262.14MISSION: PAGEREF _Toc522011539 h 272.
15PRODUCTS PAGEREF _Toc522011540 h 272.15.1THE ALL NEW GOOD DAY PAGEREF _Toc522011541 h 272.15.2NEW GOOD DAY CASHEW PAGEREF _Toc522011542 h 272.15.
35050 SWEET & SALTY PAGEREF _Toc522011543 h 282.15.4MARIE GOLD PAGEREF _Toc522011544 h 292.15.5MILK BIKIS PAGEREF _Toc522011545 h 292.15.6THE ALL NEW GOOD DAY PAGEREF _Toc522011546 h 302.
15.7NEW GOOD DAY CHOCO-CHIP PAGEREF _Toc522011547 h 302.15.
8TIGER GLUCOSE PAGEREF _Toc522011548 h 312.15.9JIM JAM VANILLA PAGEREF _Toc522011549 h 312.15.10LITTLE HEARTS PAGEREF _Toc522011550 h 322.15.
11NICE TIME PAGEREF _Toc522011551 h 322.15.12BOURBON ORIGINAL PAGEREF _Toc522011552 h 332.
15.13PUREMAGIC PURE BLISS. PURE MAGIC. PAGEREF _Toc522011553 h 332.15.
14CHOCO NUTS PAGEREF _Toc522011554 h 342.15.15NUTRI CHOICE PAGEREF _Toc522011555 h 342.
15.16TREAT ORANGE PAGEREF _Toc522011556 h 352.16SWOT ANALYSIS OF BRITANNIA PAGEREF _Toc522011557 h 363REVIEW OF LITERATURE PAGEREF _Toc522011558 h 384RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc522011559 h 394.
1Methodology PAGEREF _Toc522011560 h 394.2Research PAGEREF _Toc522011561 h 394.3Research design PAGEREF _Toc522011562 h 394.4Types of research design PAGEREF _Toc522011563 h 394.5Sampling Design PAGEREF _Toc522011564 h 404.6Sampling method: PAGEREF _Toc522011565 h 404.7Sample size PAGEREF _Toc522011566 h 404.
8Sample area PAGEREF _Toc522011567 h 414.9Scaling Technique- Likert Scale PAGEREF _Toc522011568 h 414.10DATA COLLECTION METHODS: PAGEREF _Toc522011569 h 41CHAPTER 5 PAGEREF _Toc522011570 h 425DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION PAGEREF _Toc522011571 h 425.1DATA ANALYSIS: PAGEREF _Toc522011572 h 425.2REGRESSION ANALYSIS: PAGEREF _Toc522011573 h 425.
2.1Regression analysis for ‘Overall – Production Dept’ PAGEREF _Toc522011574 h 435.2.
2Regression analysis for ‘…………………………………..’ PAGEREF _Toc522011575 h 485.3CORRELATION ANALYSIS: PAGEREF _Toc522011576 h 505.3.1Correlation between ‘Coverall’ and ‘Understand’ PAGEREF _Toc522011577 h 505.3.
2Correlation between ‘…………’ and ‘…………..’ PAGEREF _Toc522011578 h 515.3.3Correlation between ‘…………’ and ‘………….
.’ PAGEREF _Toc522011579 h 515.4CHI – SQUARE TEST: PAGEREF _Toc522011580 h 525.4.
1Chi-Square for ‘Department’ PAGEREF _Toc522011581 h 525.4.2Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011582 h 535.4.3Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011583 h 535.4.4Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011584 h 545.4.
5Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011585 h 545.4.6Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011586 h 545.
4.7Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011587 h 555.4.8Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011588 h 555.
4.9Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience PAGEREF _Toc522011589 h 555.4.10Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011590 h 565.4.11Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011591 h 565.4.
12Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011592 h 565.4.13Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011593 h 575.4.
14Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011594 h 575.4.15Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011595 h 585.4.16Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011596 h 585.4.17Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011597 h 585.
4.18Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011598 h 595.4.19Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011599 h 595.
4.20Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience PAGEREF _Toc522011600 h 595.4.21Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’ PAGEREF _Toc522011601 h 606RESULT PAGEREF _Toc522011602 h 616.1FINDINGS PAGEREF _Toc522011603 h 616.2SUGGESTION PAGEREF _Toc522011604 h 626.3CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc522011605 h 62CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONThe survival of any organization in the competitive society lies in its ability to train its human resource to be creative, innovative, inventive who will invariably enhance performance and increase competitive advantage Training and development is an aspect of human resource practices that help in enhancing employees skills, knowledge, and competence capable of improving employees ability to perform more efficiently Training and development play a vital role in the effectiveness of an organization It is one of the most pervasive techniques for improving employees performance enhancing organization productivity in the work place. Employees are the indispensable asset and key element of gaining competitive advantage of any organization and training is essential tool for its actualization.
The level of competency, skills and ability of the workforces of an organization influences its ability to preserve its obtained positions gain competitive advantage meanwhile, employees competence, skills and pro-activeness is directly proportional to the level at which organization can compete with others. Organizations are confronting with increased competition resulting from changes in technology, economic environments, globalization etc. As it could be inferred from above that not much research has been conducted on the relationship between all of these constructs. In this regard, this study aimed to contribute to the existing knowledge particularly in the sphere of capacity development. It is to this end that this paper seeks to critically examine the effectiveness of training and development on employees’ performance and organization competitiveness. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYTo study the effectiveness of training and development in Britannia industries perundurai .To know the satisfaction level of employees towards training programme.NEED OF THE STUDYEvery organization big or small, productive or nonproductive, economic or social, old or newly established should provide training to all employees irrespective of their qualification, skill, suitability for the job etc.
SCOPE OF THE STUDYTo the present condition of the training and development programmeTo the expectation of the employee towards training and development programmesTo the willingness of the employees towards training and development programmes.BENEFITS OF THE STUDYIncreased job satisfaction and morale among employeesIncreased employee motivationIncreased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gainIncreased capacity to adopt new technologies and methodsIncreased innovation in strategies and productsReduced employee turnoverCHAPTER 2INDUSTRY PROFILEINTRODUCTIONThe Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) sector is the key contributor of the Indian economy. This fourth largest sector of Indian economy provides employment to around 3 million people which accounts for approximately 5% of the total factory employment in the country. These products are daily consumed by each and every strata of the society irrespective of social class income group, age group etc. FMCG sector is more lucrative because of low penetration levels, well established distribution network, low operating cost, lower per capita consumption, large consumer base and simple manufacturing processes for most of products resulting in fairly low capital investments. The industry is highly competitive due to presence of multinational companies, domestic companies and unorganized sector. A major portion of the market is captured by unorganized players selling unbranded and unpackaged products. More than 50 per cent of the total revenues of FMCG companies come from products worth Rs.
10 or less1 .This has made the proliferation of localized brands which are offered in loose form in small towns and rural part where brand awareness is low. In last 10 years domestic players are giving tough competition to multinationals; infact they have outstripped many MNCs in growth and market cap. Between 2005- 2014 the profit of domestic companies increased by 24% against 14% increase of multinational companies. Urban India accounts for 66% of total FMCG consumption, while rural India accounts for the remaining 34%. However, rural India accounts for more than 40% of the consumption in major FMCG categories such as personal care, fabric care and hot beverages. As per the analysis by ASSOCHAM, companies like Hindustan Unilever Ltd and Dabur India generate half of their sales from rural India while Colgate Palmolive India and Marico constitute nearly 37% respectively.
Fast Moving Consumer GoodsFast Moving Consumer Goods are inexpensive products that require little shopping efforts. These are non-durable products which are sold in packaged forms. These products are purchased by the end-consumer in small quantities and frequently. The main FMCG segments can be classified as Personal Care, Household care, Branded and Packaged food and Tobacco.
Personal Care: It consists of oral care; hair care; skin care; personal wash (soaps); cosmetics and toiletries; deodorants; perfumes; paper products (tissues, diapers, sanitary); shoe care etc.Household Care: It comprises of fabric wash (laundry soaps and synthetic detergents); household cleaners (dish/utensil cleaners, floor cleaners, toilet cleaners, air fresheners, insecticides and mosquito repellants, metal polish and furniture polish).Branded and Packaged Food and Beverages: It consists of health beverages; soft drinks; staples/cereals; bakery products (biscuits, bread, cakes); snack food; chocolates; ice cream; tea; coffee; processed fruits, vegetables and meat; dairy products; bottled water; branded flour; branded rice; branded sugar; juices etc.Spirits and Tobacco: An exact product-wise sales break up for each of the items is difficult.FMCG segments’ market shareAs per recent report the share of food segment decreased to 43% and personal care share increased to 22%. FMCG brands have high brand equity due to its unique characteristics and broad consumer base. As per “Most Trusted Brands Survey” conducted by Brand Equity, out of top 20 brands 16 were FMCG. FMCG brands like Colgate, Dettol, Maaza and Maggi were among top 5 brands.
Overview of Indian FMCG SectorHistoryThe Indian Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) industry began to shape during the last fifty odd years. The growth of FMCG industry was not significant between 1950’s to the 80’s. The FMCG industry previously was not attractive from investor’s point of view due to low purchasing power and the government’s favoring of the small-scale sector. FMCG’s growth story further continued following the deregulation of Indian economy in early 1990s. With relatively lesser capital and technological requirements, a number of new brands emerged domestically as well, while the relaxed FDI conditions led to entry of many global players in this segment. These factors made FMCG market in India highly competitive and one of the important contributor in the Indian economy. In the mid – nineties, the growth of the sector was very fast where as it declined rapidly at the end of the decade. The initial growth was due to increase in product penetration and consumption levels4.
Riding on a rapidly growing economy, increasing per-capita incomes, and rising trend of urbanization, the FMCG market in India is expected to further expand to$100 billion by 20255.Growth of FMCG sectorThe Indian FMCG sector growth between 2006 to 2013 has been phenomenal (approximately 16%). The industry has tripled in size over the last 10 years, growing much faster than in past decades. Even during the slowdown of the Indian economy, the FMCG sector has registered a growth rate of 14.5 percent for the year 2007-08. According to Nomura, the volatility in agriculture sector has not had much impact on FMCG sector7. The comparison of past ten years’ performance of top 50 Global FMCG companies versus the Indian top 50 FMCG companies shows that India has outperformed global growth across all major FMCG categories8. As per Price water house coopers Private Limited, India is second biggest market for Soaps & cleansers in Asia after China.
The growth for Indian FMCG sector for Food, beverages and tobacco segment is promising in near future.Analysis of FMCG SectorPEST analysisPoliticalEconomicalSocialTechnologyThe following paragraph explains in detail:POLITICAL ANALYSISTax Structure: Complicated tax structure, high in direct tax and changing tax policies are challenges for this sector.Infrastructure Issues: Performance of FMCG sector is very much dependent on government spending on Agricultural, Power, and Transportation Infrastructure.
Regulatory Constraints: Multiplicity permits and licenses for various states, prevailing out-dated labour laws, and cumbersome and lengthy export procedures are major constraints.Policy framework: FDI into Retail sector (single-brand & multi-brand retail), License rules in setting up of Industry, Changes in Statutory Minimum Price of commodities are barriers for growth of this sector.ECONOMICAL ANALYSISGDP Growth: Growth of FMCG industry is consistent with the Indian economy. It has grown by 15 % over past 5 years.
It shows good scope for this sector in near future.Inflation: Inflationary pressures alter the purchasing power of consumer which Indian economy is facing in recent years. But it has not affected much to Indian FMCG sector.Consumer Income: Over the past few years, India has seen increased economic growth. The GDP per capita income of India increased from 797.26 US dollars in 2006 to 1262.4 US dollars in 2014. It resulted in increase of consumer expenditurePrivate Consumption: The Indian economy, unlike other economies, has a very high rate of private consumption (61%).
SOCIAL ANALYSISChange in consumer Profile: Rapid urbanization, increased literacy, increase in nuclear families and rising per capita income, have all caused rapid growth and change in demand patterns, leading to an explosion of new opportunities. Around 45 per cent of the population in India is below 20 years of age and the young population is set to rise further.Change in Lifestyle: In past decade changes are taking place in consumption pattern of Indian consumer with more spending on discretionary (52%) than necessities (e.g. food, clothing’s). In last decade the apparel, footwear and healthcare segments have registered highest growth whereas essentials such as cereals, edible oil, fruits and vegetables shown decline9.
Rural focus: As market is getting saturated, companies are focusing on rural area for penetration by providing consumers with small sized or single-use packs such as sachets.TECHNOLOGY ANALYSISEffective use of technology is seen only in leading companies like HUL, ITC etc.E- Commerce will boost FMCG sales in future. More than 150 million consumers would be influenced by digital by 2020 and they will spend more than $45 billion on FMCG categories -CIISWOT ANALYSISI) STRENGTHSLow operational costs: One of the important strength of this sector is low operational cost.Presence of established distribution networks in both urban and rural areas.
A well established and wide distribution network of both MNC and Indian FMCG companies increased an access for consumers.Presence of well-known FMCG brands: The Presence of strong brands in Indian FMCG sector not only results in increased sales but also provides an opportunity in future.II) WEAKNESSLow scope for investing in technologies and achieving economies of scale, especially in small sectors.”Me- too products, which illegally mimic the labels of established brands .
These products narrow the scope of FMCG products in rural and semi- urban markets.Less innovative abilities and systems: Indian FMCG sector, especially small players are lagging behind in adopting innovative approaches for fulfilling needs of the consumers.III) OPPORTUNITIESUntapped rural market, changing life style: An untapped, huge and fragmented rural market is an opportunity for FMCG players. The Penetration level for many FMCG product categories is very low especially in rural area.Rising income levels i.e. increase in purchasing power of consumers: According Mckinesy Global Institute report, in next two decades income level of Indian consumer will almost triple and India will become world’s fifth – largest consumer market by 202510.India’s middle class size will increase to 583 million , or 41% of the population.
Extreme rural poverty has declined from 94% in 1985 to 61% in 2005 and is projected to drop to 26% by 2025. This will result into increased purchasing power of Indian consumer.Large domestic market with more population of median age 25 years: India has large young population, 54 % of Indians are under 25 years of age. A rising productive population fuels growth and drives personal consumptionHigh consumer goods spending: The rising income is resulting into high spending into consumer goods.
According to a Nielsen report, the spending on consumer goods set to triple to $ 5 billion by 2015.Export potential to neighboring countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Srilanka.IV) THREATSEntry of MNCs with liberalization: In the post liberalization era Indian market has become highly competitive.Many multinational companies have entered in to the Indian market.The removal of import restrictions resulted in replacement of domestic brands.Rural demand is cyclical in nature and also depends upon monsoon to large extent.
Complicated, changing and uneven tax structure is one of the major threats for FMCG sector.New packaging norms made mandatory for all companies to sell products in standard size packs.DRIVERS OF FMCG:Demand driversConsistent GDP growth (approximately 15% for last five years), increasing population, growing awareness, changes in consumer profile (more young population), increasing consumer Income (approx. 60% increase from 2006 to 2014), changing consumer expenditure pattern (More expenditure on nonfood items), increasing discretionary income, changing lifestyle, growth in rural sector (increasing share of nonagricultural sector), Untapped rural market (Low penetration levels for many FMCG categories), aspiring rural consumers, high private consumption, rising urbanization and huge export potential are resulting in increased demand for FMCG products.Supply side driversThe nature of FMCG product i.e. frequently consumed, low priced & easily available generates huge and consistent demand for companies. Apart from this the presence of strong brands in different FMCG categories made this sector growing for years.
New products, E-commerce and innovation in marketing methods are helping companies in improving service quality expanding their businesses. Also the growth in modern retail provided an opportunity to companies for expanding their business.Environmental driversApart from this other Macro and micro environmental factors such as Improving economy, favorable Government policy, Infrastructural development, availability of raw materials, low labor cost have created favorable environment for FMCG sector.Today, Fast Moving consumer’s goods have become an integral part of human life.
This sector is recession proof and created huge employment opportunity in India, hence becoming one of the key pillars of the Indian economy. FMCG companies should encase opportunities like increasing consumer income, changing consumer life style, aspiring rural consumer, consistent economic growth by utilizing its strengths. The competition from unorganized sector can be overcome by increasing brand awareness and by reducing cost through sharing resources such as distribution network. Favorable developments happening in demand side, supply side and systematic drivers shows that this sector has very bright future.COMPETITOR DETAILS:Top Ten Players in FMCG companies:1. Hindustan Unilever Ltd.2. ITC (International Trading Company)3.
Nestlé India4. GCMMF (AMUL)5. Daub India6. Asian Paints (India)7. Cadbury India8. Britannia Industries9. Procter & Gamble Hygiene and Health Care10. Marico IndustriesCOMPANY PROFILEBritannia Industries LimitedType Public Industry Food processingDate of Establishment 21-03-1918Revenue 1152.
06(USD in Millions)Market Cap 338607.7426745(Rs. in Millions)Corporate Address 5/1 A,Hungerford street, Kolkata-700017,West BengalWebsite Address www.
britannia.co.inManagement Details Chairperson- NusliN Wadia MD –Varun Berry Directors- Ranjana Kumar,Vijay L Kelkar, Ness N Wadia, Nasser Munjee, Ajai Puri, Keki Dadiseth, Jeh N Wadia, Nimesh N Kampani, S S Kelkar, Avijit Deb Business Operation Consumer FoodCompany Secretary Rajesh Arora Products Bakery Products including biscuits, bread,cakes and rusk And Dairy Products including milk, butter, cheese,ghee and dahi Financials Total Income –Rs.72635.2 Million (Year ending Mar 2018) Net Profit –Rs.
6224.1 Million (Year ending Mar 2018)Bankers HDFC Bank , ICICI Bank, Indian Bank, State Bank of India, Bank of America, HSBC Bank, Citi BankAuditors BSR & Co LLP The story of one of India’s favorite brands reads almost like a fairy tale. Once upon a time, in 1892 to be precise, a biscuit company was started in a nondescript house in Calcutta (now Kolkata) with an initial investment of Rs.295. The company we all know as Britannia today.The beginnings might have been humble-the dreams were anything but.
By 1910, with the advent of electricity, Britannia mechanized its operations, and in 1921, it became the first company east of the Suez Canal to use imported gas ovens. Britannia’s business was flourishing. But, more importantly, Britannia was acquiring a reputation for quality and value.
As a result, during the tragic World War II, the Government reposed its trust in Britannia by contracting it to supply large quantities of “service biscuits” to the armed forces.As time moved on, the biscuit market continued to grow… and Britannia grew along with it. In 1975, the Britannia Biscuit Company took over the distribution of biscuits from Parry’s who till now distributed Britannia biscuits in India. In the subsequent public issue of 1978, Indian shareholding crossed 60%, firmly establishing the Indian’s of the firm. The following year, Britannia Biscuit Company was re-christened Britannia Industries Limited (BIL). Four years later in 1983, it crossed the Rs. 100 crores revenue mark.
On the operations front, the company was making equally dynamic strides. In 1992, it celebrated its Platinum Jubilee. In 1997, the company unveiled its new corporate identity – “Eat Healthy, Think Better” – and made its first foray into the dairy products market. In 1999, the “Britannia Khao, World Cup Jao” promotion further fortified the affinity consumers had with ‘Brand Britannia’.
Britannia stored into the 21st Century as one of India’s biggest brands and the preeminent food brand of the country. It was equally recognized for its innovative approach to products and marketing: the Lagaan Match was voted India’s most successful promotional activity of the year 2001 while the delicious Britannia 50-50 Maska-Chaska became India’s most successful product launch. In 2002, Britannia’s New Business Division formed a joint venture with Fonterra, the world’s second largest Dairy Company, and Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt. Ltd.
was born. In recognition of its vision and accelerating graph, Forbes Global rated Britannia ‘One amongst the Top 200 Small Companies of the World’, and The Economic Times pegged Britannia India’s 2nd Most Trusted Brand.Today, more than a century after those tentative first steps, Britannia’s fairy tale is not only going strong but blazing new standards, and that miniscule initial investment has grown by leaps and bounds to crores of rupees in wealth for Britannia’s shareholders. The company’s offerings are spread across the spectrum with products ranging from the healthy and economical Tiger biscuits to the more lifestyle-oriented Milkman Cheese. Having succeeded in garnering the trust of almost one-third of India’s one billion populations and a strong management at the helm means Britannia will continue to dream big on its path of innovation and quality. And millions of consumers will savor the results, happily ever after.
HISTORY OF BRITANNIA1892- The Genesis – Britannia established with an investment of Rs. 295 in Kolkata1910- Advent of electricity sees operations mechanized1921- Imported machinery introduced; Britannia becomes the first company East of the Suez to use gas ovens1939 – 44- Sales rise exponentially to Rs.16, 27,202 in 1939 – During 1944 sales ramp up by more than eight times to reach Rs.1.36 crore1975 – Britannia Biscuit Company takes over biscuit distribution from Parry’s1978- Public issue – Indian shareholding crosses 60%1979- Re-christened Britannia Industries Ltd. (BIL)1983 – Sales cross Rs.100 crore1989- The Executive Office relocated to Bangalore1992 – BIL celebrates its Platinum Jubilee1993 – Wadia Group acquires stake in ABIL, UK and becomes an equal partner with Grouped DANONE in BIL1994- Volumes cross 1, 00,000 tons of biscuits1997- Re-birth – new corporate identity ‘Eat Healthy, Think Better’ leads to new mission: ‘Make every third Indian a Britannia consumer’ – BIL enters the dairy products market1999- “Britannia Khao World Cup Jao” – a major success! Profit up by 37%2000- Forbes Global Ranking – Britannia among Top 300 small companies2001- BIL ranked one of India’s biggest brands – No.
1 food brand of the country – Britannia Lagaan Match: India’s most successful promotional activity of the year – Maska Chaska: India’s most successful FMCG launch2002 -BIL launches joint venture with Fonterra, the world’s second largest dairy company -Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt. Ltd. is born-Rated as ‘One amongst the Top 200 Small Companies of the World’ by Forbes Global -Economic Times ranks BIL India’s 2nd Most Trusted Brand -Pure Magic -Winner of the WordStar, Asia star and India star award for packaging2003 -‘Treat Duet’- most successful launch of the year -Britannia Khao World Cup Jao rocks the consumer lives yet again2004 -Britannia accorded the status of being a ‘Super brand’ -Volumes cross 3, 00,000 tons of biscuits -Good Day adds a new variant – Choconut – in its range2005 -Re-birth of Tiger – ‘Swasth Khao, Tiger Ban Jao’ becomes the popular chant! -Britannia launched ‘Greetings’ range of premium assorted gift packs -The new plant in Uttaranchal, commissioned ahead of schedule. -The launch of yet another exciting snacking option – Britannia 50-50 Pepper Chakkar2007-Britannia industries formed a joint venture with the Khimji Ramdas Group and acquired a 70 percent beneficial state in the Dubai-based Strategic Foods International Co. LLC and 65.
4% in the Oman-based Al Sallan Food Industries Co.SAOG.2008-Britannia launched Iron fortified ‘Tiger Banana’ biscuits, ‘Good Day Classic Cookies’, -Low Fat Dahi and renovated ‘Marie Gold’.HISTORY OF BISCUITSweet or salty. Soft or crunchy. Simple or exotic. Everybody loves munching on biscuits, but do they know how biscuits began? The history of biscuits can be traced back to a recipe created by the Roman chef Apicius, in which “a thick paste of fine wheat flour was boiled and spread out on a plate. When it had dried and hardened it was cut up and then fried until crisp, then served with honey and pepper.
“The word ‘Biscuit’ is derived from the Latin words ‘Bis’ (meaning ‘twice’) and ‘Coctus’ (meaning cooked or baked). The word ‘Biscotti’ is also the generic term for cookies in Italian. Back then, biscuits were unleavened, hard and thin wafers which, because of their low water content, were ideal food to store.As people started to explore the globe, biscuits became the ideal travelling food since they stayed fresh for long periods. The seafaring age, thus, witnessed the boom of biscuits when these were sealed in airtight containers to last for months at a time.
Hard track biscuits (earliest version of the biscotti and present-day crackers) were part of the staple diet of English and American sailors for many centuries. In fact, the countries which led this seafaring charge, such as those in Western Europe, are the ones where biscuits are most popular even today. Biscotti is said to have been a favorite of Christopher Columbus who discovered America! Making good biscuits is quite an art, and history bears testimony to that. During the 17th and 18th Centuries in Europe, baking was a carefully controlled profession, managed through a series of ‘guilds’ or professional associations.
To become a baker, one had to complete years of apprenticeship – working through the ranks of apprentice, journeyman, and finally master baker. Not only this, the amount and quality of biscuits baked were also carefully monitored.The English, Scotch and Dutch immigrants originally brought the first cookies to the United States and they were called teacakes. They were often flavored with nothing more than the finest butter, sometimes with the addition of a few drops of rose water. Cookies in America were also called by such names as “jumbles”, “plunkets” and “cry babies”. As technology improved during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, the price of sugar and flour dropped.
Chemical leavening agents, such as baking soda, became available and a profusion of cookie recipes occurred. This led to the development of manufactured cookies.Interestingly, as time has passed and despite more varieties becoming available, the essential ingredients of biscuits haven’t changed – like ‘soft’ wheat flour (which contains less protein than the flour used to bake bread) sugar, and fats, such as butter and oil. Today, though they are known by different names the world over, people agree on one thing – nothing beats the biscuit!Some interesting facts on the origin of other forms of biscuits: The recipe for oval shaped cookies (that are also known as boudoir biscuits, sponge biscuits, sponge fingers, Naples biscuits and Savoy biscuits) has changed little in 900 years and dates back to the house of Savoy in the 11th century France. Peter the Great of Russia seems to have enjoyed an oval-shaped cookie called “lady fingers” when visiting Louis XV of France.
The macaroon – a small round cookie with crisp crust and a soft interior – seems to have originated in an Italian monastery in 1792 during the French Revolution. SPRING-uhr-lee, have been traditional Christmas cookies in Austria and Bavaria for centuries. They are made from a simple egg, flour and sugar dough and are usually rectangular in shape. These cookies are made with a leavening agent called ammonium carbonate and baking ammonia.
The inspiration for fortune cookies dates back to the 12th and 13th Centuries, when Chinese soldiers slipped rice paper messages into moon cakes to help co-ordinate their defense against Mongolian invaders.LOGO:Red colour denotes “Energy and Vitality”White colour denotes “Purity”Green colour denotes “Nutritional and Freshness”ORIGIN OF EAT HEALTHY THINK BETTERBritannia -the ‘biscuit’ leader with a history-has withstood the tests of time. Part of the reason for its success has been its ability to resonate with the changes in consumer needs that have varied significantly across its 100+ year epoch. With consumer democracy reaching new levels, the one common thread to emerge in recent times has been the shift in lifestyles and a corresponding awareness of health. People are increasingly becoming conscious of dietary care and its correlation to wellness and matching the new pace to their lives with improved nutritional and dietary habits. This new awareness has seen consumers seeking foods that complement their lifestyles while offering convenience, variety and economy, over and above health and nutrition.
Britannia saw the writing on the wall. It’s “Swasth Khao Tan Man Jagao” (Eat Healthy, Think Better) re-position directly addressed this new trend by promising the new generation a healthy and nutritious alternative – that was also delightful and tasty.Thus, the new logo was born, encapsulating the core essence of Britannia – healthy, nutritious, and optimistic – and combining it with a delightful product range to offer variety and choice to consumers.BRITANNIA IN OVERSEASBritannia in the Middle-East In March 2007, Britannia Industries Limited formed a Joint Venture with the Khimji Ramdas Group, one of the largest and the most respected business conglomerates in the Middle East. Britannia and its Associates have acquired a significant stake in Dubai based Strategic Food International Co.
LLC and Oman based Al Sallan Food Industries Co SAOG. The two companies are key regional players in the biscuits, wafers and cookies segment in the GCC markets and export their products across the world. Strategic Food International Co. LLC (SFIC) is one of the largest biscuit and wafer manufacturing companies in the Middle East. An ISO and HACCP certified company; SFIC is also a proud winner of the Dubai Quality Appreciation Certificate. It offers a wide spectrum of products under the brand Nutro, which is a leading biscuit brand in the Middle East. Al Sallan Food Industries Co is one of the foremost companies for the production of cookies, rolls and chocolates.
The products are well known under the brand name of Baker’s Pride.Britannia in Sri Lanka 29th August 2008 goes down in the history of our company as the day, when Britannia started manufacturing and marketing its products in Sri Lanka. Apart from tapping new markets and going international, our company will afford many more families and individuals a chance to enjoy healthy, nutritious and delightful products. Even as we navigate foreign territories, we affirm our purpose, values, vision and goals in Sri Lanka- to help people enjoy life, through healthy snacking, and make this accessible to all people anywhere, every day. Products manufactured in Sri Lanka include the most popular Milk Bikis, Milk Cream Smileys, Vita Marie Gold, Creams and Cookies.VISION: A vision is defined as image of the future we seek to create .
vision statements therefore contain details of the company’s future (the future plans with aims and objectives), Britannia’s vision for the future through its new mission statement every third Indian should be a Britannia consumer. They want to be among the three fastest growing FMCG companies in the country and to grow profitability.MISSION: To dominate the food and beverage market in India with a distinctive range of” TASTY YET HEALTHY” Britannia brands by making every Indian a Britannia consumer. We want to be part of our consumer at home, out of home a natural part of his life.PRODUCTSBISCUITS THE ALL NEW GOOD DAYIt’s a Smile that makes it a Good Day! The smaller joys of life that can brighten up one’s life everyday often get ignored in the pursuit of larger joys. With its tagline of “Har cookie mein kayi Smiles.” Good Day will act as an enabler in enjoying all those small moments in everyday life!In its brand new tastier avatar, Britannia Good Day brings alive its philosophy of Smiles through its new Logo, packaging and cookie, the New Good Day cookie comes with a smiley design on it as well NEW GOOD DAY CASHEWWith the abundance of nuts on the surface and a great new taste, the new Good day Cashew will give its consumers more reasons to love their favourite cookie! THE GOOD DAY RANGESNACK ON ITAt Britannia, we believe that there is a whacky side to everyone – sometimes hidden, at other times overt.
And this is what we celebrate with our brands 5050, Maska Chaska, Time Pass & Top. With products which can well be called differentiated, in the world of sweet biscuits, these brands have carved out a special place in the minds of consumers across the country. 5050 SWEET & SALTYWhat happens when you mix two completely opposite flavors together? You get the lip-smacking and iconic Britannia 5050 Sweet & Salty biscuit – a biscuit that is deliciously sweet and scrumptiously salty.
Launched in 1993, 5050’s dual flavored appeal soon made it a household name, while its whacky and unforgettable ads, including the iconic and much loved “Na re nana 5050” ad campaign only added to its growing popularity amongst the youth. CHEERS TO HEALTH AT TEA TIME!Tea times are incomplete without a packet of Britannia Marie biscuits. As today’s woman packs in more each day while caring for her family, these low fat and zero cholesterol biscuits are her tea time mates.
By dipping a Marie Gold into a piping hot cup of tea, a special moment of vitality is savoured. MARIE GOLDEach Marie Gold biscuit is crisp and light, and is packed with the goodness of Vitamins and Minerals that make for healthier teatimesKAL KE LIYE AAJ!Rich with the goodness of milk, Britannia Milk Bikis are crunchy biscuits baked to perfection. Mothers need not worry about their daily breakfast duel with their little tots over milk, as…4 Milk Bikis biscuits= Energy of a glass of milk! MILK BIKISEach scrumptious bite is enriched with nutrients like Calcium, Vitamins and Iodine.
So every delicious bite of crunchy Milk Bikis is a little something today, for your child’s tomorrow. THE ALL NEW GOOD DAYIt’s a Smile that makes it a Good Day! The smaller joys of life that can brighten up one’s life everyday often get ignored in the pursuit of larger joys. With its tagline of “Har cookie mein kayi Smiles.” Good Day will act as an enabler in enjoying all those small moments in everyday life!In its brand new tastier avatar, Britannia Good Day brings alive its philosophy of Smiles through its new Logo, packaging and cookie, the New Good Day cookie comes with a smiley design on it as well! NEW GOOD DAY CHOCO-CHIPFilled with chocolate chips that burst out of the surface, the Good Day Choco-chip cookie promises to satisfy the chocoholic in you. The flavoursome Choco chips are blended into the crunchy cookie in a manner that is sure to give you a mouthful of chocolate with every bite you take.ROZ BADHO.That’s something every mother would wish for her child! Britannia Tiger has recognized this and has created biscuits which are high in nutrition, and great in taste. TIGER GLUCOSEA delicious biscuit, fortified with 25% Daily Growth Nutrients like Iron, Calcium and Vitamins, help moms keep their little Tigers strong and roaring.
TREAT TOH LE HI LENGE!In 2002, Britannia lovingly baked a Treat for little pranksters. An irresistible range of yummy, creamy biscuits to fuel their tricks. For over a decade, kids have hatched many a clever conspiracy to bite into a Treat. Its lip-smacking flavours, cool shapes and soft cream famous with the kids and in the market. JIM JAM VANILLAJimmy and Jammy come together to give you a twin Treat of Masti Cream and Naughty Jam in a pack of Treat Jim Jam. The combo of thick vanilla or cunning chocolate cream sandwiched between crisp biscuits, topped with a dollop of Jam and sugar crystals, makes Jim Jam the king of the Treat range.DIRECT DIL SE!Nothing accompanies fun moments with friends like a pack of Little Hearts. Light, crunchy biscuits generously sprinkled with sugar, they blissfully melt in your mouth.
LITTLE HEARTSThe iconic gold and red pack is easy to spot and is found just about everywhere. So if you’re looking for some fun and memorable times, just grab a pack of delicious Little Hearts, your favourite bunch of friends and share! NICE TIMEYet another iconic offering from Britannia, the Nice Time biscuit has inspired a long line of imitations since it was first introduced by us. Crunchy, sugary, sweet and oh-so-delectable – India instantly fell in love with this crisp biscuit sprinkled with delightful sugar crystals.THODA AUR CHOCALETEY, THODA AUR CRUNCHY!Britannia Bourbon is all about showing off your wickedly smooth side. It has always been the chocolate lover’s favourite guilt trip.
One bite of this smooth, luscious chocolate cream enveloped in crunchy, sugary chocolate biscuit and the smooth operator in you will be unleashed! BOURBON ORIGINALSmooth chocolate cream spread in between crunchy chocolate biscuits topped with sugar crystals, best relished in the company of your craziest, naughtiest friends, as you spend hours gossiping and planning your next trick. We have a Pocket Pack, a Hangout Pack and a Party Pack!PUREMAGIC PURE BLISS. PURE MAGIC.Pure Magic is more than a biscuit – it is fine chocolate artistry.
Nutri Choice Digestive Biscuits are packed with the goodness of whole wheat and fibre. A biscuit that’s not only healthy but tasty as well. TREAT TOH LE HI LENGE!In 2002, Britannia lovingly baked a Treat for little pranksters. An irresistible range of yummy, creamy biscuits to fuel their tricks. For over a decade, kids have hatched many a clever conspiracy to bite into a Treat.
Its lip-smacking flavours, cool shapes and soft cream famous with the kids and in the market.TREAT ORANGEPlayfully soft cream that’s perfect for all-day scoop ‘n’ licking! Each lickalicious flavour is filled with scoopy soft cream that attracts kids to scoop ‘n’ lick. Crispy biscuit shells and a star shaped cream top make this Delicious range yummy-for-the-tummy. DAIRY FRESHTill 1958, there were no breads in the organized sector and bread consumption was a habit typified by the British. Then, a mechanized bread unit was set up in Delhi with the name “Delbis” which produced sliced bread and packed it under the Britannia name. Thus, Britannia was not only the pioneer, but also inculcated in the people of Delhi the habit of eating white sliced bread.
The Mumbai unit came up in 1963, and there again Britannia was the first branded bread in the city. From a company offering 2 packs – the 400gm and the 800gm plain white sliced bread – Britannia has evolved into a company offering 22 packs, catering to a variety of taste and price segments in the bread consuming market. The last couple of years also saw the introduction of Whole Wheat Bread as a part of “Eat Healthy, Think Better” credo.Cakes Britannia entered the cake market in the year 1963 and is the top player in the market. Britannia Cakes range is divinely scrumptious and has both Bar Cakes and Cup Cakes which were launched in 2005. Bar Cakes are available in variants that include Fruit, Butter Sponge, Chocolate, Pineapple, Milk, Vanilla Chocolate and Orange. Apart from being delicious, these snacks are packed with healthy ingredients making them wholesome & delightful. Britannia cupcakes come in vanilla and orange flavors.
RusksBritannia launched its rusks in the year 2005. In a Market full of unbranded players, Britannia rusks have stood head and shoulders above the rest in terms of sheer quality .They are made from the finest ingredients and baked with care as they are twice as crisper as and tastier than ordinary rusks. The communication for this mouth-watering offering is aptly “Enliven your spirits with Britannia rusksSWOT ANALYSIS OF BRITANNIAStrengthFulfill one of our Basic Requirement among Air , Water ,Food, ShelterWidely accepted in all GenerationsEasily available in various formsProvide good Instant Remedy for hunger in the form of readymade foodPreserves the non-seasonal food and makes it available all throughout the year WeaknessDecreases nutritional valueIncreases the cost of food productIndustry and technology requires high investmentRegular usage of processed food can cause alteration in healthOpportunitiesIncrease economy of IndiaGenerate employment opportunityGood quality of GoodsProvide competition to foreign companiesImprove living standardProvide goods to nation at cheaper rateInflow of foreign reserve and funds for the govt.(taxes) ThreatsMany companies are result orientedIncrease in pollutionSometimes provide poor quality of product for more profitLack of technologyUnable to utilize all the resources efficiently ORGANISATION CHART225615529210Factory Manager00Factory Manager3956042044700039751020383500414400990170000414400916052800034759901191260HR Officers020000HR Officers48717201174750Accounts and store020000Accounts and store5515609901700004144009204470005515609204470002801619214630001507489209550002957194-15240004866640482600Finance Manager020000Finance Manager3546475477520HR Manager020000HR Manager2249805472440Quality Manager020000Quality Manager-197485130810Production Manager00Production Manager1202055114935Maintenance Manager00Maintenance Manager-259080331470Production Officer020000Production Officer395604615950015074902311400028028891562100039560435687000109156552070Maintenance Officer00Maintenance Officer-200025287020Supervisors00Supervisors15081241289050039560423241000103822519685Technicians00Technicians356806519685Assistant HR Officers00Assistant HR Officers-201295125730Operators00Operators934085260985Quality Assurance Officer00Quality Assurance Officer3268345260350Food Safety Officer00Food Safety Officer3949699-10795001605279-10795001596390-1206500CHAPTER 3REVIEW OF LITERATURETraining is the important for the survival of any organization. It is also imperative for effective performance of employees, enhancement of employees ability to adapt to the changing and challenging business environment and technology for better performance, increase employees knowledge to develop creative and problem solving skills.
Meanwhile all the relationships proposed among the variables in the research model were tested and it was found that relationship exists among the variables having subjected the collected data to empirical analysis with the use of descriptive statistics. however the results of the findings indicated that training and development affects employees performance and organizational effectiveness which implies that effort must be made to ensure that employees skills and knowledge are fully underutilized through adequate and timely training design and implementation. The overall result showed that proposed hypothesis tested are accepted. It is therefore recommendation that individual should be more creative and innovative to contribute their quota through their profession and skill. Employers of labour and decision makers should endeavour to create enabling training environment and training.
Management should also take into consideration the training need of each workers and act as appropriate. CHAPTER 4RESEARCH METHODOLOGYMethodology Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge.Research Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
“Research design A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research problem research study. Research design is the framework that has been created to find answers to research questions. A research design will typically include how data is to be collected, what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the intended means for analyzing data collected. Types of research designDescriptiveCo relationalSemi-experimentalExperimentalReviewMeta-analyticDescriptive research design The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection.
Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way and it is all about describing people who take part in the study. Sampling Design Sampling is a process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population. The methodology used to sample from a larger population depends on the type of analysis being performed, but may include simple random sampling or systematic sampling.Sampling method: The Probability Sampling Method has been used by the researcher because a probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. In stratified random sampling, the strata are formed based on members’ shared attributes or characteristics.
A random sample from each stratum is taken in a number proportional to the stratum’s size when compared to the population. These subsets of the strata are then pooled to form a random sample.Sample size Sample size is selecting the number of respondents out of the total population. The accuracy of the whole study will depend upon the data provided by the sampling unit. The sample size taken for this study is 50 respondents.Sample area Sample area is a place or location which is used or occupied for a specific duration in an industry or organisation.
In my project the sample area can be determined as production department.Scaling Technique- Likert Scale A psychometric response scale primarily used in questionnaires to obtain participants Preferences or degree of agreement with a statement or set of statements. Likert scales are a non?comparative scaling technique and are unidimensional in nature. The respondent is asked to respond to each of the statement in terms of several degrees as given below SA – Strongly Agree A – Agree N – Neutral D – Disagree SD – Strongly DisagreeDATA COLLECTION METHODS:The study makes use of both primary and secondary data sources.Primary Data:The primary data is collected through the questionnaires provided to the contract labours in Britannia industries limited, perundurai.Secondary data: Secondary data which the data researcher obtained from the published data or data collected in the past. The secondary data is collected from different journals, magazines, texts books, articles, websites and company records.
CHAPTER 5DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION DATA ANALYSIS:The primary data collected using the instrument – Questionnaire with nine demographical questions, twelve research questions and a open ended feedback questions from 120 respondents. The data are coded in to MS excel and transformed into the software package SPSS for statistical analysis. The following analysis were carried out Regression Chi Squire REGRESSION ANALYSIS:Regression analysis is a form of predictive modelling technique which investigates the relationship between a dependent (target) and independent variable (s) (predictor).
This technique is used for forecasting, time series modelling and finding the causal effect relationship between the variables. Regression analysis is an important tool for modelling and analysing data. Regression analysis estimates the relationship between two or more variables. There are multiple benefits of using regression analysis. They are as follows:It indicates the significant relationships between dependent variable and independent variable.It indicates the strength of impact of multiple independent variables on a dependent variable.
Regression analysis also allows us to compare the effects of variables measured on different scales, such as the effect of price changes and the number of promotional activities. These benefits help market researchers / data analysts / data scientists to eliminate and evaluate the best set of variables to be used for building predictive models.Regression analysis for ‘Overall – Production Dept’A regression analysis was conducted with dependent variable are Age, Days/hrs, Improve skills, Apply learning, Adequate, Friendly, Practical, Agenda, Sufficient, Ansproperly, Schedule, Environment, Relevant content, Perform work, Preplan, New know, Visual aids, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, and Coverall. The dependent variable is ‘Overall – Production Dept.’ Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant difference in Overall – Production DeptH1: There is significant difference in Overall – Production DeptAnalysis: Table 5.1 Model Summary – ‘Overall – Production Dept’R R Square Adjusted R Square Std.
Error of the Estimate.611a .373 .270 .895Predictors: (Constant), Age, Days/hrs, Improve skills, Apply learning, Adequate, Friendly, Practical, Agenda, Sufficient, Ansproperly, Schedule, Environment, Relavantcontant, Perform work, Preplan, New know, Visual aids, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, CoverallTable 5.2 Regression and Error valuesModel Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.Regression 66.
731 23 2.901 3.625 .000bResidual 112.050 140 .800 Total 178.780 163 Dependent Variable: Overall – Production Dept Predictors: (Constant), Age, Days/hrs, Improve skills, Apply learning, Adequate, Friendly, Practical, Agenda, Sufficient, Ansproperly, Schedule, Environment, Relavantcontant, Perform work, Preplan, New know, Visual aids, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, CoverallTable 5.3 Coefficients of Dependent Variables Variables CoefficientsB Std. Error(Constant) 2.139 .480Relevant content .007 .095New know -.160 .090Apply learning -.005 .088Agenda .199 .080Current tech -.036 .076Days/hrs .157 .106Schedule .075 .077Experience .081 .103Pre-plan -.002 .083Ansproperly -.080 .080Friendly .046 .077Improve skills .142 .088Environment .117 .077Understand -.365 .082Sufficient .014 .081Coverall .360 .091Adequate .030 .072Avail on time .055 .075Methods -.028 .088Practical -.144 .083Perform work .016 .084Visual aids -.005 .072Age -.038 .106Regression equation:OPD = a1 + ?1 REC + ?2 NWK + ?3 ALE + ?4 AGD + ?5 CTE + ?6 DPH + ?7 SCH + ?8 EXP + ?9 PRP + ?10 ANP + ?11 FRI + ?12 IMS + ?13 ENV + ?14 UND + ?15 SUF + ?16 CAL+ ?17 ADQ + ?18 AOT + ?19 MET + ?20 PRA + ?21 PWO + ?22 VAD + ?2 AGE + ?1 Where,OPD-Overall – Production DeptREC- Relevant contentNWK- New knowALE- Apply learningAGD- AgendaCTE- Current techDPH- Days/hrsSCH- ScheduleEXP- ExperiencePRP- Pre-planANP- AnsproperlyFRI- FriendlyIMS- Improve skillsENV- EnvironmentUND- UnderstandSUF- SufficientCAL- CoverallADQ- AdequateAOT- Avail on timeMET- MethodsPRA- PracticalPWO- Perform workVAD- Visual aidsAGE- Agea1- Constant?1- Coefficient of REC?2- Coefficient of NWK?3- Coefficient of ALE?4- Coefficient of AGD?5- Coefficient of CTE?6- Coefficient of DPH?7- Coefficient of SCH?8- Coefficient of EXP?9- Coefficient of PRP?10- Coefficient of ANP?11- Coefficient of FRI?12- Coefficient of IMS?13- Coefficient of ENV?14- Coefficient of UND?15- Coefficient of SUF?16- Coefficient of CAL?17- Coefficient of ADQ?18- Coefficient of AOT?19- Coefficient of MET?20- Coefficient of PRA?21- Coefficient of PWO?22- Coefficient of VAD?23- Coefficient of AGE?1- ErrorBy substituting the value from table 4.3, the regression equation will be OPD = 2.139 + 0.007 REC – 0.160NWK – 0.005 ALE + 0.199AGD – 0.036 CTE + 0.157 DPH + 0.075 SCH + 0.081EXP – 0.002 PRP – 0.080 ANP + 0.046 FRI + 0.142IMS + 0.117ENV – 0.365UND + 0.014SUF + 0.360CAL+ 0.030ADQ + 0.055AOT – 0.028MET – 0.144PRA + 0.016PWO – 0.005VAD – 0.038AGE + 0.373Interpretation:The Significance (P Value) of the model is 0.002, which is less than the stipulated P-Value of 0.05. So this test is statistically significant. The independent variables are considered for the test are Age, Days/hrs, Improve skills, Apply learning, Adequate, Friendly, Practical, Agenda, Sufficient, Ansproperly, Schedule, Environment, Relevant content, Perform work, Preplan, New know, Visual aids, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, and Coverall. By running that regression test the co-efficient of predicts and constant value are arrived as a1 = 2.139, ?1 = .007, ?2 = -.160, ?3 = -.005,?4 = 0.199,?5 = – 0.036,?6 = 0.157, ?7 = 0.075,?8 = 0.081,?9 = -.002,?10 = – 0.080,?11 = 0.046,?12 = 0.142, ?13 = 0.117,?14 = – 0.365,?15 = 0.014,?16 = 0.360,?17 = 0.030,?18 = 0.055, ?19 = – 0.028,?20 = – 0.144,?21 = 0.016,?22 =- 0.005,?23 = – 0.038 and ?1= 0.228 with this the regression equation is formed.As the p-value is much less than 0.05, (i.e. 0.000), we reject the null hypothesis. Hence there is a significant relationship between the variables in the linear regression model of the data set faithful.Regression analysis for ‘…………………………………..’Model SummaryModel R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate1 .585a .342 .240 .803a. Predictors: (Constant), Visual aids, Friendly, Sufficient, New know, Ansproperly, Schedule, Apply learning, Perform work, Environment, Agenda, Days/hrs, Practical, Improve skills, Relavantcontant, Adequate, Preplan, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, CoverallANOVAaModel Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.1 Regression 47.375 22 2.153 3.337 .000bResidual 90.985 141 .645 Total 138.360 163 a. Dependent Variable: Overall – Quality Deptb. Predictors: (Constant), Visual aids, Friendly, Sufficient, New know, Ansproperly, Schedule, Apply learning, Perform work, Environment, Agenda, Days/hrs, Practical, Improve skills, Relavantcontant, Adequate, Preplan, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, CoverallCoefficientsaModel Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.226 .353 6.300 .000Relavantcontant .145 .086 .169 1.697 .092New know -.169 .081 -.204 -2.094 .038Apply learning .138 .078 .154 1.762 .080Agenda .167 .071 .208 2.337 .021Current tech -.169 .069 -.250 -2.467 .015Days/hrs .046 .095 .055 .484 .629Schedule -.052 .069 -.074 -.744 .458Experience -.080 .093 -.107 -.868 .387Preplan .016 .075 .020 .210 .834Ansproperly .077 .072 .104 1.074 .285Friendly .007 .069 .010 .107 .915Improve skills .141 .078 .181 1.796 .075Environment .060 .069 .076 .861 .391Understand -.185 .073 -.282 -2.520 .013Sufficient -.041 .072 -.067 -.573 .568Coverall .311 .081 .494 3.835 .000Adequate -.009 .065 -.015 -.134 .893Avail on time .018 .068 .029 .267 .790Methods -.192 .079 -.269 -2.440 .016Practical -.040 .074 -.056 -.544 .587Perform work .215 .075 .284 2.872 .005Visual aids .083 .063 .126 1.316 .190a. Dependent Variable: Overall – Quality DeptRegression analysis for ‘…………………………………..’Model SummaryModel R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate1 .483a .234 .108 .800a. Predictors: (Constant), Age , Days/hrs, Improve skills, Apply learning, Adequate, Friendly, Practical, Agenda, Sufficient, Ansproperly, Schedule, Environment, Relavantcontant, Perform work, Preplan, New know, Visual aids, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, CoverallANOVAaModel Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.1 Regression 27.325 23 1.188 1.855 .016bResidual 89.669 140 .640 Total 116.994 163 a. Dependent Variable: Overall – SaftyDeptb. Predictors: (Constant), Age , Days/hrs, Improve skills, Apply learning, Adequate, Friendly, Practical, Agenda, Sufficient, Ansproperly, Schedule, Environment, Relavantcontant, Perform work, Preplan, New know, Visual aids, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, CoverallCoefficientsaModel Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 3.440 .430 8.003 .000Relavantcontant -.066 .085 -.083 -.771 .442New know .078 .080 .102 .966 .336Apply learning -.034 .079 -.041 -.433 .666Agenda .168 .071 .229 2.359 .020Current tech -.087 .068 -.140 -1.276 .204Days/hrs -.198 .095 -.257 -2.093 .038Schedule .010 .069 .015 .141 .888Experience .053 .092 .077 .573 .568Preplan .163 .075 .227 2.186 .030Ansproperly .125 .072 .183 1.745 .083Friendly -.088 .069 -.128 -1.276 .204Improve skills .022 .078 .030 .278 .782Environment -.011 .069 -.016 -.165 .869Understand -.156 .073 -.258 -2.129 .035Sufficient .027 .073 .048 .379 .705Coverall .079 .081 .136 .967 .335Adequate .032 .065 .059 .497 .620Avail on time .067 .068 .114 .986 .326Methods -.061 .078 -.093 -.780 .437Practical -.115 .074 -.175 -1.550 .123Perform work .064 .075 .092 .856 .394Visual aids .016 .064 .027 .255 .799Age -.069 .095 -.058 -.732 .465a. Dependent Variable: Overall – SaftyDeptCORRELATION ANALYSIS:The Correlation Analysis is the statistical tool used to study the closeness of the relationship between two or more variables. The variables are said to be correlated when the movement of one variable is accompanied by the movement of another variable. The correlation analysis is used when the researcher wants to determine the possible association between the variables and to begin with; the following steps are to be followed:Determining whether the relation exists and then measuring it (The measure of correlation is called as the Coefficient of Correlation.Testing its significanceEstablishing the cause-and-effect relation, if any.In the correlation analysis, there are two types of variables- Dependent and Independent. The purpose of such analysis is to find out if any change in the independent variable results in the change in the dependent variable or not. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) is a measure of the strength of the association between the two variables. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) for continuous (interval level) data ranges from -1 to +1. Positive correlation indicates that both variables increase or decrease together, whereas negative correlation indicates that as one variable increases, so the other decreases, and vice versa.Correlation between ‘Coverall’ and ‘Understand’ Table 5.1 Correlation Analysis Coverall UnderstandCoverall Pearson Correlation 1 .579Sig. (1-tailed) .000Understand Pearson Correlation .579 1Sig. (1-tailed) .000 Interpretation:The correlation analysis between ‘Coverall’ and ‘Understand’ was carried out and the result is depicted in the table 4.1 The significance difference between the variables ‘Coverall’ and ‘Understand’ is calculated as 0.000, which is less than the stipulated P Value of 0.05. So, it is statistically significant to conduct correlation test. The result indicates that, the Pearson correlation co-efficient of 0.579 between the variables. This indicates there is a positive and has somewhat closer relationship between these variables. This infers that the variables ‘Coverall’ and ‘Understand’ are impacted unidirectional.Correlation between ‘…………’ and ‘…………..’ CorrelationsPractical Current techPractical Pearson Correlation 1 .526**Sig. (1-tailed) .000N 164 164Current tech Pearson Correlation .526** 1Sig. (1-tailed) .000 N 164 164**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).Correlation between ‘…………’ and ‘…………..’ CorrelationsPractical MethodsPractical Pearson Correlation 1 .501**Sig. (1-tailed) .000N 164 164Methods Pearson Correlation .501** 1Sig. (1-tailed) .000 N 164 164**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).CHI – SQUARE TEST:A chi-square (?2) test is a statistical hypothesis test wherein the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true. Without other qualification, ‘chi-squared test’ often is used as short for Pearson’s chi-squared test. Chi-squared tests are often constructed from a sum of squared errors, or through the sample variance. Test statistics that follow a chi-squared distribution arise from an assumption of independent normally distributed data, which is valid in many cases due to the central limit theorem. A chi-squared test can be used to attempt rejection of the null hypothesis that the data are independent. Also considered a chi-squared test is a test in which this is asymptotically true, meaning that the sampling distribution (if the null hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-squared distribution as closely as desired by making the sample size large enough. The chi-squared test is used to determine whether there is a significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or more categories. Chi-Square for ‘Department’Table 5.16 Chi-Square Test for ‘Department’DepartmentChi-Square 13.756Df 3Asymp. Sig. .003Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant difference between the respondents about ‘Department’H1: There is significant difference between the respondents about ”Department’Interpretation:The Significance (P Value) calculated is 0.003 which is less than the stipulated value of 0.05. So this test is statistically significant to conduct Chi-Square test. The degree of freedom for the test is 3 (4-1), the Chi-Square calculated value is 13.756. This is higher than the table value of 7.815. Since the Chi-Square calculated is higher than Chi-Square table value, we cannot accept the null hypothesis. Hence reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis, so there is a significant difference between the respondents regarding ”Department”Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsFunctionChi-Square 140.146aDf 9Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 16.4.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsTraining timeChi-Square 225.314aDf 5Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 23.3.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsRelavantcontantChi-Square 68.378aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsNew knowChi-Square 74.110aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsApply learningChi-Square 73.622aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work ExperienceTest StatisticsFriendlyChi-Square 57.402aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsImprove skillsChi-Square 73.317aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work ExperienceTest StatisticsEnvironmentChi-Square 27.402aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work ExperienceTest StatisticsUnderstandChi-Square 8.561aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .073a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsSufficientChi-Square 12.280aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .015 Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsCoverallChi-Square 21.610aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8. Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsAdequateChi-Square 31.183aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8. Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsAvail on timeChi-Square 21.488aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8. Chi-Square for ‘Total Work ExperienceTest StatisticsMethodsChi-Square 32.463aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8. Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsPracticalChi-Square 20.939aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsPerform workChi-Square 38.195aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsVisual aidsChi-Square 15.207aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .004a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsOverall – Quality DeptChi-Square 105.817aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work ExperienceTest StatisticsOverall – SaftyDeptChi-Square 69.122aDf 3Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 41.0.Chi-Square for ‘Total Work Experience’Test StatisticsOverall – Production DeptChi-Square 72.646aDf 4Asymp. Sig. .000a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 32.8.CHAPTER 6RESULTFINDINGSSignificance (P Value) of the model is 0.002, which is less than the stipulated P Value of 0.05. So this test is statistically significant. The independent variables are considered for the test are Age, Days/hrs, Improve skills, Apply learning, Adequate, Friendly, Practical, Agenda, Sufficient, Ansproperly, Schedule, Environment, Relevant content, Perform work, Preplan, New know, Visual aids, Understand, Current tech, Avail on time, Methods, Experience, and Coverall. By running that regression test the co-efficient of predicts and constant value are arrived as a1 = 2.139, ?1 = .007, ?2 = -.160, ?3 = -.005,?4 = 0.199,?5 = – 0.036,?6 = 0.157, ?7 = 0.075,?8 = 0.081,?9 = -.002,?10 = – 0.080,?11 = 0.046,?12 = 0.142, ?13 = 0.117,?14 = – 0.365,?15 = 0.014,?16 = 0.360,?17 = 0.030,?18 = 0.055, ?19 = – 0.028,?20 = – 0.144,?21 = 0.016,?22 =- 0.005,?23 = – 0.038 and ?1= 0.228 with this the regression equation is formed.As the p-value is much less than 0.05, (i.e. 0.000), we reject the null hypothesis. Hence there is a significant relationship between the variables in the linear regression model of the data set faithful.The correlation analysis between ‘Coverall’ and ‘Understand’ was carried out and the result is depicted in the table 4.1 The significance difference between the variables ‘Coverall’ and ‘Understand’ is calculated as 0.000, which is less than the stipulated P Value of 0.05. So, it is statistically significant to conduct correlation test. The result indicates that, the Pearson correlation co-efficient of 0.579 between the variables. This indicates there is a positive and has somewhat closer relationship between these variables. This infers that the variables ‘Coverall’ and ‘Understand’ are impacted unidirectional.The Significance (P Value) calculated is 0.003 which is less than the stipulated value of 0.05. So this test is statistically significant to conduct Chi-Square test. The degree of freedom for the test is 3 (4-1), the Chi-Square calculated value is 13.756. This is higher than the table value of 7.815. Since the Chi-Square calculated is higher than Chi-Square table value, we cannot accept the null hypothesis. Hence reject null hypothesis and accept alternate hypothesis, so there is a significant difference between the respondents regarding ”Department’SUGGESTIONAs the new trainee acquires new knowledge, skills or attitudes and applies them in job situation, he should be significantly rewarded for his effect.The trainees can be provided with more case studies and additional information for further inputs.The training programme should be planned so that it is related to the trainee’s previous experience and background.The training is more effective to improve the employee’s knowledge.The training can be given to employees by analysing their needs.If possible, the personal involvement or active participation of the trainee should be got in the training programme. He should be provided with opportunity to practice the newly needed behaviour norms.CONCLUSIONThe purpose of this study is to find out the training effectiveness of the Britannia industries limited in perundurai. They are given training regularly for past 3 years. Whether the training was satisfied for the employer, it improves the performance of the work. Training helps to improve the knowledge of the handling particular tool equipment, production process and safety in their production. This was the main motive of this research.