5.7. Responses of teachers’/school management team. ? In SMT was very thankful and motivating us in pursuing teaching as a career in order to change the life of up-coming generations, they even highlighted the matter of us “signing check next year”. Well some in a family way they were saying cannot wait for us for us to join the queue, where we will be disrespected by the pupil. In brief SMT was happy to have us on their school and also about the effective teaching and learning experience we have imparted to their learners.

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6. Conclusion Section A; Summary and recommendations. The report is about implementation of Assessment for learning in the classroom. It starts with how I planned and prepare the lessons. I planned the lessons from Monday and Friday during weekend, on day to day I was only doing preparation. I asked help from various sources in terms of planning and preparation this source includes among other the interest and my mentor. With reference to assessment for learning, I used AFL strategies that were placed in place by AFL techniques e.g. no hands up, read aloud, Mini whiteboard, focused marking. Etc. When I approached the end of my report I brief reported on my experience on teaching practice session which include the following; Key challenges, lesson learnt, story of change (from me), and responses of SMT. They are few key issues that I want to highlight that I think will improve my teaching include: I must do paper research about the content knowledge when planning; I must not overlook the power of AFL strategies that I have witnessed, I must ensure that I apply it in every lesson ;I must always be objective when teaching, setting test,(Classwork, Exam, Assignment)or any activity that is intended to elicit information about learning: Providing proper and Constructive feedback should be on my veins and finally, effective strategy and technique of managing classes should start with class rules or ground rules. Section B; Recommendations for improving the TUT teaching practice They are few suggestions that I thin will make future students who will be doing teaching practice gain a lot of experience. This suggestion are as follows: the TUT should conduct the SMT of the school where their student is doing teaching practice and ask where are they and how does they behave, because many student teachers they tend to play truancy when they are on TP or only attending at the time (days) of their period. Secondly, TUT must design the learner attendance register so that student teacher when they leave the institution they will know how to fill the attendance register of the learner or TUT can write to the school requesting the mentor to teach student teacher how to fill attendance register of learner say so because it took me time to be able to fill learner attendance register, I think all seven roles of a teacher must be adapted by student when they leave the institution. Then institution must provide space for this roles finally, effectively use of assessment of learning. Which include strategies of AOL and techniques of AOL must be balanced in the journal of forth year student because we might be fully equipped with AFL but lack AOL we were still useless because AOL is also play a vital role in technique and learning process. Finally, GET lecturers must evaluate the students who are doing GET because it seems like most FET lecturers are not familiar with AFL strategies, therefore, they penalize the GET students who applies AFL strategies accordingly and in a manner that they were taught in class.

5. Discussion
In this study the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder was assessed by using psychopathic check list revised. The independent factors associated with antisocial personality disorder were age (18-27), single marital status, prior conviction, tobacco ever use, and monthly income less than 1557 Birr.
The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Mekelle correctional center prisoners was found to be 31 % with confident interval (26.5-35.6). It is alien with a study conducted in England and Wales by using schedules for clinical interview in neuropsychiatry and psychopathy checklist-revised(31%)(27),UK by using IPDE-SQ(25.8%)(23),Iraq by using PCL-R (31%)(32),Sweden by using PCL-R(31%)(26) and USA by using MINI(35.3%) (31).
In this study the finding was lower as compare to the study conducted in USA by using SIPD-IV(57%) (22), UK by using PCL-R (68%) (28) , South Africa by using MINI (46.1%)(4),Nigeria by using Antisocial Personality Disorder Self- Test (47%) (33) among prisoners. The difference may be due to socio-cultural, environmental, sample size and using of different tool and cut points to determine the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder.
However the prevalence was higher as compare to the studies conducted in Germany by using PCL-R(17%)(21). The difference with this study may be due to the study from Germany includes only female inmates but in this study majority of the participant were men. The prevalence is also higher than the study done in Italy by using MINI (20%)(25), the difference may be due to using different tool and the research from Italy was done in community sample which ASPD is lower than from prison samples.
The prevalence of ASPD in this study was also higher than the research conducted in Egypt (12.3%) (30). The difference may be due to difference in environment, socio-cultural factors and using of different tool. In this study PCL-R was used to decide the ASPD but the study from Egypt used structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders
The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder was found to be higher among the age group of 18-37 as compare to those who are in the age group of >47 years. The finding is in line with the study conducted in UK ASPD is high among the young age(19).The high prevalence of ASPD among the age group may be due to the age is in transition between adolescence and adult age and those with conduct disorder in adolescent age my directly changed to antisocial personality disorder in the adult age. In other way it may be due to the yang age overt behavior such as criminality, substance use and aggressiveness increased in this age.
In this study single marital status was significantly associated with ASPD. A research done in Zambia came up with the same report(36). The possible justification for the high prevalence of ASPD among single participants may be due to that individuals with ASPD have difficulty to form and maintain intimate relationship because of their odd behaviors.
Tobacco ever was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Participants who had tobacco ever use were almost three times more likely to have ASPD as compare to those prisoners who had no tobacco ever use. This is supported by two researches conducted in the USA indicates that most people from the community sample with ASPD are chronic cigarette smokers and other substance users(31,38). It is also support by a research conducted in Turkey(39) This may be due to most of the participants were young adult age who have high probability to test substance and being against the norm of the community .
This study revealed that there was significant association between prior conviction and ASPD. The study conducted in Egypt on prisoners came up with similar finding (30) it is also supported by a research from South Africa (4). The high prevalence of ASPD among prisoners who had prior conviction may be due to repeated imprisonment of individuals with antisocial behavior such as destroying property, harassing others, stealing, or charging illegal occupations and other odd behaviors . Individuals with ASPD fail to conform to societal rules, persistent pattern of disrespect for, and violation of, the rights of others may be possible justification.
Having low monthly income was also had significant association with ASPD. The odds of anti-social personality disorder among those who had monthly income less than 1557 birr per month were four times higher as compare to those who had monthly income above 1557 birr per month).According to DSM-5 ASPD is high among those who have poor economic status(9). Having significant periods of unemployment despite available job opportunities and unable to work for long time due to their antisocial behavior may be possible reasons for low economic status.
Variables which had significant association with antisocial personality disorder in other study but not significant associated with ASPD in this study are being male, having history of psychiatric illness and poor educational status. The difference may be due to variation in culture, sample size, economical status of the participants.

5.1.1. Level Capacity Plan
This particular stage is committed to controlling and monitors the individual level of stock with the company. The mechanisms as part of the stage are planned for maintaining the same degree of production capacity for the company regardless of the demand. With the help of the activities adopted in the certain stage, the company aims to stabilise the employment, lowering the cost of unit, and higher utilisation of processes (Park, Ungson, and Cosgrove 2015). However, level capacity planning induces the company the need for production storage and inventory, rather than the falling sales. Therefore, Nestle should need to consider the “shelf-life” factor critically to control the situation efficiently when the production exceeds the demand. On the other hand, Nestle deals with the food products, which are non-durable goods. Based on the understanding, it is evident, that the certain stage of planning also brings some vital challenges for Nestle other than the identified benefits.
5.1.2. Chase Demand Plan
Demand chase plan is exactly opposite to the level capacity planning. Chase demand related planning process deals with the products that cannot be stored and should be sold immediately. The food and beverage product sold by the company is the effective example of such type of goods (Mahalder 2014). As part of this particular planning, the production process is controlled by the company to produce the equal number of goods as demanded by the target market. The particular approaches as part of the identified planning are introduced by Nestle under some certain conditions, especially during the picks and falls of demand in the identified market at a given period. Some of the critical measures embraced by Nestle during the period are:
• Reduction or extension of working days
• Recruiting human capital on a part-time basis
• Developing a full-time employment or laying off extra staffs
5.1.3. Demand Management
Another useful level in the planning process of Nestle is growing the demand management mechanism for managing with the fluctuations commendably. Some of the well-known advantages of identified functions as a part of the specify making plan are a reduction of cost associated with the commercial enterprise process, improvement of services, advanced utilisation of company’s assets and capacities, and ultimately contributing to the increase of earnings. The planning process is majorly developed by transferring the demands of the client from extra condensed ranges to greater secure phases (Vachani and Post 2012). The corporation comprehensively does the diagnosed exercise thorough developing the opportunity products, providing discounts, or providing new outputs to the customers. One of the maximum compelling examples of the individual approach is cutting the price of an individual food product of the company to increase the client demands and purchasing power in the summertime. Accordingly, the stored products of the organization may be sold to the identified market consumers effectively.
From the overall information, it can be proposed that the selection of appropriate planning and control process influences the achievement of short or long-term goals requires the company analyse and determine the consequences of the activities.

5. Why do companies merge with or acquire other companies?

Companies prefer mergers and acquisitions as a process to gain speedy growth and strategic change (Cumming & Worley, 2015). Cumming & Worley (2015) cited that some of the reasons for companies to undertake mergences and acquisitions include “diversification or vertical integration; gaining access to global markets, technology, or other resources; achieving operational efficiencies; improved innovation; and resource sharing”.
Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A): Definition
? Acquisition is when one company takes over another and clearly establishes itself as the new owner.
? Merger is when two firms agree to go forward as a single new company rather than remain separately owned and operated.

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Types of mergers:
1. Vertical Integration
2. Horizontal Integration
3. Conglomeration

? Micro and Macro Environmental Factors

Figure 5.1. Interrelationships between the organisation and its external environments.

Rob Renaud (updated December 28, 2017) cited some of the reasons why companies merge with or acquire other companies as the following:
? Synergy: The most used word in M&A is synergy, which is the idea that by combining business activities, performance will increase and costs will decrease. Essentially, a business will attempt to merge with another business that has complementary strengths and weaknesses.

? Diversification / Sharpening Business Focus: These two conflicting goals have been used to describe thousands of M&A transactions. A company that merges to diversify may acquire another company in a seemingly unrelated industry in order to reduce the impact of a particular industry’s performance on its profitability. Companies seeking to sharpen focus often merge with companies that have deeper market penetration in a key area of operations.

? Growth: Mergers can give the acquiring company an opportunity to grow market share without having to really earn it by doing the work themselves – instead, they buy a competitor’s business for a price. Usually, these are called horizontal mergers. For example, a beer company may choose to buy out a smaller competing brewery, enabling the smaller company to make more beer and sell more to its brand-loyal customers.

? Eliminate Competition: Many M&A deals allow the acquirer to eliminate future competition and gain a larger market share in its product’s market. The downside of this is that a large premium is usually required to convince the target company’s shareholders to accept the offer. It is not uncommon for the acquiring company’s shareholders to sell their shares and push the price lower in response to the company paying too much for the target company.
Mergers and acquisitions take place for many strategic business reasons, but the most common reasons for any business combination are economic at their core. Mergers and acquisitions occur for other reasons, too, but these are some of the most common. Frequently, companies have multiple reasons for combining. Combining companies has some potential downsides for employees, who have to deal with immediate fears about employment or business lines, but more positive sides of merging may include more opportunities for advancement or having access to more resources to do one’s job. Christina Tangora Schlachter, Terry H. Hildebrandt, MA, MA, PCC updated that the following are some of the various economic reasons:

? Increasing capabilities: Increased capabilities may come from expanded research and development opportunities or more robust manufacturing operations (or any range of core competencies a company wants to increase). Similarly, companies may want to combine to leverage costly manufacturing operations. Capability may not just be a particular department; the capability may come from acquiring a unique technology platform rather than trying to build it.

? Gaining a competitive advantage or larger market share: Companies may decide to merge into order to gain a better distribution or marketing network. A company may want to expand into different markets where a similar company is already operating rather than start from ground zero, and so the company may just merge with the other company. This distribution or marketing network gives both companies a wider customer base practically overnight.

? Replacing leadership: In a private company, the company may need to merge or be acquired if the current owners can’t identify someone within the company to succeed them. The owners may also wish to cash out to invest their money in something else, such as retirement!

? Cutting costs: When two companies have similar products or services, combining can create a large opportunity to reduce costs. When companies merge, frequently they have an opportunity to combine locations or reduce operating costs by integrating and streamlining support functions. This economic strategy has to do with economies of scale: When the total cost of production of services or products is lowered as the volume increases, the company therefore maximizes total profits.

? Surviving: It’s never easy for a company to willingly give up its identity to another company, but sometimes it is the only option in order for the company to survive. A number of companies used mergers and acquisitions to grow and survive during the global financial crisis from 2008 to 2012.

6. WHY DO SOME MERGES AND ACQUSITION FAIL

The Merger and Acquisition (M&A) can be seen as a programme with many sub-projects each of these sub-projects will require attention to changes in the external environment that might impact the outcomes of these sub-projects. Furthermore organisational M&A experience, short, medium and long-term strategy, data quality management and selection criteria and timing employed during the initiation, implementation of M&A is critical to failure and success of the M&A programme/project execution.
6.1. Organisational Strategic Leadership Competency

According to Professor Steyn, Dr Erik Schmikl and Dr Pieter van Dyk (Cranefield College, M2: Programme Managing Organisational Performance and Innovative Improvement) module Study Guide). ‘Superior strategic leadership has become an important competitive tool and is the basis on which successful organisations provide services or goods better than their competition can, resulting in enhanced value add’. ‘Leadership is the engine that drives change where changing economic forces will continue to push organisations into reducing costs, focusing on value added, improving the quality of products and services, finding new opportunities for growth, and improving delivery’
6.2 Poor M&A Strategic Planning

‘Managing organisations through projects and programmes has become the integrative implementation link between corporate strategy, business strategy and operations strategy’. An article by Professor Pieter Steyn, published in “Management Today” and “ProjectPro”, April 2001.
Strategic Information Management during M&A planning and execution influences top management, Programme Managers and Project Managers during M&A decision-making, when an organisations planning an acquisition reliable quality data is needed during project planning and execution.
According to Sukand Ramachandran, partner at Boston Consulting “There are a lot more digital interactions today and therefore a lot more vulnerabilities,” Successful integration of IT systems can make or break mergers and acquisitions no matter how good the business prospects (by DAN BARNES – SEPTEMBER 27, 2018: Successful integration of IT systems can make or break mergers and acquisitions, no matter how good the business prospects.)
Cumming & Worley (2015) cited that some of the reasons for the failure of mergers include “inadequate due diligence process; lack of compelling strategic rationale; unrealistic expectations of synergy; paying too much for the transaction; conflicting corporate cultures; and failure to move quickly”.
Shobhit Seth (updated October 12, 2018) cited some of the reasons why companies mergers and acquisitions fail as the following:
? Limited or no involvement from the owners: Appointing M&A advisors at high costs for various services is almost mandatory for any mid to large size deal. But leaving everything to them just because they get a high fee is a clear sign leading to failure. Advisors usually have a limited role, till the deal is done. Following that, the new entity is the onus of the owner. Owners should be involved right from the start and rather drive and structure the deal on their own, letting advisors take the assistance role. Among others, the inherent benefit will be a tremendous knowledge-gaining experience for the owner, which will be a lifelong benefit.

? Theoretical valuation versus practical proposition of future benefits: The numbers and assets that look good on paper may not be the real winning factors once the deal is through.

? Lack of clarity and execution of the integration process: A major challenge for any M&A deal is the post-merger integration. A careful appraisal can help to identified key employees, crucial projects and products, sensitive processes and matters, impacting bottlenecks, etc. Using these identified critical areas, efficient processes for clear integration should be designed, aided by consulting, automation or even outsourcing options being fully explored.

? Cultural integration issues: This factor is also quite evident in global M&A deals, and a proper strategy should be devised either to go for hard-decision forceful integration setting aside cultural differences or allowing the regional/local businesses run their respective units, with clear targets and strategy on profit making.

? Required capacity potential versus current bandwidth: The deals with the purpose of expansion require an assessment of the current firm’s capacity to integrate and build upon the larger business. Are your existing firm’s resources already fully or over-utilized, leaving no bandwidth for the future to make the deal a success? Have you allocated dedicated resources (including yourself) to fill in the necessary gaps, as per the need? Have you accounted for time, effort and money needed for unknown challenges which may be identified in the future?

? Actual cost of a difficult integration and high cost of recovery: Keeping bandwidth and resources ready with correct strategies which can surpass the potential costs and challenges of integration could have helped. Investments today in a difficult integration spread over the next few years may be difficult to recover in the long run.
? Negotiations errors: Cases of overpaying for an acquisition (with high advisory fee) are also rampant in executing M&A deals, leading to financial losses and hence failures.

? External factors and changes to the business environment: External factors may not be fully controllable, and the best approach in such situations is to look forward and cut further losses, which may include completely shutting down the business or taking similar hard decisions.

? Assessment of alternatives: Instead of buying to expand with an aim to surpass competitors, is it worth considering being a sale target and exit with better returns to start something new? It helps to consider extreme options which may prove more profitable, instead of holding onto the traditional thoughts

? Backup plan: With more than 50% of M&A deals failing, it’s always better to keep a backup plan to disengage in a timely manner (with/without a loss), to avoid further losses. The above-mentioned examples although are cited as failed, but they do seem to have executed the de-merger in a timely manner.

7. Recommendations
The below recommendations are proposed by the authors to be implemented at Bidvest.
7.1 Lifecycle Phases

Organisational strategic leadership competency with regard to short, medium and long-term direction must be clearly defined during M;A programme plan and post implementation/integration plan. The M;A project initiation, planning, execution, closing matrix and negotiation experience plays a major role in executing and closing the deals. Organizations must approach M;A cycle as a programme with sub-projects as per following cycle phases on Figure 7.1

Figure 7.1 Lifecycle Phases

5. Managing Capacity
Capacity planning is the performance of deciding the constructing limit required by utilizing a business undertaking to justify changing over requests for its objects. With regards to scope quantification, planning capacity is the most extreme volume of work that a business can complete in a set period. Samples of this are the regularity of items. Capacity describes as the total maximum level of output a business can produce in a given period (Proctor, 2016). Therefore, three principle factors take over strength here, the capacity of supplies and employment power, the procedure action which itself provokes justifying clients through organizing requirement. It is fundamental to plan and arrange every one of the three factors sufficiently in light of the fact that a distinction in limit and execution effortlessly influences: incomes, costs, working capital, the quality of stock, the speed of response, flexibility and others.

5.1. Nestle’s Production Capacity
Nestle organisation is the world’s driving sustenance, well-being and health, over 100 years in Singapore, their Milo manufacturing facility is achieving the improvement which will take care of the local demand and make Singapore a production and export base for the near to countries. The manufacture office, which will change Singapore into a provincial canter point in the breakfast grains session, is propelled to the press through a conference gone to by Minister of Trade and Industry.
Capacity planning is combined of three-level stages, that are concisely explained below: –
5.1.1. Level Capacity Plan
This specific stage is focused on checking and monitors the different level of inventory with the organization. The workings as a piece of the step have become ready for sustaining up a similar grade of origination ability with respect to the organization paying little respect to the concern. With the assistance of the uses embraced in the specific stage, the organization means to settle the business, producing down the expense of unit, and higher use of procedures (Park, et al., 2015). Moreover, level capacity organization contain the organization the requirement for making space and stock, instead of the dropping sales. Thus, Nestle has required to think the “serviceable life” include on a very basic level to control the condition creatively when the manufacture over the request. Under other condition, Nestle agreement with the nutrition products, which are non-lasting products. In light of the understanding, it is approved, that the specific point of organising additionally brings some fundamental difficulties for Nestle other than the renowned advantages.

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5.1.2. Chase Demand Plan
Chase of Demand Plan is accurately reverse to the level limit association. Chase demand linked to the organizing process manages with the items that cannot be kept and ought to be sold quickly. The food and drink item sold by the organization is the compelling case of such kind of products (Mahalder, 2014). In spite of that specific organizing, the company manufacturing system is organized to create the identical range of goods as required by way of the market goal. The specific methods as a major aspect of the recognized arranging are presented by Nestle under a few specific situations, mainly amid the rise and falls of needs in the recognized market at a specified time. A portion of the basic measures grasped by Nestle among the dated are:
• Increasing or Decreasing operating days
• Employing human capital on the low freelance foundation
• Emerging a full-day work or shedding additional staffs

5.1.3. Demand Management
An additional advantageous level in the planning technique of Nestle is building up the required managing system for handling with the instabilities creditably. A portion of the notable points of interest of recognized capacities as a piece of the identify making design are a decrease of expense related with the business task process, enhancement of skills, innovative use of organization’s benefits and volumes, and eventually funding to the growth of incomes. The planning procedure is primarily implemented by replacing the requests of the customer from additional dense reaches to better safe stages (Post ; Vachani, 2012). The association extensively does the identify exercise careful emerging up the open-door products, offering rebates, or giving new products to the clients. A standout amongst the most extreme convincing models regarding the individual method is cutting the cost of a separate nourishment product of the organization to build customer requests and buying power in the late spring. Appropriately, an away result of the association might be sold to the well-known market customer effectively.
Based on the general data, it will be able to offer that the decision of arranging and control process control the success of short or long stand aims requires the organization analyses and decide the outcomes of the actions.

5.2. The Timing of a Capacity Change
Capacity change of a procedure is not basically an issue of approving the best scope of an extra capacity. The procedure in like manner needs to choose when to bring ‘on the new capacity. For example, Figure 8. shows the approximation requirement for the new air-conditioning unit. The association has selected 400-units-per-week plants with them to deal with the finish goal to be concerned about the improvement in the requirement for its fresh item. In selecting when the new plants are to be introduced the association must select a point wherever between two extreme strategies:
? capacity leads demand – scheduling the introduction of capacity so that there is continually suitable ability to see of approximate demand;
? capacity lags demand – timing the introduction of potential in order that demand is always identical to or greater than capacity.
Figure 8. (a) and (b) displays these two amazing strategies, in spite of the fact that practically the organization is probably going to take a position somewhere among the two. Every strategy has its own strength and weakness. The real method taken by any organization will rely on how it sees these strengths and weakness. For the sample, if the organization’s entrance to assets for capital consumption is restricted, it is probably going to locate the lasted capital expenditure demand of the capacity-lagging strategy pretty attractive.

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