4.5 Balanced Scorecard

Steyn, Schmikl, and Van Dyk, P. (2018:30), summarises that organisations operations objectives are translated from a strategic direction by means of a balanced scorecard. Figure 4.5 indicate a breakdown of a generic scorecard
Figure 4.5.1 Steyn, Schmikl, and Van Dyk, P. (2018:30)

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Below a breakdown of the Bidvest scorecard as per the authors.
4.5.1 Financial Perspective
Figure 4.1.2, below illustrate the standing of Bidvest as of 30 July 2018 since its inception by its founder Brian Joffe and Mervyn Chipkin in 1988 with only R8m. This figures highlights Bidvest Group as one of the greatest investments.

Figure 4.5.2. Bidvest Group Financial Standing. (2018: Online)

4.5.2 Customer Perspective
The Bidvest vision to be a leading South African services, trading and distribution group. The organisation is perceived by the customer as the biggest brand in South Africa based on the success of all the businesses under the group umbrella. Bidvest in 2017 was No: 30 on the South Africa’s 2017 top brands list. Anderson (2017: Online), explains that consumer perception is one of the criteria used to measure and come up with the list. This clearly shows how well the Bidvest brand is perceived by the customers.
4.5.3 Internal Business Perspective
The organisation lives their strategy of having a strong track record of consistent delivery, returns and growth which in turn bounds well with the group vision of being a leading South African services, trading and distribution group. Figure 4.5.3 shows Bidvest Group strategic pillars which they have managed to excel at.

Figure 4.5.3. Bidvest Group Strategic Pillars. (2018: Online)

4.5.4 Learning and Growth Perspective
One of Bidvest growth drivers in their business model is innovation. The organisation is on constant basis working and identifying better, simpler and cheaper way of doing the business. The below Figure 4.5.4 indicate Bidvest growth drivers which will propel them to stay competitive and above their competitors in the different industries they operate on.

Figure 4.5.4. Bidvest Group Growth Drivers. (2018: Online)

4.6 Pestel Analysis
Online:2016, Pestel analysis is a concept in marketing principles moreover, this concept is used as a tool by companies to track the environment they are operating in or are planning to launch a new project/product /service etc. things to keep in mind when doing Pestel analysis:
What is the political situation of the country and how can it affect the industry?
What are the prevalent economic factors?
How much importance does culture has in the market and what are its determinants.
What technological innovations are likely to pop up and affect the market structure?
Are there any current legislations that regulate the industry or can?
there be any change in the legislations for the industry.
What are the environment concerns for the industry?
Political factors
According to insiders Adcock’s lacks the political connections of giant as compared to Aspen Pharmacare. Bidvest has some foothold in selling to the state. The state’s two biggest investor’s, the government Employees Pension Fund and the Public Investment Corporation(PIC). If Bidvest manages to buy Adcock Ingram it will get more business from the government and Adcock will also benefit from this acquisition.

Economic factors
Economic factors related to goods, services, and money. Despite directly affecting businesses, these variables refer to financial state of the economy on a greater level whether that be local or global. The reason for this is that the state of the economy can decide many of the important details that come up in an operating company, including topics such as consumer demand, taxes and asset value. Bidvest is still facing challenges in the current world economy, regulatory and legislative changes imperative in the countries where it operates.

Social factors
Business also have their own social environmental factors. This is also known as internal social environments. There is some level of control by a business over its internal social environments in relation to its external environments, all of which are factors affecting business when it comes to their social environments. In simple terms, the beliefs, customs, practises and behaviours within the confines of the business.

Cultural determinants like demographics, growth trends, health consciousness, customer attitudes, etc. affect the demand for certain products or services. Consider your marketing strategy in the context of social norms, current trends and how these trends are likely to develop over time.
Technological factors
Consider current technology and advancements that are on the horizon. Innovations in technology can affect the company’s operations and the market in which it operates. The business needs to consider technological factors such as automation, research and development, connectivity, e-commerce, etc.
Environmental factors
These are ecological aspects such as weather and climatic changes, tourism, farming, insurance, geographical locations, etc. An awareness of the impact of these factors is crucial to develop and deliver an effective marketing strategy that can succeed in the environment in which the business operates.
There are two issues in the pharmaceutical industry. The medicine producers should find a way to solve the health problem due to that pollution. The environmental hygiene also effective, because more disease appears, people need more medicine to solve it.
Bidvest and Adcock should work in partnership with its suppliers, customers and other relevant business partners, within its sphere of influence, to redesign and reduce the environmental impact of products, services and other business activities. Optimise consumption of raw materials and energy, and minimise waste through applying a ‘reduce, reuse, recycle’ philosophy.
Legal factors
Regulators are becoming more powerful and the legislative burden on businesses is arguably greater than ever. Your team needs to consider the legal factors that will affect your business now and in the future. This could be anything from data protection regulations through to employment legislation.
Pharmaceutical industry is subjected to regulatory and the department will examine all the data to support the safety, efficacy and stability. Pharmaceutical promotion is subjected to self-regulation. Representative requires passing all the examination testing of medical knowledge. Some countries, government require the agency to check if the promotional claim is consistency with the data
4.7 SWOT Analysis
Rouse (2013: Online), SWOT analyses (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis) is major strategic tool or framework to identifying internal and external factors that will impact the organisational strategy (in the case of Bidvest). Recording strengths and weaknesses of an organisation and turning them into value is the ultimate secret of this exercise. Steyn, Schmikl and Van Dyk (2018:264), outlines that strengths and weakness are internal to the organization, while opportunities and threats are in the external environment. A SWOT analysis need to highlight important factors relating to both the “as is” and the “to be” situations of the organization. (2018: Online), the below table outlines the SWOT analyses of Bidvest Group

Bidvest Group Limited SWOT Analysis)
Strengths ” Below is the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats (SWOT) Analysis of Bidvest Group Limited :
1. Has a strong employee base of more than 100,000+ people operating in Europe, Asia Pacific and Africa markets
2. Largest private sector freight management business in sub-Saharan Africa
3. Increasing net profit and operating profit over the years
4. Diversified product portfolio
5. Goodwill generation by supporting Black Economic Empowerment
6. Lean corporate principle – effective management process

Weaknesses 1. Decentralized management model – inefficiency in operation integration
2. Heavy dependence on South African market
3. Majority of the revenue generated from few operating domains like transportation and catering
Opportunities 1. Expansion in developing Asian market
2. Positive outlook for packages food and water in global Arena
3. Vertical integration of operations like logistics, food processing and retailing
Threats 1. Environmental norms and marine life conservation norms
2. Intense competition from local companies.”

5. Why do companies merge with or acquire other companies?

Companies prefer mergers and acquisitions as a process to gain speedy growth and strategic change (Cumming ; Worley, 2015). Cumming ; Worley (2015) cited that some of the reasons for companies to undertake mergences and acquisitions include “diversification or vertical integration; gaining access to global markets, technology, or other resources; achieving operational efficiencies; improved innovation; and resource sharing”.
Mergers and Acquisitions (M;A): Definition
? Acquisition is when one company takes over another and clearly establishes itself as the new owner.
? Merger is when two firms agree to go forward as a single new company rather than remain separately owned and operated.

Types of mergers:
1. Vertical Integration
2. Horizontal Integration
3. Conglomeration

? Micro and Macro Environmental Factors

Figure 5.1. Interrelationships between the organisation and its external environments.

Rob Renaud (updated December 28, 2017) cited some of the reasons why companies merge with or acquire other companies as the following:
? Synergy: The most used word in M;A is synergy, which is the idea that by combining business activities, performance will increase and costs will decrease. Essentially, a business will attempt to merge with another business that has complementary strengths and weaknesses.

? Diversification / Sharpening Business Focus: These two conflicting goals have been used to describe thousands of M;A transactions. A company that merges to diversify may acquire another company in a seemingly unrelated industry in order to reduce the impact of a particular industry’s performance on its profitability. Companies seeking to sharpen focus often merge with companies that have deeper market penetration in a key area of operations.

? Growth: Mergers can give the acquiring company an opportunity to grow market share without having to really earn it by doing the work themselves – instead, they buy a competitor’s business for a price. Usually, these are called horizontal mergers. For example, a beer company may choose to buy out a smaller competing brewery, enabling the smaller company to make more beer and sell more to its brand-loyal customers.

? Eliminate Competition: Many M;A deals allow the acquirer to eliminate future competition and gain a larger market share in its product’s market. The downside of this is that a large premium is usually required to convince the target company’s shareholders to accept the offer. It is not uncommon for the acquiring company’s shareholders to sell their shares and push the price lower in response to the company paying too much for the target company.
Mergers and acquisitions take place for many strategic business reasons, but the most common reasons for any business combination are economic at their core. Mergers and acquisitions occur for other reasons, too, but these are some of the most common. Frequently, companies have multiple reasons for combining. Combining companies has some potential downsides for employees, who have to deal with immediate fears about employment or business lines, but more positive sides of merging may include more opportunities for advancement or having access to more resources to do one’s job. Christina Tangora Schlachter, Terry H. Hildebrandt, MA, MA, PCC updated that the following are some of the various economic reasons:

? Increasing capabilities: Increased capabilities may come from expanded research and development opportunities or more robust manufacturing operations (or any range of core competencies a company wants to increase). Similarly, companies may want to combine to leverage costly manufacturing operations. Capability may not just be a particular department; the capability may come from acquiring a unique technology platform rather than trying to build it.

? Gaining a competitive advantage or larger market share: Companies may decide to merge into order to gain a better distribution or marketing network. A company may want to expand into different markets where a similar company is already operating rather than start from ground zero, and so the company may just merge with the other company. This distribution or marketing network gives both companies a wider customer base practically overnight.

? Replacing leadership: In a private company, the company may need to merge or be acquired if the current owners can’t identify someone within the company to succeed them. The owners may also wish to cash out to invest their money in something else, such as retirement!

? Cutting costs: When two companies have similar products or services, combining can create a large opportunity to reduce costs. When companies merge, frequently they have an opportunity to combine locations or reduce operating costs by integrating and streamlining support functions. This economic strategy has to do with economies of scale: When the total cost of production of services or products is lowered as the volume increases, the company therefore maximizes total profits.

? Surviving: It’s never easy for a company to willingly give up its identity to another company, but sometimes it is the only option in order for the company to survive. A number of companies used mergers and acquisitions to grow and survive during the global financial crisis from 2008 to 20

4.1 Modifications on Project Planning
After I have done the planning I got some feedback from the examiner which help me to implement successful project. In this chapter I will write all the meditation which are needed for this project.in this chapter, I will explain functionality of the system, resources which are needed for this project and I will explain the diagrams after modification.
4.1.1 Software/ hardware resources
In the planning
I decided to implement system by using visual studio exactly vb.net language and MS access, and I decided to make this system available only in the al Malik shop. It still there will be some difficulty faced by the customer and supplier to use this system, because still they needed to visit the shop to complete all procedures.
In the implementation
After doing the planning, I have taken idea that this system will get more success when I do it website. The users will use it easily without needing to visit shop to do the procedures what they want. Now I decided to implement this project using PHP and MySQL to make it website can be used easily. I also decided to use one more hardware to develop the website which is barcode reader.

4.3 Fiber concrete: Benefits: 1. Due to the high tensile strength and high elongation of the fiber, the tensile, flexural, impact strength, elongation and toughness of the concrete are improved. 2. Fiber can control the further development of cracks in the base concrete to improve crack resistance (Ahmed, 2016). Drawbacks: 1. The cost is high due to its control problems (production problems) and high raw material costs. 2. Maintenance is difficult (Doshi, 2016).
4.4 Reinforced concrete: Benefits: 1. Reinforced concrete has high compressive strength and good tensile stress. 2. Has good durability and fire resistance. 3. The structure is flexible and widely used in prefabricated structural members (Din, 2016). Drawbacks: 1. Corrosion of steel bars and freeze-thaw cycles of concrete can cause damage to the structure of concrete, which will result in loss of bonding force. 2. The casting cost is relatively high. 3. Shrinkage can cause cracking of the component and loss of strength (Din, 2016).
4.5 Cross laminated timber: Benefits: 1. cross laminated timber has a very high strength to replace concrete materials and has good seismic performance. 2. It is natural, green and has its own fire protection function. 3. It has the advantages of high efficiency and high-speed construction, and has low weather requirements, which can greatly improve the construction progress. 4. Has a flexible design (TIMBERFIRST, 2012). Drawbacks: 1. The design needs to be completed before the start of the project to allow off-site manufacturing. 2. External cladding is required to provide weatherproof materials (Andy Sutton and Daniel Black, BRE Pete Walker, University of Bath, 2011).
4.6 Oriented strand board: Benefits: 1. The oriented strand board has high physical and mechanical properties, compact structure and high strength. 2. It has strong anti-corrosion, anti-mite, anti-deformation and flame-retardant ability. 3. It has excellent heat insulation and sound insulation effect and has good paint performance (DO IT YOURSELF, n.d.). Drawbacks: 1. The density is heavier, so the furniture made with it is heavier. 2. The edges are rough and easy to absorb moisture.
5. Sustainability credentials of engineered products
5.1 Cold-formed steel: 1. Because it shrinks and expands easily with the weather, it is more durable than wood. 2. It meets the requirements of fire code, because of its resistance to insect damage and fire. 3. According to LEED certification, all truss materials and accessories are manufactured from 90% recycled steel. (ENGINEERED STEEL PRODUCTS, 2018)
5.2 Cast steel: The material properties of cast steel have a wide range of properties. 1. Due to the high hardness of the cast steel, the wear resistance is enhanced. 2. The corrosion resistance of cast steel increases the range in which it can be used. 3. Because of the effective thermal conductivity, cast steel can withstand stress and load without being affected by temperature (RELIANCE FOUNDRY, 2017).
5.3 Fiber concrete: Under static and dynamic loads, the fiber not only enhances crack resistance, but also has a strong repair interface, stronger water tightness and better control of corrosion in the repaired structure (Nemkumar Banthia, Cristina Zanotti and Manote Sappakittipakorn, 2014).
5.4 Reinforced concrete: First, reinforced concrete building systems are more durable than any other building system. Second, the maintenance cost of reinforced concrete is very low. It is the most economical building material when building some large buildings (Din, 2016).
5.5 Cross laminated timber: Cross laminated timber is a renewable building material that is one of the least energies consuming in the life of all building materials and can save costs. In addition, it also absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, releases oxygen, and seals the carbon in the wood (TIMBERFIRST, 2012).
5.6 Oriented strand board: The oriented strand board has a very low formaldehyde emission and is a truly green product.
6. The typical construction process of building using engineered products
6.1 Cold-formed steel: Cold rolled steels take hot rolled steels as raw materials. After pickling and removing the oxide scale, they are cold-rolled. The finished product is hard rolled, in which the shape of steel can be changed by cold water (STEEL FRAMING INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION, n.d.).
6.2 Cast steel: 1. Mould preparing: the mould is designed and produced according to the specific shape of the product. 2. Wax mode & tree assembly. 3. Sand shell making and dewaxing. 4. Pouring: pour molten steel into dewaxed sand shell. When the liquid steel is cooled and solidified, the solid steel is obtained by breaking the outer sand shell. 5. Testing (Admin, 2018).
6.3 Fiber concrete: 1. Preparing Portlan cement. Calculate the total amount of materials such as fiber, cement and anti-cracking waterproof agent in advance, and make corresponding plans and quantities. 2. Mixing. Mix all materials such as aggregates, cement, fibers and water in mixers. 3. Transport to work site. 4. Placing and compacting. 5. Curing (How Products are Made, n.d.).
6.4 Reinforced concrete: The preliminary work is the same as the concrete. The most obvious difference is that steel bars need to be placed before concrete is poured.
6.5 Cross laminated timber: 1. Species selection. 2. Drying. 3. Strength grading. 4. Visual grading. 5. Removing defects. 6. ‘Endless’ lamellae. 7. Panel assembly. 8. Completion (greenspec, 2018).
6.6 Oriented strand board: OSB production of the main process: logs ? peeling ? flake ? drying ? screening ? sizing ? pavement ? hot pressing ? plate treatment (Quality Control In China, 2016).
7. One existing timber structure and an existing concrete structure.
7.1 Timber structure: The Forbidden City palace is the imperial palace of the Ming and qing dynasties, located in the center of the central axis of Beijing, is the essence of ancient Chinese palace architecture. The imperial palace in Beijing centers on three main halls, covering an area of 720,000 square meters and a building area of about 150,000 square meters. It is one of the largest and best preserved ancient wooden structures in the world (Travel China Guide, n.d.).
7.2 Steel structure: As one of the ten contemporary buildings, Beijing national stadium is composed of reinforced concrete frame shear structure and bending and torsion member steel structure. The main steel structure forms a “bird’s nest” structure with a building area of 258,000 square meters and a total project cost of 3.3 billion yuan (eulor2008, 2018).
8. The principal structural system and the reason why the system would have been adopted
8.1 The Forbidden City: Bucket arch, as a unique component in Chinese traditional wooden structure architecture, is a kind of small and short wood intersection built up layer by layer. It is located between the column and the beam, plays the role of transfer load. As the main combination mode of ancient wooden buildings in China, it can greatly reduce the seismic load and play an anti-seismic role (China Fact Tours, 2008).
8.2 Beijing national stadium: In the design of the main truss of bird’s nest, triangular stable structure support is used. The reinforced concrete wall board is used to replace the beam and column in the frame structure to bear all kinds of loads. Its innovative look and energy efficiency make it one of the big “green buildings” (BAIDU WENKU, 2018).
9. Live loads and the factors considered by wind speed in The Forbidden City and Beijing national stadium
9.1 The Forbidden City: The most obvious live load is come from people. Because Beijing is snowy in winter and prone to earthquakes, snow and earthquake loads should be taken into account. The height and height to width ratio of buildings should be considered when calculating wind load. Due to limited conditions, the wind tunnel test cannot be carried out, so the surface wind load system coefficient is adopted (GAN ZHOU, WEIMING YAN and HONGZHI GUAN, 2013).
9.2 Beijing national stadium: The live load is same with The Forbidden City. This structure is similar to the horizontal structure to resist the lateral loads. Wind loads are decomposed through steel grids, while being dissipated to provide natural ventilation in buildings (Monika Mickute, Sam Pomager, and Lemond Brown, 2010).
10. The load paths for permanent (dead), imposed (live) loads and wind loads in the two structures
10.1 The Forbidden City: the most important elements in the Forbidden City are beams and columns which are support the whole building dead loads. The load passed down from the roof and upper frame is passed to the column through the bucket arch and from the column to the foundation (Travel China Guide, n.d.).
10.2 Beijing national stadium (Monika Mickute, Sam Pomager, and Lemond Brown, 2010): The core of the building carries dead loads of all the structures, and these loads will be transmitted directly to the plinth foundation.

4.2. Building the Framework
In this section, we present architecture of Cloud-Based framework that used for integrated agricultural service called Agro-Info, which manages various types of agriculture-related data based on different domains. To make the framework more understandable two architectures have been designed. The first one shows the high-level component architecture which is designed from the end user point of view and the second one shows the process model of the system which is also designed from the user point of view. The figure below shows the high-level component architecture of the proposed framework. The service of agriculture divided into SaaS, PaaS, IaaS and the framework of Agro-Info consists two subsystems: user subsystem and cloud subsystem.
4.2.1. User Subsystem
This subsystem delivers a user interface, in which the users interacting with Agro-Info to provide and get useful information about agriculture based on different domains. We have considered different types of information domains in agriculture: crop, weather, soil, pest, fertilizer, productivity, market status, irrigation, cattle, and equipment. mainly there are three types of users: agriculture expert, agriculture officer, and farmer. Agriculture expert shares professional knowledge by answering the user queries and updates the agriculture database depend on the latest research done in the field of agriculture with respect to their domain. Agriculture officers are the government officials those offers the up-to-date information about new agriculture policies, schemes, and rules passed by the government. Farmer is an essential entity of Agro -Info who can take maximum advantage by asking their queries and getting responses. Users can monitor any data related to their domain and get their response without visiting the agriculture help center. It integrates the different domains of agriculture with Agro-Info. The information or queries received from the user are forwarded to cloud repository to update and the response is sent back to the particular user on their preconfigured devices through the internet.
4.2.2. Cloud Subsystem
This subsystem contains the platform in which agriculture service is hosted on a cloud. Agriculture service allows processing the agriculture information provided by users mainly agriculture expert, agriculture officer, and farmer of different domains in the agriculture sector. The details are stored in cloud repository for different domains with a unique identification number. The information is monitored, analyzed and processed continuously by Agro-Info. We have designed different classes for every domain and subclasses for further categorization of information. In storage repository, user data is categorized based on different predefined classes of every domain. This information is further forwarded to agriculture experts and agriculture officers for final validation through pre-configured devices.
Agro-Info allows the user to upload the data related to different domains of agriculture through preconfigured devices and classified them based on the domains specified in the database.

Monitors are a first process that used to collect the information for monitoring continuously performance variations by comparing expected and actual performance. Actual information about performance is observed based QoS parameters and transfers this information to next module for further analysis.
QoS manager isolates the QoS requirements depend on the number and type of user requests. Depend on QoS requirements, resource manager classifies resource requirements and executes the resources at the infrastructure level. Analyzing and planning module begun examining the data received from monitoring module and make to plan for suitable actions to corresponding user request.

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4.6.1 Current insulation condition:

The plant had very badly insulated piping system. Its insulation was done 2 years ago and at present the condition of steam pipe insulation is very poor.

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The figure 4.9 shows a photograph piping system. It is visible from picture that insulation is bad and needs repairing and also at some places insulation is missing, causing great heat loss. Glasswool used as a insulator and many places in pipes where the material is not available and it leads to the loss in the heat. So we have collected the data about different insulation material. Also we have given list of local insulation carrying consultancy. Here are some insulation material properties

Fig 4.9 Photograph of part of steam distribution system

Function of insulation are:

• To conserve energy to avoid heat loss or heat gain
• To maintain temperature of system
• To avoid heat loss from heat carrying fluid
• To stop condensation
• To avoid corrosion or exposure to corrosive atmosphere as well as fire
• Process with good efficiency like heating, ventilation and cooling.
• To absorb noise from the mechanical equipment.

Selection of insulation material is very critical and following points should be considered.

Very important. The following design and installation considerations must be noted:
• Type of insulation that is rigid, flexible, ease of handling, installation, and adjustment.
• Ease to modify, repair, and alter.
• Requirement of skilled and unskilled labor.
• Safety & environment considerations.
• Weight of insulation material and density of same
• Replacement and removal should be easy
• Performance of material.

4.6.2 Heat Gain / Loss from Cylindrical Surfaces like Pipes

To evaluate the heat gain or loss from the cylindrical surfaces it has different equation from than the equation for the flat surfaces. The heat will be transferred to pipe wall through the flowing material and after that heat will be absorbed by the atmosphere. In case of insulation the heat dissipation will be less in atmosphere.
It is not possible to calculate exact amount of heat dissipated since it is affected by:

• Color, texture, and shape of the casing.
• Vertical or horizontal orientation of the casing.
• Air movement or wind speed over the casing.
• Exposure to thermal radiation, e.g. sunlight – all of these in addition to the temperature
• Parameters, etc.

Because of the number of complicating factors, generalizations must be utilized. The theoretical methods for calculating heat transfer for pipe or any other cylindrical objects like tanks, is depends on the thickness of insulation and the area of outer surface.

It takes place in the future, about 300 years after some sort of disaster destroys the old civilization (24.60). It takes place partly in an unnamed city and partly in a small town in the wilderness called the Smoke.

1. 300 years into the future, the government provides for everything, including plastic surgery operations.
2. Once you turn 16, you receive a “pretty” operation. It transforms you into a ‘normal’ citizen.
3. After the operation, new Pretties cross the river that divides the city and lead a new life with no responsibilities or obligations.
4. Former cities have decayed after bacteria infected the world’s petroleum, making it unstable. People who lived before this catastrophe are called “Rusties.”
5. Tally Youngblood is almost sixteen.
6. Her best friend, Peris, has already had the operation and, motivated by her desire to see him, Tally sneaks across the river to New Pretty Town.
7. There she meets Shay, another Ugly.
8. They become friends and Shay teaches Tally how to ride a hoverboard.
9. Shay mentions rebelling against the operation.
10. At first, Tally ignores the idea, but is forced to deal with it when Shay runs away a few days before their shared sixteenth birthday, leaving behind cryptic directions to her destination, a “renegade settlement” called the Smoke, where city runaways go to escape the operation.
11. On the day of Tally’s operation, she is taken to Special Circumstances, a division that is likened to “gremlins” and, “blamed when anything weird happens.”
12. Dr. Cable, a woman who is described as “a cruel pretty”, is the head of Special Circumstances.
13. She gives Tally an ultimatum to either help locate Shay and the Smoke, or never become a pretty.
14. Tally cooperates and Dr. Cable gives her a hoverboard and all the needed supplies to survive in the wild, along with a heart locket that contains a tracking device.
15. Once activated, it will show the location of the Smoke to Special Circumstances. Following Shay’s clues, Tally sets off to find her friend.
16. When Tally arrives at the Smoke, she finds Shay, her friend David and an entire community of runaway Uglies. She is reluctant to activate the pendant and it eventually becomes clear that David is in love with her.
17. David takes her to meet his parents, Maddy and Az, who are the original runaways from the city.
18. They explain how the operation does more than “cosmetic nipping and tucking.”
19. It also causes lesions in the brain to make the people placid, or “pretty-minded.” Horrified, Tally decides to keep the Smoke secret and throws the locket into a fire.
20. However, the flames’ heat causes the tracker to activate, giving away the Smoke’s location.
21. The following morning, Special Circumstances arrives at the camp and Tally makes an effort to escape.
22. She does not succeed and is caught and taken to a rabbit pen, where other caught Smokies are kept, tied up.
23. Eye scans are taken of all the captured Smokies, identifying from which city they fled. Tally is then taken to Dr. Cable, who explains how they found the Smoke. Dr. Cable thinks Tally purposefully activated the pendant.
24. After being ordered to retrieve the pendant, Tally escapes on a hoverboard.
25. After a long and stressful chase, she manages to hide in a cave where they cannot track her heat signature.
26. There she finds David also hiding and together, they begin to plan a rescue.
27. Tally and David go back to his house, where they find evidence that Special Circumstances took Maddy and Az.
28. David leads Tally to a secret stash of survival equipment where they find everything they need, and load them onto the four hoverboards stashed there.
29. As Tally and David travel back to the city, they fall in love. Arriving at the Special Circumstances complex, they find out that Shay has already been “turned” and is now a Pretty.
30. After meeting Dr. Cable, David knocks her out and takes her work tablet.
31. Tally and David then free all the Smokies held in the complex. Maddy then mentions to david that Az is dead.
32. Once everyone is safe, Maddy begins working on a cure.
33. Since Tally feels responsible, she decides to become a Pretty and take the cure as a “willing subject”.
34. While David is dealing with what Tally admitted, Maddy advises Tally to go back with Shay before her mind changes just in case.
35. Once there, Tally announces to a Middle Pretty, “I’m Tally Youngblood. Make me pretty.”

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Heart Shaped Pendant
The heart shaped pendant is a tracker and which Tally was supposed to activate as soon as she got to the Smoke. This pendant is not just a symbol of Tally’s treachery, but also a symbol of her internal struggle.
White Tiger Orchids
The white tiger orchids symbolizes an excessive good that has turned evil because there is too much of it. The orchids can be compared to the Pretties.
Hoverboards are a symbol of maturity, mostly for Tally.
Scarred Hands
Scarred hands symbolize friendship, mostly for Tally. The scar itself was created when Peris and she cut their palms and swore to be best friends forever.

Power of Appearance
It is demonstrated that prettiness and ugliness are both relative terms. When Tally was an ugly, she waited for the surgery. However, when she learned that things are not the way they appear to be, she quickly coiled away. The ugly truth under all that prettiness is that undergoing the surgery would mean having brain lesions and part of her former identity erased; most Pretties are gorgeous but have flaws such as vainness. Also, in Tally’s society, appearances are emphasized. As Uglies, they are even encouraged to nickname each other based on physical imperfections, such as “Squint” or “Skinny”. In world with perfect faces, average faces would be considered ugly by comparison. But among Pretties, because there is no comparison, they are constantly unsatisfied and often change their looks on a weekly basis by surgery. It thus implied that in a world where perfection is so easily attainable, people would still soon be unsatisfied and seek for more.


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