3.0 Discussion and Recommendation
3.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Practice
Based on the theory generalship of commander, Tan Sri Tony Fernandes is forming a management team in the company in order to settle down the debt and eventually become a profit earning company. One of the advantages is the clarify level in the decision making process. (Anatasia, 2018) This system sets out a benchmark of which action to be carry and measure of. While the leader have the plan and vision on the company direction, he or she can guide the employees to move together toward the goal. With the cooperation between the employees under the leader, it can remove or least limits the possibility that the organisation have internal conflict. The 250 staffs during 2001 need to work together under Tony lead in order to get out from the difficult situation. Besides that, the leader can also create plan that have a clear objectives and tasks. (Anatasia, 2018) This plan can measure the performance and the progress of the work, then they can understand whether they are doing it in the right way or not. They can also understand the limitation and then improve it. Furthermore, according to Jan Sauermann (2016) study, measuring performance can also improve the productivity then not measure performance. Air Asia can understand the customers’ feedback towards the company performance such like the services and the choice of flights frequency in order to further improve their services and then the competitive ability in the industry.
Besides on the advantages, they may also be some error in this generalship of commander system which is rely on predicting future in order to create a plan. (Anatasia, 2018) The leader will try to evaluate what might happen in the future, which is very difficult because the possibility of the future is varied. Besides that, the leader also need to consider different elements in the company to evaluate the plan in the future which have the ability to fulfill it has increase the difficulty to develop an effective plan. Next, the leadership system may also be inflexible. (Anatasia, 2018) As the plan is usually have established routines which can lead to the slow responses of the organisation to the changes. The set vision and strategy could also limit the potential of new opportunities which because of non-suitable under the vision of the company.
The second theory is moral influence adopt by AirAsia which is form a new culture in the company and the industry and also fulfilling corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the society. AirAsia is trying to provide low cost fly which can be affordable by most of the consumers. This cost leadership strategy helps the company to producing the airline services in a lowest cost possible. One of the advantages by this strategy is higher profitability which is because the cost is lower, the company can get a higher profit margin than other companies. (Hassan, 2015). Another advantage of this strategy is they have more capital in the growth of the company. (Hassan, 2015) The company have save the cost in the production which can allow them to use the fund to invest in other aspect such as improve the product or service quality. Brand differentiation can be one of the benefits for company to adopt CSR. (Forbes, 2012). Doing CSR program can first allow the consumers to have a different opinion about the company itself. As the AirAsia is carry out the charity event which can be used to improve the society.
The disadvantages of the cost leadership strategy is that the company may have a lower quality in customer service to save cost. (Hassan, 2015). This can reduce the number of customers which are more emphasize on good customer service quality. In Dec 2017, one of the complaint by the customers is that the customers keep on getting error pops up while he try to book the ticket online. He also cannot get help from the customer service hotline regarding the problem he faced. Another drawbacks which is lack of potential innovation. (Hassan, 2015). This is because research and development of new product and service need a huge amount of cost which is conflict with the strategy of the company that operate in a lowest cost possible.
The third theory adopted by AirAsia is theory of weather. For this theory, Tony Fernades has use the discount strategy to improve the airline industry in the Southeast Asia region. The advantages of discount is increasing sales in short term. (Miksen, 2018). This is because the discount will attract more customers to the product and services, eventually will buy it because of the lower price. Besides of increase sale, it also lead to meet the sale goals in a short term period. AirAsia also adopt the joint venture strategy to operate the business in other countries such as Indonesia and Thailand. Joint venture can bring benefits such as the both parties can share the resources, risks and costs together in order to success in the corporation. (Moroney, 2016).
The disadvantages for discount strategy is that the focus is shifting to price aspect. (Lee, 2016). Discount will made the customers to focus on the price of different similar product regardless of the quality. The product with the lowest price will tend to be buy by customers. The second disadvantages is that reduce in the profit because the selling price decrease will cut down the profit that can be earn for the particular product. According to Kokemuller (2017), the disadvantages of joint venture strategy can be the different of culture between the two different companies. Both of the AirAsia and the local company need to solve the difference in the management culture as well as the country culture in order to success in the corporation.
The last theory adopted by AirAsia is the terrain theory. Some of the application is that the AirAsia allow customers to online buy tickets to increase the efficiency and save time. The technology used by them can help the customers to buy the ticket at anytime and anywhere with the support of online services. They can also save the time for them to buy the ticket in the airport physically.
The drawbacks of the terrain theory is that they need to use a huge amount of costs when they adopt the digitalisation. They need the capital to research and develop the system that allow the customers to use it. After that, they need to open it for trial and error before they introduce it officially.

3.1 Design
The research paper entails a data gathering procedure to answer an inquiry from the research problem. In this paper, the mixed method design is employed to present stronger and more credible data to the stakeholders and beneficiaries of the research. It is an integration of both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis (Cizek, 1999). Thus, this design provides more evidence, as research is conducted in both the qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Quantitative data is gathered and presented in the form of numbers, whereas qualitative data is presented through words, pictures, descriptions or meanings. According to Johnson and Turner (as cited in Plano Clark & Ivankova, 2015), the mixed method design is a systematic method that brings forth the unification of complementary strengths and non-overlapping weaknesses either of both research designs (Plano Clark & Ivankova, 2015). To gain a deeper understanding of the gathered data concerning the topic of study, the mixed method is utilized to combine statistical data with open-ended information acquired from the two sets of respondents.
The quantitative design aids in congregating the needed data to deduce the attitudes of ABM Senior High School students at the University of Santo Tomas with regards to digital advertising. The quantitative findings focus on the measurable results presented in a summarized manner. Self-administered online survey questionnaires are the basis of the numerical data. On the other hand, the qualitative findings are heavily concentrated on the sentiments and opinions of online sellers among the UST SHS body, whether it is efficient, for them to promote and sell their products in digital platforms or if it subjects them to a lower case of income. The phenomenology qualitative approach is used to gather the opinions of the respondents. In using the triangulation method, surveys are followed-up by in-depth interviews.
For the past years, social science literature generally used mixed method research in such a way that it expanded new knowledge for health and economic-related studies (Creswell and Plano Clark, as cited in Wisdom & Creswell, 2013; Bhattacherjee, 2012). It is acknowledged as an economic-related study because it is concerned with the development of marketing procedures and technologies.
Furthermore, establishing the research methodology shall be based upon the application of the mixed method design with the combination of quantitative and qualitative research design. It aids in the formation of conceptual and theoretical frameworks. The process of analyzing and integrating each data yields an information-rich data that is guaranteed to be feasible.

3.2 Population and Sampling Selection

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Since the study will employ a mixed method research approach, it has two means of garnering the sample for both qualitative and quantitative method of research.
3.2.1 Qualitative Approach
For the qualitative approach, the study will use a non-probability sampling technique specifically, purposive sampling and its target population will be the experts and professionals in the field of digital advertising. On the other hand, the quantitative approach will utilize a probability sampling technique particularly, stratified sampling and its target population will consist of UST Senior High School students under the Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) Strand.
For the reason that the qualitative process will administer Key Informant Interviews, Purposive Sampling was chosen by the proponents of the study. Purposive Sampling is a sampling technique wherein a sample is selected based on the characteristics of a population and the objective of the study (Crossman, 2018). Purposive Sampling was selected due to the study requiring people who practice, research and teach in the field of digital advertising. These may include but are not limited to professors of marketing or advertising, online advertisers, and people working for digital advertising companies. These people were chosen because they have first-hand knowledge and are well-informed regarding the subject matter. From the target population, the researchers will handpick three people who are considered experts and professionals in the field of study and they will serve as the interviewees or the respondents of the study.

3.2.2 Quantitative Approach
In obtaining the sample for the quantitative part of the study, the proponents will make use of the probability sampling technique known as stratified sampling. This is a process used in market research that involves dividing the population of interest into smaller groups, called strata. Samples are then pulled from these stratum, and analysis is performed to make inferences about the greater population of interest (Foley, 2018). The sample will be taken from the population of students under the ABM Strand due to their proximity from the researchers as well as their knowledge and insight regarding the subject matter considering it is related to the field they intend to study in the future. This sampling technique was chosen in order to reduce sampling error and increase statistical precision. Since the ABM Strand is already subdivided into different sections, these sections will serve as each stratum. A random sample proportionate to the size of each strata will be taken.
In order to determine an accurate sample size, Slovin’s Formula will be used. Slovin’s Formula provides the sample size (n) using the known population size (N) and the acceptable error value (e). The resulting value of n equals the sample size to be used (Ellen, 2018).
n= N/(1+Ne^2 )
Upon gathering the data, the respondents are a crucial part in determining the findings of the study. The Slovin’s formula is utilized to calculate the number of sample size when the population is too large and to ensure a reasonable and precise result with regards to its margin of error.

The UST ABM SHS students are roughly estimated to have 1000 students. These students will serve as the population size (N) In generating the error value, it is important to determine what percentage of miscalculation can be allowed to conduct the study. Ninety-five percent is the common level of confidence which will be imparted to determine the margin of error. The margin of error (e) would be 0.05.
n= 1000/(1+(1000*?0.05)?^2 )=278
Following Slovin’s Formula, the sample size results to 278 respondents. The quantitative approach uses surveys wherein a large population tends to be measured but it takes too much time and can be expensive. The researchers shall survey the 278 respondents to have a smaller sample size and acquiring accurate results.

3.3 Study Site
The study will be conducted in the vicinity of the University of Santo Tomas (UST) located in España Blvd, Sampaloc, Manila, 1008 Metro Manila. Since the study’s respondents are Grade 11 and 12 ABM students, these students are housed in different buildings dispersed throughout the university. The eleventh grade ABM students are located within the Blessed Buenaventura Garcia Paredes, O.P. building while the twelfth-grade students are distributed in the different parts of the campus of the University of Santo Tomas namely: the BGPOP building, AMV College of Accountancy Building, Albertus Magnus Building, Fr. Roque Ruaño, O.P. Building, and St. Raymund Peñafort Building.
Figure 1. An illustration of the University of Santo Tomas Campus. Taken from: University of Santo Tomas. (2014, January 09). Campus Map. Photograph. Retrieved from http://www.ust.edu.ph/campus-life/campus-map. Copyright 2016 by University of Santo Tomas

3.4 Instrumentation
A survey-type instrument was designed by the researchers as one of the data collection instruments for this study. Subjects chosen for the interview were the Accounting and Business Management students of the Senior High School department of the University of Santo Tomas. The questions were targeted to evoke responses from the subjects regarding the effects of digital advertising as a stimulator on their behavior towards the products being advertised while being aware that youth of this era pay less attention to traditional advertising such as television commercials (Meyers, 2017) and social media advertisements are more noticed. Questions relating to social media websites or platform, pop-up advertisements as well as promoted products are asked.
The researchers’ survey was formulated using a questionnaire that was used in this study for gathering information. The content of the questionnaire was based on the data collected and the findings of the interview that was conducted with the UST-SHS ABM students as well as on the information from the literature reviewed.
The questionnaire has 10 items. The questions are as follows:
The first part contains the personal information about the respondent
The first 5 items are questions regarding preferred social media platforms, the frequency of having access to such websites, and the mode of access and purchase used.
The remaining items are questions regarding the improvement, benefits, and effectiveness of digital advertising on their behavior. It has 5 items.
The questionnaire was constructed in a multiple-choice fashion consisting of choices closest to the respondent’s answer. Subjects were then mandated to respond regarding their preferred choice among the questions stated in the said survey.
Experts and professionals in this study were also given a separate interview for data collection. An in-depth interview was formulated for the respected subjects with different sets of questions to be answered regarding digital advertising and its effects on students. The subjects were given a three-week notice on the said interview for proper preparation and it was through face-to-face interaction between the researchers and the subjects being interviewed.

3.5 Data Gathering Procedure
For the study, the researchers will gather both primary and secondary data. For the primary data, the researchers will collect firsthand information for the purpose of finding out the effectiveness of digital advertising among UST SHS ABM students. The researchers will administer a survey for the quantitative part wherein the respondents of the study are UST SHS ABM students. Meanwhile, for the qualitative part of the study, the researchers will execute an interview and invite experts and professionals in the field.
On the other hand, the secondary data gathered contains various published documents like journals, books, and theses that the researchers collected from the process of the research.
3.5.1 Primary Data
Quantitative Process
The researchers acknowledge that a survey is an efficacious tool in gathering data. Surveys are inclusive of the types and number of variables that can be studied, entail minimal investment to begin and manage, and are relatively easy for making generalizations (Bell, 1996).
The questions that will be formulated for the questionnaire come from the researchers’ knowledge that they acquired from the information of past researches collected and cited. These questions were then validated and verified by a statistician.
The researchers will use the collective questionnaire because the study’s respondents are Accountancy, Business and Management students only.
To save some time and cut down on expenses, the survey will be administered online through Google Forms. After surveying the ABM students, the gathered data would be tabulated and then analyzed.
Qualitative Process
The researchers perceived conference as one effective material for the study because researchers would obtain important, relevant information from a professional that they interacted and have listened to face to face. The value of interviewing is not only because it forms a holistic snapshot, analyses words, reports detailed views of informants, but it also allows interviewees to speak and express their thoughts and feelings (Berg, 2007 as cited in Alshenqeeti, 2014).
As far as the primary data of the study is concerned, the materials for the interview will come from professionals and experts in the field. The researchers concurred in performing an in-depth interview and structured type, so the flow of the interview would be continuous and will follow the time allotted. The interviewees’ conformity with the interview would be viewed by sending them a letter three weeks advance and getting their approval to be a part of the study.
After writing to the experts and professionals, the researchers will then request an interview appointment before doing the actual interview. The gathered data would ultimately be brought together by having it transcribed and used for further analysis.

3.5.2 Secondary Data
Most of the secondary data sources that will be used in this study were derived from internet sources. Internet sources are easy to find, relevant and prevalent because in one click many data are laid out. Having the Internet for the usage of the public made it known as the information superhighway that there is virtually no subject that cannot be searched on the Internet in one form or another (Kibirige & Depalo, 2000). Some of the journals accustomed in this study came from the online database of the University of Santo Tomas (e.g., JSTOR). The other published documents like journals and thesis were derived from Google Scholar and established sites that focus on just research. The data gathered is utilized for the formulation of questions in the survey and interview.

3.6 Mode of Analysis
3.6.1 Qualitative Approach
For the qualitative data, the deductive approach will be employed by the researchers. This was chosen for it is a more efficient way of analyzing the data compared to the inductive approach. The reason for this is because the deductive approach is aimed at testing the theory rather than generating a new theory. The research questions aforementioned will serve as a guide for grouping and analyzing the data.
After the interview has been conducted, the data has to be transcribed. This is done by converting the data collected to textual form. After transcribing the data, it is going to be arranged in an organized manner for easier analyzation. The research objectives will serve as a guide by classifying the data according to each objective. The data then needs to be transformed into easily understandable concepts through coding. Coding helps in providing the meaning to the data gathered. After coding, the data then needs to be validated. Through validation, the researchers can assess the accuracy of the methods performed as well as the dependability of the results.
3.6.2 Quantitative Approach
In analyzing the quantitative data, the measures of central tendency will be employed. According to Laerd Statistics (2010), a measure of central tendency is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position within that set of data. As such, measures of central tendency are sometimes called measures of central location.
The measures of central tendency were chosen as the statistical tool because it can generalize and summarize the sample by a single typical value. Since the data that is going to be collected from the surveys is nominal, the preferred measure of central tendency will be the mode which provides the most frequent score in the data set or the most commonly occurring value in a distribution. This can determine the overall perception of UST SHS ABM students towards digital advertising since it outlines the most frequently occurring answer for each question in the survey.

3.7 Ethical Consideration
The following ethical guidelines were put into place for the research period:
Informed Consent
Informed Consent is a voluntary agreement to participate in research. It is not merely a form that is signed but is a process, in which the subject has an understanding of the research and its risks. For the in-depth interviews, informed consent will be observed in the letter that is going to be received by the chosen respondents. The letter will provide all the necessary information regarding the study to be conducted and the details of their participation in the interview. This can help them make a well-informed decision of whether they would prefer to be part of the study or not. For the survey questionnaire, since everything from filling up personal information to answering each question will be done online, they will be initially required to read a short description of what the study is about and their role as respondents.
Voluntary Participation
Voluntary participation refers to a human research subject’s exercise of free will in deciding whether to participate in a research activity (Paul, 2008). Throughout the entire data gathering process, the respondents in both the interviews and survey can decline participation or back out anytime they wish to do so.
Confidentiality and Anonymity
To protect its respondents, the study ensures that its researchers will not disclose identifiable information about participants and will try to protect the identity of research participants through various processes designed to anonymize them.

Academic Integrity
The International Center for Academic Integrity defines academic integrity as a commitment to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility (Fishman, 2014). In other words, it incorporates the value of honesty in executing the study, properly acknowledges the work of others and gives credit where the researchers used other people’s ideas as part of presenting their arguments. The proponents of the study assure that all sources are cited properly using the APA format. Quotes are properly identified and designated with quotation marks and works belonging to various sources are meticulously paraphrased.

3.1 explain the importance of measuring the outcomes of using different Social Media tools and channels
Customer feedback is one way to measure the outcome of using social media, by reviewing results you would be able to determine that future marketing / advertising methods are more tailored to fit upcoming new products or campaigns.
In the same way take negative comments and criticism to improve and show that customers are being listed to, this is an excellent way to turn around bad exposure that at least a company will learn by their mistakes.
By evaluating different social media tools you can determine in one method is more effective than another, this is very helpful when it comes to investment for the future marketing expenditure.

3.2 Explain why SMARTER targets should be set for different Social Media tools and channels
SMARTER targets help to determine that you are getting the most out of social media and channels. You should ensure that targets are measurable, you need to be able to look where improvements can be made, and for example check if the number of followers is growing this will either prove that postings are working or you are not hitting the right audience with the line of marketing you are taking.
All targets should be achievable, they should start reasonable and build up to a greater more ambitious goal. Always ensure that whichever method you use that the information is relevant to the business and should always remain professional. Posts on social media should also be uploaded at a good time, it is not SMARTER to post at a time that a good percentage of the public would not be viewing them.

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3.3 describe the methods a business can use to measure and identify success of different Social Media tools and channels
Depending on the type of social media being used there are different ways to measure the success or failure. For example with Facebook the number of comments or likes can be measured to determine how the audience like or dislike a product. Twitter can be monitored by the number of re-tweets are being made or the number of times a hashtag was included, if a company is blogging then check the number of new subscribers or the amount of sharing being carried out. These results should be measured over a defined period of time i.e. monthly or quarterly so that you can make comparisons and plan for future marketing with social media.

3.4 Describe what success could look like when using different Social Media tools and channels for different types and sizes of business

4.1 describe the components of a business’s social media policy and guidelines
In a business’s social media policy and guidelines there will be many components. Some of the main components of a business’s Social Media Policy will vary from company to company. Some key factors to always consider would be to educate. All members of staff need to understand the implication of how social media can effect a business in particular creating a bad reputation. It is important to monitor and be aware of what is being said about your Company. Monitoring correctly allows a response to be sent appropriately and in a timely manner. Lastly a component would be enforcement. Companies must decide how to deal with any violations from their policy and how they will deal with such situations.
4.2 explain the importance of having a social media policy and guidelines
As social media is an ever growing means of communication, business’s need to ensure they clearly set out to all their employees their policy when it comes to social media from either their job role within the company or in their own personal capacity. Without these policies several problems could arise.
Some of these problems could be that the productivity can be reduced and time lost dealing with unsuitable usage of social media and handling any consequences that may occur. A business’s reputation could also be ruined or the wrong sort of exposure could be given. This would result in lack of customer confidence for the service or goods that the business provides hence a drop in sales.
4.3 explain the importance of having a reputation management policy
Any business wants to have a good reputation it is crucial to grow and develop any business. A digital reputation is just as important these days as many people go online to research information or find answers if your company is searched and your online reputation is a negative one then this can have a negative effect on a business’s objectives.
4.4 describe the benefits of managing perception changes in a business’s reputation
Managing perception changes in a business’s reputation has many benefits such as that increased sales. Everyone searches various products, brands or services before they go ahead and place an online order, if the business hasn’t already ran appropriate marketing campaigns to understand exactly what the public are looking for they are not able to offer the right information when people are searching on social media. Be prepared to know what is current and be ready to supply it.
Another benefit would be credibility. People discuss positives and negatives regarding a purchase from a business. Social media allows this discussion to spread fast and to a wide audience. Positive feedback encourages others to go ahead with their purchases so monitor all feedback and deal with appropriately to not allow negativity to hit the company’s reputation.
Lastly another benefit would be recruitment. Every company wants the best staff available to them. Business’s need to remember that key personnel will use social media to research industries if they are being head hunted to look at the reputation, turnover, results, products and brands of that company.
4.5 describe how to manage perception changes in a business’s reputation
You can manage perception changes by advertising, maybe a newsletter is sent to all current customers and potential ones.
Another way is to sign into a “Word Ad Campaign” like google so that your company is viewed when key words are typed in search engines. Associating your brand is very important, it’s a very visual thing to introduce so try to include your company logo on all business documents, emails and social media.
Linking your product to what is “current” is another way to monitor changes, keep in the loop with what is the latest trend or technology, if a celebrity could be linked to your product that is a fantastic way with social media to promote your business.
Feedback from customer should be encouraged as this can only help to improve a service or product, take any criticism as a positive to improve the business.

5.1 explain the importance of knowing how similar businesses or industries are using Social Media
It is very important to know how similar businesses are using social media. It can be very helpful because you can see how and what channels are working best for them. Therefore you know which is most successful and can save time by not trying the wrong route. For example another business in the 3D printing business may post photos of their products or share other companies on social media and gain positive feedback.
It is also important to know how similar businesses are using social media so that you can keep up with the competition. You can analyse how another business is using social media for their service to keep up to date on what your competitors are offering.
Knowing how similar businesses are using social media can also expose influencers who are either discussing a competitor or your own brand. It could bring to light particular influencers who are commentating on your product or a competitor. This gives you an opportunity to make contact with influencers and show why your product is superior to those offered by competitors.

5.2 explain how to monitor the ways similar businesses or industries are using Social Media
5.3 Monitor how a business is using Social Media
When comparing businesses look at the success that they each achieve through social media. Several companies use software to value the results from different social media channels for example Facebook monitor the likes / comments or twitter use the “#” to search and likes to your business.
The next step would be to compare which platforms businesses use and understand why they have picked these particular platforms. Hopefully by using these results you can pick the best social media channel for your business.
Compare the audiences that businesses want to target and engage with and try to relate these findings to your own company. Another way to monitor how a business is using social media is by creating a comprehensive list of search terms relevant to your activities. This way you will find relevant posts to your business.

Facebook can be a good way to monitor a business as they have Facebook analytics. Facebook analytics has a great tool called Facebook Graph Search which can be used to find out what’s working for other brands on Facebook so that you can take the same route.
One way to gather useful information is to search for the interests of people who like a brand’s page. For example if you are searching for Ogle Models, use the search query “interests liked by people who like Ogle Models.” You can also follow these people or pages to increase chance of engagement.

5.4 Identify improvements to a business’s use of Social Media
I believe that any business can have a good social media image. These improvements can be little things such as adding more images or videos to their page. This can make your website or social media channel more appealing and interesting for customers. Other improvements can be made such as using hashtags on certain channels such as Instagram and Twitter. These allow people to find your posts which increases engagement.
It is important to set goals for social media so that you can always make improvements to gain more attention. A good way of doing this is by adding an interesting bio to your profile. This is because it will interest people and encourage them to follow your profile which helps your social media grow.
Other ways to improve social media
• Establish a goal
• Be committed to social media.
• Focus your Efforts
• Have a strategy
• Follow other Leaders.

3.2.1 Phase I: Analysis on previous research

Firstly, analysis on previous research phase is done in order to identify the specification made based on the previous research in building proper studies related to the topic of the project. The collection of data from trusted website such as Kaspersky Lab, MyCert and many more to get current analysis about the Internet of Things (IoT), IoT Issues and taxonomy botnets behavior. There are several important things to highlight such as botnets attacks, DDoS attack types, characteristics of botnets to arrange DDoS attacks, Mirai attacks, Hajime attacks and Machine Learning techniques. All of the domain involved in this project will be discovered first to get the main idea before the project is continued. All the architecture, framework, and structure of the domains will be discovered and the next step will be explained on phase two.

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3.2.2 Phase II: Information Gathering

After all the domains had been discovered, few issues related to the vulnerabilities and threats due to the IoT botnets is identified. During this phase, data obtained is analyzed for categorization and observation before conclude to a certain hypothesis. The limitation of IoT devices’ features had made it easier for intruders to attack in the network, especially by using default username and password. A few attacks that is able to access devices is Mirai and Hajime botnets. The botnet is to establish a DDoS attack in the IoT devices. The DDoS attack is an attempt to make an online service unavailable by overwhelming it with traffic from multiple sources. The statistical machine learning techniques will be used in the project to make better decision for botnets detection.

3.2.3 Phase III: Methodology

During this phase, methodology is the guidelines to produce a sequence of flow to ensure that the project is on the track as in the timeline. This phase will be focusing on the IoT botnets attack that exploit in devices which may positively affect user behavior. In this project, machine learning techniques will be used to detect the IoT botnets easily. However, the current techniques are not efficient for the botnets detection.

3.2.4 Phase IV: Design and Implementation

This phase is usually the longest and most extensive part of the process. Starting from the specification of machine learning requirements that fulfill the users’ needs, continued with decision on suitable machine learning to be used. During the performance of requirement specifications, the data, functional and non-functional requirement is determined. The data requirement indicates what data is input to the system and what output does the techniques should produce.

3.2.5 Phase V: Analysis Result

During this phase, it will be analyzing the data obtained to measure the botnets behavior and also consequence of IoT botnets attack towards user experiences by examining on Linux Operating System. However, the analysis result makes plenty of sense. It explains all of the subproblem symptoms. Most important, the analysis result offers a new way forward that, if the root causes are anywhere close to correct, will work.
3.2.6 Phase VI: Testing and Evaluation

During the testing phase, it mainly focuses in order to define the quality of the expected output. Moreover, testing of the technique proves that the project meets all requirements and objectives, including those for efficiency and effectiveness. If the user evaluates the techniques and the user is not satisfied with it, the current techniques is refined according to the requirements and the additional information provided by user. This process is done continuously until the machine learning techniques is able to fulfill every requirement stated by the user.

3. Research Methodology:
3.1. Data collection and sampling: This study used the secondary data which is collected from the listed company’s data of Pakistan stock exchange and annual reports published at State bank of Pakistan. Secondary data is the data which is already used in some other research work. The data is collected from the period of 2007-2016.
3.2 Statistical Techniques:
We use multiple regression and descriptive statistics to check the behavior of the variables and to check the impact of dividend policy on shareholder’s wealth.
3.3 Data analysis:
3.3.1 Descriptive Statistics:

Mean 12.35774 0.054559 20.38750 444.3725
Median 3.500000 0.036767 8.880000 108.5400
Maximum 368.9700 0.874738 261.2300 9300.000
Minimum 0.000000 0.000000 -19.69000 0.000000
Std. Dev. 29.80637 0.077043 36.68591 1366.195
Skewness 7.177092 5.562314 3.582715 5.109000
Kurtosis 75.25872 51.61312 18.16733 29.50858

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Jarque-Bera 66711.37 30465.66 3458.770 9920.755
Probability 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000

Sum 3645.533 16.04038 6014.313 131089.9
Sum Sq. Dev. 261195.4 1.739138 395681.6 5.49E+08

Observations 295 294 295 295

Table reveals the descriptive statistics with their mean, median and standard deviation of all variables. The mean value of market value is the highest 444.3725, while next to this is mean of earning per share is 38750. Dividend yield has minimum mean value of 0.05. Standard deviation reveals the volatility in the data. Earning per share has highest standard deviation which shows that the great volatility in market value case by earning per share in KSE-30 index
3.3.2 Covariance Analysis:

DIVIDEND_PER_SHARE 888.0608 0.444264 645.5451 18984.11
DIVIDEND_YIELD 0.444264 0.005915 -0.031726 -11.93440
EARNING_PER_SHARE 645.5451 -0.031726 1344.656 41277.77
SHARE_PRICE 18984.11 -11.93440 41277.77 1865816.

DIVIDEND_PER_SHARE 888.0608 0.444264 645.5451 18984.11
DIVIDEND_YIELD 0.444264 0.005915 -0.031726 -11.93440
EARNING_PER_SHARE 645.5451 -0.031726 1344.656 41277.77
SHARE_PRICE 18984.11 -11.93440 41277.77 1865816.
Eps has negative relation with dividend yield -0.031726 and has positive relation with dividend per share 645.5451. Share price has positive relation with dividend per share 18984.11 and negative relation with dividend yield -11.93440

3.3.3 Correlation Analysis:

DIVIDEND_YIELD 0.193833 1.000000
EARNING_PER_SHARE 0.590744 -0.011249 1.000000
SHARE_PRICE 0.466374 -0.113599 0.824093 1.000000

Eps has weak negative relation with dividend yield -1% and has positive moderate relation with dividend per share 59%. Share price has positive moderate relation with dividend per share 47% and weak negative relation with dividend yield -11%

3.3.4 Regression Analysis:

Dependent Variable: SHARE_PRICE
Method: Least Squares
Date: 05/07/18 Time: 13:06
Sample: 1 296
Included observations: 294

Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.

C -79.86480 60.39000 -1.322484 0.1870
DIVIDEND_PER_SHARE 0.034825 1.917458 0.018162 0.9855
DIVIDEND_YIELD -1855.804 599.4859 -3.095659 0.0022
EARNING_PER_SHARE 30.63713 1.528810 20.03986 0.0000

R-squared 0.690015 Mean dependent var 445.8839
Adjusted R-squared 0.686809 S.D. dependent var 1368.278
S.E. of regression 765.7362 Akaike info criterion 16.13306
Sum squared resid 1.70E+08 Schwarz criterion 16.18318
Log likelihood -2367.560 Hannan-Quinn criter. 16.15313
F-statistic 215.1767 Durbin-Watson stat 0.859180
Prob(F-statistic) 0.000000

Adjusted R-Squared is 69% which is showing there is relationship between dependent variable Share price and independent dividend yield and dividend per share.
The regression coefficient results indicating that EPS is highly elastic because 1% change in this variable case 30.63% change in share price respectively.
4. Result and conclusion:
I have conducted the research to examine the relationship between dividend policy on shareholder’s wealth of the multiple industries. For this study I have selected the sample of 30 listed companies of Pakistan Stock exchange. The data is collected for the period of 10 years from the year 2007 – 2016. The results are concluded by applying descriptive statistics and regression analysis between the dividend policy and shareholder’s wealth. From the results we concluded that dividend per share and earnings per share has a significant positive relationship with shareholder’s wealth while dividend yield has not a significant relationship with share price and earning per share which shows dividend per share are positively correlated with shareholder’ wealth.
The major objective of this research is to investigate the influence of dividend policy on firm’s performance and shareholders’ wealth. The total 51 companies from PSX index were sampled for the time period 2006–2015 by employing common constant effect model. Regression results state that dividend policy is positively linked with earning per share and share price. Based on the result, these variables of shareholders wealth are consistent with the bird in hand theory and clientele effect theory. Results obtained for dividend policy are consistent with signaling effect theory.

The quality system should be flexible leads naturally on to a description of how quality system work. The Heart of the quality assurance is called as quality system or as it is increasingly known as a quality management system. This consists of the management structure, responsibilities, activities, capabilities and resources that ensure that software products produces by projects will have the desired quality factors that both the customer and the developer decide will be built into them. This means that a quality system encompasses activities such as
? The auditing of projects to ensure that quality controls are being adhered to.
? The review of the quality system in order to improve it.
? Staff development of personnel employed within the quality assurance area.
? The negotiation of resources which enables staff who carry our quality assurance activities to function properly.
? Providing input into development-oriented improvement activities; for example the adoption of a new notation for requirements specification.
? The development of standards, procedure and guidelines.

3. The Working principle of Electronic Weight Scale
Electronic weight scale are equipped with electronic measuring components. The electronic weighing scales operate based on the following principle that is the force exerted by the load situated on the balance pan is transmitted to the load cell which in turn emits an electric signal whose intensity is proportional with the force. The electrical signal is picked up by the electronic balance block , processed , amplified and transmitted to a digital display system that is digital mass indicator, the result show will representing the weight of the mass located on the load pan. A very common solution is to use strain gauges (strain-sensitive transducers). These commercial weighing devices with low resolution were generally used. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to balance for temperature changes .When the pan is not loaded by any object, all four resistors are the same and the input of the amplifier will be zero. When an object is placed on the pan R4 and R1 are compacted and their resistance will decrease , R2 and R3 are strained and their resistance is increse. This because a voltage difference at the input of the amplifier, proportional to the weight of the object. The strain gauges are wired as a `Wheatstone-bridge` to compensate for temperature changes . Figure below show the diagram of electronic weight scale with strain gauge.

1 : Spring body
2 : Weighing pan
3 : Mounting plate
4 : Placing and wiring of the strain gauges
Some of the advantages of electronic/digital weight scale are the plain fact that digital scales are considerably effortless to read. Besides, electronic weight scale will give more precision of reading value. Here are some disadvantages to electronic/digital scales, most likely the very regular one being incorrect readings. Several people have criticising that when they stand on the scale at one spot and obtain a reading and when they get back after few seconds they get a different reading altogether. Commonly , digital scales are good but it wil be worn after a regular used. This instrument need to calibrate after years to get better accuracy.

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3. Working principle of Electronic Weight Scale
Electronic weight scale are equipped with electronic measuring modules. The electronic weighing machines operate based on the following principle: the force exerted by the load situated on the balance pan is transmitted to the load cell (one or more) which in turn emits an electric signal whose intensity is proportional with the force. The electrical signal is picked up by the electronic balance block, processed, amplified and transmitted to a digital display system (digital mass indicator), the result representing the weight of the mass located on the load pan. A very common solution is to use strain gauges (strain-sensitive transducers). These are generally used for commercial weighing devices with low resolution. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to balance for temperature changes .When the system is not loaded all four resistors are the same and the input of the amplifier is zero. When an object is placed on the pan R4 and R1 are compacted and their resistance decreasing, R2 and R3 are strained and their resistance is increasing. This becauses a voltage difference at the input of the amplifier, proportional to the weight of the object. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to compensate for temperature changes .

1 : Spring body
2 : Weighing pan
3 : Mounting plate (housing)
4 : Placing and wiring of the strain gauges (R3 and R4 can also be placed on the under side of the beam)

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The advantages of electronic/digital weight scale are the plain fact that digital scales are considerably effortless to read. Besides, electronic weight scale will give more accuracy of reading value. Here are some disadvantages to electronic/digital scales, most likely the very regular one being incorrect readings. Several people have complained that when they stand on the scale at one spot and obtain a reading and when they get back after few seconds they get a different reading altogether. Normally, digital scales are good if just anyone make use of it since the mechanism could become worn out after regular use. This instrument need to calibrate after years to get better accuracy.


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