2.1 Development of Solutions to Work related problemsIn a work related practical context there are different types of problems may be aroused and by how an organisation overcome these problems is the major question in today’s business. So, problem solving methods related to a specific work are:
Define the problem: Problem identification is the first steps to deals with a work related problems (Marsick and Watkins, 2015). Identification of the problem is considered as half done of the problem, so for this some company has establish a separate department for identifying the problem specifically. In case of poor service to the customer is the problem in a service company.
Measure the problem: In case of the Orchavil Company if the poor service provided, what are the possible consequences for that, measure these to solve immediately.

Analysis the problem: For a problem there might be different possible solutions, which is the best for the problem, identify by analysing which solutions are come from different segments of the company in case of improving the performance management should focus on the monitoring, training of the employee, supervising them are the possible solutions.Improve the options of performance: There have many possible solutions for the problems. The next step is to evaluate all the solutions, which is best for the organisation for maximising the goals and objectives. In this case training of the employee is the best action to enhance the performance of the employee.

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Control: After analysing all the solutions, then come the questions of implementation of the solution and control thereof. In an effective and efficient way of training the cost, time, equality and diversity of the training, job rotation, mentoring and supervising, is higher for training but it is more effective and fruitful for the service type company and control of the training process.

In solving the problem many methods are used in different organisation, these are:
Training: It is the most pragmatic and effective to solve the specific problem in a organisation, like Orchavil. Is is very costly and time consuming.

Job rotation : It is used in the intra organisation to change the position of the employee for better performance of the same level employee it only be used for the same level and may create frustration to the employee.

Mentoring: It is the guiding the employee for better performance and quality appraisal, it is not applicable to the entire employee.

Supervision: for solving the problem guiding the entire employee to improve the quality and supervise the employee to do the job or solve the problem properly, it is the best way to solve the problem in case of Orchavil, for the cost and effectiveness.

4.2 Case study to develop solution for resolving the problem
A problem which is specified early is called definite problem, different strategies are used to solve these definite problem by different company (Sekaran and Bougie, 2016). Firstly a company can analyse the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of the proposed opportunity, then can choose best one which is fitted for the organisational goals and objectives. Training is the best method to solve the problem and gain long run success of the company of Orchavil Company. In case of service department poor performance and hence the profitability of the Orchavil is reduced in a significant level, so for this training of the employees is the best for them. Is is the most effective way to reach the goals in a effectively and efficiently but costly and time consuming. In organisation like orchavil can use training to solve the work related problem of specific area. Mentoring, supervising and other method may applicable but it more suitable sacrificing the cost and time. Identification of the problem properly basically defines the strategy, which is best for the problem. If strategic analysis is applied to the problem also the strategic solutions automatically come. After identify the problem strategically the next step is to brain storming all the possible alternatives, analysis all the solutions, which are best for the company’s goals. Then the next step is to implement the chosen solution into action, there are some question about the ability of the employee of the organisation. If employees are efficient the outcome of the solution might be better, if they are not efficient and knowledgeable, give guidance and training to implement the solutions of definite problem.

Figure: Steps to solve a definite problem
Source: Hayes, (2013). 
2.2 Various Styles and manner of Communication at different Levels of organisationIn the present business situation efficient communicative business are being success, if a company can’t communicate properly it may result break down of the company. There are different types of communication styles in different segments of the organisation are:
Down-ward: In this communication process all the command come from the top level employee in the organisation so in this case the dependability is less, compliance and active are high, empowerment is given to the employee. Speed and empowerment may be slow.

Up-ward communication: It is the communication process that is driven by the employee to the top level, so in this case empowerment, compliance may high but dependability, not interest, rivalry. And conflict of interest among the employee.

Horizontal communication: It is a process of communication of the same level employee in the organisation, in this case speed, active, compliance and dependability is high but not interest and rivalry.

Diagonal communication: In a diagonal communication all the party can communicate to each other, so in this process, action, speed of the decision, empowerment, and compliance are high but not interest. So in the case of the company like Orchavil company can use diagonal process of communication to meet the problem quickly and effectively.

Figure: Communication StyleSource: Author
There are many types of effective communication, use of email, memorandum, notice board, poster, sign and signal, telephone and modern technology. For providing better service Orchavil can use modern technology to survive in the market and creation of customer value.

4.1 Evaluation of Methods and Tools for developing of solutions to problemProblems are the main issues which accelerate invention of solutions of new one, when a problem arises there might be different types of solutions, and then the question comes of analysing the solutions and selecting the best one, so the process are:
Identification of attribute to the problem: There are many types of attribute of a problem, identify of these, by which a solution may be developed (Chung, Nixon and Mylopoulos, 2012).

Identification of possible causes: What are the possible causes of the problems, if causes are identified properly then the solutions are comes automatically.

Take the problems more than one perspective: For a problem, there are various types of causes. So, see the problems in different perspectives for solving different related problems.

Collect maximum information: Much related information about a problem helps to solve the problem in an efficient way.

Expansion of the problems boundary: This deals with the impact of the problem in the future and what are the best answer for the problem.

Think outside the solution box: Broadly thinking about the problem beyond the boundary of the problem and other segments.

4.3 Potential Impacts of implementing a strategy on businessTo implement a strategy in business there might be different types of impact from different perspectives
Knowledge insufficiency: Employee knowledge of the problem is directly related to the strategy.

Not ready: A readiness of implementing a strategic plan is an impact on the business, which may change the business.

Costly Strategic planning: a strategic plan might be costly for a company, which may have great impact on the profit of the organisation.

No need: In many times it is seen that a company try to implement a strategy only for competition, which basically not good for the company.

Fear of business failure: The entire strategic plan may not be successful in some cases.

Threats of the new planning: Meaning a new strategic plan may create new threats for the company.

Capabilities and competencies: Incapability to implement a strategic plan may cause huge expense, so capability and efficiency must be considered for the plan.

Overconfidence: A strategic plan may create overconfidence to the employee which may bring disaster.

Bad experience: If a company has bad experience to implement a prior strategy, then it is considered for a plan.

Resistance to change: For implementing a strategic plan, a company has to change some sorts of the organisational context, which may be threats for the company.

2. 2. Reagents, materials and real samples
Olive biosorbent (OB): Olive tree legs and green leaves were cut to small particle size then washing with water, drying at 250 ?C and blending using food blender. Carboxy olive biosorbent (COB) preparation: 100 g of OB with 80 mL of concentrated HNO3 were heating in a beaker until brown foams finished, then washing with distilled water and methanol then drier at 80 ?C.
Olive/oleic bio-alkyd resin (OOBAR) Preparation: A 85 g of oleic acid with 28 g of glycerol were heated for 6 h. Then the product was heated with 15 g biosorbent 6 h, followed by adding 15 g of phthalic anhydride then heated 6 h. The final product was washed with distilled water then methanol and left to dry at room temperature then blending and sifting at 355 µm (0.0355 cm).
Molybdenum stock solution (1 g/L) preparation: 0.185 g of (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O was dissolved in distilled water to 100 mL.
Vitamins drugs stock solutions: 1.217 g Vitayami for the deficiency of iron and vitamins tablets which contain (Cu: 1000 mcg; Fe: 30 mg: Mn: 2.5 mg: Mo: 15 mcg) and other content (Multi-Apex for Pharmaceutical Industries, Badr City – Cairo – Egypt), 1.067 g V2 plus multivitamins and minerals capsules which contain (Mo: 0.2 mg; Cu: 1 mg: Mn: 1 mg: Fe: 10 mg) and other content (Pharco pharmaceuticals, Alexandria – Egypt), 1.299 g Vitamax plus dietary supplements capsules which contain (Cu: 2 mg: Fe: 9 mg; Mn: 5 mg; Mo: 30 mcg) and other content (El Salam City – Cairo – Egypt) and 1.67 g Vitona plus energized and biotonic capsules which contain (Fe: 14 mg; Cu: 2 mg; Mn: 2.5 mg; Mo: 0.186 mg) and other contents (Egyptian Int. Pharmaceutical Industries CO, E. I. P. CO, 10th of Ramadan City – Egypt) were prepared by dissolving of each one in aqua regia and gently evaporated several times till dryness and removing any excess of them. The residual was dissolved in distilled water to 100 mL in a measuring flask containing 1mL of concentrated HNO3.
The tissue of lever mice stock solution: A 0.5 g of liver tissue spiked with Mo nanoparticle (0.25 mg) was prepared by dissolving in aqua regia and gently evaporated several times till dryness and removing any excess of them. The residual was dissolved in distilled water to 10 mL in a measuring flask containing 1mL of concentrated HNO3.

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

2.2. Definition of human trafficking
According to the statement on trafficking the protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, also known as the Palermo Protocol (Art. 3a UN, 2000) provides definition that could be universally applicable states as:
“Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs”.
As Gurnam Singh and Harbilas Singh (2013) cited in the US Department of State in its documents ‘Trafficking in Persons Report’ (2010) uses the term, “trafficking in persons” for “activities involved when one person obtains or holds another person in compelled service. (US Department of State, 2010: NP), “using a number of different terms such as involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage, and forced labour. The US State Department, further, says that: …a person may be a trafficking victim regardless of whether they once consented, participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked, were transported into the exploitative situation, or were simply born into a state of servitude. At the heart of this phenomenon are the numerous forms of enslavement not the activities involved in international transportation (2010: NP).
International Organization for Migration (IOM) defines trafficking in migrants as an act when the following conditions were met. According to the statement of (IOM); An international border is crossed, departure, transit, entry or stay of a migrant is illegal; an intermediary or the trafficker is involved in the movement of the migrant providing services, such as supplying counterfeit identity documents, official or unofficial transportation and introduction into the illegal labour market in the destination country. The trafficker profits from such activities and that the transaction is voluntary, other than in cases of (Yussouf, 2008: 173).
According to the definition given, trafficking not only involves force to abduct a victim which in most cases, considered to commit by illegal individuals but also applies complex means of deception. Although the work of PEAs in Ethiopia is officially considered as worker supply through legal recruitment means, there are cases where the agencies engage in illicit recruitment and travel processes by receiving payments that is prohibited in the proclamation 632/2009. The domestic workers fall under various kinds of exploitations in the destination countries by their employers.
2.4. Human Trafficking Vs Human Smuggling
There is a general misconception that human trafficking and the smuggling of persons and illegal immigration are the same issue. The definition of human trafficking provided by the separate UN protocol on that phenomenon one can identify a number of distinguishing elements. First, trafficking necessities the threat of, use force, coercion, or deception against victims; however, smuggling migrants who have been smuggled have voluntarily consented to their smuggler; moreover, victims of trafficking have not consented or, if they have initially consented, the consent has been rendered meaningless given the abusive coercive or deceptive action of the trafficker. Second, smuggling necessities the crossing of international borders, but human trafficking can take place both across international borders, and within the state (Wegayehu, 2014).
According to Union Council Framework Decision on Combating Human Trafficking, there are three basic differences between human smuggling and human trafficking as summarized below:
2.4.1. Source of Benefit: The primary source of profit and thus the primary purpose of human trafficking is exploitation. In contrast, smugglers generate their profit through facilitating illegal entry or stay. After reaching destination country, the relationship between migrant and smuggler usually ends.
2.4.2. Trans-nationality: Migrant smuggling always has a trans-national dimension involving at least two countries. However, in case of trafficking it can be within the borders of a particular state.
2.4.3. Victimization: Smuggling does not necessarily involve the victimization of the migrant. Migrant smuggled generally consent to the smuggled. In contrast, victims of trafficking have either never consented or if they have given initial consent it became meaningless by the means by which the trafficker had gained control over the victim such as deception or violence. Smuggled person is part of crime and trafficked person is victim of crime (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010)
Figure, 2 the difference between human trafficking and smuggling

(Source own drawing from literature, 2018)
2.5. Components of trafficking and forced labour
According to International Labour Organization (2011), Trafficking in Persons Overseas for Labour Purposes state trafficking in persons consists of three essential components:
1. Recruitment: by force or deception;
2. Transportation: within a country or across borders, legally or illegally, and
3. Exploitation: traffickers financially benefit through the use or sale of the victim.

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2. Experimental
2. 1. Apparatus
The JASCO FTIR-4100 spectrometer in the 4000–400 cm-1 regions by using KBr disc (KBr pellet) was performed the characterization of olive bio-alkyd resin. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate ((NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O) absorbance measurements were demonstrated by using JASCO (V-630 UV-VIS Spectrophotometer, Japan) at ?max 485. Bulk DC conductivity was established using Keithley, 6517B electrometer-high resistance meter after pressing OOBAR disk by a Hydraulic press at 12 tons. Dynamic technique for chromatographic separation experiments was carried out by using a glass column with a bed height of 15 cm approximately that contained 9.5 g of OOBAR was 35 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter.

2. 2. Reagents, materials and real samples
Olive biosorbent (OB): Olive tree legs and green leaves were cut to small particle size followed by washing with water, drying at 250 ?C and blending using food blender. Carboxy olive biosorbent (COB) preparation: 100 g of OB with 80 mL of concentrated HNO3 were heating in a beaker until brown foams finished, then washing with distilled water and methanol then drier at 80 ?C.

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2.5.1. Recruitment
Research Conducted by Play Therapy Africa Ltd (2011), state on how people enter the process of trafficking through recruitment by other people as follow:
“According to them, most are lured into the process by a false promise of an opportunity, deceived by misinformation or lies, or pushed by need or desperation. In some cases, victims are aware that they are to be employed in a given activity but do not know the conditions in which they were working. In other situations, victims were coerced, in extreme cases abducted. The recruitment also made by families, relatives, friends, neighbors, brokers, or recruitment agencies”.
2.5.2. Transportation
Once the victims are recruited, they are transported from one town, area, or country to another. This may involve someone or a group of people to facilitate and arrange the movement, provide for false travel documents and shelter along the way. There are instances where corrupt border guards, immigration or law enforcement personnel and officials are also involved. Transport providers may or may not know the nature of their cargo (International Labour Organization, 2011).
2.5.3. Exploitation
Research Conducted by Play Therapy Africa Ltd (2011), state exploitation in the following way:
“The main purpose of recruiting and transporting victims in this case, is to exploit them by engaging them, for instance, into prostitution, domestic servitude, forced labour, and, in some instances for body organs removal. In most cases, the main purpose is thus to profit from the exploitation of labour. The notion of exploitation of labour allows a link to establish between the Palermo Protocol and the ILO Convention No. 29 on Forced Labour. Article two, paragraph 1 of the latter Convention defines ‘forced or compulsory labour’ as “all work or service, which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which they said person has not offered himself voluntarily”.
They furthermore they added that, most employers feel they own the migrant workers because they paid for the recruitment and any other related fees, just as if they own any other property they have paid for. The lack of social and legal protection in the destination countries gives traffickers and employers power over trafficked victims. This power exercised through physical, emotional and sexual abuse and threat (International Labour Organization, 2011).

2.4 Applications of Cellulose Nanoparticles

Evolution of materials based on CNCs with indulging properties and their ability to be modified makes it flexible to be used in a wide array of applications in our daily lives.

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2.4.1 Bio-based applications

Cellulose nanocrystals can be used as an antibacterial agent when properly derivatized. Common method used is by hydrolysing cellulose in strong acids, such as sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid reacts with the surface of cellulose comprising of hydroxyl groups and produces sulphate ions, which then improve the colloidal stability. Due to the presence of negative charged surface, it also enables the conjugation of sulphated CNCs with cationic biomolecules through electrostatic interactions (Sunasee et al., 2016). As a result, CNCs could be further modified and tailored for highly desirable biological applications.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is known for its antibacterial properties. It is widely used for water purification (Dankovich & Gray, 2011), food preservation (Mohammed Fayaz et al., 2009), wound dressing (Rujitanaroj et al., 2008) and cosmetics (Kokura et al., 2010). It also has low toxicity, high thermal stability and low volatility (Durán et al., 2007; Z. Shi et al., 2015). CNC modified with AgNPs can be used to inhibit viral infection However, they tend to clump together when introduced to aqueous solution (Sunasee et al., 2016). To ensure that the nanoparticles are stable in the CNC matrix, the surface of CNC need to be modified (Z. Shi et al., 2015). To enable the adsorption for most metallic nanoparticles is enabled.

Besides AgNPs, rosins are used to bind with CNCs. Rosin and its derivatives have been utilised in paper sizing agents, emulsifiers, surface coatings, chewing gums, insulating materials, additives for printing inks and microencapsulating materials (de Castro et al., 2016; Lee & Hong, 2002; Mandaogade et al., 2002; Wilbon et al., 2013). The preparation of an antimicrobial CNC by grafting rosin on its surface is reported by Castro et al. (2016). They tested the rosin modified CNC for its antimicrobial properties on E. coli and B. subtilis. A promising result against the Gram-positive B. subtilis is observed. However, it was less effective against the Gram-negative E. coli due to different interactions of their cell walls.

Porphyrin functionalised cellulose nanocrystals can also be used in photobacterial applications. When porphyrin is exposed to white light, it makes a singlet oxygen which can be an effective bactericide (Grishkewich et al., 2017). The advantage of a covalently bonded porphyrin to the surface of CNCs is that it will be able to add a longer lasting or permanent antimicrobial properties to the cellulose and reduce the leaching of biocidal agent towards the environment (Feese et al., 2011). These modified porphyrin CNCs could be applied as photobactericide on fabrics, coatings, papers, food packaging and healthcare products (Grishkewich et al., 2017)

2.4.2 Drug delivery

Common forms of nanocellulose-based drug carriers can be mainly divided into microparticles, hydrogels and membrane films (Lin & Dufresne, 2014). The presence of CNC in alginate-based microparticles showed a more consistent swelling patterns, better encapsulation efficiency and a sustained release profile of the drug.

Charged particles such as ion-exchange resins are favourable because they can bind to acidic or basic drugs that release at an extremely fast rate due to the presence of their counterions in the body fluid (Lam et al., 2012). For example, chitosan contains amine groups in its structure. It is often used as in the drug delivery system because the amine groups can bind strongly to the negatively charged drugs, such as antisense and oligonucleotides once protonated (Lam et al., 2012). CNC is still being tested as a possible nanomaterial for targeted drug delivery on account of its outstanding physical properties suitable for internalisation within the cells.
2.4.3 Photonics

Nanocellulose is suitable for photonic applications due to the liquid crystalline behaviour of CNCs which gives rise to iridescent films of defined optical character (Abitbol et al., 2016). CNCs can form chiral nematic, iridescent coloured films simply by evaporation of aqueous suspension (Abitbol et al., 2016; Mu & Gray, 2014, 2015). Besides that, nanocellulose can be made compatible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, acting as a host for optically active nanoparticles (Abitbol et al., 2016).

2.5 Treatment of Nanocellulose

Treatment of cellulose fibres boost accessibility, increase inner surface, improve crystallinity, breaks hydrogen bond and stimulates reactivity of cellulose (Kargarzadeh et al., 2017; Khalil et al., 2014; Šturcová et al., 2005). It is a crucial modification step as it can alter the structural organization, crystallinity and polymorphism of cellulose (Kargarzadeh et al., 2017; Mariano et al., 2014).

2.5.1 Grinding

Grinding is a treatment that breaks down cellulose into nanosized fibres (Abdul Khalil et al., 2014). The objective of a fibrillation mechanism in grinder is to separate the hydrogen bonds and cell wall by shear forces (Khalil et al., 2014; Siró & Plackett, 2010). Lignocellulosic biomass such as plants are composed of complex and rigid cell walls which must be repeatedly ground to achieve uniform-sized nanofibrils (Iwamoto et al., 2007; Nair et al., 2014).

2.5.2 Alkali treatment

In an alkali treatment, cellulose fibres are exposed to concentrated strong base such as sodium hydroxide solution (Acharya et al., 2011; Majeed et al., 2013; Ng et al., 2015). The main purpose of this treatment is to eliminate certain amount of hemicellulose and other contaminants covering the exterior cell wall (Littunen et al., 2013; Ng et al., 2015; Zainuddin et al., 2013).

Removal of hemicellulose along with hydroxyl groups of fibres ensures a production of finer fibrillar structures with new reactive sites (Ng et al., 2015), resulting in a better interfacial adhesion between the fibres and polymer matrix (Hernandez & Rosa, 2016). Moreover, the alkalization of cellulosic materials induce crystallinity (Majeed et al., 2013; Ng et al., 2015), decrease surface tension (Hernandez & Rosa, 2016) and elevate the number functional sites (Hernandez & Rosa, 2016; X. Li et al., 2007).

2.5.3 Bleaching

Bleaching removes residual materials, mainly lignin (Ng et al., 2015; Panaitescu et al., 2013; J. Shi et al., 2011). It is often repeated to ensure lignin is completely removed. The removal of components from fibres affect their thermal stability and the end-product directly since the cellulose will be more accessible to acid attack during the subsequent treatment (Chen et al., 2015; Malucelli et al., 2017; Q. Wang et al., 2014; X. Wang et al., 2014). However, chemicals involved in bleaching, such as hydrogen peroxide, is dangerous and harmful to the environment (Malucelli et al., 2017).

2.6 Ammonium persulfate (APS) oxidation

Ammonium persulfate is a chemical that is widely-used as a strong oxidising agent in polymer chemistry and as a cleaning or bleaching agent (Mascheroni et al., 2016). It is an oxidant with low long-term toxicity, high water solubility and low cost (Leung et al., 2011).

Cellulose nanocrystals produced through APS oxidation have shown higher charge densities, crystallinity, clarity of solution, leading to improved transparency of the coating (Mascheroni et al., 2016). This is attributed to the carboxylate groups formed during the process which are effective in binding with metal ion-exchange reaction(Ifuku et al., 2009; Lu et al., 2016; Matsumoto et al., 2006; Saito & Isogai, 2005)

APS treatment is able to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and other non-cellulosic contents because of free radicals formed during heating. Hydrogen peroxide is also formed under acidic conditions (pH 1.0). Both SO4- and HSO4- aid in breaking down the amorphous region, isolating CNCs as well as decolourising and isolating the material by opening the aromatic rings of lignin (Leung et al., 2011). Carboxylate cellulose nanocrystals can be used as coatings for high-performance and sustainable flexible packaging materials (F. Li et al., 2013; Mascheroni et al., 2016)

S2O82- + heat 2SO4-
S2O82- + 2H2O 2HSO4- + H2O2
.

x

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