5.1. RecruitmentResearch Conducted by Play Therapy Africa Ltd (2011), state on how people enter the process of trafficking through recruitment by other people as follow: “According to them, most are lured into the process by a false promise of an opportunity, deceived by misinformation or lies, or pushed by need or desperation. In some cases, victims are aware that they are to be employed in a given activity but do not know the conditions in which they were working.
In other situations, victims were coerced, in extreme cases abducted. The recruitment also made by families, relatives, friends, neighbors, brokers, or recruitment agencies”. 2.5.2. TransportationOnce the victims are recruited, they are transported from one town, area, or country to another. This may involve someone or a group of people to facilitate and arrange the movement, provide for false travel documents and shelter along the way.
There are instances where corrupt border guards, immigration or law enforcement personnel and officials are also involved. Transport providers may or may not know the nature of their cargo (International Labour Organization, 2011).2.5.3. ExploitationResearch Conducted by Play Therapy Africa Ltd (2011), state exploitation in the following way: “The main purpose of recruiting and transporting victims in this case, is to exploit them by engaging them, for instance, into prostitution, domestic servitude, forced labour, and, in some instances for body organs removal.
In most cases, the main purpose is thus to profit from the exploitation of labour. The notion of exploitation of labour allows a link to establish between the Palermo Protocol and the ILO Convention No. 29 on Forced Labour. Article two, paragraph 1 of the latter Convention defines ‘forced or compulsory labour’ as “all work or service, which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which they said person has not offered himself voluntarily”. They furthermore they added that, most employers feel they own the migrant workers because they paid for the recruitment and any other related fees, just as if they own any other property they have paid for.
The lack of social and legal protection in the destination countries gives traffickers and employers power over trafficked victims. This power exercised through physical, emotional and sexual abuse and threat (International Labour Organization, 2011).