2.8. Human Trafficking In Africa
A review of existing literature indicates that individual characteristics such as gender, socio economic status education, employment and personal aspiration related to an individual’s lively of being trafficked. The first evidenced of UN employment came not from statistical data but from reports about the appearance in various towns of people who obviously has no jobs. They came in increasing numbers, and lived in shantytowns in desperation and poverty. Street children as beggary who simply work on the stretch but are without families or homes are increasing in number in substandard Africa major cites irregular migration as well as trafficking young boy’s and girl’s was stimulated and indemnified by worsening youth unemployment and rapidly deteriorating socio economic condition and poverty (Annan, 2006)
The research reviewed focuses primarily on how the economic environment in people’s home communities contributes to their vulnerability to trafficking. However, some mention of other community or environmental characteristics may be important. This includes the lack of protected services for children trading to escape an abusive home, employer, or early marriage (Masudi, 2001). The vulnerability of working and abusive home, employer may be compounded by the fed and sometimes inability to reform home or to access support after migrating.
2.9. Causes of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia
As Gudetu (2013) state the cause of human trafficking states as it was the corrupt mode of human migration. Human migration cannot stop, but human trafficking can be. Even if there is no single country that succeeded in stopping human trafficking. Women’s unemployment and underemployment could partially be associated to their low level of education, and it encourages the process of human trafficking. It is an overt truth that women’s educational attainment was directly related to their better status in the society. As it can also be observed from the profile, of labour and social affair of Dodola woreda the number of the educational attainment of women out-migrates is low. Hence, poverty because of poor employment and unemployment is one area that exposed women to trafficking. Dishonest agents who claim to have established contacts with employers oversees process trafficking. These agents were place victims of trafficking in exploitative conditions (Gudatu, 2013:239).
Economic factors are also causes of migration to the Middle East. Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (2014), Fransen & Kuschminder (2009), Baker & Aina (1995), Atnafu (2006) presented economic factors as the main driving force for Ethiopian youth migration to the Middle East. For local communities of Ethiopia, migration is the only viable option for alleviating their poverty.
Many youths of Ethiopia migrate to boost their material gains Selamawit, B (2013) states the factors that cause Trafficking as “People fall victim to trafficking for many reasons. Although the root causes of trafficking vary from country to country, there are however many factors that tend to be common to trafficking in general according to US Department of State (2012) report. Social, economic and political factors are major driving forces. Socially marginalized, economically deprived and poverty stricken individuals are primary victims of trafficking through deception and coercion.”
2.9.1. Cultural practices, belief systems and behaviors of communities where trafficking exists
Across the world, numerous belief systems, cultural patterns and practices affect potential human trafficking victims. An example of a cultural belief that was found to impose subjection was a study done on child trafficking in Thailand, where it was found that a typical belief pattern was for families to view their children as being responsible for helping to provide for the family through means of income, household help, and community labor (Taylor, 2005:413). In the developing world, it is typical to find a lack of accessible resources so parents was readily assign responsibility to their children in the allocation of care concerning “each child’s perceived potential economic, social and reproductive returns” (Taylor, 2005:414). A child’s birth order and sex are determinates of whether they are deemed as a helper child, particularly for the firstborn daughter. The common belief is that daughters are responsible for the welfare of the family especially their younger siblings and seeing to the well-being of their elderly parents (Taylor, 2005).

2.3 service quality the emergence of quality of service as a top preference in several corporate entities is primarily because of the globalization of world trade and the competitive pressure brought about by the elevating demands of consumers who want better goods and services. it ensures that the voice of the customer is always coincided by the voice of the processes khoshafian s. 2016 since the service quality is very vital in surviving and in profit making of an organization it affects both customers satisfaction and motivation whether after shopping positively or before shopping positively hussain r. al nasser a. hussain y. k. 2015 service quality can have many different meanings in different contexts. for example bansal h. s. taylor s. 2015? defined service quality as the consumers overall effect of the relative inferiority or superiority of the organization and its services. While theodorakis n. d. kaplanidou k. karabaxoglou i. 2015 defined perceived service quality as a universal judgment or attitude relating to the excellence of a service. in their efforts to reach a model for service quality hussain r. al nasser a. hussain y. k. 2015 identified 5 determinants of service quality used by customers to build their own perceptions which are: reliability responsiveness empathy assurance and tangibles. 2.4 customer satisfaction satisfaction is a psychological outcome emerging from an experience a definition by heino j. 2015 also satisfaction can be defined as an overall customer attitude towards a service provider or an emotional reaction to the difference between what customers anticipate and what they receive lalaram j. j. s. cassim n. karodia a. m. 2016 another definition was given by wto 1985 as follows customer satisfaction is a psychological concept that involves the feeling of well-being and a pleasure that results from obtaining what one hopes for and expects from an interesting product/service. 2.5 relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction nagle t. t. müller g. 2017 stated that the company survives only when it has customers and grows only when it can retain them and attract new ones therefore it should be structured and managed around these concepts. customers always stay with those companies that are special for them and they become devoted to the brands that make them feel special. on the other hand kerzner h. kerzner h. r. 2017 stated that changes in the business environment and in the market place have changed customer behavior. if organizations fail to treat customer well and give them what they want they will leave. current and even perceived customers are today faced with an unprecedented range of choices not only choices of what to buy but where to buy. it is virtually impossible for a company to succeed today if its products/services are inferior. while lasserre p. 2017 said that during the 1980s customer awareness led to a higher degree of customer sovereignty and organizations could no longer neglect customer requirements. the differentiator that provided a competitive advantage was the quality of service. accordingly one main hypotheses and five sub-hypotheses are proposed: h3: there is a direct correlation between service quality and customers satisfaction. h31: there is a direct correlation between responsiveness as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. h32: there is a direct correlation between assurance as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. h33: there is a direct correlation between tangibles as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. h34: there is a direct correlation between empathy as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. h35: there is a direct correlation between reliability as a service quality dimension and customers satisfaction. summary the first issue of the research was to determine the performance drivers that have a positive influence on ports performance taking quality of service and customer satisfaction as a performance indicators. the second objective was to develop a theoretical framework that can be utilized as a guide for ports managers to establish and maintain a superior quality of service to carry out this stage of the research the key csfs service quality and customers satisfaction have been extensively investigated through an intensive literature review. based upon them a conceptual model of csfs implementation in relation with port performance utilizing service quality customers satisfaction as a performance indicators was proposed 3 main hypotheses and 25 sub-hypotheses were generated.

2.0 The challenges
2.1 Infrastructure gap
In a world which is developed, global businesses frequently takes everything for a granted in the infrastructure which is in the place. As stated by Govindarajan and Trimble “even though it is actually natural for the people in assuming that the inordinate amount of each reliable infrastructure in rich countries promotes a new product development, in which in the developing market, where there are lack of infrastructure and also circumstances might also in fact prove advantageous” (Mari Terrio, 2014). In the emerging economies, businesses should not make any sort of assumptions and plan a new products in accommodating in the not the same environment. For an example, as for General Electric, they have made numerous bounds and leaps in the new products development in where they had took the infrastructure in the emerging economies into consideration.
General Electric have developed two new key products by using the strategy of reverse innovation which are the handheld electrocardiogram devices and also PC- based ultrasound machines (Harvard business review, 2009). Both of the products are geared in the direction of emerging the markets in where the current infrastructure are not able in providing the suitable alternatives. As for these products, it will actually advance in reaching parts of the rural emerging markets in which the traditional equipment’s could take a lot of years in reaching. By understanding the challenges of the infrastructure needs, GE have played out very good in the emerging markets.

2.2 Preferences gap
As mentioned in the previous challenge, one of the most important part of the reverse innovation is understanding the needs of the customers. In this world, every countries have their own preferences of taste, own rituals and also own habits. As the anchors which has drove them are in a deep routed, this gap initially will stay for a long time. Henceforth, it is very critical for the businesses in understanding the preferences of the “local” and addresses those preferences which could be considered similarly crossways the world. For an instance, PepsiCo have created a new snack food, which is not based on corn (predominant in the developed countries), but on lentils, which was not in demand by the US people (Ostraszewska ; Tylec, 2015). PepsiCo was not only been able in identifying the needs and wants of the products of the emerging economies, but it also were able in bringing the “trickle up” product promotions to the other countries as well as New Zealand and Australia (Kaul, 2012).

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2.1 Background of the company
AirAsia Berhad is a Malaysia low fare airline company and had the largest low fare, no-frills airline and a discoverer of low cost travel in Asia. AirAsia group was operated through domestic and also international flights to over 400 destinations and connecting to 25 countries in worldwide. AirAsia Berhad mainly emphasizes on the low fare air ticket, on the other hand customer can enjoy with high quality of services and technology. Its main center is the Low-Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), had been commenced on 23th March 2006. LCCT can carried estimated around 10 million passenger per year. While the secondary hub located at Senai International Airport, Kota Kinabalu International Airport, and also Penang International Airport.
AirAsia has three of the affiliates airlines in Asia countries are as following:
• Thai AirAsia (Suvarnabhumi Airport)
• Philippines AirAsia (Clark International Airport)
• Indonesia AirAsia (Soekarno-Hatta International Airport)
AirAsia established in year 1993, but the group had just commenced their business’s operations on 18 October 1996. AirAsia was originally discovered by a government-owned combination, HI COM Holdings Berhad (now DRB-HICOM Berhad), but the group was suffering in heavy debt since year 1997 until year 2000 with about USD 11 million, around RM 40 million.
On 2nd December 2001, Dato’ Sri Dr. Tony Fernandes (Tune Air Sdn Bhd) and partners bought over AirAsia. They take on the losses, heavy debt of AirAsia for a token sum of RM1. The enterprising group quickly made decisions and settled the airline’s debts and set about relaunching and rebranding AirAsia as a low-fare carrier.
From 27 October 2008, the company had increased the new 108 routes into its current list of 50. On 2nd of April, year 2012, Air Asia had their first flight from Kuala Lumpur to Australia (Sydney). AirAsia Berhad did not publicly disclosed the exact number of old routes which had been discontinued. In August 2011, AirAsia agreed to build up an alliance with the Malaysian Airlines by using the method of share swap.
AirAsia Berhad had implemented three systems in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the company which included the yield management system (YMS), computer reservation system (CRS) and enterprise resource planning system (ERP). YMS is also known as the revenue management system and basically react to the customer behaviour and maximizes the wealth or revenue of the company. By using this system, it also can optimize the pricing and also manage the operating costs together in the most effective way. Moreover, the CRS included the internet, call centre and airport departure control functionality. The centralized customer data is used to follow the schedule and booking flight with real-time, while for the ERP system, it helps AirAsia to stable the process honesty, closing processing time, speeds up reporting and also data retrieval process.
Last but not least we would like to discuss about the Airline reservation system (ARS), also known as manufacturing management process. It needs helps from ERP system about the information of the planning and scheduling operations. However, while the ERP system did not had a better supply chain management system and therefore AirAsia used ARS system to improves the performance of the company and provide a better service for customer. For example, it can provide customer a faster way to check the availability of the air flight. After that, the ARS system had been improved to computer reservation system (CRS) and then to global distribution system (GDS), which provides travel agencies and other channels in making reservations for the air flights in a single system.

2) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
It is a advanced technology which can provide good benefits and tracking to the organisation. RFID chips are located and fixed on the company products to provide their exact tracking location say for inventory. RFID chips will immediately detect and inform if any anomaly or mistake has happened to correct it on time before loss or damage
Most importantly it allows business owners to track and enable business owners to have clarity on goods and products all the time from anywhere. Hence installing RFID drastically reduces cost and time to efficiently
CONCLUSION:
Since whole world is connected through internet, it becomes easier to select business partners for the joint venture
Cost saving for example Reduce cost of preparing letters and sending letters,
Achieving order and placing order has become easy and less costly
Reduce lead time of material supply
Reduce retrieval time of documented information
Improves product promotional activities
Reduce the expenditure for market expansion and also reduce market mediation
Improve relation with customer

Ans 3A
Business analytics is a kind of practice exploration of an organization’s data, with more stress on statistical analysis. Business analytics is used by companies committed to data-driven decision-making.

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Business analytics is useful to understand the insights that inform business decisions and can be used to automate and optimize business processes.For example data of a company is been used by data driven companies as their asset and analyse to understand the need of the current market value Successful business analytics depends on data quality, skilled analysts who understand the technologies and the business, and an organizational commitment to data-driven decision-making.
Business analytics have different stages specified forlarge amount of data being processed at every level. As per the stages of type of work flow and the requirement of data analysis, there are basically four types of analytics –
1.descriptive,
2.diagnostic,
3.predictive and
4.prescriptive.
The abve types of business analytics gives a detail about company and type of solution to be considered or adopted.

Also there is no competition between stages among them selves and they are interrelated and most of the companies from different insight rely on all type analytics.

Similarly music companies are also using huge data of customer following and analysing the consumer needs and requirements including their futiuure requirements to be fulfilled and utilised initialy at free of cost and later when demand increase then paid scheme can be started.
So over all consumer becomes aware of their needs and gets on paid basis

It is the companies who has to do right choice for analytical techniques and that how big data gives deep insight to the companies.
1) Descriptive Analytics: This can be termed as the simplest form of analytics Detailing and explain the current available data using latest tools to clearly understand about the scenario of what happened and the purpose of this analytics type is just to summarise the findings and understand what is going on.
2) Diagnostic Analytics: Focusing on Previous performance to analyise the past performance for what has happened and why it happened. The result of the analysis is often an analytic dashboard.. It mostly uses probabilities, likelihoods, and the distribution of outcomes for the analysis.
3) Predictive Analytics: Predictive analysis and what all are the possible reults based on statistical models and machine learning techniques. The essence of predictive analytics is to devise models such that the existing data is understood to extrapolate the future occurrence or simply, predict the future data
4) Prescriptive Analytics: It is a type of predictive analytics that is used to recommend one or more course of action on analysing the data.

Conclusion:
The four techniques in analytics makes need to be implemented sequentially. However, but in maximum cases organisation directly go to prescriptive analytics also. But according to the latest study prescriptive analytics is still at the budding stage and not many firms have completely used its power. However, the advancements in predictive analytics will surely pave the way for its development.

Ans 3B
Introduction social media :
Social media is online communications process which is dedicatedly for community and its inputs, interaction, detailed content-sharing and collaboration.
Social media has become an integral part of our day to day life. As social websites and applications has worldwide been used. In business, social media is used to market products, promote brands, connect to current customers and foster new business.
Social media analytics is the practice of gathering data from blogs and social media websites and analysing that data to make business decisions. The most common use of social media analytics is to manage customer sentiment to support marketing and customer service activities.
Social media marketing (SMM) takes advantage of social networking to help a company increase brand exposure and broaden customer reach. The goal is usually to create content compelling enough that user will share it with their social networks.
One of the key components of SMM is social media optimization (SMO). Like search engine optimization (SEO), SMO is a strategy for drawing new and unique visitors to a website. SMO can be done two ways: by adding social media links to content such as RSS feeds and sharing buttons, or by promoting activity through social media via status updates, tweets, or blog posts.
Social CRM (customer relationship marketing) can be a very powerful business tool. For example, establishing a Facebook page allows people who like your brand and the way you conduct business to like your page, which creates a venue for communication, marketing and networking. Through social media sites, you can follow conversations about your brand for real-time market data and feedback.
Enterprise social networking allows a company to connect individuals who share similar business interests or activities. Internally, social tools can help employees access information and resources they need to work together effectively and solve business problems. Externally, public social media platforms help an organization stay close to their customers and make it easier to conduct research that they can use to improve business processes and operations.
Social media is also often used for crowdsourcing. Customers can use social networking sites to offer ideas for future products or tweaks to current ones. In IT projects, crowdsourcing usually involves engaging and blending business and IT services from a mix of internal and external providers, sometimes with input from customers and/or the general public.
On the other hand, the integration of social media in the business world can also pose challenges. Social media policies are designed to set expectations for appropriate behaviour and ensure that an employee’s posts will not expose the company to legal problems or public embarrassment. Such policies include directives for when an employee should identify himself as a representative of the company on a social networking website, as well as rules for what types of information can be shared.

1. Communication Is Immediate
2. The Conversation Is Transparent
3. Follow-up Is Easy
4. Time Efficiency and Effortless Prospecting
5. Exponential Reach
Not only do your followers grow over time, so do those of your connections. The tagging technique consisting of typing your friend’s name in the message will deliver your content to their followers, too.
6. Money Efficiency
Compare working online to the expense of travel for prospecting, meetings, and conventions. In other words, working online costs $0 versus gas, toll roads, parking, hotel, luncheons, tips, vendor fees, raffle tickets, and giveaways.
7. Global and High-Level Reach
Traditional meetings and events normally attract people of the same calibre. Frequently, those who are more accomplished appear unapproachable.
8. Your Content Can Be Found, Liked, and Shared
Your reach toward potential audiences is leveraged. In this manner, more introductions and offers of opportunity are received.
9. Collaboration Replaces Competition
Using social media takes a different mind-set from the traditional career environment.
10. The New You and New Business
When you freely share your knowledge on multiple platforms including blogs and video, accessible on mobile devices, your ability to connect with wider and larger audiences increases your potential.

2.8.2. Determination of the thermal stability of immobilized lipase
To examine the irreversible thermo-inactivation of free and immobilized lipase, the enzyme solution was incubated at mentioned temperature for 3 h. At different time interval, samples were picked up and analyzed for residual activity.
Storage stabilities of the free and coated-MGO-magnetic CLEAs lipase were also investigated by incubating enzyme solutions in phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.5) without substrate at 4 °C. Every 2 days, cMGO-CLEAs lipase was picked up by a magnetic and washed by distilled water. After that, the lipase activity in free and immobilized enzyme was measured as described previously. The remaining lipase activities were measured by counting the initial lipase activity as 100%.

2.8.3. Determination of Kinetic parameters
Kinetic factors of both free and coated-MGO-magnetic CLEAs lipase were examined using diverse concentrations of pNPP in phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.0) at 45 °C. In both forms, 2 mg of lipase was used in each assay reaction. The amounts of Vmax, Km factors for free and coated-MGO-magnetic CLEAs lipase were considered from line Waver-Burk plot of the initial reaction rates equivalent to different substrate concentrations.

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2.9. Biodiesel production
Enzymatic transesterification reactions were carried out by free and cMGO-CLEAs lipase and maintained for 48 h with a stirring speed of 160 rpm. The reaction consists of 0.4 g oil (oil from Ricinus communis), methanol (1:3 molar ratio between R. communis oil and methanol) and 0.2% enzyme (free or correspond lipase on support) (w/w, based on the oil weight, g). At diverse time intervals (6, 12, 24 and 28 h), 100 µl of reaction blend was picked up and diluted with the same volume of n-hexane solvent. Afterward, the sample was gathered and the upper layer (10 µL) was performed to gas chromatography (GC) investigation for biodiesel measurement (Ji et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2017; Malekabadi et al., 2018).
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Screening and identification of bacterial producing the methanol-tolerant lipase

Lipase producing bacteria were screened in enrichment culture medium supplemented with olive oil as a sole source of carbon. Furthermore, methanol (30%, v/v) was also used to acquire the methanol tolerant lipase. The clear area around the colonies on the tributyrin agar plate was evaluated as lipase production. The greatest lipolytic strains were also examined on the olive oil plate complemented with phenol red, as a pH indicator. Results showed this isolate was a strain which displayed the maximum pink area around the colony. The 16S rDNA gene of MG isolate was amplified and sequenced (Genbank Accession No. MF927590.1) and compared by BLAST investigation to other bacteria in the NCBI database. The results proposed a near relationship between MG10 isolate and the other members of the Enterobacter genus with a extreme sequence homology (99%) to Enterobacter cloacae. The phylogenetic tree (Fig. 1) designated that the strain MG10 was associated with Enterobacter species and used for the following study.

3.2. Purification and immobilization of the lipase
Cell free supernatant of MG10 stain was exposed to ammonium sulfate precipitation (85% saturation) and Q-sepharose chromatography. Lipase MG10 was eluted from the Q-Sepharose column with a 19.5-fold purification and a 38.1 % yield, and it displayed a specific activity of 442.6 U/mg. This yield of MG10 lipase was analogous to the lipase of S. maltophilia (33.9%) (Li et al., 2013) and lower than lipase from P. aeruginosa PseA (51.6%) (Gaur et al., 2008), but greater than lipase of B. licheniformis (8.4 %) (Sharma and Kanwar, 2017). SDS–PAGE analysis of the MG10 lipase shown that it has a single band about 33 kDa, which it is dissimilar with the other Enterobacter cloacae.
Results of protein measurement with Bradford technique displayed that protein loading on these coated magnetite nanomaterials was succeeded. Moreover, the results of determination of protein loading on these nanomaterials shown that, immobilization efficiency was achieved about 73%. mGO-CLEAs lipase was dispersed in phosphate buffer. After a magnet was positioned sidewise, mGO-CLEAs Lipase showed fast response (60 seconds) to the peripheral magnetic field. It incomes that the magnetic CLEAs-Lip particles were shown suitable magnetic concern even though layers of CLEAs-Lipase were covered on their surfaces, wherein it is significant in term of lipase immobilization.

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

2.2. Theoretical Framework
According to Kurtines and Silverman (1999) theory is comprised of an explanatory statement which used to help explain and understand relations among variables, how they operate and the processes involved. As they further argue the importance of theory lies in its ability to assist the researcher to identify and organize the connections among various phenomena that may seem unrelated (cited in Kawulich 2009: 37). In this section of the thesis will be described the theories that provide the theoretical framework for analyzing the human trafficking from the wider perspective connected to the global migration.
Existing Theoretical Concepts in Human Trafficking
There is a huge lack of theoretical concepts in human trafficking researches in general. As many commentators on the field argue, there are virtually no attempts made to analyze and understand the issue of human trafficking for labor exploitation within the exiting international migration theories. It has been said by different commentators on the field that the existing theoretical frameworks describing the concepts of human trafficking are not well developed; and most of them are criticized for referring only to the aims of those anti human trafficking policies or to the causes of human trafficking. And as Morehouse (2009: 75) argues these descriptions are too narrow and would be an insufficient theoretical framework on which to base a comparative country analysis on human trafficking.
The Rational Choice Theory of Migration
Though migration is not a prerequisite for human trafficking to occur, human trafficking involves the movement of people across national and international boundaries. In this case human trafficking can be seen as one segment of the broader human migration. There are a variety of theoretical approaches that has been developed to explain the factors that cause people to migrate. Theories in this category thrive to answer the question why migrations begin. Among others neoclassical economics or the rational choice theory is probably the earliest and the most known migration theory. According to Douglas and his colleagues there are two models of neoclassical economics, the macro economics and micro economics models (Douglas, 1993). For it focus on the individuals? decision and choice to migrate, the latter model is used in this research.

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