2. Cell fusion
In this step HGPRT defective myeloma cells are mixed with thoroughly clean lymphocytes. The mixture of the cells are then exposed to a strong concentration of PEG and fusion is allowed to occur. The PGE ejected by washing and the cells are maintained In a well nurse medium. Three types of cells are found in the medium. They are –

? mixture of Hybridomas
?free myeloma cells
?free lymphocytes

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3. Selection
For selection of hybrid cells hypoxanthine aminopterin thymidine medium (HAT) is used. In HAT medium the cellular synthesis of purines and pyrimidines from simple sugar is blocked by aminopterin. But some cells can flourish by taking advantage of hypoxanthine and thymidine existent in the medium by salvage pathway utilizing hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT). But HGPRT is deficient in myeloma cells. So when aminopterin block denovo pathway myeloma cells can not survive in HAY medium. Beta cell can survive in the HAT medium as they are HGPRT+ . Beta cell go through natural cell death following some division.

4. Screening
For the secretion of the antibody of aimed specificity, the Hybridomas must be screened. For the aimed antibody specificity the culture from individual Hybridoma culture is being tested periodically. ELIAS and RIA are mostly used technique for this reason. In these experiments, the antibody is attached to the specific antigen and unwind antibody and remaining components of the medium can be sweeped away. By this way, using screening we can identify the Hybridoma cells which can produces desired antibody. The antibody produce by the hybrid cells are monoclonal antibody.
5. Cloning and propagation
The individual Hybrid cells which produce the intended antibody are isolated and cloned. For cloning hybrid cells two methods are usually used.
Limiting dilution method: In this method, gradual dilution of the suspension of Hybridoma cells is made and aliquots of individual dilution are place down into micro culture wall. The dilution are made to point that every aliquot in a wall contains just one individual hybrid cell. This guarantees the immunglobin which has delivered is monoclonal.
Soft agar method: In this procedure the Hybridoma cells are refined in soft agar. It is conceivable to develop numerous cells at the same time in semisolid medium to form colonies. These colonies will be monoclonal in nature.

In genuine practice both above system are consolidated and utilized for the maximum production of MAbs.
6. Characterization and storage :
The monoclonal antibody must be exposed to biochemical and biophysical portrayal for the intended specificity. It is likewise vital to clarify the MAbs for the immunoglobulin class or sub-class, the epitope for which it is particular and quantity of binding site it has . The strength of the cell lines and the MAbs are essential. The cells must be described for their capacity to withstand solidifying and defrosting.

Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

Pseudomonas aerogenosa was first recognized in the study “On the blue and green coloration of bandages” in 1882, conducted by Carle Gessard a French pharmacist. In his study he discovered that P.aerugenosa was a water-soluble pigment, which under exposure to ultraviolet light, illuminated green-blue. Carle Gessard, back in 1882, concluded that P.aerugenosa was of a pathogenic, infectious nature, after classifying the strand; due to the similarity between the strand and other similar microbes.
Since the discovery of this opportunistic pathogen, breakthroughs have been made, sighting the severity of its power to fester rapidly and oppose treatment. This pathogen is constantly monitored, and its genome is continually updated into data bases, due to the potential for it to be used as a biological weapon HISTORY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
In 1885, the German-Austrian pediatrician Escherichia disc overfed this organism in the feces of healthy individuals. He called it Bacterium coli commune because it is found in the colon. Early classifications of prokaryotes placed these in a handful of genera based on their shape and motility (at that time Ernst Haeckel’s classification of bacteria in the kingdom Monera was in place).Bacterium coli was the type species of the now invalid genus Bacterium when it was revealed that the former type species (“Bacterium triloculare”) was missing. Following a revision of Bacterium, it was reclassified as Bacillus coli by Migula in 1895 and later reclassified in the newly created genus Escherichia, named after its original discoverer. Bacterium coli has since been used for biological lab experiment research, infection can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal injury.1996 the world’s worst outbreak of E. coli food poisoning occurred in Wishaw, Scotland, killing 20 people. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGENOSA
P. aeruginosa is primarily a nosocomial pathogen, and the methods for control of infection are similar to those for other nosocomial pathogens. Because pseudomonas thrives in moist environments, special attention should be paid to sinks, water baths, showers, hot tubs, and other wet areas. For epidemiologic purposes, strains can be typed using molecular typing techniques. EPIDEMIOLOGY PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
The enteric bacteria establish themselves in the normal intestinal tract within a few days after birth and from then on constitute a main portion of the normal aerobic (facultative anaerobic) ssmicrobial flora. E. coli is the prototype. Enteric that are mostly found in water found in water or milk are accepted as proof of fecal contamination from sewage or other sources.
Control measures are not feasible as far as the normal endogenous flora is concerned. Enteropathogenic E .coli serotypes should be controlled like salmonellae. Some of the enteric constitute a major problem in hospital infection. It is particularly important to recognize that many enteric bacteria are “opportunists” that cause illness when they are introduced into debilitated patients. Within hospitals or other institutions, these bacteria commonly are trans-mitted by personnel, instruments, or parenteral medications. Their control depends on hand washing, rigorous asepsis, sterilization of equipment, disinfection, restraint in intravenous therapy, and strict precautions in keeping the urinary tract sterile (i.e. closed drainage).

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A. Specimens
Specimens from skin lesions, pus, urine, blood, spinal fluid, sputum, and other material should be obtained as indicated by the type of infection.
B. Smears
Gram-negative rods are often seen in smears. No specific morphologic characteristics differentiate pseudomonads in specimens from enteric or other gram-negative rods.
C. Culture
Specimens are plated on blood agar and the differential media commonly used to grow the enteric gram-negative rods. Pseudomonads grow readily on most of these media, but they may grow more slowly than the enteric. P. aeruginosa does not ferment lactose and is easily differentiated from the lactose-fermenting bacteria. Culture is the specific test for diagnosis of P aeruginosa infection. (Henry et al,. 2011).

P. aeruginosa is pathogenic only when introduced into areas devoid of normal defenses, such as when mucous membranes and skin are disrupted by direct tissue damage as in the case of burn wounds; when intravenous or urinary catheters are used; or when neutropenia is present, as in cancer chemo-therapy. The bacterium attaches to and colonizes the mucous membranes or skin, invades locally, and produces systemic disease. These processes are promoted by the pili, enzymes, and toxins described earlier. Lipopolysaccharide plays a direct role in causing fever, shock, oliguria, leukocytosis and leukopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and adult respiratory distress syndrome.
P. aeruginosa and other pseudomonads are resistant to many antimicrobial agents and therefore become dominant and important when more susceptible bacteria of the normal microbiota are suppressed. May lead to rapid destruction of the eye, occurs most commonly after injury or surgical procedures. In infants or debilitated persons, P .aeruginosa may invade the bloodstream and result in fatal sepsis; this occurs commonly in patients with leukemia or lymphoma who have received antineoplastic drugs or radiation therapy and in patients with severe burns.
The clinical manifestations of infections with E coli and the other enteric bacteria depend on the site of the infection and cannot be differentiated by symptoms or signs from processes caused by other bacteria.
A. E coli
1. Urinary tract infection—E coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection and accounts for approximately 90% of first urinary tract infections in young women. The symptoms and signs include urinary frequency, dysuria, hematuria, and pyuria. Flank pain is associated with upper tract infection. None of these symptoms or signs is specific for E. coli infection. Urinary tract infection can result in bacteremia with clinical signs of sepsis. Most of the urinary tract infections that involve the bladder or kidney in an otherwise healthy host are caused by a small number of O antigen types that have specifically elaborated virulence factors that facilitate colonization and sub-sequent clinical infections. These organisms are designated as uropathogenic E coli. Typically, these organisms produce hemolysin, which is

2. Christmas is celebrated as the birthday of Jesus Christ but there are no records as 25th December is the birthday of Jesus.
3. 25th December was chosen because it coincides with pagan festival Saturnalia.
4. Christmas was first celebrated in 336.
5. The first artificial Christmas tree was made in the 19th century in Germany.
6. In Boston, from 1659 to 1681 it was prohibited to celebrate Christmas.
7. Firstly, Santa Claus was the short name given to the Christian Bishop of Turkey, St. Nicholas. He was wealthy and used to help the needy people and also became the protector of children.
8. Christmas is sometimes written as Xmas; X in Greek abbreviates for Christ.
9. In mid-17th century Christmas trees were decorated with candles.
10. Christmas trees were also decorated with candies, small gifts, cake, nuts, and fruits.
11. The tallest artificial Christmas tree is in Sri Lanka, it is 72.1 m.
12. The tallest real Christmas tree was 67.36 meters and was in Seattle, Washington.
13. The first artificial Christmas trees were made by Germans.
14. Christmas pudding is the main dish of Christmas.
15. The highest-grossing Christmas movie is Jim Carrey ‘How The Grinch Stole Christmas’.
16. in Canada, there is official address of Santa Claus- North Pole, H0H 0H0, Canada.
17. Approximately 350 million Christmas trees growing in the U.S. farms.
18. Before selling Christmas tree it is grown for 7-10 years.
19. Since 1850 Christmas trees were sold in the US.
20. Until June 26, 1870, Christmas was not the official holiday in the US.
21. Franklin Pierce was the first US president to put Christmas tree in White House.
22. The tradition of Christmas cards is originated in England.
23. The most expensive Christmas card was sold in the auction for £20,000 in the UK.
24. Santa Claus is known by different names around the world- in Russia Deushka Moroz, in Germany Kriss Kringle, etc.
25. Since 1960, half of the population Sweden still watch Donald Duck cartoon.
26. Jingles Bells was originally written for Thanksgiving, not for Christmas.
27. Red and white colored dress Santa Claus was first used by Coca-Cola for promotions.
28. People of Iceland celebrate Christmas Eve by exchanging books and spending rest of the night reading it and eating chocolates.
29. Japanese go to KFC for dinner on Christmas.
30. 230,000 tons of Christmas food is wasted every year.
31. 10 million turkeys are cooked on Christmas in the UK.
32. Burning Yule logs on Christmas is a symbol of luck, health and fertility, and also a guard against evil spirits.
33. Evergreen trees are a symbol of rebirth from the time of paganism.
34. In 2012, 30,000 people participated in Secret Santa organized by Reddit.
35. At the Christmas in Finland, it is customary to go to the sauna.
36. 6.8 million Apple and Android device are bought on the Christmas.
37. French gifted Statue of Liberty to the US on Christmas.
38. In honor of Christmas in Spain, the largest lottery is held annually.
39. In Germany and England, the main dish of the Christmas table is a roast goose or duck.
40. On the eve of the Christmas, Lithuanian Catholics eat only lean food
41. In Russia, Christmas celebration started in the 20th century.
42. The first song for Christmas was written in the 4th century AD.
43. In 2010, a Facebook study showed that 2 weeks before the Christmas is the time when most of the breakups happen.
44. The European live Christmas tree demand reaches about 50 million every year.
45. Oregon, North Carolina, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Washington are the most Christmas tree producing states.
46. The tradition of filling stockings with gifts on a holiday came from the story of three poor sisters. The legend says that one day St Nicholas made his way to them through the chimney and left gold coins in stockings.
47. The first Christmas cracker was invented in 1847 by sweets vendor Tom Smith
48. Charles Dicken wrote Christmas Carols in just six weeks.
49. Every year 1.6 billion Christmas Cards are purchased by Americans.
50. The first Christmas card was created by the Englishman Henry Cole in 1843.
51. In 1810, in the US, the public first saw Santa Claus.
52. The first case of the gift was noted in ancient Rome, where on the celebration of Saturnalia, children were given gifts.
53. orthodox Christian celebrate Christmas on January 7.
54. Traditional colors for decorating a Christmas tree are green, red and gold.
55. the first street Christmas trees with electric garlands appeared in Finland in 1906.
56. In Poland, spiders or spider webs are the usual decoration of the Christmas tree, because according to legend, the spider wove a blanket for Jesus when he was an infant.
57. The British wear paper crowns for the Christmas dinner. Crowns are stored in a special tube, which is called “Christmas cracker”.
58. On Christmas Eve in 1914, warring parties on the Western Front of the First World War stopped shooting and sang Christmas carols, and the next morning German and British soldiers even exchanged handshakes and gifts.
59. In the Netherlands, on Christmas night, children put a shoe to the fireplace for gifts and put a carrot for a magic horse.

The Alexandrian theologians proposed to celebrate Christmas on May 26 in 200 BC.

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2.1. Describe how to deal with clients with mental health problems.

It should be a priority for the hypnoterapist to be certain it is safe to work with a client. If there is any suspicion the client suffers serious medical problem he must be referred to the GP for medical diagnosis. The same rule applies to severe mental illnesses. I believe the Hippocratic Oath concerns all people working as healers. It doesn’t matter if they heal body, mind or spirit. Some hypnotherapists believe that all mental problems may be treated by hypnosis however most of professionals do not work with clients suffering psychoses and borderline personality. Some of neuroses may develop into psychoses and as such should not also be treated by inexperienced therapist. In such cases even if the hypnotherapy would not harm the client it would not offer much help.
Theoretically we could talk about a psychosis if the person with mental issue is unaware that they have a mental problem or when they are aware about it but they do not relate their issues with psychosis. However hypnoterapists are not qualified to diagnose it. All we can do is to observe the client, ask them about the history of their mental health and their medications or refer them when in doubt.
I understand the initial interview may answer the question however if not it might be extremely difficult for me to discover the psychotic client as the symptoms are not always obvious so knowledge from literature might not be enough. The British national Formulary might also not help as sometimes the same medications are administered for psychoses and neuroses. It might be even the case the client decides not to tell us about his medications.
Apparently the only solution for me as a fresh hypnotherapist is to be extra vigilant during the initial assessment and during the further therapy and include into the clients contract the paragraph confirming their medical history.

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2.2. Explain common techniques for working with clients.

Because clients have various psychical constitution, different preferences, experiences and might visit us in completely different state of their mind the most common technique we can use is to adapt the way we talk to them.
Certain people prefer to be approached different way than others. Some prefer to be told directly what to do (authoritarian style), others prefer to be given indirect suggestions (permissive). What is more the needs might change depending on their state of mind or situation they are presently in. One of my colleagues after a few inductions told me that she prefers to be led authoritarian way during the beginning of the PMR and after she reaches the basic relaxation she prefers to be given more freedom. Consequently to be effective I had to begin authoritarian, with precise and logical orders and after some time I had to change the style for permissive including more metaphors and ambiguities.
When we know the client it is a good practice to make sure we use the modality they prefer as it might help to achieve the trance quicker and make it deeper as a result of the fact that we talk to their mind the way it prefers. With “visuals” it is advised to use words that combine well with vision(look, imagine, colours…), with “auditorials” use the expressions that connect with hearing (listen, hear, sounds…), and with “kinaesthetics” use the expressions that refer to feeling (touch, warm, moves…).
It is always useful to know the client the best you can before you begin the therapy. It is crucial to know their fears, favourite things and colours, touchy subjects, etc. As a result the therapist may avoid unnecessary problems and be more effective.

2.3. Discuss the use of modalities in personalise inductions.

Our senses supply our brains with visual, auditory and kinaesthetic stimuli and specialised parts of the cortex in brain process the info they receive. Some of us acquire the information the best when received as visual stimuli, some auditory and some kinaesthetic.
When I study I must see what I am learning about. I draw symbols I like to link the ideas with arrows, create maps. I prefer visual stimuli. However, when I was a teacher I met a lot of students that favoured learning different way. Some preferred to record themselves and were listening to those recordings many times, or read the text loud to themselves (audio). There were also students that remembered the best when they were performing some physical actions regarding the learned material (kinaesthetic). They preferred to move the items and create some complex systems made of objects to enhance their learning.
Nevertheless, I have never met a person that learned by one modality only. My experience tells me that we use all of our senses but some of them talk to us more than others. Therefore to be the most successful we have to use the right sense but not restrict ourselves to one kind of stimuli only.
Hypnotherapy reminds me learning. The therapist should talk to the client the way the client prefers. We must use the appropriate language and vocabulary. The modality which is prominent for the client should prevail in the process. It might be crucial as during the hypnotherapy we mainly use our voice to affect the client. We cannot use the gestures or facial expression as most of clients have their eyes closed and they cannot see us. That’s why the correct choice of words is so important.
However disregarding the outcome of the questionnaire we have been given to determine the modality of clients the effects of the inductions I have written for compound modalities were always better than the ones I have written for single modalities. I have consulted the results with colleagues from the group and they had similar conclusions. That confirms my beliefs that people react the best if their brains are fed with stimuli produced by all their available senses. Obviously it is beneficial if the stimuli of the preferred kind are predominate. What is more, when you are working with a group of people it is physically impossible to use the personalised script as you talk to different people with different needs. Consequently it is safer to use compound screed because then you have bigger chance to affect them all.

3.1. Explain the role of active listening in counselling and hypnotherapy.

The help a therapist can offer is usually based on understanding of a client. It is almost impossible to help people if you do not understand them and it is very difficult to understand them if you do not listen to them actively. Obviously it is not just a matter of the fact whether the therapist simply listens to what the clients are talking about. I know from my experience that it is very important to double-check if the communicate the listener receives is the same the speaker means. Sometimes it is necessary to ask the person to repeat what we are not sure. It is also a good idea to paraphrase the crucial points of the conversation or use synonyms to recapitulate the vital parts of the story told to check if the interpretation of it is in accord to what the client means.
When listening actively the therapist should listen from beginning to the end. We shouldn’t assume what would the client say and stop listening. Active listening must be based on vigilance, empathy, patience and open mind.
It is also important as it convinces the clients that the fact that they are telling the story is important for the therapist and the content of it is interesting to the listener. That helps to build the right relation between both parties and helps the client to feel more confident and comfortable. Even nodding with understanding, suitable eye contact or appropriate voice level and pitch make the difference. I have worked as a teacher for many years and I am aware how disheartening is the lack of the listener’s attention and how helpful may the active listening be when it is necessary to encourage the speaker.

3.2. Explain the role of self-development in counselling and hypnotherapy.

If one wants to be a good therapist it is inevitable to work on one’s strengths and weaknesses. We work to help people to resolve their problems. Consequently our relation with clients shouldn’t be disturbed by our personal issues or inappropriate behaviours we might even be unaware. We need to discover them, control them and work on them.
Most of us have habits or reactions we find natural. We do not consider them weird or disturbing, however they might affect our clients completely different way. Clients may find them distressing or even upsetting. It may be challenging process to rise in ourselves the awareness that allows us to predict the results of our behaviour and avoid the unwanted before it happens, however this is the ability we must develop if we want to become good therapists.
The other thing is that all we have been shaped by our experiences and not all of them made us better. Sometimes we suffer emotional or mental problems and it might be really difficult to help others if we cannot see them clearly as we still bear the wounds that haven’t been healed.
It is extremely important for us to understand ourselves and the ways our experiences influence the way we see the world. That is difficult and sometimes long-lasting process but only then we will have the chance to separate our prejudices or beliefs from the case.
In order to understand the client’s position and direct them to the best possible solution of their problem it is necessary for us to be able to focus on client without unnecessary disturbances from our internal world.
The last but not least, being a successful therapist requires vast and up-to date knowledge. Consequently it is necessary to take care about the professional development. We need to learn constantly as the knowledge of numerous subjects from many fields might be beneficial during the therapy.

2) To what extent, if at all, was it possible to roll back the French Revolution with the Congress of Vienna? Was a complete rollback even desirable? Why or why not?
1. Introduction
Whether a complete rollback of the French Revolution (Revolution) was desirable yields no simple answer, but it is apparent that the Congress of Vienna had rolled back the doings of the French Revolution in form but not in substance. To that end, this paper will first discuss what the congressmen stood for mainly between 1815 and 1848 in response to the legacies left behind after the era of the Revolution; before scrutinising the success and appeal, or lack thereof, for a complete rollback.
2. Conservative Backlash
(Superficial) Restoration of the Political Regime
Following the unrest of the French Revolution was the period of 1815-1848, or the “Era of Metternich”, seeking to restore the balance of power in Europe that was tipped over during the French Revolution. One of reaction, the alliance amongst Austria, Britain, Prussia, Russia, led by Austrian Chancellor Metternich, saw the need for a general reconciliation of European affairs and Napoleon’s legacy. With that came along a redrawing of the map of Europe, the restoration of old rulers and the reassignment of territories as established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Prussia and Austria, for example, expanded their existing territories with the reassignment, even Poland became part of Russia; and in France, the Bourbon monarch was restored as “legitimate” rulers of the French since 1792 to undo the dynastic changes introduced by Napoleon and suppress the rising liberal, nationalist rebels that favoured greater political, intellectual and economic freedom for the individual. To preserve these resettlements, the Concert of Europe, a series of conferences attended by the Crown heads of Europe, served as a platform for the rulers to solve political problems diplomatically before they grew out of proportion. There is no doubt that the age of Metternich, characterised by support for political absolutism, suppression of nationalistic ambitions and forcible preservation of the status quo, kept Europe in check through collective effort and systematic changes, albeit forceful.
No Restoration of Ideals
However, the efforts of the Congress of Vienna did not roll back the Revolution insofar as it was apparent that the revolutionary nationalist sentiments had already been sown throughout Europe. While the period of 1815-1848 saw Europe in a period of temporary peace, it is not to say that it was a time free of revolutionary stirrings and sentiments in support of nationalistic ideals. This is especially evident by the stirrings of Revolution in 1830 and the full scale revolutions of 1848. Despite successful revolutions that led to the independence of Greece and Belgium in 1830, similar unrest persisted in the same year with the 1830 French Revolution after Louis XVIII promulgated a Charter that made France a constitutional monarchy and accepted equality before the law and the Napoleonic Code. His successor, Charles X, on the other hand was a staunch reactionary who sought to roll back the gains of the Revolution and moved towards a more absolutist regime once again. By 1830, discontentment with reaction and suppression of nationalistic ambitions had reached explosive proportions: Charles X published his July Ordinance restricting further the freedom of the press; dissolving the new Chamber to which a liberal majority had been elected; promulgating a new electoral law narrowing the suffrage, and calling for new elections which would presumably result in the return of a reactionary majority. This escalated to a vote of no confidence and his abdication, bypassing the “legitimate” Bourbon line with the Duke of Orleans and laid the grounds for the 1848 Revolution, a continent-wide revolution most notably arising in France, the Italian and German states, Hungary. Indeed, stirrings and unrest following 1830 saw the propagation of the seeds of nationalism amongst people, especially the middle class, who were evidently pushing back against a more absolutist regime envisioned by the congress. They were a force to be reckoned with but obviously overlooked by the Congress of Vienna.
3. Appeal of the Congress of Vienna
While Metternich and other rulers believed in the power of the congress to establish peace and order in Europe, particularly where its legislative sovereigns and an international balance of power could not be challenged by the forces of liberalism and nationalism or a single state, the same vision was not shared by the emerging bourgeoisie who favoured exactly the opposite. The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars unleashed forces that shook the foundations of European society. Napoleon had spread ideas of democracy, liberty and equality, and planted the seeds of representative government across Europe. Metternich had retarded liberalism but had failed to eradicate the influence of the French Revolution, especially in the midst of unrest and conflict that created further discontentment at the bottom of the regime.
5. Conclusion
The Congress of Vienna was organised with good intentions of preserving peace in Europe, albeit a reactionary one. While no major conflict was realised, there was clearly a great deal of unrest, especially amongst the emerging middle class that was disenfranchised and thus repulsed the Congress and the old order. Given that a backward change in political form could not contain, let alone undo, people’s shifting attitudes towards political liberation, rolling back the gains of the Revolution with the Congress of Vienna was possible at a superficial level and to a small extent, and only desirable in the eyes of the conservatives and not that of the people.
(917 words)

2.5 Type of car seat material
To fabricate a ventilated car seat Nylon Fabric, Faux Vinyl, PCV, Vinyl, Faux Leather, Suede and Brushed Nylon is the common material used. Each material is described briefly in section 2.5.1 to 2.5.7.
2.5.1 Nylon Fabric
Nylon is a durable, hard-wearing upholstery fabric which comes in many colours. There are plain and patterned designs and you can choose a type which best suits the interior of your vehicle. Because nylon is weaved, it is harder to tear than some fabrics. It is also very stain resistant, providing you can wash out any spills before the dry. It is also the most popular form of fabric found in most automobiles. It is available in many colours and is the least expensive form of trim for your vehicle (Willis, 2014).
2.5.2 Faux Vinyl
This is actually a vinyl which takes on the characteristics of leather or suede or other types of material. It is hard-wearing and can have the appearance and shine of soft leather or the dullness of fabric trim. Faux vinyl is a mock vinyl which emulates the real article at a fraction of the cost (Willis, 2014).
2.5.3 PCV Leather
Commonly known as soft plastic, this is a vinyl style-material that is pliable and easy to form. It stretches well and is used in lower-end models of cars and vans. It can be coloured or made in black and white, but it is notorious for being sticky to sit on during the summer. Heat has a tendency to make the upholstery sweat and the driver of the vehicle is best advised not to wear shorts in the summer if their vehicle is lined with PVC (Willis, 2014).
2.5.4 Vinyl
Easy to wipe clean, durable and hard wearing, vinyl is another coonly used material in the making of automobile upholstery. It has similar properties to PVC but vinyl can soft, hard, pliable or firm. You might be aware that old LP records were made from vinyl but, because it is used in a different capacity for upholstery, it can be as soft as velvet although it will still make the skin sweat during hot periods of weather (Willis, 2014).
2.5.5 Faux Leather
Faux leather is a very versatile material that can be made to appear like almost anything. People have covered their car seats in fake crocodile skin, fake snake’s skin and even dinosaur prints. It behaves like leather and is easy to wipe clean. Spillages can be quickly dealt with so faux leather doesn’t stain easily and is very durable (Willis, 2014).
2.5.6 Suede
Cloth-based suede fabrics are a nice choice for an automobile interior. Suede is soft to the touch and feels like brushed cotton. This automobile fabric is not used as often because it stains easily and it not as durable for many types of automobile use (Willis, 2014).
2.5.7 Brushed Nylon
Brushed nylon is soft and warm and ideal for an interior seat cover or door trim. It is a thick fabric that is usually just under a ¼ thick when used in vehicles. It seems well and is a firm, durable material which is quite hard to tear (Willis, 2014).

2.5. Factors Influencing Child Trafficking
The causes of trafficking in persons are various and often differ from one country to the otherand even at intra-country level. Trafficking is a clandestine and complex phenomenon which is often driven by such social, economic, cultural and other related political and legal factors. In search of better conditions there is always a desire to migrate among impoverished individuals.This desire is often exploited by traffickers to recruit and gain control on the potential victims.There are some local conditions that make individuals want to migrate in search of better living, such as poverty, oppression, lack of social and economic opportunities, lack of human right and other similar conditions (UNODC 2008: 454).
Many factors contribute to the trafficking of men, women and children. According to studies conducted by AGRINET (2003) and ILO-IPEC (2002), the root causes of women and children trafficking are categorized into push and pull factors. The major push factors include poverty, unemployment or lack of economic opportunities, draught and famine, political instability and bad governance and poverty are important elements at play in explaining why some children are trafficked.
Poverty alone cannot explain why some countries have more children trafficking than others; some cities have worst forms of child labor than others; traffickers are active in some places and not in others; some communities face more child trafficking than others; some families are more at risk of trafficking than others; girls are most at risk in some instances and boys in others. There are many children living in poverty who do not fall victim to trafficking (ILO 2009).
Studies undertaken in two sub-regions of Africa, West and Central Africa,by UNICEF in 1998 and 2000, have given us someinsight into the factors that contribute to and drive the practice of child trafficking. Analyses in those studies showed that poverty, cultural values and traditional beliefsystems all work to weaken the protection of child rights and push children towardstraffickers.
I must say that children and women trafficking in Africa is very complex. This reality goes beyond the abuse of traditional deployments or migration for labour.
According to UNICEF, poverty emerges as a major and ubiquitous causal factor. Thus, in the context of extreme poverty,the motive for the transfer of children is often economic.But poverty alone does not explain the prevalence of child trafficking in all countries.
Indeed, some of those most heavily involved in child trafficking do not necessarily have theworst social indicators, nor possess the worst cases of poverty. So, we need to come to gripswith the fact that there are other factors – indeed a very diverse and complex list of factors –that contribute to and fuel the business of child trafficking. So Let me briefly discuss just a few of factors stated in studies undertaken in West and Central Africa,by UNICEF in 1998 and 2000. These are,-
1. Lack of vocational and economic opportunities for the youth in the rural areas. Families seeing no economic opportunities at home will often place children with families or friends in areas where they believe the prospects for gainful employment may be greater. Children in these communities become easy prey for traffickers who promise trade and work opportunities.
2. Insufficient and/or inaccessible educational opportunities. The motive for moving children from the protective envelope of the family is often the search for education rather than the search for work. Traditional practices of placement and child movement within the extended family circle for educational purposes contribute to this factor.
3. Ignorance on the part of families and children of the risks involved in trafficking, such as risks of serious maltreatment, rape, torture, exposure to HIV/AIDS and even to psychological risks linked with separation, and emotional isolation. Sadly, our world in the 21st century is far less friendly and hospitable than we would like. It is an increasingly dangerous and threatening place for children. But for many parents – especially those from culturally insulated families and traditional communities, the idea of harming a child is alien to their reality and frame of reference.
4. High demand for cheap and submissive child labor in the informal economic sector. Children provide cheap labor and submit to abusive situations. They are often unaware of their rights or are powerless to seek assistance. Their vulnerability and eagerness to please make them attractive targets for the ruthless and greed driven predators in today’s world.
5. The desire of the youth for emancipation through migration. Studies have shown that children see in migration, not only the perception of becoming a better person, but also, the adventure of personal travel.
6. Institutional lapses such as inadequate political commitment, nonexistent national legislation against child trafficking, and absence of a judicial framework allowing for the perpetrators and accomplices of trafficking to be held responsible and punished for their acts.
7. Traditions and cultural values trafficking of children intersects the traditional role of extended families as caregivers and an early integration of children into the labor force. The ‘traditional placements’ of children in families of distant relatives or friends have mutated into a system motivated by economic objectives.
2.6 Consequences of Child Movement
Children who leave their environment may suffer unfairly from multi-dimensions. In Ethiopia, migration has its own salient consequences on children’s life. For example, the common effects are unemployment, economic constraints. (ESRC Research Group, 2006). A research report by UNICEF (2000) on the children working on the major streets of Ethiopia revealed that the effect of poverty usually creates suitable situation to violate children’s rights. Needless to say, many of the children are from low socio-economic families and even some others from the rural areas.
Child trafficking accompanied by short and long term psychological, social, economical and/or cultural consequences among which ESRC Research Group (2006) viewed the torments of migrant children in Ethiopia primarily as it pervade to the community and house hold results in impairment of family love and neglecting children may result in impoverishing the quantity and quality of the forth coming generation.
A study conducted by Belay (2006) found one of the possible consequences of child trafficking as psychological abuse and neglect. Corporal punishment by parents or guardians, family members, and relatives is an accepted cultural practice in Ethiopia. Besides from parents and other family members, many children are also abused (i.e., physically and sexually) by other persons who by chance meet them (Getnet, 2001).
Trafficking in persons has multifaceted impacts on the health and psychology of individual victims; it has also economic and political implications on the countries of origin and destination. So far there has not been any more rigorous empirical work on the health and other consequences of trafficking in persons. However, the human and social consequences of human trafficking, which range from the physical abuse and torture of victims to the psychological trauma, are compelling and unacceptable. The impact of trafficking on individuals and society is clearly destructive (UNODC 2008: 4).
Though trafficking has political and economic consequences on countries and societies, it is the individual victim that felt the most pervasive impacts of trafficking. child trafficking has an impact on the individuals it victimizes in all areas of their life, every stage of the trafficking process can involve physical, sexual and psychological abuse and violence, deprivation and torture, the forced use of substances, manipulation, economic exploitations and abusive working and living conditions (UNODC 2008: 9).
Physical and health effects of child are that the majorities of jobs that children’s do are harm to their physical development and even cause physical deformities after they trafficked from home place. In this regard children engaged in housed holds fen cants, garages, woods, daily labors and others without protective wears which in turn results in physical andpsychological effect on children’s (WHO, 2004).
The study on trafficked children for the purpose of sexual exploitation indicated that variety of result of sexual exploitation include long term emotional, behavioral, social and sexual problem. Children involved in commercial sexual exploitation experience physical harm that means rape, beating and assault by client’s partners and HIV/AIDS (ILO, 2004).
Trafficked girls are far more affected than boys both in terms of rehabbers as well as security of conditions they undergo. As the study conducted by ILO (2004) indicated children involved in domestic labor perform physical tasks including washing, looking, fetching water, gate keeping, looking after animals, taking and collecting children from school, laundry work, collecting fire wood, cultivating garden and others.
Jeanine Readliner (2004) disclosed that trafficking has devastating consequences forthose who fall victim to it, but it is especially damaging for children because its impact will last into the child’s future. In the worst cases, trafficking and the exploitation it involves can cause a child’s death, serious illness or permanent injury. The journey might be treacherous; the conditions of work are often dangerous; the standard of living provided by traffickers is invariably substandard. Jeanine further disclosed trafficked children may be denied access to doctors and health workers who could report their situation to the authorities. Often children who fall ill are simply turned out onto the streets by their exploiters and left to fend for themselves or in some cases may suffer a worse fate.
There are a number of further specific scourges occur in children’s life as long as they leave their local environment due to one or more reason; for example, physical maltreatment.( Belay ,200; Inter-American Commission of Women, 2001). Substance abuse and reproductive health diseases including HIV/AIDS.(Inter-American Commission of Women, 2001).Social stigma and sensitivity to domestic violence (ESRC Research Group, 2006).

2.7. Key actors involved in child trafficking
According to UNICEF Innocenti research center,2000, trafficking process or network involves three key actors: victims, users and traffickers.
The recruitment of the victim often occurs in one of two ways: (a) traffickers contact the potential victim or his or her family – in many cases traffickers know the victim or the victim’s family and are likely to take advantage of a condition of general vulnerability, e.g. illiteracy, poverty, lack of information; (b) a potential victim or his or her family contact traffickers – the potential victim is usually in a precarious position, seeking “help” to escape a situation of oppression, desperation or persecution, and to reach a desired destination.This can lead to a possible link between smuggling and trafficking. UNICEF,2000
Traffickers occupy a central place between supply and demand. On the one hand, they try to increase the supply of trafficked persons through recruitment, often using false information, fraudulent identification and abuse of power. On the other hand, they try to boost the demand by providing easy access to a steady supply of trafficked persons. Traffickers may be organized in criminal groups or be linked together in a chain of middlemen. In a minority of cases, international criminal gangs snatch or recruit the children themselves. For example, a group of Tanzanian girls in Sweden described to medical personnel how an African woman came to their parents’ house and offered the girls “education opportunities” abroad. The girls were taken to Sweden by the woman, kept in her house and shown sex videos and then forced to work on the streets as prostitutes.
It is possible for victims to enhance the traffickers’ network. Trafficked youth are sometimes sent back to their villages to recruit new children for work in the mines. In other instances there are reported cases of women engaged in prostitution returning to their villages to recruit young girls with promises of easy money.
In the case of trafficked children it is crucial to explore influences within the family, in particular the role that parents may play. There are numerous reports of parents inducing or forcing children into trafficking because this is perceived as the only strategy for survival. It is not uncommon to find some degree of family involvement in the transaction, such as parents accepting money from traffickers, distant relatives paying intermediaries to find work abroad, or parents handing over their children based on the promise of education, professional training or paid work.
The distinction between users and traffickers is crucial in order to understand the various patterns and to design effective interventions. Users are an important dimension of the trafficking process. As well as acting individually, they may be networked through access to activities of an illegal nature (such as prostitution or sexual abuse of children), to reduce costs by using cheap labour (such as illegal immigrants), to have access to easily manageable workers(such as working children), or to fulfil scarce or unavailable supply (such as adoption).
In many cases they are not aware of or interested in the process of trafficking or the routes and procedures used. Very often they do not perceive themselves as part of the trafficking network, although they are, in fact, an engine in the machinery of exploitation.

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2.8. An over view of children migration and trafficking in Ethiopia
Children under the age of 18 comprised close to half of the Ethiopian population, which was estimated to be 72.4 million in 2004 (UN, 2004).
According to CSA’s the 2007 population and housing census of Ethiopia, results for SNNPR, Gamo Gofa Zone and Chancha woreda, Children under the age of 19 in comprised more than half of the Region’s population, which is 8,164317 accounting about 59.1%, 852,730 / accounting about 58% and 55,699 /accounting 53.54% of the total population of geographical areas respectively.
Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in the world. On account of different human development indicators, Ethiopia is ranked 169th out of 175 countries. During the period between 1990 and 2001, 81.9 percent of the population was living under 1 USD a day, and 44 percent of the population was living under the national poverty line (UNDP, 2003).
Agriculture, which is the largest sector in the country, is not developed. The main reasons for the poor performance of agriculture include insecurity of land tenure, diminishing size of farm plots, and lack of sufficient investment in the rural economy by government and the private sector (Desalegn&Aklilu, 1999)
The role of resource constrain as a hurdle to child right promotion is partly reflected in the failure or ineffective functioning of social services such as health and education, which is illustrated in the high malnutrition rates, high illiteracy figures, and the spread of HIV/AIDS, which has taken epidemic proportions.
According to Save the Children, the country has the lowest percentage of social services amongst poor countries (SC, 2001).
Trafficking occurred both internally, from rural parts of the country to cities, and abroad for the purpose of domestic work, agriculture, trading, sexual exploitation, and for petty crimes like begging. Adults, too, are trafficked for various reasons within and outside of the country (Aronowitz 2009: 80).
A research report by UNICEF (2000) revealed that the stiff demand of labor from children triggered children migration from rural parts of Ethiopia to the urban towns. ESRC Research Group (2006) even more confirmed that the exploitative nature of child labor forced the situation of child migration chronic in Ethiopia. The clear visualizations from diversified sources show that the problem is more persistent in Ethiopia from rural-urban and urban–urban than rural-rural and urban–rural pattern increased due to construction work opportunities in urban areas. (Pankhurst, 2005; ESRC Research Group on the Well being of Developing Countries, 2006). Child migration may occurs since there are ”pushing factors” such as the absence of occupational opportunities in the rural areas, and; prevalence of famine, drought, and conflict. (Gebre; Ezra cited in Menberu, 2006; Forum on Street Children, 2004).
Forum on Street Children Ethiopia (2004) augmented as child migration from rural to urban areas is evident since individuals tend to look for the gleaming city life. Moreover, young children migrate from rural areas of Ethiopia to the urban areas in order to avail educational access. (ESRC Research Group, 2006).
According to FSCE (2008), every year children are trafficked in large numbers particularly from Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional States to Addis Ababa. FSCE further disclosed that, the statistical information obtained for about four consecutive years (2004-2007) shows that domestic child trafficking is dramatically increasing. From 2004-2007 a total of 2243 children were trafficked from rural areas to Addis Ababa. The data also shows that every year, children are trafficked in large numbers particularly from Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional States to Addis Ababa (FSCE, 2008). A baseline study conducted by MCDP on Child Trafficking in ChenchaWoreda of GamogofaZone, revealed that male children are mainly trafficked from this location for the purpose of engaging them on weaving activities (MCDP, 2004).
The study conducted by IOM (2006) on Trafficking in women and children in Ethiopia also depicted that, every day, large number of children and young girls flock from various corners of the rural areas to the major cities either forced or deceived by traffickers and their close relatives. It was inspired from the study that the trends of trafficking in children from rural areas of Amhara Regional State to Addis Ababa and or the regional towns mainly for the purpose of prostitution and domestic works. Another route was identified form Gamogofa Zone of the Southern Region Nation Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, through which boys are trafficked for the purpose of engaging them in the traditional weaving industry.
A clear psychological investigation conducted by different scholars in Ethiopia uncovered some facts regarding children’s problems whether trafficking, migration etc may be a reflection of an authoritarian cultural orientation; and several activities, and decisions containing the specific child bearing (Ehetu cited in Belay Tefera, 2006) to ways of child rearing (Abraham; Habtamu quoted by Belay Tefera, 2006) are adult-centered and fulfill the interest of adults than children.In Ethiopia, most parents continue breading as many children as they can (Assefa;Dilnessaw cited in Belay Tefera, 2006) without sufficient source of revenue since children by per se are capable of making money, and which they are considered as the properties of their parents whenever they could be exploited (Eheteu quoted by Belay Tefera, 2006).CSA Ethiopia (2005) even revealed many of Ethiopia parents tend to have more than 8 children per a woman that may facilitate the situation for child labor exploitation, trafficking , migration and any form of maltreatment.
UNICEF (2007) has identified poverty, large family size, rapid urbanization among others as the major factor why many children are vulnerable to trafficking. Parents with large family are often prone to those traffickers deceit in giving away some of their children to city residents or even strangers promising a better life for them. Trafficking deprives child victims the privilege to exercise their wide range of rights, including the right to belong and identify, the right to freedom, education among others. ANPPCAN(2010).
The United Nations General Assembly (1990) attempted to indicate the causes of migration comprehensively. The agency claimed that migration has tremendous etiologies, and usually explained as due to interdependent factors like that of deficiencies in the economic, social and cultural dimensions.There are other specific factors that may cause child migration and trafficking. For instance, death of parents.(De Lang, 2007; Forum on Street Children Ethiopia, 2003); physical abuse by parents/guardians.(Forum on Street Children Ethiopia, 2004; Habtamu, 2006).Experiences from America and Western societies reveal that urbanization and industrialization increase the demand for cheap labor. In the 19th Century, this resulted in requirement for child labor in the cities of Europe and North America. This is paralleled today by the high demand for child labor in the manufacturing industries in India and other South Asian countries, particularly in the informal, unregulated sector of the economy (Dottridge, 2006). Such trends are also reflective in Ethiopia since children get in to trafficking from the southern part of Ethiopia; for example, from Chencha district to Addis Ababa for weaving, whereas from Wolaita areas to Arsi and Bale to take part in farming activity and herding. (Endashaw, et al., 2006).

2.9 Conclusion
The vast majority of human trafficking studies in Ethiopia deal with the misery which Ethiopian victims of human trafficking experience in the destination areas. Majority of the studies focus on the life experiences, recruitment process, and expectation of those returned victims of human trafficking. There is lack of research in Ethiopia on the factors that affecting child trafficking face in the home or village and trafficking process, on the trafficking trajectories of victims, and on the operation and networks of traffickers. As a result there is a limited understanding of the factors that affecting child trafficking and trafficking trajectories of child trafficking victims in Ethiopia. There is also a poor understanding of the networks of traffickers and their modes of operation. In general the current state of knowledge about child trafficking in Ethiopia is poor and insufficient.
Overall, overviews of the available studies show that there is lack of any comprehensive research carried out in relation to all aspects of child trafficking in Ethiopia. The majority of information available in this area is focused on the exploitation and life experiences of victims, their expectations before migration, and the prospects and challenges of work migration. These studiesmay not accurately reflect the trafficking trajectories of victims and the problems they face before and in the trafficking process; and the networks and modes of operation of traffickers.


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