2.1 MARKETING PLAN
2.1.1 Description of Project
Sugarcane Juice is a Marketing concept that deals in product. Our product is tetra pack packed sugarcane juice. Sugarcane juice is extensively consumed in summer season due its delectable flavor and low price. But the issue is that it can’t be preserved for prolonged period. In Pakistan no company has introduced sugar cane juice up to now in tetra pack. The methodology employed in Pakistan is kind of old and so many people don’t plump for this sector because of low shelf life threat. Therefore we have chosen to take a shot at sugar cane juice since sugar cane juice is naturally sweet, so it can be sold with a bit extra treatment.
2.1.1 Product Sketch: Sugarcane is the most imperative member of the plant kingdom with a metabolism leading to the accumulation of sucrose. It is transported as glucose and fructose inside the developing plant. The crop gives the least expensive of nourishing and health-giving food.
The sugarcane belongs to the monocot family. It is a perpetual plant which grows from 2.5 to 4.25 meters. With adequate care, it grows up to 7.5 meters. The measurement of steins differs from 2.5 to 8 cm. It has a few joints after each couple of centimeters.
2.1.2 Origin and Distribution: The names sugar and sugarcane have been gotten from the Sanskrit word, Shankar. Sugarcane is native to Pakistan. It was developed here from the old times. Sugarcane is presently cultivated everywhere throughout the globe. Pakistan stands fourth in sugarcane growth, trailed by Brazil, India, Cuba, China, Mexico, the U.S.A., South Africa and Columbia.
2.1.3 Food Value: The juice is extracted from the stems by squeezing it through iron rollers. It is nutritious and refreshing. It includes about 15 per cent natural sugar and is loaded with organic salts and vitamins.
In the beginning, sugarcane was cultivated exclusively to chew in the pacific and South Eastern Asia, a custom which has now spread all through the vast majority of the tropics. The juice can likewise be utilized for drinking or sweetening. In sweltering summer days, it becomes a relieving drink. A little lime juice might be blended in the juice to enhance its flavor. Food value of sugarcane juice is as per the following:
Moisture 90.2%
Calcium 10 mg
Protein -0.1%
Phosphorus 10 mg
Fat 0.2%
Iron 1.1 mg
Minerals 0.4%
Carbohydrates 9.1%

2.1.2 Business Potential
CURRENT SITUATION
We have more clear and exclusive information about the market and we also know the customer demand and choices. In view of our Research we are strictly determined to serve consumer needs and wants with an absolutely new taste of juice like “Sugarcane Juice”. We are going to market our new product for five groups of people. They are demonstrated graphically below:
Geographic:
Our immediate geographic market will be Karachi city with a populace of around 21.2 million.

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Demographic:
Male & Female
Generation – kid, young, matured people, old people and jaundice patients. We know the following about the profile of the typical resident of Karachi:
22% children
18% mature
38% young
20% Jaundice Patients
2% of the old people
Psychographic:
Social class: Middle Class, Upper Middle Class, and Upper Class.
Life style: Achiever
Behavioral:
Benefits: Quality
User status: Potential client, first-time client, and consistent client.
2.1.3 Swot Analysis
1) Strengths:
• We have presented sugarcane juice in tetra pack for the very first time. So it is beneficial for us to have more consumer than other new competitors because the time they take to enter the market the buyer will become loyal to our product.
• Sugar cane produces good quality products. It cannot settle with low quality.
• We have introduced it the first time as there is no any sugarcane juice in tetra pack obtainable in market.
User status: Potential user, first-time user, and regular user
2) Weaknesses:
• Sugarcane juices cannot be store for long time.
• Customers are brand loyal toward competitor’s product so we have to persuade them. As there are already competitors who are dealing in juices and beverages, so it is not easy to shift them from other juices.
3) Opportunities
• Healthy organic and natural drinks oriented global and local culture.
• Limited alternative in regionally produced natural fruit juices.
• High trade potential.
• With excellent pre harvest planning, which is around half of the aggregate generation, could be transformed into potential business opportunity.
• Reduction in excise and import duties on food processing machinery.
4 Threats
• We confront trouble if government forces taxes on them which compel them to increase the rate of their product.
• There is massive competition in juices market.
• There are no many entry obstacles so a large numbers of local juices enter in juices market.
• Inaccessibility of necessary industries statistics.
• Single Product Company.
• High processing and packaging cost.
2.1.4 Marketing Strategy
1) Objectives:
We have set aggressive but accomplishable objectives for the first and second years of market entry.
? First-year Objectives: We are aiming for a 3 percent share of the Pakistan juice market through unit sales volume of 200,000.
? Second-year Objectives: Our second year objective is to reach break-even on the sugar cane juice and launch our new product.
2) Target Customers:
Our potential client will be all sorts of people. But we will fragment our market based on their need and properties towards safe product. Our client will be:
? Students at each level from school to universities.
? Employees who works whole day.
? Households and travelers. In summer session each sort of individuals with no age restrains utilizes this juice. Because of unhygienic products greater part of the general population avoids this. We will exceptionally focus on those sorts of people.
3) Positioning:
Brand strategy is at the core of marketing scheme. It is the demonstration of outlining the organization offer and image with the goal that it involves an esteemed place in the targeted consumer mind. Sugarcane juice is exceptionally useful for health and gives refreshment. As we are launching sugar cane squeeze in tetra pack, so we need to make positive and durable picture in the brains of clients that we are giving hygienic juice since we tend to introduce new flavors like mint and ginger etc.
Positioning Statement:
For every individual, who desires a 100% natural product that offers rejuvenation and freshness, our Sugarcane juice is a packaged drink that offers energy and refreshment at reasonable cost, best quality and value for your money.
Point of parity: Different flavor Tetra packing
Point of difference: 100% pure juice
4) Impact
It is quite a new idea which has not been yet commercialized due to the lengthy and uncertain methods of preserving this juice This juice is require not to be advertised so much since it is new thing which individuals will attempt and love a great deal. Simply we can place it on college cafeteria, school cafeteria, office cafeteria, grocery shops, the main thing we should do is to guarantee its timeframe of realistic usability and long preserving time.
2.1.5 Marketing Mix
Sugarcane Juice marketing mix is comprised of the following approaches:
Promotion product, price, place, marketing communication, marketing research(R ; D) and customer service.
1) Promotion:
The marketing of the product i.e. the advertisement, sales promotion and other promotional tool scan alter the purchasing conduct because some of the individuals greatly inspired by the publicity of the product. We have decided to use integrated marketing communication in which there will be mix of different marketing promotional tools that will pass on clear and stable idea of our product to the customers. These Promotional tools are given below:
• Television
• Newspaper
• Promotion vans
• Unique selling proposition
2) Pricing
In the present market of Pakistan, there are various juice items exist. Through the statistical surveying we have uncovered that a large percentage of these items’ price is in the range of Rs.25 to Rs.30.
As we are trying to launch similar products but with different test, it is smarter to set the cost in view of different products to which we will contend. We have experienced our whole production process and found that even if we keep the price of our product with respect to the cost of our competitor product, we can still cover our aggregate expense. So, the selling price we set for our product is Rs.25
Comparison with the other product *price:
Name of the company Price
Nestle
Quice
Maza

2.1.6 Conclusion
The idea of sugarcane juice is new in Pakistan. Our Sugarcane juice is an innovative and new concept for marketing. Customers who are aware about their health must accept our product. In accordance to our marketing research, we see that our product as the best marketing product within a couple of years.

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

2.2 Principle of direct torque control of induction motor:
In a direct torque controlled (DTC) induction motor drive, it is possible to control directly the stator flux linkage (s?)or the rotor flux (r?)or the magnetizing flux (m?) and the electromagnetic torque by the selection of an optimal inverter voltage vector. The selection of the voltage vector of the voltage source inverter is made to restrict the flux and torque error within their respective flux and torque hysteresis bands and to get the fastest torque response and highest efficiency at every instant. DTC enables both quick torque response in the transient operation and reduction of the harmonic losses and acoustic noise.
WHYUSING DTC
The Benefits of using DTC include the following:
1 No need for motor speed or position feedback in 95% of applications. Thus, installation of costly encoders or other feedback devices can be avoided.
2DTC control is available for different types of motor including permanent magnet and synchronous reluctance motors.
3Accurate torque and speed control down to low speeds, as well as full startup torque down to zero speed.
4 Excellent torque linearity.
5 High static and dynamic speed accuracy.
6 No preset switching frequency optimal transistor switching is determined
2.2.1 Voltage Source Inverter
A six step voltage source inverter provides the variable frequency AC voltage input to the induction motor in DTC method. The DC supply to the inverter is provided either by a DC source like a battery, or a rectifier supplied from a three phase or single phase AC source. Fig. 2.2 shows a six step voltage source inverter. The inductor L is inserted to limit short circuit through fault current. A large electrolytic capacitor C is inserted to stiffen the DC link voltage.
The switching devices in the voltage source inverter bridge must be capable of being turned OFF and ON. Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) are used because they can offer high switching speed with enough power rating. Each IGBT has an inverse parallel-connected diode. This diode provide alternate path for the motor current after the IGBT, is turned off.

Figure 2.2 Voltage Source Inverter
Each leg of the inverter has two switches one connected to the high side (+) of the DC link and the other to the low side (-); only one of the two can be ON at any moment. When the high side gate signal is ON the phase is assigned the binary number 1, and assigned the binary number 0 when the low side gate signal is ON. Considering the combinations of status of phases a, b and c the inverter has eight switching modes(Va,Vb,Vc=000-111) V2 (000) are zero voltage vectors V0 (000) and V7 (111) where the motor terminals are short circuited and the others are nonzero voltage vectors V1 to V6
The six nonzero voltages space vectors will have the orientation, and also shows the possible dynamic locus of the stator flux, and its different variation depending on the VSI states chosen. The possible global locus is divided into six different sectors signaled by the discontinuous line. Each vector lies in the center of a sector of width named S1 to S6 according to the voltage vector it contains.
It can be seen that the inverter voltage directly force the stator flux, the required stator flux locus will be obtained by choosing the appropriate inverter switching state. Thus the stator flux linkage move in space in the direction of the stator voltage space vector at a speed that is proportional to the magnitude of the stator voltage space vector. By selecting one after another the appropriate stator voltage vector, is then possible to change the stator flux in the required method. If an increase of the torque is required then the torque is controlled by applying voltage vectors that advance the
same sector depending on the stator flux position.

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Figure 2.3.Stator flux vector locus and different possible switching Voltage vectors. FD: flux decrease. FI: flux increase. TD: torque decrease.
TI: torque increase.
Table 2.1.General Selection Table for Direct Torque Control, “k” being the sector number.
Voltage vector Increase Decrease
Stator flux Vk,Vk+1, Vk-1 Vk+2,Vk-2, Vk+3
Torque Vk+1, Vk-1 Vk+2, Vk-2

This can be tabulated in the look-up Table 2.1 (Takahashi look-up table).
Finally, the DTC classical look up table is as follows:
Table 2.2 conventional DTC look up table
Flux errorD? Torque error
DT S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

1 1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V¬1
0 V0 V7 V0 V7 V8 V7
-1 V6 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5

0 1 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 V2
0 V0 V7 V0 V7 V0 V7
-1 V5 V6 V1 V2 V3 V4

2.3 DTC SCHEMATIC:

Figure 2.4 Direct Torque control scheme
A schematic of Direct Torque Control is shown. As it can be seen, there are two different loops corresponding to the magnitudes of the stator flux and torque. The reference values for the flux stator modulus and the torque are compared with the actual values, and the resulting error values are supplied into the two level and three-level hysteresis blocks respectively. The outputs of the stator flux error and torque error hysteresis blocks, together with the position of the stator flux are used as inputs of the look up table. The inputs to the look up table are given in terms of 1,0,-1 depend on whether torque and flux errors within or beyond hysteresis bands and the sector number in which the flux sector presents at that particular moment. In accordance with the figure 1.2, the stator flux modulus and torque errors tend to be restricted within its respective hysteresis bands.
From the schematic of DTC it is cleared that, for the proper selection of voltage sector from lookup table, the DTC scheme require the flux and torque estimations.
2.3.1 Techniques for Quantifications of Stator Flux in DTC:
Accurate flux quantifications in Direct Torque controlled induction motor drives is necessary to ensure proper drive operation and stability. Most of the flux estimation methods proposed was based on voltage model, current model, or the combination of both. The estimation based on current model normally applied at low frequency, and stator current and rotor mechanical speed or position. In some industrial applications, the use of incremental encoder to get the speed or position of the rotor is undesirable since it reduces the robustness and reliability of the drive. It has been generally known that even though the current model has managed to remove the sensitivity to the stator resistance variation. The use of rotor parameters in the estimation introduced error at high rotor speed due to the rotor parameter variations. So in this present DTC control scheme the flux and torque are quantified by using voltage model which does not need a position sensor and the only motor parameter used is the stator resistance. (Oghanna, 2011)
2.4 INTRODUCTION OF FLC
Fuzzy logic has become one of the most successful of today’s technology for developing sophisticated control system. With it aid, complex requirement may be implemented in simply, easily and inexpensive controlling method. The application ranges from consumer products such as cameras, camcorder, washing machines and microwave ovens to industrial process control, medical instrumentation and decision support system .many decision-making and problem solving tasks are too complex to be understand quantitatively however, people succeed by using knowledge that is imprecise rather than precise. Fuzzy logic is all about the relative importance of precision. It has two different meanings. In a narrow sense, fuzzy logic is a logical system which is an extension of multi valued logic, but in wider sense fuzzy logic is synonymous with the theory of fuzzy sets. Fuzzy set theory is originally introduced by LotfiZadeh in the 1960s, resembles approximate reasoning in it use of approximate information and uncertainty to generate decisions.
Several studies shows, both in simulations and experimental results, that Fuzzy Logic control yields superior results with respect to those obtained by conventional control algorithms thus, in industrial electronics the FLC control has become an attractive solution in controlling the electrical motor drives with large parameter variations like machine tools and robots. However, the FL Controllers design and tuning process was often complex because several quantities, such as membership functions, control rules, input and output gains, etc. must be adjusted. The design process of a FLC can be simplified if some of the mentioned quantities are obtained from the parameters of a given Proportional-Integral controller (PIC)for the same application. (Lotfizabeh, 2011).
2.5 Why fuzzy logic controller (FLC)
• Fuzzy logic controller was used to design nonlinear systems in control applications. The design of conventional control system is normally based on the mathematical model. If an accurate mathematical model is available with known parameters it can be analyzed and controller can be designed for specific performances, such procedure is time consuming.
• Fuzzy logic controller has adaptive characteristics. The adaptive characteristics can achieve robust performance to system with uncertainty parameters variation and load disturbances.
The main principles of fuzzy logic controller.
The fuzzy logic system involves three steps fuzzification application of fuzzy rules and decision making and defuzzification. Fuzzification involves mapping input crisp values and decision is made based on these fuzzy rules. These fuzzy rules are applied to the fuzzified input values and fuzzy outputs are calculated in the last step, a defuzzifier coverts the fuzzy output back to the crisp values. The fuzzy controller in this thesis is designed to have three fuzzy input variables and one output variable for applying the fuzzy control to direct torque control of induction motor. There are three variable input fuzzy logic variables. The stator flux error, electromagnetic torque error, and angle of the flux in the stator.

Figure 2.5. Block Diagram of Fuzzy logic controller.
The membership functions of these Fuzzy sets are triangular with two membership function N and P for the flux-error, three membership functions N, Z, P for the torque-error, six membership variables for the stator flux position sector and eight membership functions for the output commanding the inverter. The inference system contains thirty six Fuzzy rules which is framed in order to reduce the torque and flux ripples. Each rule takes three inputs, and produces one output, which is a voltage vector. Each voltage vector corresponds to a switching state of the inverter. The switching state decides the pulse to be applied to the inverter. The Fuzzy inference uses MAMDANI’s procedure for applying Fuzzy rules which is based on minimum to maximum decision. Depending on the values of flux error, torque error and stator flux position, the output voltage vector is chosen based on the Fuzzy rules. Using Fuzzy Logic controller the voltage vector is selected such that the amplitude and flux linkage angle is controlled. Since the torque depends on the flux linkage angle the torque can be controlled and hence the torque error is very much reduced.
2.6. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC)
Fuzzy logic expressed operational laws in linguistics terms instead of mathematical equations. Many systems are too complex to model accurately, even with complex mathematical equations, therefore traditional methods become impracticable in these systems.
However fuzzy logics linguistic terms provide a possible method for defining the operational characteristics of such system.
Fuzzy logic controller can be considered as a special class of symbolic controller. The configuration of fuzzy logic controller block diagram is shown in Fig.2.6

Figure 2.6 Block diagram for Mamdani type Fuzzy Logic Controller
The fuzzy logic controller has three main components
1. Fuzzification.
2. Fuzzy inference.
3. Defuzzification.
2.6.1. Fuzzification
The following functions:
1. Multiple measured crisp inputs first must be mapped into fuzzy membership function this process is called fuzzification.
2. Performs a scale mapping that transfers the range of values of input variables into corresponding universes of discourse.
3. Performs the function of fuzzification that converts input data into suitable linguistic values which may be viewed as labels of fuzzy sets.
Fuzzy logic’s linguistic terms are often expressed in the form of logical implication, such as IF-THENrules. These rules define a range of values known as fuzzy membership functions.
Fuzzy membership function may be in the form of a triangle, a trapezoidal, and a bell as shown in Fig. 2.7

Triangle Trapezoid

Bell

Figure 2.7. (a) Triangle, (b) Trapezoid, and (c) BELL membership functions.
The inputs of the fuzzy controller are expressed in several linguist levels. As shown in Fig.2.8 these levels can be described as positive big (PB), positive medium (PM), positive small (PS), negative small (NS), negative medium (NM), and negative big (NB). Each level is described by fuzzy set below.

Figure.2.8.Seven levels of fuzzy membership function

2.6.2. Fuzzy inference
Fuzzy inference is the process of draw up the mapping from a given input to an output using fuzzy logic. The mapping then provides a basis from which decisions can be made. There are two types of fuzzy inference systems that can be implemented in the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox: Mamdani-type and Sugeno-type. These two types of inference systems vary to some extent in the way outputs are determined.
Fuzzy inference systems have been successfully applied in fields such as automatic control, data classification, decision analysis, expert systems, and computer vision. Because of its multi-disciplinary nature, fuzzy inference systems are associated with a number of names, such as fuzzy-rule-based systems, fuzzy expert systems, fuzzy modeling, fuzzy associative memory, fuzzy logic controllers, and simply, fuzzy Mamdani’s fuzzy inference method is the most commonly seen fuzzy methodology.
Mamdani’s method was among the first control systems built using fuzzy set theory. It was proposed in 1975 by Ebrahim Mamdani as an attempt to control a steam engine and boiler combination by arranging a set of linguistic control rules obtained from experienced human operators. Mamdani’s effort was based on LotfiZadeh’s 2011on fuzzy algorithms for complex systems and decision processes.
The second phase of the fuzzy logic controller is its fuzzy inference where the knowledge base and decision making logic reside .The rule base and data base from the knowledge base. The data base contains the description of the input and output variables. The decision making logic evaluates the control rules .the control-rule base can be developed to tolerate the output action of the controller to the inputs.
2.6.3. Defuzzification
The output of the inference mechanism is fuzzy output variables. The fuzzy logic controller must convert its internal fuzzy output variables into crisp values so that the actual system can use these variables. This conversion is called defuzzification.
2.7: Fuzzy Direct Torque Controller
The fuzzy direct torque control technique consists of inverter, induction motor, torque controller, flux controller, flux estimator, torque estimator and clarke’s transform. The fuzzy logic technique which is based on the language rules, is used to solve this nonlinear issue. In a three phase voltage source inverter, the switching commands of each inverter leg are matched. For each leg a logic state Ci (I = a,b,c) is defined, thatCi is 1 IF the upper switch turned ON and zero IF the lower switch turned OFF. IFCi is 0 THEN it means that the lower switch is ON and upper switch is turned OFF. Since three are independent there will be eight different states, so eight different voltages.
To study the performance of the developed DTC model, a closed loop torque control of the drive is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink simulation package. The torque error and flux errors were compared in their respective hysteresis band to generate their respective logic state as (ST) and (S?). The sector logic state (S?) is used as the third controlling signal for referring the DTC switching table. These three controlling signals are used to determine the instantaneous inverter switching voltage vector from three dimensional DTC switching lookup table. The simulation results are implemented for conventional DTC scheme and proposed fuzzy based DTC scheme. There are three non-zero voltage vectors and two voltage vectors.

Figure2.9Block Diagram of fuzzy logic DTC
The DTFC on induction motor drives is designed to have three fuzzy input variables and one output control variable to achieve fuzzy logic based DTC of the induction machine. Its functional block diagram is as shown in fig. 2.9 the three input variables are the stator flux error, electromagnetic torque error and angle of stator flux. The output was the voltage space vector. The DTF Cconsist of fuzzification, rule base, data base, decision making and defuzzification.
The input variable (?T) and (?) are fuzzified using fuzzy functions over the respective domains. The output of DTFC was also fuzzified, the all possible fuzzy rules are stored in fuzzy rule base.
DTFC takes the decision for the given input crisp variables by firing this rule base.

Figure2.10 DTC functional Block Diagram

2.8 SUMMARY
With the principle of direct torque control (DTC)of induction motor, the high ripple torque in the motor have being reduced to above 65% in the reviewed work.
These controls have being one of the best controls for driving induction motor because of its principles. Though DTC strategy is popular and simpler to implement than the flux vector control method because voltage modulators and coordination transformations are not required.
Although, it introduces some drawbacks as follows:
1. High magnitude of torque ripple
2. Torque and small errors in flux and torque are not distinguished. In other word, the same vectors are used during start up and step changes and during steady state.
3. Sluggish response in both start up and step changes in either flux or torque.
In other to overcome the mentioned drawbacks, there are difference solution like fuzzy logic duty ratio control method. In this work fuzzy logic with duty ratio control is proposed to use with direct torque control to reduce this high ripple torque and realized the best DTC improvement.

2.5.1 Anaerobic ponds
These are the first ponds and are the recipients of the influent from homes and industries which is thick and dark in colour. These are responsible for anaerobic respiration so they are mainly concerned with the presence of anaerobic bacteria that digest the wastewater which is highly organic at this stage. They are the deepest of the ponds as anaerobic bacteria do not require oxygen and sunlight in order to digest. Mara (2004) concurred by suggesting that these ponds are usually deeper due to sludge accumulation and the main function is to remove biological oxygen demand in a relative short retention time of few days. Organic matter is removed by the sedimentation of settable solids and anaerobic digestion in the sludge layer. Theoretically, anaerobic systems should generate lesser amounts of sludge compared to aerobic systems, however, in practice in the Australian meat process industry, anaerobic ponds frequently fill rapidly with solids (Watson: 1999).
Anaerobic ponds are usually used for treatment of industrial and agricultural wastes which contain high organic matter and sulphate (Rhajbhandari: 2007). Anaerobic ponds provide a degree of pre-treatment, thereby enabling a reduction in the size requirements of the subsequent aerobic ponds. Anaerobic treatment is more suited to wastewater with high BOD (IETC-UNEP, 2002) and therefore useful at reducing high concentrations of BOD and suspended solids from agricultural and food processing wastewater.
A properly designed anaerobic pond can achieve around 60% BOD removal at 20° C and one-day hydraulic retention time is sufficient for wastewater with a BOD of up to 300 mg/l and temperatures higher than 20° C (Mara: 2003). The anaerobic ponds acts mostly like an uncovered tank that breaks down the organic matter in the effluent through the use of organisms, releasing methane and carbon dioxide( Quiroga: 2014).
The main operational problems of anaerobic ponds are the odour problems, mosquitoes and other insects and the possible reasons of odour problems are excessive loading rate, presence of toxic substances and inhibitors in influent, sudden drop of temperature and low influent pH value (Marinella: 2015). When considering the effects on climate change also, another disadvantage of anaerobic pond systems is the emission of greenhouse gases such as methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide that are normally released to the atmosphere since the areas are open and need sunlight and wind to operate (Glaz: 2016).

Figure 4

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Diagram showing different types wastewater ponds namely anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds

2.5.2 Facultative Ponds
These are the largest of the waste stabilisation ponds and they harbour both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Shelton (2005) concurred that they are referred as fulcatative ponds because the term facultative refers to the fact that these ponds operate with both aerobic and anaerobic zones. Reed (1995) stated that the facultative pond is the most common type used in the United States of America and in different terms such as oxidation pond, sewage lagoon and photosynthetic pond.

According to Palacios (2014), the waste water treated in the aerated ponds is discharged into the facultative ponds which need to fulfill two fundamental requirements of fulcatative ponds that are to have an adequate organic load and an oxygen balance that keeps the aerobic conditions over the anaerobic layer situated in the bottom of the pond. The presence of algae in the aerobic and facultative zones is essential for the successful performance of facultative ponds (EPA, 2002). In sunlight conditions, the algal cells utilise carbon dioxide from the water and release oxygen produced during photosynthesis. The oxygen produced by algae and surface reaeration is then used by aerobic and facultative bacteria to stabilise organic material in the upper layer of water.

Fulcatative ponds can be broadly classified as primary or secondary based on the characteristics of the influent. If the facultative pond receives influent without pre-treatment, it is named as primary facultative pond whereas if the fulcatative pond receives pre-treated influent from anaerobic pond, septic tank or shallow sewerage systems, it is called a secondary facultative pond (Sperling: 2007).

According to Environmental Protection Agency (2002), facultative ponds are usually 1.2 to 2.4 m in depth and are not mechanically mixed or aerated. The wastewater is more greenish and there is the presence of algae in water. They are designed for BOD removal on the basis of a relatively low surface loading to permit the development of a healthy algal population as the oxygen for BOD removal by the pond bacteria is mostly generated by algal photosynthesis (Mara and Pearson: 1998). The algae is beneficial to the process as it uses the carbon dioxide produced by aerobic bacteria to grow and release more oxygen which is needed by the aerobic bacteria for survival. This interrelationship between algae and aerobic bacteria is called symbiosis and allows for the removal of nutrients, heavy metals and pathogens (Alamgir: 2016).

2.5.3 Maturation Ponds
The effluent from fulcatative pond is channelled into the maturation ponds. The main purpose of maturation ponds is to remove pathogens found in the wastewater. These are very shallow, usually 0.9 – 1 m depth to allow light penetration to the bottom and aerobic conditions throughout the whole depth (Dehgani: 2007). The maturation ponds have a similar purpose than the facultative ponds with the difference being that in these ponds, there is hardly any accumulation of solids and the increase of the pH due to the photosynthetic activity results in an important bacterial mortality. Kayombo (2015) also added that maturation ponds usually show less vertical biological and physicochemical stratification and are well-oxygenated throughout the day.

The number and size of maturation ponds is defined by the necessary retention time required for the removal of faecal coliform and it should also be noted that the above also performs the oxidation of a small amount of biological oxygen demand (Martinez 2014). Total nitrogen removal in a whole waste stabilization system depends on the number of maturation ponds included in the waste stabilisation ponds system Pena (2004).
Groundwater contamination
National centre for Groundwater defines groundwater as water that is found beneath the earth’s surface and it is an important source of drinking water especially in the rural areas (Rotatu, 2008). It is also fresh water from rain or melting snow and ice that soaks into the soil and is stored in the tiny pores between the rocks and particles of soil (EPA, 2018). The quality of groundwater is determined by various chemical constituents and their concentration, which are mostly derived from the geological data of the particular region through groundwater flows (Khumbar, 2011). Human activities can change the natural composition of groundwater through the disposal of chemicals and microbial matter on land or into the soils and this can lead to groundwater contamination which is the change of groundwater quality due to the activities of man (Harter, 2003).
The sources of groundwater contamination can be natural in nature whereby naturally occurring particulates of the soil such as iron, fluorides, manganese, arsenic, chlorides, or sulphates can become dissolved in ground water. Other naturally occurring substances, such as decaying organic matter, can move in ground water as particles (EPA, 2018). Man-made or human activities also promote groundwater contamination. Activities such as agricultural development, surface water irrigation, chemical use in agriculture, urban and industrial development affect the quality and quantity of groundwater as well ( USGS, 2016). In Jordan, Al Ramtha wastewater treatment plant was discovered to be the main cause of groundwater pollution and high levels of nitrates were found on nearby wells (Obeidat).

2.2.7.2 Recycling Collection Facilities
Recycling activities begin with material recovery (picking and extraction) and collection after materials are discarded. Without this process, recycling is not feasible. How and where recyclables material can be collected vary from community to community. It can be collected from facilities at residences, schools, businesses etc. through:
i) Curbside collection facilities requiring homeowners to separate recyclables from their garbage, which is the most common method. Residents set recyclables, sometimes sorted by type, on their curbs to be picked up by municipal or commercial haulers. Clean recyclables may need to be placed in special containers, while the gar-bage goes in standard containers. Both are placed at the curb for collection. Efficient and effective recycling is achieved where secondary raw materials are separated from wastes by the generator. Therefore design and implementation of source separation must be sensitive to local cultural and socio-economic circumstances.
ii) Drop-off centers are one of the simplest forms of col¬lecting recyclable materials where people drop off their used glass, metal, plastic, and paper at designated sites. These centers are usually found in easily accessible location near a high-traffic area such as the entrances to supermarkets and parking lots. These centers are often sponsored by community organiza¬tions.
iii) Buy back centers purchase met¬als, glass, plastic, newsprint, and sometimes batteries and other materials (Rahman, 2009). At these centres, recycled-content manufacturers buy their products back from consumers and reuse or remold the used products into new products.
iv) Deposit and refund centers require con¬sumers to pay a deposit on a purchased product in a container (e.g. bottle). The deposit can be redeemed when the con¬sumer brings the container back to the business or company for reuse or recycling.

2.2.7.3 Material Recovery Facilities
Materials collected for recycling are usually sent to a materials recovery facilities (MRF). This is a specialized plant or building that receives, separates, and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end users (Hickman, 2009). There are two types of MRF systems. A “clean” MRF is a facility that accepts source separated recyclable materials. A “dirty” MRF receives a mixture of waste material that requires labor intense sorting activities to separate recyclables from the mixed waste. The main function of the MRF is to maximize the quantity of recyclables processed while producing materials that can be transported at low cost to generate the highest possible revenues in the market.
Sorting
This is one of the main processes of value addition of the waste recovered. The greater in the level of sorting, the greater is the value of the material produced. For instance, if plastic is grouped into one category, its value is lower than when it is further separated into sub-categories of hard and soft, then HDPE, PET, and LDPE. Sorting is done according to color, size, shape and potential use or re-use of the materials so as to meet the end-user requirements.
Volume Accumulation
Less volume per unit weight adds value i.e. higher prices per-unit volume. If industrial stock-feeds are massive in volume, it follows that less storage space is required. Also, the greater the quantity, the better bargaining power the trader has, for example small quantities have high transactions costs, such as checking quality, arranging transport and paying the seller hence reducing the profit margin.
2.2.7.4 Processing facilities
Processing includes washing, change in shape by cutting, granulating, compacting and baling. This processing of recyclable materials happens in a variety of ways depending on what is being recycled and what the recycled material becomes. For example, plastic bottles are cleaned, sorted according to type (numbers 1-7), and shredded. The shredded plastic is heated to a specific temperature hot enough that the plastic can be formed into small pellets.
2.2.7.5 Manufacturing and selling facilities
Manufacturing companies purchase the pellets from plastic recyclers to make a myriad of “new” products from carpet and backpacks to decking and playground equipment (Mills, 2012). These processes follow the same procedure as conventional material.

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2.2.8 Benefits chains associated value addition processes
The benefits of recycling have been explored and highlighted through many scholarly works. A number of researchers agree that recycling has benefits chains that can be categorized into environmental, social and economic (Chanda, 2014; Abdul-Rahman, 2014; Mosia, 2014; Muzenda, 2013; Harris et al. 2011; Nahman, 2009; with further benefits of new raw materials, uses fewer natural resources, preserves landfills, prevents global warming, reduces water pollution, protects wild life, reduces waste, creation of jobs, requires less energy, creates new demand for recycled products etc. However, recycling has also been criticized and has dis-benefits which will not be discussed in this thesis.
The benefit chains can easily be associated with a cause effect diagram whereby the main benefit is like the problem and factors contributing to the benefit are like causes of a problem. This can be represented diagrammatically like a ‘fish bone’ cause effect diagram as given. This will be used to present analysis results.
2.2.10 Recycling Network Linkages
Industrial linkages have been widely studied in economic geography since the 1960s (Marshall, 1987 as cited in Malmberg, 1996). Linkages in Geography denote interdependence among firms or show the interrelationship among various industrial activities.(Malmberg, 1996)
Industries depend on each other for survival and growth. This interdependence therefore creates some linkages in the network. There are different types of linkages. These include communication linkages, formal linkages, material or work flow linkages, proximity linkages, and cognitive linkages. Networks are multiplex, that is, actors have more than one type of linkages. Companies create, maintain, dissolve, and possibly reconstitute network linkages due to self-interest, dependency and collective interest.
A network consists of a set of actors (nodes) and the relations (ties) between the actors e.g. individuals or groups of companies (Talarowska & Denana,2008; Wasserman &Faust, 1994; Håkansson & Ford, 2002 as cited in Haugnes, 2010). Linkages can either be direct or indirect, strong or weak. Strong linking is defined as when equally involved business actors and consumers perform many complementing and specialized activities. Weak linking, on the other hand, is defined as involving few and general activities, the performance of which is dominated by either the business actors or the consumers (Granovetter, 1973;1982 as cited in Haugnes, 2010) .
Solid waste recycling activities also exhibit some linkages of different types. Chauldry (2003) noted that there are backward, forward and side-ways linkages. Scheinberg (2012) and Zikmund and Stanton (1971) pointed out that recycling is a complex process with linkages that need to be understood if recycling is to be a feasible solution to the trash problem. In Hong Kong, for example, recycling of municipal waste is a network of waste pickers, waste collectors, schools, institutions, recyclers or waste dealers and preprocessors (Recovery and Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste in Hong Kong, 2010).
2.3 Literature Review
Literature review enables a researcher to develop a clear understanding of the research topic through what has been researched on the topic and identify gaps, which the researcher’s own study can fill (Bless ; Higson-Smith, 1995; Hart, 1998; Sarantakos, 1993).
This literature review unfolds major empirical findings of recycling issues in Africa such as players in the industry, motives of recycling, recycling policies and legislation, recycling behavior of urban households and benefits of recycling. Global recycling examples are incorporated where necessary.
Related literature in Namibia was limited, hence the many references to other parts of Africa and the world. This is not surprising as the area of recycling is still emerging in Africa as a whole as it is still grappling with the management of solid waste. Thus referenced research issues unfolded the dimension of waste management and behavioral attitudes on waste recycling. Specific literature on the recycling industry was limited.
2.3.1 Actors and trends in the Industry
Globally, both formal and informal sectors are involved in the industry of recycling (Chandak, 2012; Courtois, 2012; Velis et. al., 2012; Gutberlet, 2010). In developed countries recycling is more organized and private sector is more entrenched in the industry and most activities are carried out formally e.g. registration and record upkeep. It is the opposite in most developing countries where the informal sector plays a more active role. Despite their importance in the industry as well as in solid waste management, it is noted that very few cities in the world have incorporated informal sector recycling activities and only a few policies have been developed to support this approach. This was also the case at some stage in the past, in what are now developed countries (Velis et al., 2012).
Like any other parts of the developing world, recycling in Africa is still low and not well organized (Carbon Africa, 2014; Chukwunonye, 2013; Gutberlet, 2010; Mamphitta, 2009; Liebenberg, 2007; Otieno ; Taiwo, 2007) attributed to a number of factors such as financial constraints, low levels of participation and lack of knowledge. For example in Mozambique, Carbon Africa (2014) estimated that less than 1 % of the solid waste generated was being recycled. Recycling activities are reported to be limited to a small number of local companies and NGO’s mainly involved in recovery and collection activities. In Dar as Salaam a study by Senzige et al., (2012) on solid waste characterization found that 98% of solid waste generated per day was also not recycled. Another study on management of PET plastics waste through recycling in Khartoum by Fadlalla (2010) established that recycling was low as well despite the increasing plastic waste generated in that country. Courtois (2012) claimed that in Africa the full potential of the recycling industry is not yet fully realized and opinioned that private sector can be worthwhile to see more benefits of waste recycling in such developing regions.
Studies have shown that there exists some form of linkage between formal and informal sectors in the recycling industry. Viljoen et al. (2012) identified that buy-back centers (BBCs) act as one of the important link between informal sector and formal sector activity in the industry in South Africa. These create formal jobs and informal income generating opportunities for the poor and unemployable. In South Africa, BBCs are found in most urban centers. By definition, BBCs are depots where waste collectors can sell their recyclable waste. Langenhoven & Dyssel (2007) studied the recycling industry and subsistence waste collectors (informal sector) in Mitchell’s Plain, South Africa and found that there was interdependency between subsistence waste collectors and buy-back centers, a similar trend as that reflected elsewhere in the world. In another study, Viljoen et al., (2012) also highlighted the role of buy back centers in Pretoria and Bloemfontein in South Africa. According to the study, buy-back centers (BBCs) play a crucial role as market centers for the informal sector participants. At these centers, waste pickers sell an assortment of recovered materials like cans, scrap metals, plastic and paper.
Informal Sector
The informal solid waste sector refers to individuals or enterprises who are involved in recycling and waste management activities but are not sponsored, financed, recognized or allowed by the formal solid waste authorities. In addition, the operations of the informal sector maybe in violation of or in competition with formal authorities as noted by Scheinberg (2012).
The informal sector is quite active and dominant in the recycling industry in developing countries and researches done attest to this. Gunsilius et al., (2011) noted this in a study on the economics of the informal sector in solid waste management. The study shows that the informal solid waste management sector is more active and more effective in recovering resources than the formal one in low- and middle-income countries. The role of subsistence waste pickers in the recycling industry in South Africa was investigated by Mamphitta (2011) and Dlamini ; Simatele (2016). Findings revealed that merchants, recyclers, homeowners and producers of recyclable materials alike agreed unanimously that informal waste picker’s play an important role in the South African recycling industry. The study revealed also that 84 percent of recyclable materials recycled are sourced from waste pickers. These findings are further supported by Ezeah et al., (2013) in a paper ‘Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries’.

Ukoje (2012) and Njoroge et al., (2013) noted that in Zaria (Nigeria) and Nakuru Municipality (Kenya) respectively the waste pickers eke out a living by collecting waste and selling recyclables out of the urban solid wastes. The need to survive drives the majority of the poor to be involved in the industry despite the harsh working conditions (Fahmi & Sutton, 2010; Mamphitta, 2009). In Egypt, Fahmi & Sutton, 2010) found out that the industry was dominated by the informal sector as well who have operated over a decades, however the industry is under threat due to privatization of municipal solid waste management systems. The study recommends that the informal sector be recognized as stakeholders within the municipality in solid waste management as their resource recovery activities are quite significant in reducing waste.
Formal Sector
Despite informal sector dominance in the industry, formal sector participation is slowly making in-rods into the recycling sector in Africa. In Kenya, Rotich et al. (2006) reported the growth of recycling at a formal industrial level as an important source of raw materials while in Cameroon, governmental policies and strategies for environmental protection and promotion of conservation of materials were contributory factors to the growth of formal recycling (Manga et al., 2008) in that country.
The same is also reported in South Africa, where a wide range of organizations are active in the field of recycling with typical examples being Collect-A- Can, the Glass Recycling Company, Mondi Recycling company (paper), Plastics Federation of South Africa, Nampak Recycling, SAPPI, PETCO, Paper Recycling Association of South Africa, e- Waste Association of South Africa, ROSE Foundation (Taderera, 2010). The government identified plastic, glass; steel cans, paper and tires as ‘priority wastes’ that needed to be kept away from landfill sites through reduction, re-use and recycling.
Oelofse & Strydom, (2010) in a paper, ‘The Trigger to recycling in a developing country- in the absence of command – and – control instruments’ noted that waste recycling in South Africa is largely industry driven. The findings suggest that financial incentives are the main drivers for recycling from an industry point of view while environmental awareness supported by convenience are factors influencing post-consumer household recycling behavior.
Muzenda (2013) studying formal industry in the Gauteng province of South Africa revealed that government, industry and household initiatives were promoting recovery activities in that country. Local government recovery initiatives included drop of centers, collection banks and buy-back centers. The initiative by local authorities was attributed to increased costs of land filling as well as unavailability of landfill space in the province. Drop-off centers are well established in Gauteng’s cities and larger towns, where waste is separated into glass, paper/cardboard, cans, scrap metal, plastic, garden, waste, e-waste and other waste types, and delivered in separate forms by members of the public under the initiative of a private company. However, separation of waste at drop-off centers is not effective, thereby hampering cost-effective recycling. In the case of buy-back centers, they are privately operated. Community members take recyclables of economic value such as bottles and trade them for a small profit, an initiative found to be a source entrepreneurial promotion through source separation.
At Industry level, recovery initiatives focus on the recycling of packaging material, plastics, glass, metal, paper, e-waste and waste tires. Plastics South Africa, an umbrella organization for the plastics industry in SA which was founded in 1975 is the major force behind plastic recycling. For example, in 2009-17.80%, 2010-18.40% and 2011-18 .90% of plastic were recycled (Muzenda, 2013).
The Glass Recycling Company (TGRC), formed in July 2006, is South Africa’s official organization for promoting glass recycling (Muzenda, 2013). The company works in partnership with national government, glass manufactures and fillers. The efforts witnessed recycling rates from a mere 18% around 2005/6 to 40% in 2011.
Viljoen et al., (2012) in a study on the role of buy-back centers (BBC) in South Africa, concluded that BBC is an important aspect in the recycling industry. They form an important link with the informal sector. Most of them are privately owned as revealed in the study. To date, buy-back centers are in all major centers of South Africa. At these centers subsistence collectors are mostly paid on an ad hoc basis for delivering certain types and grades of recyclables (City of Cape Town, 2004a).
2.3.2 Motives for Recycling
According to Fall (2015), in a study, Waste and Recycling Programs in Hancock and Houghton, Michigan, individuals participate in voluntary recycling programs mainly out of pride for their communities and out of concern for the environment. Communities are aware of some of the environmental challenges associated with some disposal based systems. For example, modern landfills were found to have the potential to produce negative social and environmental impacts, including the following: i) landfills produce hazardous leachate (liquid formed as waste breaks down and water filters through garbage), ii) despite the well-designed features like landfill liners, groundwater and/or surface water contamination can occur due to landfill liners leakages, iii) landfills release methane gas which contributes to global climate change which accounts for about 10% of all greenhouse gas emissions from humans activities iv) people prefer not to live near a waste disposal site because of the associated odor, noise, reduced property values and neighborhood disturbance.

It can be difficult, especially in many urban areas, to find suitable places to site new landfills or expand existing ones. In a study; ‘Bangkok Recycling Program: An Empirical Study of an Incentive-Based Recycling Program’, Sukholthaman (2012) pointed that municipalities have considered and implemented recycling programs for many reasons. For example, shrinking budget allocations for supporting municipal waste management programs and high recycling goals set by Governments were some of the reasons in favor of full blown commercial recycling. Oelofse &Strydom (2010) reported preliminary results of the research ‘The Trigger to recycling in developing countries in the absence of Command-and-Control’, which showed that in South Africa financial incentives are the main drivers for recycling from an industry point of view while environmental awareness supported by convenience is a factor influencing post-consumer household recycling behavior. However, one of the recommendations was to undertake a more detailed research in order to provide more insight into post-consumer recycling behavior in a developing country such as South Africa.
According to Simelane & Mohee (2012) many African cities recycling efforts are being promoted as one of the strategies to reduce waste. In most cases, these cities are characterized by inefficient collection, management, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) a situation attributed partly to budgetary pressures and inadequate resources.

2.1.4 Causation Between the Negligent Act and the Result
Thirumoorthy accepts that causation in medical negligence refers to the cause and result relationship between the negligent act by the defendant and the damage occurred to the plaintiff.
Moreover, he says the mechanism is to prove the balance of probabilities up to 51% or more. The causation probability is measured with the “but-for test”. It seems to be that the defendant can be held liable if his conduct is materially and significantly contributed to the final result.
Dr. Perera argues that most of the surgical and operational errors are easily identified under the “res ipsa loquitar” principle.
In the Priyani Soyza case, Dheerarathna J declared his findings that the doctor had not properly maintained the bed head ticket and ordered a CT scan, but it was not enough to prove the balance of probabilities more than one half percent and could not prove the causal nexus of the paediatrician’s negligence.
According to the decision of Hart v. Chappel case, it seems to be clarified that the test of causation was not solely applied and most of the court decisions considered that, the patient’s right to know is higher than the relaxation by the causation.

2.2 Priyani E Soyza v. Rienzi Arcekularathne case
Professor Fernando states that the cases reported on the issue of medical negligence were less than ten by that time and the most revolutionary and landmark case is against the Professor Priyani E Soyza who was a Paediatrician. He, furthermore, explains the facts and issues of the case and he notices that, the whole medical profession was shocked by the lower court and appeal court judgements and the relief and the justice was sought by the supreme court.
The plaintiff was the father of the died 4 years old child Suhani who had been misdiagnosed by the defendant as Rheumatic Chorea (RC) instead of Brain Stern Glioma (BSG), what the deceased actually had. The BSG was a fatal disease and it was considered to be prevented or postponed if it had been early diagnosed. The deceased had been attended by number of specialists in various stages of treatment, while the defendant was away from the patient. They all considered the deceased’s disease in the course of what the defendant had laid on RC. Finally, it was diagnosed as BSG and on the following day Suhani died. The plaintiff contested that the misdiagnose of the defendant had been negligence and claimed for compensation. The plaintiff had inter alia claimed for the mental shock and for the pure economic loss of the depriving of the child. The lower courts and the appeal court held the judgement in favour of the plaintiff. It was held to compensate Rs.5 000 000, and in the appeal court one judge estimated the damage as Rs.250 000.
The professor’s appeal for the Supreme court turned the case around. The case was reanalyzed considering the causal nexus of the negligence act and the death of the child. The three bench of judges; Dheerarathne J, Bandaranayake J and Ismail J held a unanimous decision that, nevertheless the guilty of negligence was accepted, the plaintiff is unable to prove the balance of probability and the causal connection between the death and the misdiagnose.
In the case of Whitehouse v Jordan Lord Denning had stated that ” We must say and say firmly in the professional man an error of judgment is not negligent.” The Supreme Court decision was mere same as the expression of Lord Denning. According the judgement, there had been three main issues and the first two had been accepted as “Yes” by all courts where the case was heard, and the third issue was not accepted by the Supreme Court, though the lower courts had done.
a. The child was suffering from a rapid developing fatal incurable tumour in an inaccessible site.
b. The death was necessary a part of the inevitable and fatal disease that she had. The Court of Appeal added that if it was early recognized could have been prevented or postponed.
c. The plaintiff is able to maintain this action against the defendant.
In the judgement Dheerarathna J has stated that misdiagnose is no diagnose, which is wrong is not a negligence. The capability of claim was re questioned.
Dheerarathna J rejected the claim for mental shock and the pure economic loss because of not having a psychiatric illness and indigent circumstances of the existing relation. Explaining the judgement Dheerarathna J stated that, as judges they were unable to change the material of law and what they only could do was to iron out the creases. The judge notably discussed about the resilient nature of the Roman Dutch Law in this judgement.
2.3 Defences to a Physician
Stone illustrates that the Bolam Test is not what is more a test, but mere a defence to the practitioner. According to the Bolitho’s case, not attending to the patient is taken as a defence arguing that the attending also does not change the result.
The general view is that the defences to Aquilian Action cannot be successfully pleaded by a medical professional. The reason is the medical negligence law especially deviates from usual negligence law as it is supposed to be proved by inherent requirements. However, Dr. Avanthi Perera identifies that the defence of contributory negligence can also be pleaded in case where the patient does not see the doctor in due time according to the advice and does not take the prescribed medicine as advised.
Kevin R. Marciano discusses some alternative defences that a medical practitioner can claim. According to him a medical practitioner can defence himself arguing at least one of the necessary elements to be proved has not been properly proved. For the instances other than gross negligence Samaritan Laws in Pennsylvania covers the doctors from a legally defined duty of care. It describes the medical profession as a service. The medical professionals are able to argue that they have attended the due standard of care.
“The Substantial minority” is also a defence that some different, uncommon treatment methods are not out of bounds and even though not significant and overwhelming some practitioners are in favour of those.
Damages and the Collateral Sources rule which pleads that the plaintiff has already paid and satisfied by the insurances, governments and other sources, so that the defendant can argue to be prevented from monetary compensation. At the same time, in Johnson v. Beane case the court held that how much the collateral sources are available the wrongdoer must pay.
Dr. Perera argues that a doctor can claim the absence of due of care because the doctor only has got a duty to rescue and in this concept, and no doctor owes a legal duty rather than a service. She says since the Sri Lankan law does not have provisions on duty of care. A doctor is considered to be a Good Samaritan who does not owe a legal duty towards the patient.
She further more describes that a doctor is able to take the defence of adherence to the accepted standard care, resource limitations. In the decision Garcia v. St Mary’s NHS Trust case, it was held that the limitations of the resources is unable to be taken by a doctor, where a minimum standard of care is provided.
In the Sri Lankan case Dabare v. Director Castle Maternity Hospital and others the deflection of the direct liability to the hospital was eligible to the doctor. In that case an infant suffered from cerebral palsy and myoclonic epilepsy due to a medical negligence and it was decided to have happened as a result of the negligence of hospital staff and delayed procedures. The court found the institutional liability of the hospital.
According to Dr. Avanthi Perera the emergency, judgement error or misdiagnose are also stand as defences to a physician.
The informed consent or the disclosure and consent is the mostly found and used defence by the doctors. It is also complicated due to the inherent weaknesses in its practice.

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2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
Based on Joseph Schumpeter (1934), financial innovation can be understood as a factor which leads to growth in firms as well as in economies. It refers to new or improved ways of making more profits, either to decrease the production costs or to create and sustain a high demand level.
This chapter also looks at the main theories behind financial innovation, which forms the literature of this study. The six theories explained below are Schumpeter’s theory of innovation, Innovation diffusion theory, Constraint-induced theory, Transaction cost theory and Circumvention theory of innovation.
2.1.1 Schumpeter’s Theory of Innovation
In his work “Theory of economic development”, Schumpeter explained that innovation could be divided into five main types which are as follows:
1. Launching of new product or existing but improved model of the product
2. Applying new processes of production or sales
3. Launching of new market
4. Obtaining new raw material sources or unfinished goods
5. Creating new or destroying present market structures
The Schumpeter theory of profit holds that in order to get greater profits, one must innovate, which leads to competition in the sector. Accordingly, innovations can occur in 4 stages: invention, innovation, diffusion and imitation. He argues that a firm will be profitable when the new product or process will lower its cost of production or increase its demand level. Competitors will eventually imitate the new or improved product as it becomes more popular and its demand start to rise. The innovating firm no longer holds a monopoly power. As such, he concluded that innovation can cause creative destruction. insert footnote : in his book Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Hence, he points out that innovation continuously reshapes the economy internally and keeps on creating new structures while dismantling old ones.
2.1.2 Diffusion of Innovation theory
The diffusion of innovations theory, based on Everett Rogers (1962), has been contextualised in different fields namely sociology, marketing and communications among others. It relates to the motives and the circumstances under which innovation is spread over time among the different market participants. Tufano (1989) notes that innovation spreads when imitators copy successful and profitable banking innovations. Accordingly, it depends a lot on human capital such as knowledge and innovation is bound to reach to a saturation point over time. According to Rogers (2003), the extent to which a firm endorses a new idea is defined as innovativeness while the diffusion process is known as the innovation-decision making process (as illustrated below) has five steps (Knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation). Furthermore, four categories of adopters have been identified: early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. Insert diagram
Rogers suggested certain factors that affect the diffusion of innovation comprises of notably relative advantage (innovation brings improvement to existing ideas), compatibility (whether the innovation is suitable with present values and requirements of adopters), observability (how much is the innovation visible to others), trialability (if the innovation can be tested before being adopted) and complexity (level of difficulty experienced when using the innovation). Hence, he noted that innovations with the above attributes are more likely and quicker to be adopted than others.
Akhavein et al. found only a few quantitative studies insert footnote on the names of the studies on diffusion of innovations. However, diffusion is only successful when a group adopts innovation either through optional, collective or authority innovation decisions. Difficulty is also experienced when measuring the exact causes of innovation. Al-Jabri and Sohail (2012) observed that the factors which affected the adoption were relative advantage, compatibility, observability while trialability and complexity had no effect and perceived risk had a negative influence on adoption. Akhavein et al. conducted a study on diffusion of financial innovation and found that larger banks have adopted innovations before other banks and that adoption of innovation is positively influenced by the size of the banks and its network.
2.1.3 Constraint Induced theory
According to Merton (1992), financial innovation is considered the “engine” which leads the financial system to its aim of improving economic performance.
Silber, an American economist proposed the theory of constraint-induced innovation, which showed that financial innovation arises primarily because firms want to maximise their profits. (Cherotich et al., 2015) As such, small banks with the most constraints have higher incentives to innovate with new financial products or processes designed to reduce financial costs of the banks (Tufano, 2002). Certain factors such as particular leadership styles tend to ensure an unwavering management style, thereby decreasing the firm’s efficiency. The firm should eliminate these restrictions. Ben-Horim and Silber (1977) carried a ground-breaking study of the constraint-induced notion of innovation and examined the drivers of financial innovation. They discovered that the constraints caused by government regulations encourage firms to innovate. (pg 279)
Nonetheless, Silber’s approach disregards the role of institutions in innovation and since it considers innovation in its excessive adversity, it is not considered as a good incentive for innovation.
2.1.4 Transaction cost theory
The transaction cost theory is explained in a study carried out by Hicks and Niehans in 1983, (Cited in Cherotich et al., 2015), which demonstrated that a fall in transaction costs is a major influence behind financial innovation. The low costs are in turn, caused by technological advances. Therefore, a fall in transaction costs will lead to more innovation by firms and a general enhancement of financial and banking services. Tsuma et al.(2018) investigated the effects of innovation on financial performance which was based on this theory. They found that process innovations led to a fall in transaction costs and consequently led to positive financial performance. This theory is believed to be different from the others as it focuses on a firm’s perspective instead of a macro-economic level.
The transaction cost theory also suggests that product innovation has affects transaction value and as a result, with customized and improved products offered to the bank’s customers, transaction costs can be reduced. (Tahir et al., 2018)
2.1.5 Circumvention theory/ regulation theory
Proposed by Kane (Cited in Cherotich et al., 2015), the circumvention theory believes that financial innovation is driven mostly by the regulations imposed on the finance sector firms by the government. Indeed, over-regulation, imposition of high taxes and other types of sovereign controls tend to increase the operation costs of the firms due to compliance, which in turn leads to lower profit opportunities. Consequently, regulatory constraints imposed led the firms to engage in market and regulatory innovation (Achieng et al, 2015). This situation can be illustrated in the case of capital requirements in banks, where a bank has to comply with the regulations issued by the Central bank and hence, incurs certain compliance costs. As such, regulations stimulate innovation. Innovations such as Eurobonds and equity swaps have been created especially to bypass regulations (Tufano, 2002).
Khraisha and Arthur (2018) noted that innovative processes and products such as securitization were effectively created to avoid high costs due to legal compliance.
Despite regulation inducing financial innovation, critics argue that regulation requirements impede innovations. Nonetheless, regulations have been increased after the financial crash of 2007/2008, partially caused by the trend of deregulation which prevailed during this period. Furthermore, through regulation, many mechanisms have been designed and implemented to level the ‘playfield’ (Khraisha and Arthur, 2018).

2.1.2 Types of electronic services
The larger part of e-government constitutes what is known as Electronic Services Delivery or ‘eServices’. The eService provides a platform for the government to deliver various services to citizens without constrains. This was in fact among the earliest projects under e-government that allows citizens to move away from conventional way of dealing with government agencies. These include services ranging from transactions and payment of utilities such as telephone and electricity bill, police summons, and various taxes. The citizens mainly could use this service through various channels of service delivery such as the internet, interactive voice response (IVR) and 66 kiosk machines (Wan Abdullah et al., 2013).
In the beginning of its implementation, four government bodies have been assigned to be part of e-services implementation. They were namely Road and Transport Department (JPJ), the Ministry of Health, the National Utility Company (TNB) and the Malaysian Telecommunications Company (TMB). Later, they were followed by more government agencies such as ………. As what has been aforementioned above, there are various type of e-services. programmes organised in line with the e-government project. According to Wan Abdullah et al. (2013), e-services able to perform multiple delivery channel where all the services are available 24 hours via online. (Malaysian Administrative and Planning Unit (MAMPU)) and through e-government, passports can be issued in one hour, transfer of property and registration of property can be executed within one day when it took months previously (Mohd Zin Mohamed and John Antony, 2013).
During the beginning of its early implementation in 1997, the e-government projects under e-services are Electronic Procurement (eP), Project Monitoring System (PMS), Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS), Generic Office Environment (GOE), E-Syariah and Electronic Labour Exchange (ELX) (Shaidin, 2008). The implementation of e-government marks the beginning of the system to reinvent the government by making some forms of transformations in the way it operates, modernises and enhances its service delivery. Thus MSC is one of the efforts made by the government to improve the system so that e-government at the federal level is able to enhance the convenience, accessibility and improve the quality of interactions with the public and business at large and to the local government (Shaidin, 2008).
Electronic procurement (e-procurement)
E-procurement (Ep) which was introduced in 2000 is known as the main pillar of e-government in Malaysia in order to promote efficiency and prevent power abused by the civil servants by making the purchasing process more transparent (Hui et al., 2011, Muhammad Rais and Nazariah, 2003). All the information will be recorded by electronical means starting from the process of order tracking, delivery status and invoicing matters. (Muhammad Rais and Nazariah, 2003). The purpose of introducing this system is to reduce cost of the government by having proper system of administration.
Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS)
Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS) is one of the system introduced by government after the establishment of MSC in order to strategically handle staffing, human resource management data, enhance better communication and to promote flexibility and openness among all the civil servants (Maniam et al., 2012). Some of the successful works have been implemented under this system are manpower planning, recruitment and training, promotion of the staffs, retirement and pension, salary and others.
E-Syariah
In order to make matters pertaining to Muslim affairs more organized due to the court system that has been labelled as inefficient and ineffective (Ramli, 2012), government took an initiative to be more responsive to this service by embracing the application of ICT. Many aspects have been adjusted and improvised in order to make e-syariah system more efficient namely in the Syariah Court Case Management System, Syariah Lawyers Registration System, Office Automation System and others (Wan Absullah et al., 2013). E-Syariah supports the smooth running of the Syariah (Muslim) court administration (Mariam, 2007).
E-land
E-land is known as one of the successful government project under the seven flagship project where it serves as a platform for public to lodge a complaint on the poor quality of the ministry’s service delivery due to unnecessary cumbersome process and procedures as well as bureaucratic processes. Therefore, in order to tackle problem arise, this service has been introduced to develop a comprehensive user friendly land management and administration to ensure the quality in terms of service delivery (Ramli, 2012). A study has been carried out to know the level of significance of e-land service and the result showed positive feedback given by the public as this system able to improve land management in Penang (Ramli, 2012).
E-courts
In 2004, many unorganized and long delays cases have been detected by the government which jeopardized the efficiency of the court management and administration in handling cases. Therefore, starting from 2011, a complete court ICT based has been implemented consisting four components namely a video-conferencing system, queue management system of lawyer’s attendance, e-Filing of cases via online and community and advocacy portal to enhance communication between courts and the public.

Business Licensing Electronic Support System
Other than public sector, government concerned on private sector businesses. In 1993, under MAMPU, Business Reengineering (BPR) program has been initiated. Through this system, Business Licensing Electronic Support System (BLESS) has been introduced where applicants need to undergo several process to apply for licenses and permits to start their business in Malaysia. This is to expedite business licensing processes by reducing overlap and increase efficiency (MAMPU, 2013). This initiative by MAMPU met success when BLESS successfully assisted almost 7000 users by 2011. And almost 600 businesses were registered in this system (Wan Abdullah et al., 2013).
All the programs mentioned as above is none other but to improve the interaction among three tiers of government with other bodies namely government-to government (G2G), government to citizen (G2C) and government to business (G2B). To enhance government to government interactions, other transformations have been done as well. For example, other government departments has access to the databases of the Immigration Department and Registration of Births and Deaths Department and the Road Transport Department and the Police Department have access to the database of the other. By having such access, those shared databases allow people to access multiple services through one-stop centers. (Mohd Zin Mohamed and John Antony Xavier, 2016). For Government-to-business (G2G) interactions under e-government, it brings public agencies and businesses together to enable electronic processing of business permits, licenses, government approvals such as customs clearance, and the payment of fees and penalties. Thus, it can be seen that these efforts have been done in order to bring all the services under one roof known as e-government.

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2.0 INTRODUCTION
Many previous studies have been conducted by different researchers relating to inventory management in relation to company performance. In this section, various literatures will be reviewed with the aim of getting a clear and deeper understanding of the research topic. The aim of the section will be to see the various aspect of the business that can be affected in the case where inventory management is left unattended to. The section will as address the various measurement of inventory management that can have an influence on company performance as brought out by several studies.
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK and CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
According to Halachmi and Bouckart (2005) “the aim of inventory management is to maintain the quantities of stock held by a business at a level which optimizes some management criteria such as minimizing the costs incurred by the whole business enterprise for improved performance”.
Performance is a measure of the results achieved. Performance efficiency is the ratio between effort extended and results achieved, according to Malcolm, S. (2005). Performance can be measured by obtaining the magnitude of a quantity, such as length or mass, relative to a unit of measurement, such as a meter or a kilogram. Inventory management challenges can interfere with a company’s profits and customer service. They can cost a business more money and can lead to an excess of inventory overstock that is difficult to move. Most of these problems are usually due to poor inventory processes and out-of-date systems, Gourdin et al(2001).
2.1.1 IMPORTANCE OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
Inventory Management is a process performed by almost all companies and organizations as the absence of inventory management may lead to loss of sales and customers in times of high demand. It can therefore be said that failure to manage inventory effectively can have a significant impact on a company’s performance and growth. According Coyle et al (2003), he emphasizes on the importance of inventory on the balance sheet, as he states that, “Inventory is an asset on the balance sheet of companies has taken an increased significance because of the strategy of many firms to reduce their inventory in fixed assets that is plants, warehouses, office buildings, equipment and machinery. Another importance of inventory can be placed on its ability to guard against stock outs costs. This cost is incurred when a customer’s demands cannot be fulfilled because the inventory is completely depleted. It refers to the disrupted production when materials are unavailable. In many instances, demand rates and delivery times are subjected to variability. According to Gaither (1996),Stock outs can be due to higher than average demand rates and longer than the normal delivery times.He again identifies another importance of inventory as, to maintain flexibility in scheduling. Here, costs and complexities related to scheduling personnel and equipment sometimes make it desirable to produce at times and quantities that do not directly correspond to the current demand. The ability to produce goods for inventory instead of directly for customers gives managers greater flexibility in scheduling.
2.1.2 THE REASONS FOR STOCKING INVENTORY
There are various reasons as to why firms and companies keep inventories or rather stock certain products. Reasons for maintaining inventories:
1. Demand
A retailer stays in business when he/she has the product the customer wants on hand when the customer wants them. If not, the retailer will have to back order the product. If the customer can get the goods from some other source, he or she many chose to do so rather than wait than wait in order to allow the original customer to meet demand later (through back-order). Hence, in some instances a sale is lost forever if goods are not in stock.
2. Running Operations
In order to manufacture a product a manufacturer must have certain purchased items (raw materials component or subassemblies). Completing the production of finished goods can be prevented when a manufacturer is running out of only one item. Inventory between successive dependent operations also serves to decouple the dependency of the operations. A work-center often depends upon the previous operation to provide it with parts to work on. If work stops at awork-center, all subsequent centers will shut down for lack of work. Each machine can maintain its operation for a limited time, hopefully until operations resume at the original center if a supply of work-in-progress inventory is kept between each work-center (kuku, 2004).
3. Lead Time
Lead time is the time that elapses between when order is placed (either a production order issued to the factory floor or a purchase order) and actual time goods ordered are received. If an external firm or an internal department or plant (supplier) cannot supply the required goods on demand, then the client firm must keep an inventory of needed goods. The larger the quantity of goods the firm must carry in inventory depends on the longer the lead time.
4. Hedge
Inventory can also be used as a hedge against price increases and inflation. Before a price increase goes into effect, salesmen routinely call purchasing agents. According to kuku (2004), this gives the buyer a chance to purchase material in excess of current need at a price that is lower than it would be if the buyer waited until after the price increase occurs.
5. Quantity Discount
Purchase of large quantities of goods often times attracts a price discount to the firms. This also frequently results in inventory in excess of what is currently needed to meet demand. However, the decision to buy in large quantities is justifiable if the discount is sufficient to offset the extra holding cost incurred as a result of the excess inventory.
6. Flexibility Of Inventory Service
Flexibility of inventory service provides an organization with the ability to keep inventory services to an agreed service level in a predictable fashion with acceptable risk and cost. This capability can be tested and valued by customers. Managing inventory to ensure high customer service level is critical in the supply chain.
According to Lieberman et al (2002), however, to maintain assets is very costly. Reflecting the level of availability of inventory to the customers is in three categories namely, raw material inventory, work-in-progress inventory and finished goods inventory. Excess in each side is

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