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Last updated: January 16, 2020

16510015049500 Department of Mining Engineering and Mine Surveying
Portfolio Submission
Module: Mining Engineering Practice 1B
Learning Unit: 1 & 2
Student number: 201592553
Initials: K Surname: MOLOTO
Assessor: (Mr, H, Strauss)
Portfolio instructions (as given by assessor): You are required to compile a portfolio that summarises what you have learnt during the activities associated with learning units 3. You are also required to reflect on each section of work and consider how this will be applicable to you in your future career as a mining engineering technologist.

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria (To be completed by student).

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No Outcome Assessment criteria
1 Awareness of the basic activities in the mining production cycle.

Be conversant with production mining terminology as used in industry. Present a coherent mining production cycle and describe the essence of each part. Name the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of production mining personnel. Name the production equipment and material used in mines.

2 Basic knowledge of underground mining methods.

Be conversant with underground mining terminology as used in industry. Describe how a mineral deposit is exploited with under-ground mining methods.

Specific Outcome 1. Role of Engineers and Technologists.

What is a mining engineer?
A mining engineer is a person who applies his/her ranged science and technology skills set to extracting minerals from the earth, making it a multidisciplinary role. They come up with concepts and systems to make mining safer, cleaner and more economical.

What should a mining engineer be doing?
Before a mining process can take place, mining engineers do a practicability study and environmental assessments to determine the industrial benefits and any problems regarding sustainability.
supervise the development process and manage the engineering components of the development once a mine is open for business.
ensures that a mine is developed in an exceedingly safer and effective approach and supervise any other surface and underground operations.

supervises samples taken and presents them to managers.

make systems more practical and safe for miners.

assists in mineral deposits discovery, supervise shaft construction and examine mines for questions of safety.
manage and supervise mining production process.

They are additionally concerned within the final closure and rehabilitation process.

What is a mining engineering technologist?
A mining engineering technologist is a person responsible for the safety, effectiveness and cleanliness of mines. They generally work alongside mining engineers.

What should a mining engineering technologist be doing?
A mining engineering technologist assist mining engineers with:
travelling to mines, doing investigations and researches.

designing new and safer equipment.
Designing of tunnels and shafts.
making sure that mines and miners are safe.

What is a mining engineering technician?
A mining engineering technician is a person responsible for providing technical assistance to mining engineers and engineering technologists. They are also responsible for keeping a mine clean and safe.

What should a mining engineering technician be doing?
They work in:
exploration and development, where they work with geologists and geophysicists.


Preparation/beneficiation, where they separate the valuable ore from the rock and other worthless materials.

Laboratories, where they test samples of rock and ore.

engineering offices of mining operations, where they help engineers with planning and installation of ventilation systems which provide fresh air into the mine shafts.

collect information by finishing up chemical and physical tests and perceptive mining operations.

assist surveyors, chemists and metallurgists.

collect and determine samples of the rock mined.
train new miners and make sure that safety rules are strictly followed.

Engineering disciplines involved in mining
Mining: comes with the best plan to extract an ore from the ground and helps with designing the whole mining operation.

Geological: examines ore bodies and provide directions on where the ore is to be found.

Mechanical: designs new machinery.

Electrical/ electronic: preserve and check for any electrical fault within the panels to make sure there is a sleek offer of power.

Metallurgical: work in the processing stage, where they separate the valuable fraction from an uneconomic fraction.

Chemical: involved in operation and improvement of beneficiation and processing plants.

Environmental: makes sure that wastes are safely disposed of and comes up with plans on a way to modify emergencies.

Industrial/ process: deals with analysis and enhancements of operations.

Specific Outcome 2. ECSA ELOs applicable to the BEng tech programme.

Exit Level Outcome 1: Problem Solving.

Apply engineering principles to systemically determine and work out broadly-defined engineering problems.

Exit Level Outcome 2: Application of scientific and engineering knowledge.

Apply knowledge of mathematic, scientific discipline and engineering sciences to outlined and applied engineering procedures, process, systems and methodologies to work out broadly-defined engineering problems.

Exit Level Outcome 3: Engineering design.

Carry out procedural and non-procedural plan of broadly outlined parts, systems, works, products or processes to satisfy desired needs ordinarily among applicable standards, codes of practise and legislation.

Exit Level Outcome 4: Investigation
Conduct investigations of broadly-defined problems through searching, locating and choosing relevant data from the codes, data bases and literature, planning and conducting experiments, analysing and interpreting results to prove valid conclusions.

Exit Level Outcome 5: Engineering methods, skills, tools, including information technology.

Use acceptable techniques, resources, and trendy engineering tools, together with information technology, prediction and modelling, for the solution of broadly-defined engineering problems, with an understanding of limitations, restrictions, premises, assumptions and constraints.

Exit Level Outcome 6: Professional and technical communication.

Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering audience and affected parties.

Exit Level Outcome 7: Impact of engineering activity.

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the impact of engineering activity on the society, economy, industrial and physical environment, and address problems by analysis and evaluation.

Exit Level Outcome 8: Individual and team work.

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of engineering management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member and a leader in a team and to manage products.

Exit Level Outcome 9: Independent learning.

Engage in freelance and life long learning through well-developed learning skills.

Exit Level Outcome 10: Engineering professionalism.

Understand and apply moral principles and arrange to skilled ethics, responsibilities and norms of engineering technology practise.

Specific Outcome 3. Basic knowledge of the mining value chain.

Methods of exploration in the mining value chain
Remote sensing: use sensors to gather data of an object or a region while not being in direct contact with it. These sensors may be on satellites or be placed on an aircraft. Examples of this method include: Geologic mapping; aerial photographs; satellite imagery and airborne geophysical data.

Geophysics: use measurements connected with physical properties created at or above the ground surface and in boreholes to get conclusions regarding hid geology. Geophysical methods may be classified as passive (naturally existing fields) or active (fields generated by some stimulus). Geophysics exploration may be based on resistivity, spontaneous polarization, induced polarization, magnetic susceptibility, among other properties.

Geochemistry: use surface materials such as soil, till, or vegetation which will be examined for distinctive geochemical variations. Regional geochemical exploration has historically supported prime soil or water stream sampling. Also, there is an affiliation between the supply of some chemical elements and the existence of certain mineral resources.

Pitting and trenching: use shallow excavation for deep sampling material. They additionally give progressive exposure of material facilitating localized geological interpretations.

Drilling: use material extracted from a tiny low diameter hole. Several methods are available in step with totally different objectives, ground conditions and price (e.g. auger drilling, percussion drilling rotary drilling etc.).

What is Beneficiation?
Beneficiation is any process that improves the economic value of the ore by removing worthless mineral which ends up in an exceedingly higher-grade product and a waste stream.

Beneficiation processes
Mining process: an outsized artificial fresh pool is created within the dunes on which floats the dredger and concentrator plant. Whereas the dredge removes the material from the front end of the pool, the waste generated by the separation process is stored at the back. As a result, the pool progressively moves in an exceedingly forward direction. Burrowing into the face of the ridge, the dredger moves at a rate of two to three metres per day, looking on the peak of the ridge. The sand face collapses into the pool forming slurry because it is undermined, which is sucked up and pumped to a floating concentrator. At this point, the heavy minerals are separated from the sand by exploiting variations in mineral density through a multi-stage circuit of sluices. Some of the iron ore and the chromium-containing minerals are removed magnetically, and also the resulting heavy minerals concentrate (HMC) is stockpiled for transportation by road to the mineral separation plant.

Mineral processing: upon arrival at the mineral separation plant, placed at the smelter site, the heavy mineral concentrate is re-slurred and pumped into the feed preparation circuit. The slurry here is passed over successive stages of low and high intensity magnets to get rid of the ilmenite that is put aside as feedstock for the smelter. The non-magnetic materials, together with zircon and rutile, are targeted for additional processing within the dry mill. These two minerals are separated and upgraded in a series of circuits comprising variety of stages of high-voltage static separation, magnetic separation, gravity separation, and screening. basically, rutile and zircon are separated by their distinction in conductivity with residual gangue is removed by magnetic and gravity separation circuits. At this point, the zircon and rutile may be dispatched and sold in their raw type as mineral sands. Some zircon is upgraded to provide a higher-grade product by removing varied impurities.

Roasting process: Ilmenite, as mined, contains a high Cr2O3 content that makes it unsuitable for direct smelting to Titania scoria. A number of this Cr2O3 is removed at the mine once the ilmenite is passed through a magnetic separation step within which the extremely inclined Cr2O3 made fraction of the ilmenite is removed. The remaining minerals containing Cr2O3 are not readily separable from the ilmenite by magnetic means as their magnetic status is sort of just like that of ilmenite. The separation is so littered with subjecting the ilmenite to an oxidizing roast that changes the magnetic status of the ilmenite while leaving Cr2O3 containing minerals unchanged. The roasting process is distributed in two-three stage fluidised bed roasters operated within the temperature range of 730°C to 800°C. when being roasted and cooled to close temperature, the roaster product is passed over low-intensity drum magnets to filtrate the currently, more magnetic low-chromium fraction of ilmenite, yielding a feed material appropriate for the smelter. Anthracite is dried on two Peabody grate-type units to produce a chemical agent for the furnaces. A portion of the chemical agent is screened out to be used as a re-carburising agent for the iron.

Smelting process: the TiO2 content is increased by smelting the ilmenite with anthracite to produce a scoria containing approximately 85 percent titanium dioxide and a high purity, low-manganese atomic number 26 as a co-product. The process generates little within the way of waste products. The ilmenite is partially reduced with char to yield a low-manganese iron, a scoria containing 85 percent TiO2 and a gas containing roughly 85 percent CO and 12 percent H2 according to the reaction: FeTiO3 + C = TiO2 + Fe + CO. the gas is cooled, scrubbed, controlled, and used around the site as a fuel for heating and drying. Any excess smelter gas is burnt in an exceedingly flare stack. The tiny of dirt that is scrubbed from the chamber off-gas is the only discard produced. No fluxes are added to modify the scoria properties such as density, fluidity, melting point, or electrical conductivity, because this would dilute the Titania in the scoria and a lot of chemical agent would be needed to supply the specified degree of reduction to yield the 85 percent Titania tapped scoria. The scoria produced is very aggressive towards the chamber refractories. For this reason, management of the thermal balance is crucial, with the chamber being operated to make a protective frozen layer of material along the side and end walls of the chamber. These chamber products are additionally upgraded in an ensuant processes. The titanium oxide scoria is crushed and classified according to particle size and sold largely to pigment manufactures.

Slag and iron processing: upon the receipt of the iron ladle at the iron processing plant, the ladle is weighed and the iron temperature taken with a dip thermocouple. The ladle is placed on a ladle tilter and an injection hose connected to an angular tuyere within the ladle hood. Nitrogen is fed through the tuyere and also the ladle tilted until the tuyere is fittingly submerged. Injection reagents are then fed consecutive into the nitrogen stream until processing is complete. As a general rule, a lot of rigorous quality iron grades are produced from the larger faucet of hot iron. On completion of the injection process, the iron is forged into pigs on a twin strand pig-casting machine. Many grades of iron are produced, and individual heats are either stockpiled on site or loaded onto rail cars for transport to Richards bay harbour or to customers in south Africa. The cooled scoria is crushed and then ground and dried in an Aero fall mill. The mill product is classified to produce the size fractions needed by the chloride and sulphate scoria markets. The scoria is then stored in silos prepared for dispatch by rail to the harbour or to the native clients.


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