1 Outline the most common medications used to treat symptoms of dementia
The most common medicationsused to treat symptoms of dementia are anti-psychotic drugs, tranqilizers, hyponotic drugs, anti-depressants, ani-anxiety drugs, pain killers, antibiotics.
for example Donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and memantine.
1.2 Describe how commonly used medications affect individuals with dementia
Donpezil is a medication used is in the palliative treatment of alzheimers disease. Donepezil is used to improve cognition and behavior of individuals living with alzheimers, but does not slow the progression of or cure the disease. Common side effects include loss of appetite, gastriointestinal upset, dirrhea, difficulty sleeping, vomiting, or muscle cramping.
Rivastigmine is a medication used for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the alzheimers type and dementia due to parkinsons disease. This can be administered orally or via a transdermal patch, side effects include nausea and vomiting. the drug is eliminated through the urine.
Galantamine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate alzhemirs disease and various other memory impairments, in particular those of vascular origin.
Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimers disease medications acting by blocking receptors in nerve cells.
1.3 Explain the risks and benefits of anti-psychotic medication for individuals with dementia
Risks of anti-psychotic drugs : Restlessness, irritability, becoming addicted to the drug, may become dependent on others, emotional instbility, loss of inhibitions, in creased risk of stokes and the individuals may be less able to make own choices/Judgements.
Benefits: less likely to have aggressive responses, increase in sleep, be more co-opertive, likely to be more aware of people/enviroment. being able to participate in daily living tasks, increased likelihood of social interaction, being able to participate in leisure activities and able to make own decisions.
The risk and benefits of anti-psychotic medication is diffenent for each individualdepending on how their dementia has effected the brain.
individuals with dementia may develop behavioural and psychological symptoms with can include restlessness, aggession, hallacinations, lack of interest ans sleep disturbances also depression and anxiety.
side effects can be very harmful and take away quality of life of individuals with dementia, side effects can include excessive sedation, dizziness and mobility problems with can lead to in creased falls and injuries, body restlessness, reduced well being, social withdrawal and cognitive decline.
anti-psychotic medications only have benifits for specific symptoms and for a short period of time.
1.4 Explain the importance of recording and reporting side effects/adverse reactions to medication
The importance of recording and reporting side effects/adverse reactions to medication is so all staff are aware of the side effects/ adverse reaction to make sure it has not got worse. What we are looking out for so we can monitor the individual. making sure all staff are aware and the outcome of instruction from the gp or other healthcare professionals. all information is to be recorded in the indiviuals careplan and handover to the staff on duty.
1.5 Describe how ‘as required’ (PRN) medication can be used to support individuals with dementia who may be in pain
PRN medication can be used to support individuals with dementia who may be in pain but lacks capacity to express they are in pain. PRN medication on the MAR charts say when required, in our care setting we use PRN protocol forms so staff are aware of what it is for, if the individual can express if they need the medication or lack capcity.
PRN medication will help to bring stability, to reduce pain, prevent aggressive behaviours, help with mental health conditions. Also to help individual to obtain rest and sleep to give individuals with dementia some control over thier lives and that the individual with dementia feels free of pain.
2.1 Describe person-centred ways of administering medicines whilst adhering to administration instructions
person-centred approach is putting the individual at the centre of their care planning process
I would introduce myself and explain to the individual that I have their medication, what medication and what it was for, gain consent from the individual, if it was a tablets, cream or ointment I would ask the individual if it was ok to take her to her room or somewhere where I can apply and administer medication respecting their dignity and privacy with consent, making sure the individuals dignity and privacy is maintained at all times. explain to the individual what it is for and where it needs to be applied and what for. I would make sure I make good eye contact and be at their level whilst I am talking to them and also making sure the individuals understands what is happening at all times, if the individual with dementia refuses the medication I would try again at a later time or even try another trained member staff to administer the medication with the individuals consent. I feel you need to have good body language, know how to approach the individual, know the individuals ways in taking medication, ask them what they would like to take their medication with such as water, squash, tea etc always giving the individual choose, as each individual is different. all residents have the right to refuse medication at anytime.
2.2 Explain the importance of advocating for an individual with dementia who may be prescribed medication
The importance of advocating for an individual with dementia who is prescribed medication will help ensuring principles of care is observed. The advocate would speak on the individuals behalf, maintaining the rights of the individual by monitoring dosage and identifying clinical changes.
Individuals that lack mental capacity regarding decisions and choice over there care for example medication it would be in their best interest that they are supervised by an advocate to ensure there is no abuse regarding medication administered by staff.
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