1- INTRODUCTION:

Manufacturing is a basic and common runway for any country but the way and accuracy the industry manufactures products is important. In this modern world the industries are bringing new opportunities and materials. Nowadays manufacturing is done by many modern materials such as smart materials, Nano materials and composite materials.

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I. NANOMATERIALS:
Nanotechnology deals with studies of phenomena and skillful handling with elements of matter at the atomic and microscopic level where the properties of matter are significantly different from their properties at extended scales. The nanotechnology in mechanical engineering and manufacturing is very useful to the field. Nanotechnology can be used to increasing the life of the components and automobile parts. These materials show unique physical and chemical properties and provide enhancements to engineered materials. Nanomaterials are those materials which are sized between 1 to 1000 nanometers. Nano materials are slowly becoming commercialized and are becoming an essential commodity
II. SMART MATERIALS:
Smart materials are the intelligent materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled style such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, electric or magnetic fields. This behavior is reversible and as a result enables these materials to fulfill our needs and sensing functions in one component.
III. COMPOSITE MATERIALS:
Composite material is a material formed by combining materials together to form an overall structure with properties that differ from the sum of the individual components. The new material may be preferred for many reasons: common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to parent materials. Few examples of composite materials that is very essential in manufacturing are composite woods, reinforced plastics, reinforced concrete.
1.1 TYPES OF SMART MATERIALS:
• Piezoelectric: They are the materials which produce voltage or electric current when stress is applied. Piezoelectric microphones transform changes in pressure caused by sound waves into an electrical signal.

• Thermo chromic: These are the materials which change their color when there is a change in temperature occurs. They are also used in thermometer made from plastic strips indicate the change in temperature. They are also used as food packaging materials that indicate when the product they contain is cooked to the required temperature.

• Magneto rheological: It is a fluid that apparently become solid when placed in a magnetic field by increasing its viscosity. They can be used to construct dampers that suppress vibrations. These can be used for buildings and bridges acts as a shock absorber of high earthquakes.

• pH sensitive polymers: they change their pH when the surrounding medium changes. They can be useful for the paints that can change color to indicate corrosion in the metal under them.

2- APPLICATIONS OF SMART MATERIALS:
Smart materials have a wide range of applications. The different application can be in our day to day life including aerospace, civil engineering and mechatronics. The scope of application of smart material includes solving engineering problems with unfeasible efficiency.
As far as the technical applications of smart materials is concerned, it involves sensors, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMSs), vibration control, sound control, shape control, self-repair (healing), artificial organs and many others. Smart structures are found in automobiles, space systems, fixed-and rotary-wing aircrafts, civil structures, machine tools and medical devices.

• Self-Repair: One method in development involves joining thin tubes containing uncured resin into materials. When damage occurs, these tubes break, exposing the resin which fills any damage and sets. Self-repair is important in inaccessible environments such as underwater or in space.

• In the Field of Defense and Space: Smart materials have been developed to suppress vibrations and change shape in helicopter rotor blades.

• In Nuclear Industries: Smart technology offers new opportunities in nuclear industrial sector for safety enhancement, personal exposure reduction, life-cycle cost reduction and performance improvement.

• Aerospace: Lighter and stronger materials will be of extreme use to aircraft manufactures, leading to increased performance, spacecraft will also benefit where weight is a major factor. Nanotechnology would help to reduce the size of equipment and there by decrease of fuel-consumption required to get it airplane.

• Automotive: In automotive industries it is used to indicate what is the air pressure in tires, when the oil must be changed of the car and other maintenance information.

• Civil Engineering: In civil engineering it is used to monitor the structure which are built. Monitoring could predict long term behavior of the structure and it would give early warnings if minor repairing is required.
Some of the more specific applications of smart materials are that they are used in aircraft sensors which tells the technicians or labor when to inspect and repair the required parts.
3- APPLICATIONS OF NANOMATERIALS:

Nanotechnology has already contributed to number of innovative products in various engineering disciplines because of their unique and rewarding chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. One of popular application of nanomaterials is nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of an illuminative example for the potential of nanotechnology. Also, they are known to be one of the strongest materials having been produced by nanotechnology so far.
Basically, nanotechnology applications can be divided in to several categories.
• Field of Electronics:
Nanotechnology has helped to break barriers in the field of electronics. The ultrahigh purity materials with better thermal conductivity are used. Nanomaterials are quite important to produce long lasting and durable interconnections. The microelectronics industry has been emphasizing miniaturization, whereby the circuits, such as transistors, resistors, and capacitors, are reduced in size. By achieving a significant reduction in their size, the microprocessors, which contain these components, can run much faster, thereby enabling computations at far greater speeds.
• Automobile Industry:
The present-days automobile vehicle has more inner components parts in the system. Those parts are more hard wearing and more heat-resistant. The auto engine wastes loft of fuel and to create a population because of incomplete gas combustion. Now nanotechnology and nanomaterials are likely to play a significant role in sparkplugs. Since nanomaterials are strongest, harder and resist wear and erosion, they are currently being considered for the use in sparkplug.
Many other fields also use nanomaterials. Better insulation materials can be produced using a technique called sol-gel. Aerogels are such a product with extremely light weight and porosity that is used for the insulation of homes and offices. Tougher and harder cutting tools can be produced using nanomaterials that give many industrial benefits like low production cost and higher productivity. Also, high energy density batteries are one of most important production that uses nanotechnology.
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4- TYPES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS:

• Polymer Matrix Composites: They Are prominent class of composites compared to other composite materials in commercial applications. Composed of a variety of short or continuous fibers bound together by an organic polymer matrix.

• Metal Matrix Composites: MMCs are advanced class of structural materials consisting of nonmetallic reinforcements incorporated into the metallic matrix. Aluminum, Titanium, Copper acts as a matrix.

• Ceramic Matrix Composites: CMCs are advanced class of structural materials consisting of metallic/non-metallic reinforcements incorporated into the ceramic matrix like clay, glass etc.

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