1 EIX 2001 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SEMESTER 2 (2017/2018) GROUP ASSIGNMENT ‘POVERTY IN AFRICA’ SUBMITTED FROM: Name Matric Number 1. INTAN MAZNI BINTI MADZLAN EIA160046 2. NURSYAMIHA BINTI MAHAMOOD EIA160158 3. NURUL ALIA BINTI ABDUL RAZALI EIA160161 4. NURUL AQILA BINTI ISMAIL EIA160162 5. SYASYA NURHIDAYAH BINTI ABDUL RAHMAN EIA160204 SUBMITTED TO: DR. MEHEDI MASUD2 Table of Content No Topics Page 1 Introduction 3 2 Overview 4 3 Background 5 4 Theory 6 5 Type and definition of poverty 7 6 Factors/ Causes 8-11 7 Effects 12-14 8 Challenges/ Barriers to reduce poverty 15-19 9 Strategies/ Policies to reduce poverty 20-21 10 Conclusion 22 11 References 23-253 1.
0 INTRODUCTION Africa is the world’s second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.
7 million square miles) including near islands, it covers 6% of Earth’s total surface area and 20% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world’s human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.
Africa’s average population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4. Algeria is Africa’s largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonised almost all of Africa; most present states in Africa originated from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century.
African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa.4 2.0 OVERVIEW In South Africa, 50% of the general population live below the poverty level.
The numbers are higher for Africans particularly Africans on reserves. Although South Africa’s modern economy allows for an agricultural reserve that could feed the population a diet of 6,000 calories a day, there is widespread hunger and malnutrition. Anywhere from 1 to 2/3 of all black children grow up underweight and undernourished. Despite South Africa’s access to electricity and good medical facilities, the infant mortality rate (per 1,000 infants born) is between 94 and 125 (reported during 1981-1985). 2/3 of the population do not have electricity. African children are 9 to 10 times less likely to see their 1st birthday than white children. Other gross inequalities exist in education and income severely limiting the health and growth potential of South Africa’s blacks.
South Africa’s current policy of apartheid has done much to exacerbate this situation. The forced removals of portions of the population, the prohibition of portions of the population, the prohibition of black urbanization and the preclusion of black organizations have blocked the path of socioeconomic progress and equality. A metamorphosis in South African society is needed. Specifically, the redistribution of wealth and the development of organizations which promote fair practice and equality should be implemented.5 3.0 BACKGROUND Where the Poor Live Using the World Bank’s measure of extreme income poverty, there are around 1.2 billion people in extreme poverty.
Around 26 percent of those, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, live in low-income countries as classified by the World Bank (below $1,025 GDP per person in 2011). Another 58 percent, mainly in Asia, live in lower middle-income countries (between $1,026 and $4,035 GDP per person) such as China, India, and Indonesia. Around 17 percent of the extreme poor live in upper middle-income countries. The high proportion (74%) of the extreme poor living in middle income countries is not entirely surprising given that the MICs account for approximately 86% of the population of the developing world. Nor are the lower-income-countries that are home to the greatest proportion of the world’s poorest people safely out of the low income country zone where extreme poverty can be endemic. India, Nigeria, and many other LMICs face enormous challenges of maintaining high and inclusive economic growth, in view of highly challenging demographic, environmental, and social factors.
Sub-Saharan Africa remains the world’s poorest region and the one with the highest headcount poverty rate (around 48%). South Asia is second (around 36%), and Southeast Asia is third. There is scattered extreme poverty in other parts of the world (such as in the Andean highlands, Haiti, indigenous communities in Central America, and small island states). While these pockets of poverty pose serious humanitarian and social challenges for the people and places involved, they are a small proportion of the overall global challenge.6 4.0 THEORY There are two theory of poverty which are poverty is individual and poverty is structural. (Matt Bruenig, 2014).
Theory one is poverty is individual phenomena. Poverty occurs because of people are lazy, uneducated, ignorant, or otherwise inferior in some manner. It would follow that impoverished people are basically the same people every year if the theory is true. And if that were true, we could whip poverty by helping that 15% of the population to figure things out and climb out of poverty. Thus, a program of heavy paternalistic life contracts to help this discrete underclass get things together might conceivably end or dramatically reduce poverty. Many of way to help poverty to climb out which is do more program for them.
The second theory of poverty is poverty is structural. This kind of poverty is because people find themselves in holes in economic system that deliver them inadequate income. Because individual lives are dynamic, people don’t sit in those holes forever. One year they are in a low-income hole, but the next year they’ve found a job or gotten a promotion aren’t anymore. But that hole that they were in last year doesn’t go away. Others inevitably find themselves in that hole because it is a persistent defect in the economic structure.
It follows from this that impoverished people are not the same people every year. It follows further that the only way to reduce poverty is to alter the economic structure as to reduce the number of low-income holes in Africa.7 5.0 TYPE AND DEFINITION OF POVERTY There are different types of poverty which is relative poverty and absolute poverty. Relative poverty, they have less money than those living around them to maintain the average standard of living in the society in which they live. Relative poverty is considered the easiest way to measure the level of poverty in an individual country.
It is defined relative to the members of a society and, therefore, differs across countries. People are said to be impoverished if they cannot keep up with the standard of living as determined by society. Relative poverty also changes over time. As the wealth of a society increases, so does the amount of income and resources that the society deems necessary for proper conditions of living. For example, if you were a family of four (two adults and two children) living in America in 1963 with a yearly income less than $3,100, you would have been living in relative poverty. By 1992, this amount had increased to $14,228. Absolute poverty means some people much poorer.
For them their income is less than what people in UK earn in a week, which is legal minimum wage, earns in hour at £5.93 According on World Bank “extreme poverty” is someone that earn 75p – £1.50 a day ($1.25 or 75p). People who suffer the absolute poverty typically not enough money to pay basic need for example foods, clothes, clean water and shelter. Across the rest of the world, absolute poverty has halved over recent decades, but in Africa it has barely fallen. United Nations’ (UN) Human Development Index, in 2009, 22 of 24 nations identified as having “Low Human Development” the were in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006, 34 of the 50 nations on the UN list of least developed countries are in Africa.
In many nations, GDP per capita is less than US$5200 per year, with the vast majority of the population living on much less (according to World Bank data, by 2016 the island nation of Seychelles was the only African country with a GDP per capita above US$10,000 per year). In addition, Africa’s share of income has been consistently dropping over the past century by any measure. In 1820, the average European worker earned about three times what the average African did. Now, the average European earns twenty times what the average African does. Although GDP per capita incomes in Africa have also been steadily growing, measures are still far better in other parts of the world.8 6.0 FACTORS OF POVERTY IN AFRICA There were many factors that lead to poverty in Africa.
It can be decided by several factors. Impuissant economic. Generally, researcher claim that mostly policy maker more focus on economic advance without properly plan to analyze, measure and collate development on the other side such as humanity, education, sustainable lifestyle of the poor people. In other words, they more focus on do research-based data only on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) instead of Human Development Index (HDI).
Next, lack of income. Previous study shown that GDP of Africa is 15 backwards less that GDP USA which 60% part of Africa countries consider as low human development. Largely income of the country generally depends on the exporting sector which provide substantially to government finances that attract foreign investment and thus lead to gain in productivity to the country. While this also lead to negative impact where unsustainable amount of foreign aid lead to an appreciation of real exchange rate that can detrimental on export sector. Besides, foreign direct investment (FDI) mostly sources from economic farm.
In 1970-1990, poverty have been rising due to the real decline in agricultural growth that experience by several countries in Africa. Typically, it gives big impact to small-scale farmers and irrigators in rural sector because 63% of population that lives in rural area were largely depends on agricultural sector as main income. Furthermore, geographic characteristic of countries itself were poor that predisposed to weak economic growth. For example, much populations lives in countries were landlocked which surrounded by national border on all sides. This may constitute an irreducible barrier to trade and make it harder to develop an interconnected economy even country have good relationship with neighbor countries.
Politic Ineffective local governance and efficacious policies drafted by ineffective officials seem to prevent people from poverty trap. In 2012, Corruption Perception Index state that 90% of Africa Countries people live in poverty especially among poor people. This is because government structure was controlled by ruling elite, educated, urban resident who are resistant or indifferent to pro-poor policies. Hence, corruption in governance structure have occurred9 because mostly political elites use power for their own personal benefit to gain aid resources and debt relief. Mostly, private sector owns wide-ranging control of resources, so it causes large range of economic costly for government to expand public sector. Besides lack of democracy result lowered quality of public services despite relatively high public expenditure. There were poor in-service delivery handicapped firms through unreliable transport and power, inadequate telecommunication networks and unreliable court. For example, a survey of Uganda firms found that shortage of electricity that identified as most important constraint of firm growth.
Besides, African commercial court are more corrupt and as the result, firm face greater problem of contract enforcement thus make market less competitive and reduce biggest potential gain from trade. Poor people relatively lack access to relevant skills and knowledge, educations and personal development that could improve their livelihood. There also political minority which people lack the visibility and voice to defend their own rights. In this situation, people gain shortage capacity to influence social processes as public policy choice disregard by limiting technology that focusing on agriculture sector. Next, there is inadequate access to employment opportunities, inadequate physical assets such as land and capital distribution among citizens. This lead to unequal income distribution where rich people become more riches and poor people become poorer. Civil War It is arguable that countries with rich in natural resources maybe prone to civil wars dur to ‘loot-seeking’ activities.
It may become serious when this natural resource is the primary commodity export of both countries. For example, Sudan was officially split into Sudan and Republic of South Sudan in 2011. Recent this split country cause conflict in determining lucrative oil revenues. Ironically, during civil wars, large amount of resources was spent on weapon instead of using it for better used in alleviate poverty. Moreover, during civil war poverty may rise due to destruction of capital such as road, production of manufactures or financial services, displacement of people and increased insecurity. Education In this term, poverty arise due to low access of opportunities and lack of training skills for developing human capital and education.
If government emphasized on focusing more on10 investment in human capital, particularly more advance in education it can help people to increase in their earnings, quality of jobs and improving quality of life such as better utilization of health facilities, shelter, water and sanitation. Without education, it would not broaden the base understanding among people that could deter the pave way on promoting sustainable human development. Thus, with rapid social progress, it could containment abuse of power by the elite’s discretionary power and wider social equity among people. All aspect that related to poverty of education were closely related with income poverty. The features of education poverty include non-participation or low rates of participation of children in schooling, low rates of continuation in schooling and high rates of drop-out and failure in education. This could give the greater affect of an individual life that could experience long term of unemployed. It can be concluded that poverty and economic constraint are the reason many children from economically poor families gain low access of opportunity in participating in schooling. Thus, large portion of families participated in low-wage employment that have limited benefit, poor working environment which further lead to families in poverty level.
Health Main cause of poor health was because of Africa’s adverse climate. Along with these, life expectancy was very low. Even though the country has high-fertility, it is equally offset by high-mortality.
The main cause of these high-mortality because of tropical disease like malaria. Furthermore, these countries were lacking health facilities and commonly medical expenses were expensive that barely poor people not affordable to access into it. Natural and Geographical Characteristic Country climate itself lead to leached soil and unreliable rainfall. It is state that 5 million to 12 million hectares of land are lost annually due to severe degradation. Thus, soil degradation will affect 65% of African croplands because losses of nitrogen and phosphorus. Besides, Africa is semi-arid, which subject to long cycles rainfall. Impact of these, soil derive disproportionately derive from hard soil which is low in micronutrients and varies considerable between localities.
Due to these natural disadvantages, like unpredictability of rainfall implies high risk to agriculture because this condition restricted agricultural activities. In addition, this sort of output from agriculture would cause people suffer from famine mostly impact are poor people.11 Other than that, some Africa countries gets flooded during Monsoon season each year which seriously hindered the agricultural activities.
Certain Africa countries also suffers from natural disaster such as drought and hurricanes which causes to properties and life losses. Given these geographically unfavourable situations, these countries are in fact standing on a disadvantage route to escape from poverty trap.12 7.0 EFFECT OF POVERTY IN AFRICA Poverty is the most dangerous virus that can lead to a terrible disease in the third world called under development. Poverty can lead to a slowdown in the development of a country.
Furthermore, studies show that the rate of killing cannot be compared to any disease of human genesis. Poverty is worse than HIV / AIDS and malaria is said to be the highest killer disease. Thus, if any social class discussion would not be incomplete if we do not talk about poverty issue. Poverty also give effect or impact to the country in the world. For my topic, its only focus on the impact of poverty in Africa. There are lots of impact of poverty in terms of education, health and economy.
Education Firstly, we all know that education is very important nowadays because it is beneficial to an individual, society and nation. Unfortunately, statistics shows that African countries is among the lowest in the world in primary school enrolment and about 33 million primary school-aged children in Sub-Saharan Africa do not go to school. In addition, from 33 million primary school-aged children, 18 million of these children are girls. In Sub-Saharan Africa, only two-thirds of children who start primary school reach the final grade. One of the reason why poor people in Africa cannot have proper education is because of poverty. Parent cannot afford to send their children to school because they do not have enough income. Plus, school expenses are very expensive such as school uniform, shoes, books, stationary and others.
Furthermore, serious poverty in Africa has resulted in high rate of illiteracy. This is because, there are no educational infrastructure and few in experienced personnel. This has affected mostly the elementary and post-secondary levels. In the other hand, the relationship between poverty and education indicates the level of readiness of children’s thinking.
Poverty has adverse effects on children’s thinking. Some children have a short focus, cannot think rationally, some of which are very easy to handle, and some cannot effectively monitor their work quality. In fact, it is also important to consider how emotions are related to poverty and education. Students living in poverty-affected families face many situations that can affect them socially and emotionally. Studies show that many of these students live in single households.
When only one adult prepares for the needs of children, the parent experiences a lot of stress; they struggle financially, and they often get insufficient rest.13 Food Security Next, poverty can cause lack of food security to the people in that particular area. Food security define as “all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life” (World Food Summit, 1996; USAID, 1992). For Africa countries their birth rate are high and it cause increasing in population. Thus, the more people in the area, food availability become more limited.
Especially in urban area, since the availability of land is quite inadequate, so it is little bit hard for poor dwellers in urban area to do activity like farming to support their food supply. Poverty also impedes the ability of livestock farms to invest in productive assets and agricultural technologies, resulting in adequate agricultural productivity. It is because they are lack the appropriate technology, updated skills, modern technology, capacity building, innovative techniques and farming tools just because of they are in poor state. Since they do not have enough money to buy food, they must find another way to get food supply. In addition, food insecurity and malnutrition can lead to health and development problem, with mothers and children most exposed to the devastating effects.
Mothers who suffer from nutrient deficiency have a greater risk of giving birth and delivering low weight babies who fail to survive. In fact, malnutrition is the leading cause of death of more than 2.6 million children annually, one-third of deaths below five years and one-third of the total deaths of children worldwide. This kind of disease always happen in Africa countries is due to the lack of medical facilities, staff and infrastructure to address such problems Economy For developing countries like Africa, their economy are not so good as develop countries such as United States, Japan, United Kingdom and others. Even though African countries economic condition not good as develop country, but economy development and sustainability are very important to the country. Poverty has caused changes that arise on consumer consumption. As the poor people do not have enough money to consume or product or services, so they reduce consumption or their distribution of consumption kept constant. National income comes from three aspects which are consumption, investment and government spending.
Thus, if people do not consume so much product or services it can effect economic growth of the country. Previous studies show that Africa’s GDP is 15 less inhibited14 that the United States GDP of 60% is part of the African country considered to be low human development15 8.0 CHALLENGES OF POVERTY REDUCTION IN AFRICA John O. Okpara, (2011) described Africa as the one of the poorest region and it poverty level is higher than other developing countries. Africa was facing many ups and down since 1980-2000 which shown that they are the only region that obtain negative growth of income per capita. The health conditions have contribute and worsened the poverty issue. The AIDS epidemic continues to cause chaos that spread to other region, as well as the spread of malaria due to increasing drug resistance and the fragility of public health care systems that was supported by the Pedro L. Alonso ; Marcel Tanner, (2013) that particularly the expected decline both in funding and in the coverage of key interventions if they are not replaced as needed.
Igbinedion and Abusomwan (2014), also state that maybe there is no other problem that dominates the poverty issues in Africa today than the incidence of HIV/AIDS. The spread of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan African is contributing to the new faces of poverty. This shown a connected relationship between disease and poverty.
Poverty provide a fertile breathing path for the plague’s spread, and infection gave impacts to the economic, social disintegration and impoverishment. HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death specifically among the youth in many African countries and cause millions of orphanage children and aged parents in many countries.16 Source: unicef.org The graph above shows the estimated numbers of people who are living with HIV by region. The HIV disease has continued to booming and more than 10 million people who are aged from 15-24 years old are infected. From the graph above, we can observe that people in Eastern and Southern of Africa had dominated the highest numbers of people living with HIV which are about 17.7 million and 6.97 million respectively in 2006, followed by West/Central of Africa which about 2.
44 million of people by 2006. According to UNICEF, there are 2.9 million people have been estimated died due to HIV in 2006. In addition, along the diseases that occurs, the population in the country starts to rise which is contribute to environmental stresses lead to the economic strains. This somehow related to the poverty that occurs in Africa. The lack of effectiveness in prevention of the diseases cause people to have boundaries to do and find a job.
Hence, it makes their lives harder to improve their living and trap themselves into poverty world. The disease constraints their improvement which is lead them to live in poor. The combination of initial endemic poverty, high inequality and low growth has been a big challenges to the achievement of poverty reduction and most of the socio-economic development in African sub-continent. The dull achievement of most of the17 resource-rich economies of the sub-continent is often related to the resource curse. The exploitation of mineral resources relies on capital-intensive technology. This significantly shows that the government intervention with an appropriate action is needed to allocate the resources hence to reduce the poverty (Thorbecke, 2013). In Chad, after a new law had been created which demanding a part of the oil revenues to be distributed to the fight against poverty (Ndang and Nan-Guer, 2011).
Besides, an evidence of corruption was found that directly slowed down the progress of poverty reduction. This gave a massive impacts to African since there is an evidence that corruption is continuing to plague oil and mineral production. This alternatively effected people of Africa’s living. Similarly, in Guinea, the mining sector is characterised by large-scale corruption. Kaba et al. (2011) describe in some detail corrupt transactions involving the government and foreign companies. Source: transperancy.org The figure above shows the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) of Africa.
It is clearly shown that most of the countries in Africa have scored the lowest index of CPI. The index that have been scored reflects the corruption that occurs in public sector. Lower index’s score indicate the occurrence of bribery, lack of penalty for corruption and public institutions that do not aware18 and respond to people needs. This directly shows that the numbers of corruption continued to rise if there is no regulation that have been implemented. In addition, according to Erik Thorbecke (2013), the dynamic and inter-generational poverty traps are influenced by household characteristics systematically correlated with poverty is one of the challenges that are faced by the people to alleviate poverty. This characteristics influences the next generation to live and follow the footsteps in the same way as their past generations did. The non-presence of strong male models.
This case might happen because the younger generation did not given any opportunities to improve and enhance their lives. Thus, they have to bear and go through the same kind of living which is live in poverty. This traps are hard to break which require an appropriate and suitable policy that will give a strong impact that will match with the culture in Africa. A sub-culture of poverty infuses in family values and influences the family members to follow the same destructive path of living and risky behaviour from one generation to another.
Poverty reduction progress are constraints by many challenges and barriers that came out from different dimensions and perspectives. The population pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa also the challenges that induce the low progress of poverty reduction. In Africa, it records some of the highest population growth rates in the developing world and it also with the fastest growing urban inhabitants. The high growth rate tend to affect people in many ways. There will be insufficient foods, infrastructures, resources and fragility of sanitation system.
The increasing growth rate lead to structural change in the economics. The structural change that occurred in low income economies with high rates of growth had a negative impact upon the potential for future aggregate economic growth (Mcmillan, Margaret S. and Rodrik, D. (2011). People will experiences bad effects from the high level of growth rate and become the victims of the extreme poverty which are including high mortality rates, high levels of literacy and low level of life expectancy. The poverty poses a serious threat to development efforts to reduce poverty.
According to Mcmillan, Margaret S. and Rodrik, D. (2011), poverty will give a massive challenges to international development by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which is aiming to cut by one-half the level of global poverty by 2015.
By 2040 parallel with the MDGs target, it aims to achieve the number of people living below the $1.25 in Sub-Saharan19 countries may more than double that of South Asia and together supported by the effective implementation of policies. Also, the environmental degradation is one of the challenges that facing by Africa to reduce poverty. The environmental degradation have a linkages with the high growth rate.
The increasing population forces people to find resources that indicates the movement of people into marginal lands are often effected land, air and water. Their main sector which is agriculture also contribute to the degradation. The lack of technology in sanitation system, land cultivation and drainage system for plants also contribute to environmental degradation. This mainly will lower the progress to reduce the poverty in Africa.
Many activities was carried out without provision against the environment include bush burning, deforestation, and water pollution, which have strengthened the poverty in Africa.20 9.0 STRATEGIES/POLICIES TO REDUCE POVERTY IN AFRICA According to World Bank Group report, more than 3.5 millions South Africans are pulled out from poverty through fiscal policy which diverts resources to raise the income of the poor through social spending programs. The function of fiscal policy is to redistribute income, reduce inequality and substantially lower poverty in the country. The report shows that the poorest in South Africa benefit from social spending programs such as spending on education and health.
Fiscal policy is working by taxing the income of the rich people more than poor people and using social spending to boost the incomes of the poorest. Based on Africa Development Bank (2013), infrastructure development is one of the strategies to reduce poverty in Africa. The bank will invest in infrastructure that opens the private sector’s potential, fight for gender equality and community participation. It will help to improve the skills for competitiveness, ensuring that the skills are better suited to local job market opportunities. Africa still has huge infrastructure needs. Infrastructure also promotes human development by improving citizens’ access to social services and fostering more inclusive societies.
According to Motshine A. Sekhaulelo (2014), by reforming churches in South Africa (RCSA) can employ for poverty alleviation in the South African urban communities. It is stated in the article that the author refers to the local churches that constitute a family of churches or church organization by RCSA. The function of the RCSA are the churches stood at the forefront of giving freely to the poor, caring for widows, taking in destitute orphans, visiting the sick, and caring for the dying. National minimum wage also is the strategy to reduce poverty.
Merwe (2017) article stated that the allocation of both social grants and a national minimum wage amount to a good thing, reducing inequality, alleviating poverty and increasing spending power among the country’s poorest, whether they are employed or not. With the national minimum wage implementation, the poor at least have money to survive in daily life. In addition, Leibbrandt, M., Wegner, E., Finn, A.
(2011) said in their research paper that education is the good policy for poverty reduction. Education spending has concentrated on improving the situation of poor area and, to some extent, poor schools, while keeping relatively high levels of funding for the formerly privileged schools. Given the high disparities in the quality of these schools at the moment of the transition, such policies that are directed only at21 the poor will take a long time to bridge the gap between schools. The same might be true for inequality in general. Lastly, based on Daouda Sembene (2017), there has been a growing interest in poverty reduction across Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries.
It is stated that unconditional cash transfers, conditional cash transfers, in kind transfer schemes and public works programs are the strategies of poverty reduction in SSA.22 10.0 CONCLUSION Therefore we can see that poverty in Africa is a big issue that we must to address quickly especially in the poorest place like Uganda, Mali, Malawi and Nigeria in which thousand people are dying and struggle to live in a day also most of them were children’s. we have learned that poverty is one the condition that people cannot survive for themselves and cannot reach standard of living that means they can’t afford to get basic needs like clean water, shelter, foods, and clothes. We also learned that poverty affect mostly poor people, because of the little resources they have, this means that poverty is an that’s harming poor people that want to get out from poverty, but they can’t because they don’t have support from rich people.
Even though there are a lot of people trying to stop poverty, it is impossible to stop it, because there is no help from rich countries. Lastly the most important thing that we have learned from poverty in Africa is poverty can be stop, but to be able to stop it we must all support each other, with no hate or anything that could harm us. For those that are willing to help don’t help because you feel pressure, do it because you want to and your heart is telling you to do it.23 11.0 REFERENCES 1. Matt Bruenig (2014).
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