1.0 PENGENALAN

Berdasarkan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan, pendidikan Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmoni dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi dan jasmani berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada tuhan. Sehubungan itu, semua kanak-kanak di Malaysia mempunyai hak untuk mendapat pendidikan sempurna mengikut keupayaan masing-masing.

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Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia telah merangka Falsafah Pendidikan Khas yang bersifat progresivisme. Falsafah tersebut berbunyi:

” Pendidikan Khas di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan untuk melahirkan insan yang berkemahiran, berhaluan, berupaya, beriman, berdikari, mampu merancang dan menguruskan kehidupan serta menyedari potensi diri sendiri sebagi seorang individu dan ahli masyarakat yang seimbang dan produktif selaras dengan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan.” Usaha kerajaan untuk memberi pendidikan kepada golongan kanak-kanak kelainan upaya merupakan satu dasar yang amat dikagumi dan ini membuktikan keprihatinan kerajaan terhadap kanak-kanak kelainan upaya dalam mendidik dan membentuk murid melalui perkembangan mental, kestabilan emosi dan integrasi sosial.

Justeru, pengajaran dan pembelajaran (PdP) pendidikan inklusif semakin penting di Malaysia. Pelbagai program dan aktiviti dijalankan melalui pendidikan inklusif di peringkat sekolah rendah khas kepada murid-murid kelainan upaya. Pendidikan inklusif merupakan suatu program mengintegrasikan murid kelainan upaya ke dalam sistem persekolahan biasa.

Menurut Lewis dan Doorlag (2003), pendidikan inklusif merupakan penempatan bagi murid berkeperluan khas di dalam pendidikan arus perdana. Ini menunjukkan bahawa inklusif adalah program yang dirancang khas untuk menempatkan murid berkeperluan khas (MBK) agar dapat belajar bersama murid normal di kelas aliran perdana.

Maklumat Pendidikan Khas (2008), menyatakan bahawa program inklusif diwujudkan di sekolah harian biasa rendah dan menengah dan sekolah menengah teknik/vokasional yang menggunakan pendekatan pengajaran dan pembelajaran secara pengasingan dan separa inklusif. Ini menunjukkan bahawa program inklusif ini turut dilaksanakan di Program Pendidikan Khas Intergrasi Bermasalah Pembelajaran (PPKIBP) di sekolah-sekolah harian biasa yang terpilih.

Justeru, penekanan terhadap kualiti, kejayaan dan keberkesanan pendidikan inklusif amat berkait rapat dengan rasa tanggungjawab daripada pihak kerajaan, komuniti sekolah, ibu bapa atau penjaga dan masyarakat. Hal ini kerana murid kelainan upaya ini dapat menyesuaikan diri dari awal lagi dalam semua aspek kemasyarakatan dan menjadikan mereka lebih berupaya, mampu berdikari dan menjadi anggota masyarakat yang dapat menyumbang kepada bangsa dan negara.

1.1 LATAR BELAKANG KAJIAN

Sekolah Kebangsaan Sri Kulim merupakan sekolah aliran perdana yang terletak 5 kilometer dari bandar Kulim. Sekolah yang dikategorikan sebagai sekolah bandar yang mempunyai kira-kira 335 orang murid. Terdapat seramai 30 orang guru di sekolah ini. Sekolah ini mempunyai 24 kelas biasa,sebuah kelas prasekolah, dan sebuah kelas pemulihan khas. Pada awal tahun 2013, sekolah didatangi oleh pegawai Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Kulim Bandar Baharu bahagian Pendidikan Khas. Pegawai tersebut memaklumkan bahawa beliau telah meluluskan permohonan penjaga seorang murid kelainan upaya untuk menjalani pendidikan wajib di sekolah aliran perdana. Murid tersebut telah menjalani pendidikan prasekolah di kelas pendidikan khas yang berada di bandar Kulim. Oleh kerana sekolah tersebut terletak jauh dari kediaman maka permohonan diluluskan oleh PPD. Selain itu, murid tersebut juga telah menunjukkan kemampuannya untuk bersekolah di aliran perdana di samping sokongan kedua daripada penjaga.

1.2 FOKUS KAJIAN

Kajian ini berfokuskan kepada seorang guru aliran perdana yang melaksanakan program inklusif dan Penolong Kanan Pentadbiran Guru di Sekolah Kebangsaan Sri Kulim. Puan Noor Arina Binti Ariffin adalah seorang guru pendidikan inklusif yang mengajar murid bernama Akmal Aiman Bin Mohd Kamal di kelas 3 Muazzaim. Akmal Bin Mohd Kamal dikenal pasti sebagai murid kelainan upaya yang mempunyai masalah penglihatan di mana murid hanya boleh melihat sebelah mata. Murid ini mempunyai kad Orang Kurang Upaya(OKU) setelah menjalani pemeriksaan kesihatan daripada pegawai kesihatan. Murid ini mengikuti sepenuhnya kelas biasa dengan dibantu oleh seorang guru aliran perdana.

Pemerhatian awal saya mendapati bahawa, Akmal telah menguasai kemahiran membaca, menulis dan mengira. Hanya pergerakan Akmal agak terbatas dan dia mengambil masa yang lebih untuk menulis sesuatu latihan. Namun begitu hasil kerja Akmal amat memuaskan. Akmal menerima bantuan OKU setiap bulan sebanyak RM200 sebagai bantuan sokongan keluarga. Akmal mendapat kasih sayang dan komitmen tinggi daripada ibu bapa dan juga rakan sekelas. Pergaulan Akmal dalam kalangan kawan-kawannya kelihatan biasa di sekolah. Guru-guru di sekolah turut berprihatin dan memberi pendidikan sama rata kepada Akmal.

1.3 OBJEKTIF KAJIAN

Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengenal pasti pelaksanaan program pendidikan inklusif yang berkesan dan berkualiti terhadap murid kelainan upaya di kelas aliran perdana. Selain itu, kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengkaji penerimaan guru aliran perdana terhadap murid-murid kelainan upaya yang diinklusifkan. Aspek pengetahuan dan kesediaan guru dalam menyediakan pengajaran dan pembelajaran pendidikan inklusif juga dilihat sebagai suatu perkara yang perlu diberikan perhatian agar murid kelainan upaya yang mengikuti pendidikan inklusif mendapat faedah yang boleh memberikan impak yang besar kepada mereka.

Penekanan terhadap strategi guru aliran perdana juga turut dikaji bagi menangani keperluan murid di dalam kelas aliran perdana. Selain itu, faktor yang menyokong atau menghalang guru aliran perdana dalam melaksanakan pendidikan inklusif juga diberikan perhatian khususnya berkaitan pencapaian akademik dan penglibatan murid kelainan upaya dalam Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS) dan pentaksiran awam yang menjadi tanda tanya dalam kalangan guru yang terlibat.

1.4 KAEDAH PENGUMPULAN DATA

Saya telah menggunakan pendekatan temu bual terhadap seorang guru, seorang pentadbir sekolah dan seorang murid kelainan upaya dari Sekolah Kebangsaaan Sri Kulim berkenaan pelaksanaan pendidikan inklusif. Maklumat yang diperlukan untuk menyempurnakan tugasan saya menjadi lebih mudah kerana temu bual secara mendalam dapat mencungkil banyak maklumat serta pandangan sebenar responden yang lazimnya sukar diperolehi melalui penggunaan soal selidik. Setiap temu bual telah mengambil masa antara satu hingga satu setengah jam dan dengan kebenaran responden yang ditemu bual, setiap sesi telah dirakamkan dan hasilnya telah ditulis semula bagi membolehkan analisis kualitatif seperti yang diterangkan oleh Creswell(2005), Miles & Huberman (1994) dan Straus & Corbin (1998) dibuat.

Daripada data yang diperoleh dapat diperhatikan bahawa pandangan guru berkenaan murid kelainan upaya yang mengikuti pendidikan inklusif telah berubah dari semasa ke semasa. Hal ini dibincangkan oleh Lindsay (2007) yang mengatakan bahawa perubahan dalam pendidikan khas melalui inklusif yang dijalankan dapat dilihat dengan ketara apabila guru-guru mula menerima kehadiran murid kelainan upaya di kelas aliran perdana. Responden yang ditemu bual turut berpandangan positif terhadap kehadiran murid kelainan upaya di kelas aliran perdana. Menurut responden, beliau tidak mengalami kesukaran untuk merancang mahupun menjalankan PdP bagi mata pelajaran beliau disebabkan adanya murid kelainan upaya di aliran perdana. Data yang diperoleh dalam kajian ini juga menunjukkan bahawa sekumpulan besar guru yang terlibat dengan inklusif bersedia untuk mengajar dan yakin dengan kebolehan murid kelainan uapaya yang belajar di sekolah mereka.

1.5 ANALISIS KAJIAN

Data temu bual yang diperolehi transkripsi iaitu ditaip dengan lengkap supaya memudahkan proses menganalisis. Transkripsi dibuat secara verbal, iaitu menggunakan perkataan atau ayat-ayat yang sebenarnya diperoleh bagi membolehkan analisis dibuat secara tepat. Seterusnya, transkrip temu bual dibaca secara keseluruhan untuk mendapat gambaran yang menyeluruh tentang apa yang dikatakan oleh responden. Kemudian transkrip dibaca sekali lagi dan maklumat penting yang terdapat dalam catatan itu digariskan.

2.0 DAPATAN KAJIAN

Sebagaimana yang dibincangkan oleh Hick & Thomas (2009), kenyataan beliau berkenaan kesediaan guru mempunyai kesamaan dan dibuktikan dengan dapatan dalam kajian saya ini. Ia merujuk kepada faktor yang menyokong murid kelainan upaya yang menduduki peperiksaan/pentaksiran tidak diberikan halangan oleh pihak pentadbir, ibu bapa dan juga guru-guru. Walaupun sistem pendidikan mempunyai peperiksaan/pentaksiran awam tetapi hak untuk belajar dan menduduki peperiksaan/pentaksiran tidak pernah menjadi halangan. Perbincangan Lipsky & Gardner (2008) berkenaan hak murid kelainan upaya juga menyokong dapatan kajian ini. Hasil temu bual daripada Cikgu Noor Arina Binti Ariffin yang terlibat secara langsung dalam pelaksanaan pendidikan inklusif menunjukkan murid kelainan upaya yang mengikuti kelas beliau di aliran perdana tidak pernah mengalami sebarang halangan dan kesulitan untuk menduduki pentaksiran. Malah, murid kelainan upaya ini menunjukkan pencapaian akademik yang baik dalam peperiksaan.

Menurut Cikgu Noor Arina Binti Ariffin, keperluan guru mendapatkan kemahiran melalui kursus-kursus pendidikan inklusif dapat meningkatkan semangat kerjasama dalam melaksanakan pendidikan inklusif di sekolah. Hal ini disokong melalui kajian yang dijalankan oleh Kezar (2006); Smith et al. (2008) yang menyatakan bahawa keperluan guru yang mengajar murid kelainan upaya di kelas aliran perdana sangat perlu dan mereka menyatakan penyesuaian terhadap pedagogi akan dapat membantu guru aliran perdana menyesuaikan dan mempelbagaikan teknik pengajaran mereka. Pada mulanya, Cikgu Noor Arina ditugaskan untuk melaksanakan program pendidikan inklusif di sekolah beliau tanpa mempunyai pengalaman mengajar murid kelainan upaya. Ini menjadi halangan kepada beliau untuk terus melaksanakan PdP di kelas aliran perdana.

Namun, dedikasi dan komitmen tinggi dalam kerjaya telah mendorong beliau untuk mengikuti Program Intervensi Tambah Opsyen(PITO) di Institut Pendidikan Guru (IPG), Jitra. Setelah berjaya mengikuti PITO beliau lebih yakin dan bersemangat untuk melaksanakan PdP pendidikan inklusif di sekolah. Beliau turut mendapat sokongan penuh daripada pihak pentadbir dan rakan setugas dalam menyedia dan melaksanakan pendidikan inklusif di sekolah. Beliau sering berkongsi pendapat tentang strategi pengajaran pendidikan inklusif bersama guru pendidikan khas dan rakan-rakan setugas. Kerjasama dan suasana persekitaran di tempat kerja dapat lebih meyakinkan beliau untuk terus berkhidmat dengan baik.

Pandangan daripada pihak pentadbir sekolah juga menunjukkan pelaksanaan pendidikan inklusif di sekolah berkenaan tidak mengalami sebarang kesulitan kerana bilangan murid kelainan upaya di sekolah tersebut adalah kurang. Hanya seorang murid yang kelainan upaya di kelas tahun 3. Guru pendidikan inklusif tidak mengalami masalah dari segi peruntukan masa mengajar kerana PdP di kelas airan perdana dijalankan seperti biasa tanpa sebarang gangguan pembelajaran. Guru pendidikan inklusif diberi tugas-tugas lain seperti rakan-rakan setugas yang lain kecuali jawatan ketua panitia. Pendek kata, pengagihan tugas guru selain mengajar menjadi fleksibel. Soal beban kerja tidak pernah wujud dalam diri guru pendidikan inklusif.

Perhatian guru terhadap murid kelainan upaya tidak pernah menjadi isu pembelajaran di dalam bilik darjah. Malah, murid-murid aliran perdana juga tidak merungut tentang kehadiran murid kelainan upaya di bilik darjah bersama mereka. Penglibatan murid berkenaan kelihatan biasa dan pergaulannya bersama rakan-rakan sebaya tidak mengalami sebarang masalah. Ini membantu guru pendidikan inklusif untuk membentuk murid kelainan upaya dari segi perkembangan mental, kestabilan emosi dan integrasi sosial. Komunikasi diantara guru dengan guru dan guru aliran perdana dengan murid turut memainkan peranan penting dalam menjayakan pelakasanaan pendidikan inklusif. Sebagaimana yang dikatakan oleh Glatthorn et al. (2006) dan Glickman et al. (1998) pelaksanaan pendidikan inklusif perlu mengaitkan hubungan antara pendidikan khas dan aliran perdana dengan menyatakan bagaimana konsep itu boleh dijelmakan dan hal ini turut disokong oleh Klingner dan Vaughn (2002).

Sokongan yang diperlukan oleh guru adalah sesuatu yang mudah seperti peruntukan masa untuk menghasilkan bahan-bahan pembelajaran selain memerlukan pengurusan yang efektif dalam persediaan untuk menyediakan murid-murid yang mempunyai keperluan yang pelbagai.

Menurut Cikgu Noor Arina, kajian ini mendapati bahawa bekas murid-murid yang terlibat dalam pendidikan inklusif juga dapat mencapai pencapaian yang baik dalam Ujian Penilaian Sekolaha Rendah(UPSR) yang lepas. Beliau juga berpendapat bahawa hampir semua murid pendidikan inklusif di sekolah berkenaan menunjukkan perubahan positif dari segi pencapaian akademik dan sahsiah. Hal ini disokong oleh kajian Friend, 2007; Kudlacek et al., 2009 di mana pencapaian akademik didapati meningkat secara positif disamping mempunyai daya keyakinan diri yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan pelajar yang tidak diinklusifkan. Manakala, murid-murid aliran perdana pula menunjukkan motivasi yang tinggi untuk bersaing selain pembentukan sahsiah diri yang lebih sensitif kepada murid kelainan upaya.

Hasil daripada kajian ini, Cikgu Noor Arina telah merancang dan melaksanakan aktiviti seperti ‘Hot Seat’ dan permainan stesen dalam aktiviti PdP. Teknik soal jawab dan permainan ini memang merangsang keinginan murid kelainan upaya untuk melibatkan diri secara aktif. Menurut penyelidik kajian Sanna, a. et al (2016), pendekatan permainan dalam aktiviti PdP dapat menarik perhatian dan minat belajar seseorang murid di dalam kelas. Dari segi penyediaan Bahan Bantu Belajar(BBB), Cikgu Noor Arina suka menggunakan carta yang merangkumi gambar berwarna dan tulisan jelas yang bersaiz besar bagi memudahkan murid bernama Akmal(murid kelainan upaya) dapat melihat dan membaca. Keprihatian dan kepekaan terhadap keperluan Akmal sentiasa diutamakan dalam aktiviti PdP.

Dari segi kawalan kelas, Cikgu Noor Arina tidak mengalami sebarang masalah disiplin semasa aktiviti PdP. Ini kerana pendekatan guru dalam menggunakan kaedah atau teknik pengajaran yang menarik secara langsung tidak menimbulkan sebarang kesulitan dalam kalangan murid. Arahan Cikgu Noor Arina sentiasa jelas dan mudah difahami oleh murid-murid. Kehadiran Akmal di dalam kelas aliran perdana tidak pernah diabaikan. Ini menjadi kekuatan kepada Cikgu Noor Arina untuk meneruskan pendidikan inklusif dengan berkesan tanpa gangguan. Menurut Cikgu Noor Arina, pendidikan inklusif akan memberikan peluang kepada murid-murid kelainan upaya berinteraksi dan melibatkan diri dalam aktiviti pembelajaran dan ia akan memberikan peluang kepada golongan murid ini merasai semangat persekolahan yang lebih efektif dan bermakna pada setiap masa.
3.0 ISU DAN CABARAN DALAM PELAKSANAAN PENDIDIKAN INKLUSIF

Pelaksanaan Pendidikan Inklusif dalam sistem pendidikan aliran perdana merupakan matlamat yang ingin dicapai dalam meletakkan pendidikan Malaysia bertaraf dunia. Namun terdapat pelbagai halangan dan rintangan dalam melaksanakan pendidikan inklusif secara sepenuhnya di setiap sekolah. Cikgu Noor Arina yang bertugas di SK Sri Kulim turut menghadapi cabaran dalam menjalankan tugas beliau. Antara faktor yang menjadi kekangan utama ialah kekurangan guru. Menurut beliau, isu kekurangan guru di sekolah menyebabkan guru pendamping yang sepatutnya membantu Cikgu Noor Arina untuk membimbing Akmal (murid kelainan upaya) semasa aktiviti PdP tidak dapat ditawarkan di sekolah tersebut. Namun, Cikgu Noor Arina dapat menangani masalah ini tanpa bantuan guru pendamping. Beliau mampu melaksanakan PdP pendidikan inklusif dengan adanya bimbingan guru pendidikan khas di sekolah.

5.0 KESIMPULAN

Hasil daripada kajian ini dapatlah disimpulkan bahawa salah satu pendekatan pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang wajar dilaksanakan bagi memenuhi keperluan murid kelainan upaya adalah dengan menjalankan program inklusif. Pandangan yang positif guru aliran perdana berkenaan pelaksanaan program inklusif sangat diperlukan bagi membolehkan peluang belajar dapat diberikan sepenuhnya kepada murid-murid kelainan upaya. Kaedah, strategi dan teknik pengajaran perlu diubah dan dipelbagaikan agar pelaksanaan program pendidikan inklusif ini dapat dijalankan dengan sistematik dan mencapai matlamat sebenar Falsafah Pendidikan Khas.

Perhatian khusus terhadap keperluan guru seperti latihan khas berkenaan pedagogi perlu diberikan keutamaan bagi memastikan kedua-dua pihak iaitu guru dan murid mendapat faedah daripada program yang dijalankan. Pendekatan ini akan memberikan banyak manfaat kepada murid kelainan upaya untuk menikmati kehidupan biasa dalam kalangan masyarakat. Berpandukan kepada cara pelaksanaan inklusif di sekolah dan cara pihak-pihak tertentu menjalankan tanggungjawab mereka melalaui program pendidikan inklusif ini dapat meyakinkan murid kelainan upaya supaya berdikari dan berkeyakinan tinggi untuk melakukan sesuatu perkara di sekolah mahu pun di rumah seperti rakan-rakan sebaya tanpa mengharapkan bantuan daripada orang lain.

Secara tidak langsung, sepanjang kajian ini beberapa faktor yang penting telah dikenal pasti dalam membantu pihak sekolah, guru-guru, murid dan ibu bapa dalam melaksanakan program pendidikan inklusif secara lebih berkesan. Oleh itu, penglibatan dan kerjasama diperlukan daripada semua pihak untuk mewujudkan sistem pendidikan yang terbaik bagi pendidikan inklusif. Perancangan yang mendalam dan efektif harus dirancang supaya negara boleh mencapai matlamatnya. Akhir kata, kerajaan Malaysia memang memerlukan sokongan penuh daripada rakyatnya dalam usaha melahirkan modal insan yang seimbang dan harmonis. Kita berharap dengan kerjasama daripada semua pihak, program pendidikan inklusif ini akan dilaksanakan dengan lancar dan berjaya demi masa depan murid-murid kelainan upaya kerana golongan ini berhak diberi pendidikan yang sesuai dengan keperluan mereka.

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1. The first name given to Brazil by the colonialists was “Terra do Santa Cruz” – “land of the Holy Cross.”
2. In terms of population, Brazil takes the 5th place.
3. Brazil prepares the most delicious coffee drinks.
4. The largest and richest city in Brazil is Sao Paulo.
5. There is no official religion in this country.
6. In Brazil, in each apartment, there are about 3 bathrooms
7. the capital of Brazil, Brasilia was built in just 41 days.
8. Brazil has the most brutal police.
9. No one arrives on time in Brazil.
10. Approximately 1.5 million Japanese lives in Brazil, it is the largest number of people outside Japan.
11. In Brazil, about 15% of the population cannot read and write.
12. Women in Brazil got voting rights in 1946.
13. Brazil was the first country in South America to allow women in armed forces.
14. Brazil holds the 60% of total Amazon Rainforest.
15. There are 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Brazil.
16. Brazil is considered the largest producer of apples.
17. Alone Brazil occupies half of South America’s total landmass.
18. When married, women in Brazil do not change names, but simply combine 2 names.
19. Portuguese ruled Brazil for more than 300 years.
20. The Brazilian national team has won FIFA World Cup 5 times.
21. Almost all cars in Brazil go on biofuel.
22. Brazilians are considered the most talkative people.
23. The national sport of Brazil is football, therefore in all cities of this state, there is at least 1 stadium.
24. Cocoa is considered to be the favorite drink of Brazilian people.
25. Cheese bread is considered a classic breakfast for all Brazilians.
26. In Brazil, there is the largest tropical forest.
27. At night, drivers in Brazil are allowed to ride when the traffic light is red.
28. In Brazil, the crime rate is very high.
29. Brazil has the largest number of species of plant, mammal and freshwater fish in the world.
30. Till 1961, Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil.
31. In ancient times, Brazil was a colonial state.
32. There are about 4,000 airports in Brazil.
33. Traffic Jams in big cities of Brazil is so common and can reach up to waiting for 3-4 hours.
34. Brazilian speak the Portuguese language.
35. In total, about 6% of the country’s population live in slums.
36. The largest stadium in Brazil is Maracana, it has the capacity of more than 78,000 thousand people.
37. Brazil is the member of UNESCO.
38. Only Brazilian athletes participated in all world championships.
39. Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee.
40. Here flows the largest river in the world – the Amazon.
41. Baia do Sancho beach is considered to be the most beautiful beach in Brazil.
42. Every year in Brazil visits 6 million tourists.
43. Brazil carnival lasts for 4 days and it is declared a national holiday.
44. The national dish of Brazil is Feijoada.
45. In Sao Paulo outdoor advertising is ban.
46. Smoking in public is banned in Brazil, even E-cigarettes are banned.
47. Carnival in Rio De Janeiro is the biggest festival of the world.
48. Brazilians are an open and positive people. They like dancing, beer, and football.
49. São Vicente is the oldest city in Brazil.
50. the 40-meter-high statue of Christ in Rio de Janeiro is in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
51. Only in Brazil, there is a law that allows you to reduce your prison sentence for reading books.
52. Jaguar is the national animal of Brazil.
53. In Brazil, 15% of the world’s fresh water is concentrated.
54. Pico da Neblina is the highest mountain in Brazil.
55. There are three time zones in Brazil.
56. The life expectancy of Brazil is 75 years.
57. Brazil has more species of monkeys than any other country.
58. Bororo is the group of people in Brazil who all have the same blood group ‘O’.
59. There are approximately 4 million plants in Brazil.

1) NAD 27
Nad 27 remains for north American datum for 1927. NAD27 will be those conformity for long-baseline surveys. A level datum gives an edge of reference as a groundwork to setting particular areas in particular focuses on the spheroid. Geodesists utilize a level datum Likewise the model with interpret a spheroid / ellipsoid under areas around world with scope What’s more longitude lines. Geodetic datums structure the premise about coordinates about all level positions around earth. The sum coordinates ahead world are referenced should a level datum. The north American datum of 1927 (NAD27) may be a standout amongst the fundamental three geodetic datums utilized within north America.
2) NAD 83
The north American datum about 1983 (NAD 83) is the practically current datum constantly utilized to north America. It gives scope and longitude and a percentage stature majority of the data utilizing the reference ellipsoid GRS80. Geodetic datums such as the north American datum 1983 (NAD83) structure the support about coordinates of all level positions to canaceids Canada and the united states. NAD83 corrects a few of the distortions from NAD27 again separation by utilizing a that’s only the tip of the iceberg feeling situated from claiming positions from physical Furthermore doppler satellite information. NAD83 will be a geocentric datum counterbalance toward something like 2 meters. Actually today, geodesists would continually move forward level geodetic datums.

3) WGS 84
It wasn’t until the standard utilization of worldwide Positioning system (GPS) until a bound together worldwide ellipsoid model might have been formed. Those radio waves transmitted by GPS satellites empower greatly exact earth estimations crosswise over continents What’s more seas. Worldwide ellipsoid models have been made due to the upgrade for registering competencies and GPS innovation. This need prompted the advancement of worldwide ellipsoid models for example, WGS72, GRS80 Also WGS84 (current). The slip will be accepted on make less 2 centimeters of the focal point impostor.

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Simply put, a datum is the mathematical model of the Earth we use to calculate the coordinates on any map, chart, or survey system. All coordinates reference some set of numbers for the size and shape of the Earth. The problem for our is that many countries use their own datum when they make their maps and surveys–what we call local datums.

1. The targeted blood-brain barrier (BBB) delivery of antibiotics was carried out using biologically active polymer core/shell nanoparticles (called micelles), self-assembled and fabricated from TAT-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-b-cholesterol (TAT-PEG-b-Chol). The nanoparticles were efficiently loaded with ciprofloxacin as a model antibiotic by employing membrane dialysis method. The initial loading of ciprofloxacin and fabrication temperature determined the actual level of loading. The identification of the blank and ciprofloxacin-loaded nanoparticles was carried out using dynamic light scattering and SEM. The average size of nanoparticles was lower than 200 nm and were spherical in nature. The nanoparticles with TAT on the surfaces showed greater uptake by human brain endothelial cells than those without TAT. The nanoparticles with TAT were vital in their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and locate around the cell nucleus of neurons. Future opportunities may lie in these nanoparticles to act as a carrier for delivering antibiotics across the BBB for brain infection treatment
2. The loading and release of 5-Fluorouracil and Ftorafur using carbonyl iron/poly(butylcyanoacrylate) core/shell particlesand procedures for enhancing them were studied. The composite particles were synthesizedusing the anionic polymerizationprocedure, used to obtain drug-delivering poly(alkylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles,except forcarbonyl iron suspension as the polymerization medium. Spectrophotometric and electrophoretic measurements revealed the effects of two mechanisms of drug incorporation (entrapment in the polymeric network and surface adsorption) on drug loading and release profiles. The drug release evaluations were performed at the ascertained optimum loading conditions. The drug concentration and pH were the two main determining factors among others that affected the drug loading. The drug adsorbed on the surface released rapidly (nearly 100% in 1h), whereas the drug incorporated in the polymer matrix needed 10 to 20h to be fully released. Thus, the release profile was biphasic for both the drugs. The pH of the release medium, the type of drug incorporation, and the amount of drug loaded were found to be the main factors governing the kinetics of drug release form core/shell particles. Comparison between 5-FU and Ftorafur was made indicating that the former drug is less absorbed and released at a faster rate. The reason to this can be its larger hydrophilicity as compared to Ftorafur.
3. Alkaline coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous ions in the presence of a triblock copolymer, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (denoted MPEG-b-PMAA-b-PGMA), in aqueous solution, was employed to prepare a multifunctional nanocarrier with multilayer core–shell architecture. The DLS revealed the average diameter of the nanocarrier in aqueous solution to be 23 nm.The PGMA block of the triblock copolymer is attached on the core of the nanocarrier, which is a superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticlewith an average diameter of 7 nm.PGM block was used to tightly attach MPEG-b-PMAA-b-PGMA onto the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticle. The inner shell and the outermost shell are formed by the PMAA block and MPEG block, respectively.The biocompatible outermost MPEG shell resulted in low cytotoxicity of the nanocarrier. Protonated ADR (pKa=8.2) was adsorbed onto PMAA (pKa=5.6) chains, in which carboxylic acid groups were deprotonated to form carboxylate anions. The combined action of ionic bonding and hydrophobic interaction at pH 7.4, loaded the anticancer agent adriamycin (ADR) in to the nanocarrier as a model drug with an amine group and a hydrophobic moiety. The hydrophobic interaction was a result of the hydrophobic main chain of PMAA and the hydrophobic microenvironment created by MPEG. The loading capacity was significantly enhanced by the synergistic effect between the ionic bond and the hydrophobic interaction. The hydrophobic interaction alone is very weak due to the relatively hydrophilic character of nanocarrier, therefore, the ADR is released because of breakage of ionic bond between the career and ADR because of protonation of polycarboxylate anions of PMAA (pKa = 5.6) at endosomal/lysosomal acidic pH (

1.0 Introduction
There are a variety of reasons for some people to chewing the gum including to balance the psychological states. There have been many studies that investigate the effects of chewing the gum have given an effect on cognition and mood for example help to reduce stress. Even though the observation provides a lot of useful information on effects of chewing gum to reduce or relieve the stress, there have a limitation number of findings on clinical usage of chewing gum in reducing the stress and depression. Chewing the gum also shown to be associated with significantly higher self-related levels of alertness, reduce the anxiety and stress and decrease the concentration of saliva cortisol. Increased the neural activation is one of the possible mechanisms for this stress reduction, which can facilitate task performance and reduce stress. However, one of the studies that using the anagram stressor task state that chewing the gum cannot decrease the stress levels. (Scholey, Haskel, Robertson, Kennedy, Milne and Watherell, 2009).
Problems that relate with stress are associated to mental dysfunction which can happen in the distant future. Mental health impairing disorder also known as depression is the one of the conditions that can make stress to reach to the maximum levels and cause a cognitive disintegration if does not give a treatment. Unfortunately, many of the untreated case of depression finally result in suicide. (Smith& woods, 2012)
An alternative observation for releasing the stress associated with chewing gum suggests it is epiphenomenal to task facilitation include improve the mood and stress are secondary to a gum-induced benefits to task performance. Consideration state significantly higher task performance for the chewing gum condition compared to the no gum condition. It is reasonable to observe on the mood and stress were consequence of the chewing gum-facilitated reduction in task difficulty. (Zibell& Madansky, 2009)

The suggest that the chewing gum effects on stress and mood must be analog with the intermittent effects study with memory. If chewing the gum does efficient to reduce the stress and improve the mood under condition of multi-task cognitive stress, the current study should replicate the effects. That’s why, the purpose of the study is to observe the relationship between experimental stage and chewing gum, such as mood increase and stress reduction are apparent uniquely for the chewing gum condition but only following the stressor. ( Sasaki-Otomaru, Sakuma, Mochizuki, Ishida, Kanoya; Sato, 2011)
2.0 Problem statement
This study have a certain limitations. First, the limitation of the ability to extrapolate these findings to the general population because of the number of subjects of UiTM Perlis was to small. Second is, this study did not evaluate the level of stress using the salivary cortisol. Third, it is hard to generalized the results because of only one type of gum was used. Other type of gum which is different flavor and hardness may give some useful information. ( Ekuni, Tomofuji, Takeuchi; Morita, 2012)
Many people have experienced stress or anxiety in their life and if left untreated it can lead to death or suicide. they don’t know how to reduce the stress and improve their mood, so the purpose of the study is to observe either chewing the gum could reduce the stress levels and improve the mood.

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3.0 References
Ekuni, D., Tomofuji, Takeuchi, N., & Morita, M. (2012). T., Gum chewing modulates heart rate variability under noise stress. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 70(6), 491-496.
Sasaki-Otomaru, A., Sakuma, Y., Mochizuki, Y., Ishida, S., Kanoya, Y., & Sato, C. (2011). Effect of regular gum chewing on levels of anxiety, mood, and fatigue in healthy young adults. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health: CP & EMH, 7, 133.
Scholey, A., Haskell, C., Robertson, B., Kennedy, D., Milne, A., & Wetherell, M. (2009). Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress. Physiology & behavior, 97(3-4), 304-312.
Smith, A. P., & Woods, M. (2012). Effects of chewing gum on the stress and work of university students. Appetite, 58(3), 1037-1040.
Zibell, S., & Madansky, E. (2009). Impact of gum chewing on stress levels: online self-perception research study. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 25(6), 1491-1500.

3.0 Research Questions
1. What are the difference of chewing different amount of gum to stress levels?

4.0 Research Objective
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of chewing gum on reducing the stress levels.
5.0 Research Hypothesis
H1: There will be a significant between effect of chewing gum with large amount of gum and small amount of gum on reducing stress levels
H0: There will be no a significant between effect of chewing gum with large amount of gum and small amount of gum on reducing stress level.
6.0 Significance of Study
The primordial purpose of this study is commonly to investigate the effects of chewing gum under acute stress. The results of this study can give benefits to the people especially those have experienced the stress condition because this study showed chewing gum could be the easiest ways or method to reduce the stress level without spend much of their time and also can increase the alertness of the people. By this study, it can help some people to overcome or practice the easiest method to reduce theirs stress level and anxiety.
This study also can give the students and lecturer of the University Teknologi Mara, Arau to have a better understanding and knowledge about stress and the method how to reduce stress level by using chewing gum and they can use this study as their guide to reduce the stress levels.
This study will not only give benefits to people who got stress, but also for other people as it will create a awareness about the stress effect on our psychological. Furthermore, this study will serve as a theoretical model for future studies of the same mature if ever the existing problem has penetrated in this case in the future.

7.0 Definition of Terms
7.1 Stress
Stress is described as a feeling of being overburden, worried or rundown. It can affects of all people by all ages, genders and cause a physical and psychological health issues.
7.2 State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
State- Trait Anxiety Inventory Commonly used instruments for measuring vary levels of anxiety (Scholley, A., Haskell, C. 2009)
7.3 Anxiety
Anxiety describes as a term for several disorders that can lead to the nervousness, fear, and worrying. This disorders can effect the feelings and lead to physical symptom.
7.4 Gum chewing
Gum is the substance that is made from chicle and flavour and sweetened for chewing. Chewing can be describes as a bite or work the food in the mouth using the teeth to make it easy to swallow the food.

References
Scholey, A., Haskell, C., Robertson, B., Kennedy, D., Milne, A., & Wetherell, M. (2009). Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress. Physiology & behavior, 97(3-4), 304-312.

9.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

9.1 Research Conceptual Framework

Independent variables Dependent variable

9.2 Research Design
Chewing condition was a between subject variable. In order to test both the difference between answer the question in a noise stress environment with chewing the gum and no chewing the gum and dose response. The chewing group were sub- divided into those who chewed a small amount ant those who chewed more in the 14 day period given. The pre-intervention measures of stress level,. The dependent variables were the post- intervention measures of stress and amount of gum regularly chewed.

9.3 Subjects
14 participants who was randomly pick in Uitm Perlis will be involved in this study. All subjects who had a different background and age are volunteer to participated in this study. A set of test on State- Trait Anxiety Inventory will be distributed to each of the 14 subjects. The procedure and the potential benefits of the participants will be explain clearly to the participants. Subjects are prohibited to chew the gum before the test 1 session. After complete the test 1 session, the participants will be given the chewing gum and all of the participants need to chew the gum for 2 weeks until the 2nd test session.
9.4 Procedures
A cross-over study was carried out 14 participants received a stress procedure with gum and without gum. Two experimental test will be held on 2 weeks which each of the test will be separated by 2 weeks gaps. (Ekuni, Tomofuji, Takeuchi& Morita. 2012). Test 1 session will be completed in one day and separately by a 2 weeks gap to giving a time for participants to chew the gum before the 2nd test session. To induce the stress among the participants, they will be answer the question using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) while being exposed to the noise for 5 minutes using the headphone for each test session. The test 1 session will be conducted without the gums and the 2nd test session will be conducted after 2 weeks chewing the gum. This test will be conducted in the morning of indoor hall to control the stress during the test.

9.5 Chewing gum and Solution Protocol
The study will be conducted in double blind and cross-over experimental design. The subject will be randomly picked and being told to do a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) where the external researcher will prepare the test. The subject will be randomly picked and must to answer to test, the pre- test and post test. In the pre- test, the subject will do the test without chewing any gum in a noise environment, and them the researcher will given the gum to the subjects for 2 weeks until the post-test. In the post test, the same subject will come to the studio in UiTM Perlis and fill the form where the researcher want to know how many gums the subjects have chew in the past 2 weeks. After finish fill the form, the researcher will start the the post- test with the same protocol in the pre-test where the subjects need to answer the STAI test in a noise environment. The subjects will be evaluate by their scale answer and polar heart rate to check their heart rate and their stress level.

9.6 State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
The State- Trait Anxiety Inventory will be conducted in the studio at UiTM Perlis to control the temperature and to make the subjects comfortable to answer the test without any distraction. Subjects will be completed the STAI test consisting of 40 items. The state sub- scale is the instrument that be widely used to measuring fluctuating levels of anxiety. Each of the test, pre- test and post- test will be conducted 5 minutes duration for each subjects. The meaning of state anxiety is a degree or levels of stress at a particular time. The STAI that be used for this study was a true and subjective marker for evaluate the stress levels.

9.7 Chewing gum and Testing Program
1. The subjects will be the students of UiTM Arau, Perlis and randomly picked for this study.
2. Subjects will be told to get involve with this study where they need to answer the STAI for the next day.
3. Upon subjects arrived in the hall, the subject will have to filled the form that require their age, and their gender.
4. The subjects will be given a bread and a bottle of mineral water to standardized the mood.
5. They will be briefly explain by an examiner about the procedure of the test.
6. The subjects will be divided into 2 groups consist of 7 people to easier the examiner to supervise the test.
7. The test will be conducted 5 min for each group.
8. The subjects will be provide the STAI question and each of the subjects need to answer the test for 5 minutes using the earphone.
9. The measurement of heart rate, rating perceived scale and polar heart rate will be recorded for pre and post of the experimental trials.
10. For the post- test, the subjects will be given the gum and need to chew the gum for a 2 weeks after finish the pre- test.
11. After 2 weeks gap, the subjects need to come to the studio to take the post test.
12. They need to fill up the form that require them to state how many gums they eat for 2 weeks.
13. After finish the form, the post test will be conducted with the same protocol in the pre- test where the subjects need to answer the STAI in a noise while chewing the gum.
14. The amount of gum, degree of anxiety and level of stress will be taken to record the performance of the subjects.

9.8 Treatment Program
Table 1: Different mouth rinse protocols and testing program.

Pre-Test Gap Post- test

Protocols 1 day 2 weeks
(rest) 1 day

Gums
? ?

10.0 Stastical Analysis
The unpaired t-test had been used to compare the parameter between the GS and S groups or between the GS and S groups. Besides that, the phase 2 score was compared using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (baseline score as the covariate; gum conditions and noise conditions as the independent variables). A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. All data were analysed using SPSS 15.0 J for Windows (SPSS Japan, Tokyo, Japan). (Ekuni, Tomofuji, Takeuchi & Manabu Morita, 2012)

11.0 References

Ekuni, D., Tomofuji, Takeuchi, N., & Morita, M. (2012). T., Gum chewing modulates heart rate variability under noise stress. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 70(6), 491-496.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The globalization has created a broad and wide economy opportunity for all the companies around the world to have access the global and dynamic market. In a constantly change business environment, it has make the companies to keep up with the emerging trends so that they are not left behind. According to Heather Hatty (2017), competing in the dynamic and global markets describes that fast moving of changes within the global markets on customer level and the competitor level. These dynamic and global environments is greatly influence the market. The global forces and trends tend to determine ho the companies interact with the customers and how they deal to the competition in marketplace.
The dynamic and global market affecting the company to focus on the sustainability of their business activities and compete with the competitors. This is because, the changing in the business environment contributes to the strengthening and maintain their marketing strategies in order to compete in the vast and fast moving environment in today’s business world. Besides that, the changing in the market also require the companies to create competitive advantage to attract and retaining their consumers and also need to acquire the information and knowledge of their competitors in the dynamic and global marketplace. This is due to keep their competitive position in the industry.
In the business world, there are two major competition which involving the non-traditional competitors and also traditional competitors. The traditional competitors are are companies that use method of direct marketing in which they can interact with the customers face to face in the business activities that involves the distribution of products and the transactions. On the other hands, non-traditional competitors are the companies that use new technology or non traditional methods of providing their products and services. In the growing trends of technology in the market, non-traditional competitors are said the most profitable in the world. This is because, with the coming of the digital era, we can see companies are emerging and forming the non-traditional methods in delivering their products and services to reach a wide customer.
Hence, how will these two competitors will compete in the dynamic and global markets in order to reach their consumers? The global markets are becoming more easily to access if these two competitors develop their marketing strategy effectively and efficiently to grab the opportunity and avoiding threats that impact their companies.?
2.0 DISCUSSION
Although the non-traditional competitors is said to be the most profitable companies in the business world and the digital technologies have changed the way of marketers doing business, however, not to forget also the traditional competitors in their contribution to the economy. The traditional competitors are also significant to compete in the dynamic market as they also have the strategies that enable them to compete against the non-traditional competitors. The traditional competitors can compete in the dynamic and global market because it still remains as a key lever in enhancing and promoting business.
The methods and strategies of the traditional competitors in order to compete in the dynamic market is by creating strong branding with customers (Ashley Orndorff, 2018). This tactic and techniques are still matter in the dynamic and global market because it can build a strong and cohesive brand that is always been important to business of a company. Through this method, customers will interacts with the business on various and multiple channels, the associations with the brand is more important because this will keeps the consumers’ experience with the company consistently across channels. Besides, the methods of localize offline (to build trust also an effective strategies of the traditional competitors in dealing with non-traditional competitors in the dynamic market. By localizing and market offline with the core consumers, they can stay on top of mind of their customers. This is because, they interact and engaged through direct marketing with the customers during the business transaction and this will leads to creates trust among the customers.
Moreover, traditional competitors implement the methods of putting the effort and invest in press in dealing with the non-traditional competitors. This is due to people still read news and advertising is still the most powerful strategy to connect with the potential customers. By investing in writing for good storytelling in the content and doing things that are newsworthy can reach the customers and drive them to engage with the brand directly. Hence, the implication of strategies of the traditional competitors in competing the non traditional competitors is it can provides and creates a positive customer experience on the offerings of the company and thus it will also increase the brand awareness. This is because, they able to have physical interact and engaging with the products which can capture their loyalty through the experiential marketing rather than through digital marketing. Furthermore, traditional competitors can create competitive advantage through their implemented strategies that differ from the non-traditional competitors.?
Non-Traditional competitor’s strategies depend on the new and unusual marketing methods. Anything that out from the categories of traditional marketing can be reflect on as competitors, but the term has typically referred to a more specific range of marketing tactics. The goal of competitors advertising is to create amazing advertising experiences that seizure attention through their creativity and unpredictably. Much of competitors require putting advertisement in ways, hoping to order the attention of natural or humble viewers (Marketing school, 2012).
Since the non-traditional competitors depend on many uncertain factors, it is important for any campaign to go through wary planning. Developing a comprehensive marketing plan does not make this strategy any more predictable, but it can help to focus on the efforts and maximize the possibility for success. The first strategy of the plan is to identify the target viewers. This important strategies helps to decide whether the competitors marketing method makes sense or not. If a product has mass retrial, something like a soda or movie release, marketers might plaster city streets with creative ads. But if the product has more limited retrial, software for accountants, for example, a widespread ad campaign would be a waste of resources. If they can recognize who will buy the product makes the target audience easier to reach. Hence, this will make the non-traditional competitors compete in the dynamic market.
Other than that, the next strategy will be to pick the competitors method that will be apply. The specific method employed has to be chosen carefully for the way it will impact consumers and the message that it will project. Companies will need to study market research and seek advice from branding experts to find the best way to place their advertising messages with their intentional customers. At this point, it may be necessary to consult deals for advertisement spaces in usual places. Non-traditional advertising frequently creates its own marketing channels. If the goal is to show ads in places where ads have never been before, this will need wary negotiation between the advertiser and the property owner.
The final strategy of a competitor’s plan will be to identify the metrics for success or failure. This can be the most difficult strategy because competitors often have scattered goals. Rather than only increasing sales, competitors can be used to redefine the image of a brand, or to introduce product lines to new demographics. Before any campaign is put into place, empirical guides need to be set up for judging the success of the campaign.

3.0 CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the use of the non-traditional competitors in the retail trade has increased and this had important impact on many clients’ buying process. One of the most problems that the business people are interested is the problem of growth and access to the non-traditional. This growth includes entertainment, e-commerce, e-banking and e-marketing. All cue point to both business and clients growing dependence on the non-traditional and its related processes in the whole world. Non-traditional has important feature on possibility to facilitate the information search for consumers. The process of product purchase is encouraged by giving permission to users in order to achieve greater quantities and more detailed information, it’s depend on the product features, prices, and the availability of a common value of the supply, especially when the non-traditional is used in concurrences of search of traditional marketing channels.
However, e-marketing has been suggested that the impact of the internet marketing was limited to simply creating a websites and using the non-traditional as a new tool for some support measures. Non-traditional lead to the changes in business and also in marketing. The non-traditional as a tool shapes the differences between traditional and competitors. Evaluation of the internet as the main e-marketing tool, it is required to compare the traditional marketing mix and 4C’s marketing model elements with new forms of these elements which are acquired online. The traditional competitors also will benefit the economy of a business because it still important to modern business.
Last but not least, the inspection of the affected competitors became clear that the decision may have move from the manufacturer to user side. Through marketing situation, the manufacturer will decide which products they want to produce, but now the consumer is a key element on determining the decision will be used. The main problem is no longer the production of the product but the problem is communication with the consumer. It takes time to build contacts, it is because the user is not a machine that in certain periods comes on the market and buy the unit of a systematize product. User is a person who wants attention, helpful services, spare parts, etc. Buying decision is no longer a decision of buying an item. It is the solution to create long-term relationship with the consumers in the market. Contrarily, the increase growth of opportunities of company are in emerging marketplace that filled with the unfamiliar customer needs, channel structures and also the political system.

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1 | P a g e

The Principle of Architecture First in Software Project
Management Minimizes the Cost of Software Development Process
Assefa Senbato
[email protected],Addis Abeba Science and Technology University, Department of Software
Engineering
I. Abstract
In current software development process, the principle of architecture first in software project
management is become most important trend that software development organization paid
attention in order to meets all of technical and operational requirements, while optimizing
common quality attributes such as performance, security and manageability. This principle were
identified the structure of system, realize all of the use cases and scenarios, try to address the
requirements of various stakeholders, handle both functional and quality requirements, and
deployment process before beginning to develop software to simplify software project management
and to make a system flexible with new requirements. Once developed and reviewed architecture
may uses for new system with relates components instead of developing system from scratch to
save our resources. In this approach, project manager can be provide decision for each activities
based on the architecture styles rather than depending on whole phase of software development
life cycle (SDLC). This can be helps to reduce cost, risk and time consumes. In this paper I have
presents the concepts of minimizes the cost of software development using principle of architecture
first with Cost Benefit Analysis Method (CBAM) and Architecture Tradeoff Method Analysis
(ATMA) to architectural decision making and analysis architectures.
Keywords: Software architecture, Project management, Quality attribute.
1. Introduction
Today, as size of software increase its complexity of design process, management, meets quality
attributes and accomplish project with desired budget of system are become severe issues in
development process. Its challenge is to develop software with the right quality levels. The
problem is not so much to know if a project is technically feasible concerning functions required,
but instead if a solution exists that meets the software quality requirements, such as throughput
and maintainability (1) .To address these challenges, software development organization prefer the
principle of architecture first as solution because software architecture encompasses the set of
significant decision about the organization of a software system including the selection of the
structural elements and their interfaces by which the system is composed; behavior as specified in
collaboration among those elements; composition of these structural and behavioral elements into
larger subsystems; and an architectural style that guides this organization (2).
In architecture first principle, once developed architectures contains whole phase that we can
perform during software development process unlike to traditional way of SDLC in order to
improve reliability, cost-effectiveness, schedule and quality attributes of system. This approach
already have well organization structure of system and interaction between the components with
its concern function (architecture styles). So, we will reuse developed applications components for
developing new software instead of developing these software from scratch that are very time

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2 | P a g e

consuming and unreliable. To minimize the development time we will reuse components from
each phase of development to minimize of development time and provide better quality (3).
2. Related work
To understand existing knowledge, there is no previous work that rigorously relates with given
title to date. But, I tried to found some relates article and reviewed them with topics. Architecture
centric development (3): Smart approach for the component reuse in the software products where
working in the same domain, it reduces the cost and time for developing the software in the same
domain rather than start from scratch. The Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (4): This paper
was discussed a principled way to evaluate a software architecture’s fitness with respect to multiple
competing quality attributes: modifiability, security, performance, availability, and so forth. Rick
Kazmanl, Jai Asundi and Mark Klein (5): proposed a method that causes the stakeholders to
quantify the benefits as well as the costs, dependencies, and schedule implications of architectural
decisions. Qiushi Wang and Zhao Yang (6) were proposed the method of selection appropriate
architecture based on quality attribute and analytic hierarchy process. This can be useful to reuse
architecture and to save resources. Most of work done to realize using architectural concepts first
in software development process is effective with resources and quality of software. In this paper
we are going to realize how the principle of architecture first in software project management
minimize cost in software development process.
3. Principle of Architecture First in Software Development Process
When we are planning to build a house we want to have a good architect to be sure we will get a
house with solid foundation. It’s the same with software architecture, it creates a solid foundation
for the software project to ensure that our project will be scalable and powerful. An architecture
enable us to defines the work assignments that must be carried out by design and implementation
team and also specifies primary carrier of system quality such as scalability, performance,
modifiability, security and cost reduction. By building effective architecture, we can identify
design risks and mitigate them early in development process. Having architecture first can
improves our resources development by realizing at the beginning all necessary activities that team
have to follow up to deal with project and identifying the structure of system, component
interaction, realize all of the use cases and scenarios, try to address the requirements of various
stakeholders, handle both functional and quality requirements, and deployment process before
beginning to develop software to simplify software project management and to make a system
flexible with new requirements.
3.1.Importance of Architecture first in Software Development Process
In principle architecture first, they organization of software development have opportunity to
success by providing a product that meets user requirements and quality attributes of system with
effective resources. The development team in organization overcome the challenges of system at
initial by having one common architecture that drives them in all process with clear behavior of
system. Some advantages of Architecture first in software project:
? It creates a solid foundation for the software project.
? Increase performance and quality of the platform.
? Reduce costs, avoids codes duplicity.
? Identifies areas for potential cost saving.
? Better code maintainability and manage complexity.

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3.2.How the principle of architecture first is effective in software project Management?
In principle of architecture first, the role of software project management is more effective when
compare with traditionally way of SDLC because architecture contains a picture of our system that
we are going to develop with detail scope and effective resource estimation. In addition, we will
reuse our architecture for the same domain of application to save development time and cost. In
this approach, management in each phase of SDLC is not necessary, we only performs any
activities based our architectures. This can be contribute great role for completion of project with
desired schedule and resources.
4. Two methods we uses to analysis costs and decision making for software
development in Architecture
4.1.Architecture Tradeoff Method Analysis (ATMA)
This methods can helps a system’s stakeholders understand the consequences of architectural
decisions with respect to the system’s quality-attribute requirements and evaluates software
architectures with respect to quality attributes (7).
This method helps to enable architecture with following core point:
? Minimize the risks software architecture decisions that might create future problems in
some quality attribute
? Properties of one or more components (and/or component relationships) that are critical for
achieving a particular quality attribute response.
? Tradeoffs – decisions affecting more than one quality attribute and
? Analysis decision making of architecture and match it’s with quality attributes.
4.2.Cost Benefit Analysis Method (CBAM)
CBAM helps architects select Architectural Strategies (ASs) that are optimal for a given system
during its evolution by calculating economical tradeoffs based on the benefits, costs, schedule, and
inherent risks for each candidate AS (8).
CBAM helps to maximize the difference between the benefit derived from the system and the cost
of implementing the design as we can understand from below diagram.

Figure 1: Contexts for the CBAM
The integration of these method improves the quality of the results, resources effectiveness and
more capable to makes better use of the stakeholders’ time than either method applied
independently.

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5. Conclusion
Principle of architecture first is used to specify behavior and interaction of component of software
at the initial to have picture of system that we are going to develop. It can be overcome the problem
relates with complexity of management by providing architecture that contains concepts of whole
phase of software development with appropriate quality attribute, resource effectiveness and make
flexible way of handle new requirements.
Generally, the concepts of architecture first in software project management can minimize cost of
software development process and improve quality of software. Once developed and reviewed
architecture we will uses for new system with relates components instead of developing system
from scratch to save our resources and to minimize the costs of maintenance. Software project
management can be provide decision for each activities based on the architecture styles rather
than depending on whole phase of software development life cycle (SDLC). This can be helps to
reduce cost, risk and time consumes. Combination of Cost Benefit Analysis Method (CBAM) and
Architecture Tradeoff Method Analysis (ATMA) in architecture can improves quality decision
making, resource effectiveness and analysis. Most software development organization prefer today
architecture first principle because this can meets requirements of user with quality attribute and
increase opportunity of project success in desired time. However, the challenges with architecture
concept is, there is no a framework or simulation system that handle activities architecture
automatically still. This may future work for researchers.
6. References
1. An introduction to software architecture. Garlan, David and Shaw, Mary. USA : World Scientific, 1993.
2. Chang, S. K. Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering. USA : World Scientific Publishing
Company, 2005. ISBN.
3. Khan, Aurangzeb, Azam, Farooque and Khan, Jahanzaib. Architecture Centric Development in Software
Product Lines. 244 5 th Avenue,# 1526, New York, NY 10001, USA India : International Journal of Computer
Applications, 2011.
4. The architecture tradeoff analysis method. Kazman, Rick, et al. s.l. : IEEE, 1998.
5. Quantifying the costs and benefits of architectural decisions. Kazman, Rick, Asundi, Jai and Klein, Mark. s.l. :
IEEE, 2001.
6. A method of selecting appropriate software architecture styles: quality Attributes and analytic hierarchy process.
Wang, Qiushi and Yang, Zhao. Sweden : Chalmers University of Technology, 2012.
7. Integrating Architecture Methods: The Case of the ATAM and the CBAM. Kazman, Rick and Nord, Robert L.
s.l. : Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 2004.
8. Bass, Len, Clements, Paul and Kazman, Rick. Software Architecture in Practice, Second Edition. s.l. : Addison-
Wesley Professional, 2003. ISBN.

1.2 British Airways
British Airways is a major international airline carrying millions of passengers every year and is part of the Internationals Airlines Group (IAG). The history of British Airways can be traced back to the first scheduled flight that took place on 25 August 1919 between London and Paris. Therefore British Airways has more than 90 years of history in aviation. Before privatisation British Airways was owned by the British Government. British Airways have a fleet of over 300 aircraft including Airbus 380 and Boeing 787, with the average of over 1000 flights a week to 300 destinations worldwide.
2. Organisational Culture

Organisations has shared values, assumptions and believes that influences the way in which members of the organisations behaves. This is referred to as the organisation culture. A corporate culture is created automatically in an organisation. A culture is created when people, management and staffs came together with a shared purpose to achieve a common goal, as determined by the organisational leadership. The vision, mission and values of an organisation is contained in the corporate culture. The organisational culture influences the way in which people interact, management and staffs relation, working hours and the degree to which they are respected and how the staff dress. (Schein, 2010), argues that, “culture is a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem or external adaptation and internal integration”. Therefore organisational culture may be unique to a certain organisation and different from the national.
(Schein, 2010), described three layers of organisation culture, The Outer Layer: Explicit product, The middle layer: Norms and Values and The core: Assumptions about existence, as illustrated in the figure below:

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Source: (Schein, 2010)
The outer layer: Explicit product or the artefacts, although airlines are services oriented the outer layer of the airlines refers to physical products that are observed when encountering an airline, which may be the aircrafts, office space, equipment’s, rules, system and procedures. The staffs wear uniforms, which is aimed at portraying identity.
The middle layer: Norms and Values: Norms and value they can exist at two levels. On a formal level they can exist which is in the form of written rules and regulations. They refer to rules and regulations. They refer to rules for behaviour which dictate what are considered to be appropriate and inappropriate response from employees in certain circumstances. Values are intimately connected with moral and ethics. This might be, in the case of Air Namibia and British Airways, state clearly what the norms is about expected staff dress code. Alternatively, they can exist at the informal level. An example of this might be informal norms how employees produce. It might be both airlines value customer care which is staff will at all times smile at the customer but there is a great differences between a smile from clenched lips to one which is friendly and genuine
The core: Assumptions about existence: Basic assumptions guide organisational member’s perception, feelings and emotions about things in the organisation. These are identified as implicit, this means, they are harder to see on the surface. One example of this might be “that they are holding on by their teeth, the place is going to close any day “In terms of the other two layers of culture this will have a profound effect.
2.1 Air Namibia Organisational Culture

As referred to above the outer layer of culture is the explicit product of the organisation which is the first thing that’s observe when entering a culture. Air Namibia has enhanced a good product quality and more visible brand with explicit products of culture. It has a modern fleet of A330s, A319s and ERJ135s with which operate its international, regional and domestic services. This is aimed at giving the customer an excellent customer service. The on –board hard/explicit product has improved with the introduction of new aircrafts and state of the art inflight entertainment. The culture at the outer level can be perceived as welcoming and aimed at showing casing the Namibian spirit. The carrying of the Namibia spirit, is embedded in the Namibian government continued support for Air Namibia, over the past few years the Namibian government has contributed around, “N$ 5 billion, towards Air Namibia’s operations”, (Air Namibia, 2015). The question is then, is this not hindering the performance of the Airline? Is it not contributing towards the poor performance, in that regardless of the performance, government will always be there to bail the organisation out? Although various turnaround strategies were implemented at the airline, the airline’s performance continues to worsen. This has led to a mixed perception, even though the company aims at delivering the best service, the perception that it is a waste of tax payer’s money, is damaging to the efforts of the airline.

1.1: The different reasons people communicate are too share and exchange information, experiences, ideas, and show feelings, to offer reassurance, encouragement and to find out answers to questions.
1.2 People communicate to express their needs to ensure they can be met, as a carer options will be offered such as, what to have for dinner to the person in need with a number of choices available.
1.3 It is important to observe an individual’s reaction when communicating with them to understand if they understood what was being said, during face to face communication looking at someone’s body language and facial expressions will indicate if the information was taken in.
2.1 it is important to understand an individual’s communication and language needs, wishes and preferences as some people may have difficulty communicating because of a cultural differences, learning disability, speech or sensory impairments or a language barrier. In order to be able to support people with communication difficulties it is important to treat each individual as an individual.
2.2 Non-Verbal, Facial expressions: body language, eye contact and gestures. Verbal, talking, loudly or quietly, tone of voice, sign language.
3.1 Barriers to communication maybe down to culture, religion, health issues, other noise.
3.2 Speak clearly, not to loud. Listen properly before responding to someone, do not use informal language when communicating in a work setting.
3.3 You can check that communication has been understood by asking the person if the understood everything which was said. You can look at a person facial expression or body language, if there are any looks of confusion or uncertainty then you will be able to see.
3.4 sources of information and support or services who enable more effective communication are carers, carers support plan, key workers, other colleagues, and friends and family.
Speech services, which will help someone who has problems with their speech Translation Services, people or the internet who can interpret what is being said and change it into another language if necessary.

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