1.1 Describe organisational policies, procedures and levels of authority in maintaining supplies  
Policy is something that a company adheres the policy would be in line with organisations objective. The policies in levels of authority in maintaining supplies which is that you have some rules and regulations which you have to follow for example in a business company you can have a lot of policies which is really important to have one of them can be no smoking or no food and drink or no swearing also attendance and time is key your only allowed to have certain time off and you need to make sure that your attendance is really good if it isn’t then you can get fired because missing a lot of days can make you fall behind on the work. The procedures for a business company is health and safety so the staff need to know the procedures if there is a fire they now how to react what to do and how to get out make sure they have all the details of who is in the building and also making sure, that everyone is evacuated. Stake the clear details of the details of the product with the product codes. you can order 2 ways either the order can be done through the order forms or through catalogue. Before ordering anything for your company makes sure that the order form is authorised by the office manager to make sure that no one is ordering extra products or buying anything that is not necessary. 
1.2 Explain how to carry out a stock check of stationery 
The most effective way to carry out a stock  check is to count all the stock. The stock check will then  be recorded on a stock check list and  then it will be typed up onto a computer record. Typing stock takes onto a computer allows you to keep a closer eye on stock movements and to make sure theirs no extra usage. There are different ways that you can carry out a stock check some of the ways are 
Minimum stock level – it’s where you identify minimum stock level I.e. order level. An example of a minimum stock level is when you have 2 people coming in for an assessment but you still need to make sure that you have the minimum products/stock at all times. 
Stock review- you need to make sure that you check the  stock consistently and that you review the products make sure you  have everything in  stock if you don’t then you have to write it down and then write it in the order list and give it to your manager to make sure that you are ordering the right amount of stock. 
Just in time- this aims to reduce stock cost by cutting the stock to minimum items are straight delivered when is  immediate use the company does not keep the stock they rely on deliveries so the delivery has to arrive exactly on time when it’s needed instead of ordering a large order and putting in the warehouse when the products arrive they are taken be used at the factory there  is a lot of benefits with this it’s saves time and money. 
 1.3 Describe the types of problems that may occur with deliveries and stock items  
There are different types of problem that may occur during a delivery one is that it can get delayed and that would cause a lot of problems for the company because if they have finished the stock and they need more products then it will cause a big problem in the business or maybe a big loss. another problem that could occur is that the stock could be damage and that also would cause a lot of problems and it would waste a lot of time sending the stock back and reordering or getting a refund it would waste a lot of time if you needed the stock urgently. Another can be the wrong items have been delivered again you would have to call the delivery company and let them know so they can deal with the situation. 
1.4 Explain how to deal with problems that occur with deliveries and stock items 
The problems that could occur with deliveries and stock items is that the stock can be damaged so you would have to contact the company and return the stock items and that would waste a lot of time for the company. The stock can delay so that could cause a lot of issues with the company like if you ran out of stock and you needed it asap then that would be a big issue for your company you would have to contact the delivery company and it would take time to fix the problem depending on how big the company is. Another problem that could occur is that te items could be   
 1.5 Explain the factors to take into account when ordering stationery 
There are many factors to take into consideration when ordering stationery, those factors includes price, delivery and discount. It is important to check the price when ordering stationery, it’s good to consider whether it’s cheaper elsewhere. Delivery is a key factor when ordering stationery, it’s important to see how quickly they can send out their goods and if they offer a next day service. A lot of companies offer discounted rates when items are ordered in bulk so it’s always worth enquiring about this discount when placing an order.  
 1.6 Explain the benefits and limitations of different potential suppliers, against organisational requirements 
When you looking into new suppliers it is important that you look at the prices being offered and compare them to what is currently being paid also look at the review of the company to make sure it hasn’t got any bad review and make sure that it does everything you need for your company , the prices what will be cheaper and best for the company so you could save money check that the products they sell are original and not replica or fake. 

Semantics is the line of study that is concerned with deriving meaning that is found in utterances. This involves several concepts including sentence relations to which presupposition and entailment belong. This category involves the following concepts; tautology, synonymy and contradiction. This paper serves to shed light on understanding of sentence relation, paying particular attention to presupposition and entailment, and the differences between these concepts to the effect of trying to clarify the confusion existent in there between.

Words do exhibit relations with one another in a language, sentences also do exhibit relations to one another. This means that sentences also relate in a specific way. You will find that words have relation that cause them to have similar meaning, also with sentences, they have specific relations of which such relations may be led by the reason of the use of particular words. Sometimes these relations may be of certain syntactic structure. But for one to know or be familiar with sentence relations, he or she must understand different concepts that fall under sentence relations. These are; synonymy, tautology, contradiction, entailment and presupposition. Below will be the description of each concept, basing more focus on entailment and presupposition.
Synonymy is a concept that deals with two sentences having the same truth value. Synonymy also can be confused as entailment. This is because when tested using the entailment concept, synonymy tends to hold. Two sentences p and q are synonymous if they both have the same truth value; that is if p describes a situation, q will also describe the same situation. Such sentences are referred to as paraphrases.

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Jones owns the house
The house belongs to Jones
The composite truth table for the synonymous sentences above is as follows:
P q
T > T
F < F
T ? T
F ? F
The table is also applicable to 3 and 4 below. However the synonymous relation in this pair is induced by the syntax of the sentences.
The police pursued the robber
The robber was pursued by the police

Two sentences p and q are contradictory if they both affirm and deny the same proposition. For such sentences, when p is T q is F as shown below:
He is a bachelor
He is married

If ‘he’ is constant in 1 and 2, then the two sentences are contradictory. The reason why these two sentences are said to be contrary is because they hold different ideas. If one out of the blue, without having the subject in place, uses ‘he’ without the referent, the sentences in place will have a contradictory meaning. For these two sentences not be contradictory, there should be a referent. An example will be:
Tom is a bachelor
He is a bachelor
With the above sentences, we cannot say they are contradictory because both of them hold the same truth value. ‘He’ in sentence 4 will be a reference of Tom.
Huang defines presupposition as ‘a proposition or an inference whose validity is taken for granted for a sentence to be true or for a speech act to be felicitous’, (Huang, 2007). Presupposition constitute at any given time the communicative background assumed to be known and accepted (Franck 1973). In most cases, people use presuppositions throughout without knowing it. For one to understand presupposition, first they must know the definition of what presupposition is, the types of presuppositions, what they do and how one can identify them. Also, one must be able to know what causes presuppositions, which is referred to as presupposition triggers.
Kroeger defines presupposition as ‘information that which is linguistically encoded as being part of the common ground at the time of utterance’, (Kroeger 2018). With common ground, Kroeger refers to everything that both the speaker and the hearer know or believe, also know that they have in common. This means that during the time of utterance, the hearer has the knowledge of what is being said by the speaker. Examples that are obvious include; knowledge about the world, we all know that there is one moon and one sun. This is a fact that no one can dispute or argue because evidence is already there. This may also continue to include knowledge that is observable in speech situations, the perfect scenario will be what the speaker is wearing or carrying. Also facts that have been mentioned before in that same conversation or discourse. From the above, we can simply say, a sentence is said to presuppose another sentence if its truth and that of its negation both imply that the presupposed sentence is also true.
It is surprising that Magang passed the test.

Presupposition: Magang passed the test.

It is not surprising that Magang passed the test.

Presupposition: Magang passed the test.

The table below shows how presupposition relate or the structure in which it follows.

P q
T > T
F < T
T or F ? T
P presupposes q if q is part of the assumed background against which P is said. This simply means that q hold the same idea as P.

Under the concept of presupposition, there are different types that are found here. These types of presuppositions account for the difference found in presuppositions. They depend more on the context used or that is found in presuppositions. Under types of presuppositions, I will discuss six different types of presuppositions and give as much examples to elaborate the context.
This type of presupposition is the assumption that there is existence of entities that are named by the speaker. Existential presuppositions are the main starting point for presupposition theory philosophy (Seuren 1994, cited in Lamarque 1997, 359). What this means is that the speaker won’t speak of something that does not exist. Also, when asked to account, it will be easy because the speaker can pinpoint the entities that he is referring to.

Examples below will show how existential presupposition is like.

Mary’s new car is beautiful.

There is exist a person called Mary.

Mary has a car.

Tom’s cat is cute.

Tom exist.

He (Tom) has a cat.

Professor Otlogetswe’s car is fast.

Professor Otlogetswe exist.

He has a car.

From the above examples, we can see that what the speaker utters, the listener already know that there are entities that are being referred to. It is not something that is uttered out of the blue.

Factive presupposition is the assumption that argues that something is true, this ca be realized due to the presence of some verbs that are used in such presuppositions. To account for this, verbs such as “know”, “realize” and phrases that involve “glad” are used to show this type of presupposition. In most cases the presupposition is telling of what has already happened. The term ‘factive’ is used to classify these verbs. Examples that follow below will show how these presuppositions are realized.
He didn’t realize she was ill.

(;; she was ill)
Mary didn’t know that Thabo passed the exam.

(>> Thabo passed the exam.)
I am glad it’s over.

(;; It’s over.)
From the above examples, we can see that the sentences provided presupposes what follows after them.

With lexical presupposition, the assumption is that, with the use of one word, the hearer will understand the meaning that the speaker is relaying. The speaker act as if another meaning is obvious to the listener. The listener knows of the facts being stressed here. Examples below will help understand what exactly lexical presupposition is.

Thabo stopped smoking.

(>> Thabo smoked before) the implication is that Thabo used to smoke.

You drove the car again.

(>> you drove the car before.)
Mpho closed the door again.

(>> Mpho closed the door before) the implication here is that Mpho closed the door before, then he found it open and closed it again. It is something he did before.

A presupposition trigger is a construction or item that signals the existence of presupposition in an utterance. Such structures include:
Definite expressions:
p: John saw the man with two heads
q: There is a man with two heads
Cleft sentences or pseudo cleft sentence:
p: It was Henry that visited Rome
q: Someone visited Rome
p: What John lost was his notebook
q: John lost something
Lexical triggers such as factive verbs:
P: Mary realized that she was in debt
q: Mary was in debt
p: They both regretted eating the banana
q: They ate the banana
Change of state verbs
p: Have you started exercising regularly
q: you didn’t exercise
In pragmatics, entailment can be defined as the relationship that is found between two sentences, where the truth of one sentence requires the truth on another sentence. Saeed defines entailment as “a truth relation between sentences which holds regardless of the empirical truth of the sentences (Saeed 1997: 90). The truth of sentence B requires the truth of sentence A. This means that entailment can be referred to as a relationship that is found between two propositions that are expressed by two sentences.

Matome is an intelligent student.

Ent: Matome is a student.

From the above sentence, we can see that the sentence “Matome is student” in its preceding sentence.
Raymond and Lorato flunked.

Ent: Lorato flunked.

Lorato or Raymond flunked.

Ent: Someone flunked.

Mary broke the window.

Ent: The window broke
Tumelo and Ditiro went to the party.

Ent: Ditiro went to the party.

Ent: Tumelo went to the party.

Thabo is a bachelor.

Ent: Thabo is married.

F<T or F
T or F?T
From the above sentences, one can note that there are sentences that are entailed on the other sentences. The “Thabo is a bachelor” entails “he is a bachelor” when the pronoun ‘he” refers to ‘Thabo’. To the hearer, this will make sense because they already know that a bachelor the speaker is referring to is Thabo.

Presupposition and entailment differ. When a presupposing sentence is negated, the presupposition survives as in examples 1 and 2:
I regret studying law
Pres: I studied law
I do not regret studying law
Pres: I studied law

However, in entailment, negating the entailing sentence results in the failure of the entailment as in the following examples:
Peter is my brother.

I have a brother (entailment holds)
Peter is not my brother

I have a brother (we are not sure whether I have a brother or not hence entailment no longer holds)
Between sentence 4 and 5, there is no entailment because sentence 5 cannot be said to be entailed in sentence 4.

Presupposition also holds in questioning, embedding with modals and in conditional clauses:
The king of France is bald.

Pres: There is a King of France.

Is the king of France bald?
Pres: There is King of France.

The King of France might be bald.

Pres: There is a King of France.

If the King of France is bald, then he should wear a hat.

Pres: There is a King of France.

1.Aging and frailty has a huge challenge within Canadian population and with public health, geriatric cases increases, with this, health worker needs to expand their knowledge to gain more understanding in health issues regarding older people and to have opportunity to improve the frailty needs in rural or urban areas. (Clegg, Young, Iliffe, Rikkert, & Rockwood, 2013; Lacas & Rockwood, 2012; McCracken et al., 2004).

2.The percentage rate of geriatric people in Canada regarding morbidity and health, the older the age the highest chance to experience having multiple chronic conditions and because of this, the level of needs of older people become dependent when they grow older. McCracken and Phillips, (2004)

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3.The health policy of healthcare system in Canada increase in regards to how they provide a home place where older people to live in that will maintain old age people improve long term health care to lessen multiple chronic conditions. Golant, (2016, 2011, 2008)

4.Public Health facility for frailty age adult is a multi-issue dealing with fragmentation service delivery with treating and diagnosing acute and severe diseases in a condition when client, family, and caregiver transition from hospital to home and how to avoid accident to provide continuous care. (Challis, Stewart, Donnelly, Weiner, & Hughes, 2006; Clarfield, 2001; Manderson, McMurray, Piraino, & Stolee, 2012).

5.The government focused geriatric age client that has no longer needed acute care and this people has no family to live with, and that will not provide care that the facility provide. The lack of unity and communication between caregivers was a barrier to continuous client safety. (Brown, Mclafferty, & Moon, 2010; OECD, 2014; World Health Organization, 1978).

1. The graphic includes the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is a federal-statewide cooperative effort in which monthly estimates of total employment and unemployment are prepared for in the United States. The LAUS county data are estimated using a BLS prescribed multi-step estimation process, gathering a variety of information including, CES survey data, agricultural employment, and unemployment claims data for local areas. The estimates of the state’s employment/unemployment are adjusted so that all areas add to the statewide total. The data in the graphic reflects on the county where the person lives.
1. The reason why I chose this article is because San Diego County’s unemployment rate was 3.3 percent in October, up from 3.2 percent in September, according to the data released by the State’s Employment Development Department (EDD). Some companies may simply be unable to fill jobs because qualified workers don’t want to move to San Diego with its tight housing market and lower wages than might be available elsewhere. The unadjusted unemployment rate was 4.0 percent statewide and 3.5 percent for the entire U.S. over the same period. Total jobs in construction, financial services (particularly insurance carriers), administrative support and health care employment decreased by roughly 2500 jobs. While on the other hand, there was increases in transportation, manufacturing, tourism and government employment, according to EDD data.

1. There are reasons human activities can cause shortcomings in biogeochemical cycling. Fish kills can be caused by eutrophication and an increased growth of algae. Algae causes a loss of available oxygen, called anoxia. Anoxia can kill fish and other aquatic organisms. Algae does produce oxygen but only when there is enough light. Eutrophication reduces the clarify of water so in eutrophic lakes, algae is starved of light. When algae do not have enough light, instead of producing oxygen, algae consume oxygen.

2. Opportunistic species exhibit aggressive growth. They have a short-life span, are small in size and they produce numerous offspring that they show little care to. They are typically found in unpredictable and variable environments and their population can survive anything that threatens it. Most insects are examples of an opportunistic species. Equilibrium species exhibit a strategic growth. They are opposite of opportunistic, meaning they are large with a long-life span. They have few offspring to whom they give more care to, but they are more likely to become extinct. Birds are examples of equilibrium species.

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3. Biodiversity is the amount of variation of life. This refers to species variation, genetic variation, or ecosystems within an area. Preserving biodiversity has a economic value to humans as well as indirect economic value because or ecosystem is affected by any imbalances in the environment. For example, lack of fish will cause animals that feed on them to die and lack of trees causes lack of oxygen meaning not enough to breath.

4. Sustainable societies can be described as being able to provide the same goods and services to future generations while preserving biodiversity.

1.2 Research Problem:

The objective of this thesis is to analyze the new strategic opportunities that digital is bringing to the current traditional retailers.

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Berman defines retailing as “the business activities involved in selling goods and services to consumers for personal, family, or household use. It is the last stage in the distribution process”.

With the very fast growth of digital and the new ways of buying product online, the retail concept needs to be review due to the changes that these new technologies are bringing to consumers.
The objective of most of the companies it to reach a point where the company is sustainable. In order to do that, they need to innovate.
Since a few years, we assist to a mobile revolution which is completely reshaping the retail industry with a fast-growing number of people using everyday their phones to buy products.

This Thesis has for objective to explore the opportunities that these new technologies are bringing to the retailers, and how these retailers are going to adopt the new technologies in their business model in order to keep their business healthy.

1.3 Research questions

This thesis demonstrates a structure to identify the main disruptive technologies for current brick-and-mortar retailers. First of all, in order to do that, we will need to understand the aspects that affect the behavior of the modern consumer.

What are the reasons behind buying product and/or services, and what are the most important factors in the consumer’s journey. Here is the first research question :

1.Why is E-commerce the fastest growing retail channel ?

Digital transformation has impacted how people exchange value with each other. In this thesis, we will examine the opportunities created by these digital technologies and the new strategies that retailers needs to adopt in order to stay profitable. This ideas are reflected in the second research question :

2.How physical retail stores will be integrating new technologies, and which one ?

After that, we will go more into details and understand how one of the most promising technology can really have a huge impact on the retail industry in-store, as well as online. This appears in the third research question articulated below.

3.How Artificial intelligence is redefining the retail experience ?

2.E-Commerce, the main disruptive force in the retail industry.

2.1 History of E-commerce

Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) can be defined as the fact of purchasing and selling goods or services on a platform through the internet.
There are six main e-commerce models in which we can classify businesses:
1. B2C.
2. B2B.
3. C2C.
4. C2B.
5. B2A.
6. C2A.

The first one is the B2C approach (Business to Consumer). This approach is characterized as the commercial activity between a company and an Individual. This model is one of the most famous model use in e-commerce. For example, when a shopper buys a TV from an online TV retailer.
The second one is the B2B approach (Business to Business). This model is defined as the commercial activity between two business entities, like a supplier and a retailer for example. This e-commerce model cannot be seen by the consumer since it only happens between businesses. We can also talk about Inter-business relation
The third one is the C2C approach (Consumer to Consumer). The oldest e-commerce model existing is the C2C ecommerce business model described as all the exchanges of goods and services between several consumers. EBay and Amazon, for example are the 2 most famous C2C ecommerce website, but there are lots of others. In Singapore, Carousel is also very used for C2C transactions.
The fourth one is the C2B approach, (Consumer to Business). C2B overturns the traditional e-commerce model. Consumer to business (C2B) is a business model in which consumers are at the service of the company by bringing a product or a service, and not the opposite as it is the case traditionally. This is a model which is for example often see in Crowdfunding projects.
The fifth one is the B2A approach (Business to administration). This e-commerce business model gathers the transactions happening between online businesses and administrations. It is not the most used model, but still important to be aware of it.
The last one is rarely used, but is call the C2A approach (Consumer to administration). Same model here, but with the reverse method, which mean that consumers sells products or services online, to an administration.
Ecommerce appeared approximately 35 years ago and since the last few years, it keeps growing. Thanks to the digital transformation of the economy, and the multiple innovation, we can see more and more businesses investing in e-commerce in order to have an online presence. We have seen different stage in the development of e-commerce.
It all started in the 60’s when the improvement of the technologies led to the electronic data exchanges. Just after the 90’s online retailing really started to see a huge increase.
The 90’s is the period of time when it really begins. Even if Pizza Hut claims to be the first company selling online, the first online purchase that has been made was actually in August 1994 by Dan Kohn, a 21 years old American student who set up a website call NetMarket. The product he sold was a CD that he sold to one of his friend. This was the first online transaction using encryption. Encryption is a technology that basically keeps the data safe like credit cards details, between the parties involved. After this, the e-commerce industry started to quickly grow. In 1997, the computer company DELL has become the first IT company to announce an online sale record of 1 million dollars made in only one day. In 2003, 20% of Americans possess a computer with broadband in their house, which means that we see a huge increase of people starting to have internet in their homes, so spending more and more online. This had a huge impact on e-commerce sales, and online sales increased by 24% in 2014. Also, big players like Amazon increased their sales by 26% and keep growing since 2003. (See annex page X Net sales of Amazon from 2004 to 2015.)
Also, the fact that people started to have their own laptop with their own internet connection meant that of course, people were buying more online, but also the way people were buying product has changed. Now, individuals are spending more time researching about the product information before purchasing, as well as checking out the price of the same product on different platform. Amazon and EBay were the 2 most important e-commerce platforms since the beginning of the ecommerce rise. Amazon has started very early to make revenue through affiliate marketing. We can define affiliate marketing as the fact of allowing other websites to earn money if they mention Amazon products to their clients. 41% of Amazon revenues is made through Affiliate Marketing.
Also, the expansion of PayPal has also totally changed the way people buy product online. PayPal streamlined the customer experience. They are basically using the encryption technology in order to allow customers to make financial transactions between computers. Due to the growth of Mobile commerce, PayPal is now one of the biggest winner of the mobile commerce revolution.

Started from 2010, the growth of mobile phone owners has totally affected the way e-commerce works. According to the graph in page X annex X The growth of mobile Commerce, we can see that the online purchase through smartphone have significantly increased from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, 31 billion dollars have been spent through mobile transaction. It represents almost 8% of the total e-commerce transaction and this number will keep growing over the years. Also, one of the consequences of the growth of mobile adoption is the way consumers are shopping. Right now, shoppers are spending much more time researching a product before they buy it. According to a research from GE Capital Retail Bank, 81% of the shoppers are making research on a product before they buy it. With the easiness to the internet access, consumers are using google to look for great deals online, wherever they are. It can be from home in their bed, in the metro, the bus, etc.
Social networks have also changed the way shoppers purchased product with their chosen e-commerce retailers. Thanks to social networks, products and brands are much more reachable for the consumers since they can access it anywhere anytime. Also, the power a brand has online is really important. Shoppers have higher expectation of a brand on social and on digital in general. The e-merchandising of a product is the priority number one for the retailers. If a brand website doesn’t look nice enough, the shopper will just go see a competitor’s brand and buy it. Also, thanks to social media like Facebook, it has allowed new opportunities for companies and brands to sell their product online. Facebook has more than 2 billions active user monthly. The fact that products can be displayed and allow shoppers to buy directly on this social platform is bringing online sales to another level.
Online sales on social networks have a bright future, buying product on Facebook is easy, fast, and convenient. Users simply need to click on the ‘buy’ button of the post, place the order, and add to basket, without even leaving their newsfeed. This is a great opportunity to gain brand awareness, new customers, and target impulse shoppers.

1. Discuss the statement that knowledge management is a business process, not a technology.

I agree completely that knowledge management is a business process and not a technology since knowledge should be communicated and shared with others for it to be useful. Knowledge is more beneficial and useful when it is shared by all the employees in an organization. This is demonstrated by the knowledge service programs and workshops presented by the NASA engineering and safety center for sharing information. Effective knowledge management is imperative in creating, storing, transferring, and applying knowledge throughout the organizations, companies, and firms. However, the knowledge management has greatly benefited from the innovations and advancements in the Information Technology in supporting various business processes. Additionally, with the application of Information Technology in the knowledge management organizations and companies can create and share information in fast and safe ways.

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2. Discuss the benefits and challenges of implementing knowledge management systems.
The largest benefit of implementing a knowledge management system that I heard about most often in my organization surrounded the positive impact to bottom line savings. The overall benefit of knowledge management systems is to increase productivity and corporate profits. Implementing a solution that meets the organization’s needs requires a great deal of planning if the system is to be successful in accomplishing what it was intended to do.
Knowledge management systems involve many elements that ensure accuracy, relevance, and currency. The organization must plan in advance as to the need for such a system and to understand the return on the investment. A variety of resources must be introduced to the system for continuous maintenance. Knowledge must grow and evolve. Additionally, there must be effective use of knowledge which depends upon the robustness of the processes developed to manage that knowledge. Also, many organizations fail to align their knowledge management efforts with their strategic objectives. Instead of utilizing knowledge for critical business problems, our company chose to focus knowledge on pressing business issues that did not align with the strategic objectives of the company.
3. What measures can be used to encourage employees to surrender their knowledge and experience to help build a knowledge management system?

By connecting the knowledge management with the goals and objectives of an organization, employees can easily share their knowledge and experience which will help in building a knowledge management system. This will also help build teamwork. For example, NASA established Academy Of Project/Program and Engineering Leadership (APPEL) for the technical support of knowledge capture of the employees. This support can consist of reducing the costs, increasing revenues, or improving customer-related services to name a few examples. Therefore, employees will share knowledge and ideas for the better results of the organization and themselves (Reynolds 2016). Additionally, by creating a culture that values knowledge will strongly encourage employees to share it and thus build a knowledge management system.
4. You have been tasked to justify the investment in a knowledge management system. What is the productivity paradox when it comes to investments in information technology? How will you justify the investment, keeping in mind the productivity paradox?

Productivity is the most basic economic measure of the contribution of technology in investment. The phrase refers to the fear that as more investment is made in information technology, productivity could potentially go down (Background, 2018). As a manager, I have watched leaders of organizations make huge investments in computer related technologies and have not seen my production decrease. Instead, I have found that by improving the ease of completing our tasks, our productivity in most cases actually increased after an initial learning curve. For this case study, NASA, with the help of IT, developed system such as search, tag, taxonomy tools which allow people to access certain specific sites with information about the organization (Reynolds 2016). Some have said that IT does not bring measurable returns, however, real benefits and investments can be seen in the improved operations within an organization.

Reynolds, G. W. (2016). Information technology for managers. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Background. (2018). Retrieved from https://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs181/projects/productivity-paradox/background.html

1.0 Executive summary
This report is to choose two company to do the analysis by using different tools to better know that financial contents. We choose Chorus and Enable two companies as our group project topic. We are using balanced scorecard tools to analysis four different parts, which are financial, customer, internal process and learning &growth perspective. Through this part, we can evaluate the overall performance of the chosen organization and to determine about the management of the company has been successful in accomplishing the strategic goals of the organisation or not. Also we use SWOT environment analysis strategic to talk about what kind of situation of Chorus company have in the past and what potential problems they will face in the future by analysis financial statements. We will give more detail in the following pages.

2.0 Introduction
The Chorus was divided from the spark in 2011 and the chorus company cannot sell them products directly to the customers. It has been chosen wholesale services to the retailers (Chorus,2017). Chorus is a largest telecommunication infrastructure building in company in New Zealand . The company are also doing the fixed telecommunications network. The goal of Chorus company is trying to ensure New Zealand people have better broadband experience. The significant characteristics of Chorus company is providing good using experience for the consumers (Who is Chorus,2017). This group project will concentrate on financial analysis . For example , current ration talk about Chorus had increasing assets in 2017 compare with 2016 and 2015. Also ,we use accounts receivable to working capital ratio, percent profit margin to sales etc. we use SWOT analysis tool to discuss how Chorus company through strengths and weaknesses , and for identifying both the opportunities open to Chorus and the threats Chorus face. For instance, Chorus can develop new customer groups and keep providing good services. Regulatory environment of Chorus is a potential threats for them to figure out in the future. In the end of repot , we discussed finding from the ratio and give company of Chorus recommendation about which area have to improve in the future and which part have to keep doing that.

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3.1 Balanced scorecard
3937000Business objectives and strategy map
0Business objectives and strategy map

3827780302260Decrease operating costs
00Decrease operating costs

34804352159002337435215900142303534290025628605080Increase net profit
0Increase net profit
8509008255Increase shareholder
00Increase shareholder

3817620230505Doing survey for using experience
00Doing survey for using experience
2222500276225Improve market percentage
00Improve market percentage

2794635540385004509135540385176593554038585090075565Improve consumer’s satisfaction
00Improve consumer’s satisfaction

3822700204470Doing frequency of surveying and getting feedback as soon as possible
0Doing frequency of surveying and getting feedback as soon as possible
2339340186690Advertising on social media or website
0Advertising on social media or website
965835186690Provide variety options for customers
00Provide variety options for customers

3709035641985-403860114935Internal processes
0Internal processes

4166235186690High quality connection with consumers
High quality connection with consumers
1541780186690Network investment and improve skills
0Network investment and improve skills
2572385180975Improve fibre installation experience
0Improve fibre installation experience

-520700135890Learning &growth perspective
00Learning &growth perspective

Balanced scorecard is an important tool for the company to keep business and organisation on the right way. Balanced scorecard more focus on the goal of the company rather than to concentrate on how many scores company achieved (Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P,2001). Through the analysis the chorus, we can better know that the chorus company how to run the business and what kind of drawbacks they exist. Above the diagram is showing that how the company using balanced scorecard to achieve their objectives. And balanced scorecard divides into four parts which are financial, customer, internal processes and learning growth perspectives. The diagram starts from bottom up to top. For the learning & growth perspective are mainly focus on increasing network investment, high quality connection for customers and fibre installation experience. To concentrate on good quality connection with customers is first goal of building next two following steps which are internal process and customer. In learning & growth steps also have a lot of measures to help the Chorus company. For example, concern about employee health and safety and socio-economic benefits of broadband and be aware of fixed wireless completion from other company. The reason why is that most of new business and new entrants could be disrupting the New Zealand market. For the internal process, it is more likely how the chorus run the business. In this step, the strategy will be providing more new selection for the customers and end user experience score. Using advertise to attract people’s eyes, let more people join to the Chorus to buy the products. Then, the company should create improved offering selection process and training programme for new offering and user interfaces. In the third step, people should take action on clearly communication with customers and provide customers enquiry lines with technicians turning up when the customers expected. The last balanced scorecard is relating to net profit and shareholder’s revenue.

So, the Chorus can implement new financial accounting system and check how much money we will spend in the next year, then it can be avoid waste money. This is why we should use balance scorecard to solve the problem.

3.2 Swot Analysis
SWOT analysis is an examination of an organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses, its opportunities for growth and improvement, and the threats the external environment presents to its survival. The main or primary aim of strategic planning is to bring an organisation to a balance that could be helpful to survive with the external environment and to maintain the balance over time. Organisations always aim to maintain this balance by evaluating new programs and services with the intent of maximising organisational performance. SWOT analysis the preliminary decision making tool. CITATION Ber18 l 5129 (Berry, 2018)There are some steps involved in SWOT analysis such as:
STEP 1: This step involves the collection and evaluation of key data. Depending on the company/organisation, these data might include population demographics, new technologies available and some more. After collection and analysation of data, the organisations capabilities in these areas are assessed.
STEP 2: In this step, the data collected by the organisation will be sorted into four categories: Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats. The first two i.e. Strength and weakness generally stem from factors within the organisation, whereas opportunities and threats usually arise from external factors
STEP 3: This step involves the development of SWOT matrix for each business alternative under consideration.
STEP 4: This step helps in incorporating the SWOT analysis into decision making process to determine which business alternative best meet the organisation’s overall strategic plan.

1. SWOT analysis
Swot analysis is a process where the management team identifies the internal and external factors that will affect the company’s future performance. The question here arises is why do we do SWOT analysis?
Using Resources Efficiently
Evaluation of company’s strength helps it determine how to allocate the resources in a manner that will result in the highest possible potential for revenue growth and profitability of the organisation. The company often find out that it has competitive strengths that have not been fully utilised in the past.
Weaknesses are not permanent; they are just temporary and can be rectified. When the management comes across weaknesses, it is not to assign blame for past shortfalls in the company and its working. For an effective operation, it is always important for a company to do a realistic assessment of weaknesses, which can also help in prevention of strategic blunders. Current weaknesses can-and must-be turned into future strengths. Continuous improvement in all areas of a company’s operations is an important aspect of staying ahead of competitors.
© Discovering Opportunities
In SWOT analysis it is very essential for the management team to identify emerging opportunities so that it would be easy for them to take advantages of them right now and tries to forecast longer term opportunities so advance planning can be made. Potential growth in business requires seeking out new opportunities, including new customer groups, broader product distribution, developing new categories of product and services and geographical expansion. Chorus covers majority or maximum areas of NZ to provide broadband facilities. Chorus covers Ashburton, Auckland (including Pukekohe, Waiuku, Waiheke), Blenheim, Dunedin, Fielding, Gisborne, Greymouth, Invercargill, Kapiti (including Paekakariki, Raumati, Paraparaumu,Waikanae), Levin, Masterton, Napier ; Hastings, Nelson, Oamaru, Palmerston North, Queenstown, Rotorua, Taupo, Timaru, Wellington (including Hutt City, Upper Hutt and Porirua) or Whakatane.

Companies faced many threats, which are even beyond their control. These do not come from the direct competitors but these could have a negative impact on performance. Changes in regulatory environment can have an adverse impact on performance .SWOT analysis helps a company to be better prepared for whatever it will encounter in the external environment. The Telecommunications (New Regulatory Framework) Amendment Bill recently covers the establishment of a new regulatory framework for fibre services. It made an involvement of government and Commerce Commission in regulating activity and prices.
Chorus is also concerned about the business line restrictions. As Chorus has a tie up with the government of NZ, they will work with them during the remaining stages of Bill’s passage to help ensure that the final framework does not stop innovation and does not even affect their partnership with them.
2017 2016 2015
Liquidity ratios Current ratio 0.77 0.69 0.71 Account receivable to working capital ratio -411 -387 -351 Sales to working capital -408 -384 -348 Profitability Ratios Sales to asset 0.23 0.25 0.26 Accounts Receivable turnover 7.5 6.4 6.10 Percentage profit margin on Sales 0.15 0.13 0.13 Coverage Ratios Debt to Total Assets 0.79 0.79 0.79 Debt to Equity 3.70 3.70 3.69 Times Interest earned 1.91 1.82 1.75 Expense to Sales Ratio Percent Depreciation to sales 26.35 26.09 25.75 Equity Muliplier 4.70 4.70 4.7 ENABLE
Ratio Analysis
2017 2016 2015
Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 1.17 2.23 8.34
Account Receivable to Working Capital 1.73 0.73 0.53
Sales to working capital 0.06 0.18 0.02
Activity Ratios Accounts receivable turnover 0.05 0.16 1.5
Sales to Total Assets 0.0 0.010 0.010
Percent profit margin to sales -64.9 38.8 -740.6
Profitability Ratios Percent Rate of return on Assets 0.016 2.44 -3.41
Percent Rate of Return on Equity 0.048 8.30 -48.04
Debt to Total Assets 0.67 0.71 0.93
Equity Multiplier 3.1 3.40 14.1
Debt to Equity 2.06 2.40 13.09
Financial Analysis and Interpretation
Current ratio (Current Assets/ Current Liabilities)
Current ratio reflects the number of times short-term assets cover short-term liabilities. It gives a fair indication of company’s ability to service its current obligations. High ratio is always preferable as it indicates a strong ability to service short-term obligations. Composition of current assets is a key factor in the evolution of this ratio.

Current ratio of chorus limited is satisfactory as it increases from 0.69 in 2016 to 0.77 in 2017. In 2016, it dropped a bit as compared to 2015 but now it is on the track that is good for the company.

Current ratio for Enable is going down from last 3 years. From 8.34 in 2015 it comes to 1.17 in 2017. This sharp decline in not favourable for Enable. This shows that company’s ability to convert raw materials and inventory into finished products is low.

Accounts receivable to working capital ratio
Trade accounts receivable/ (Current assets-Current liabilities)
This ratio gives clear number of dependency of working capital on the collection of receivables. Lower number for this ratio is always preferable.

The account receivable to working capital ratio for Chorus comes to -411 in 2017 from -387 in 2016. In 2015, it was the highest in three years at -351. It shows shat company’s performance is improving from previous years.
The accounts receivable to working capital ratio is not giving a good indication for enable as it increases from 0.53 in 2015 to 0.73 in 2016 to 1.73 last year.
Sales to working capital ratio
Sales/ (Current assets-current liabilities)
It is another ratio to measure liquidity and the ability to cover short-term obligations. This ratio relates the ability of a company to generate sales using its working capital to determine how efficiently working capital is been used. Lower number is preferred as it indicates company’s satisfactory level of working capital.

Sales to working capital declines in last three years from -348 in 2015 to -408 in year 2017. It reveals that company’s working capital level is strong but company has to make some special efforts to generate additional sales using working capital.

Enable’s working capital ratio was best in 2015 at 0.02 that increases to 0.18 in 2016. In 2017, it declines to 0.06. It indicates that company is in satisfactory level as compared to the last year.
Sales to total Assets ratio
Sales/Total Assets
High number of this ratio indicates that company is successful in generating sales by using its assets. This ratio measures company’s ability to produce sales using assets efficiently.
Sales to total assets ratio is declining from last three years for Chorus. In 2015 it was 0.26 which comes down to 0.25 in 2016 which declines to 0.23 in 2017. This is alarming for Chorus as it shows that company is not able to generate sales by using its assets.
Sales to assets ratio is almost the same in 2015 and 2016 but it decrease to 0 in 2017 which indicates that company has to take some actions to increase their sales.
Account Receivable ratio
Sales/Trade Accounts Receivable
This shows that how successful a company is in collecting its outstanding receivables. It measures the number of times receivables turnover in a year. Higher number is always preferable.
Accounts Receivable ratio is best in 2017 with 7.5 in three years. It was lowest in 2016. Increase in 2017 shows that company is efficient in achieving its objectives.

Accounts receivable for enable is declining every year from 2015(1.5) to 0.16 in 2016, it comes to 0.05 in 2017, which is surely not in favour of the company. This could even lead the company to be in high Debts. High debt rate could result in low investment and finally in low revenue.

Debt to Total Assets
Total Liabilities/Total Assets
Debt to Total Assets ratio shows the proportion of company’s assets which are financed through debts. If ratio comes out to be less than 0.5 then it shows that company’s assets are financed through equity. If ratio is more than 0.5 then most of company’s assets are financed through debts. This ratio is an indicator of financial leverage. Higher percentage indicates more leverage and more risk.

Debt to total assets ratio remains the same for Chorus in all three (2015, 2016, 2017) years. As I mentioned above, chorus is financing assets through debts.
Debt to total assets ratio for enable declines from last three years. In 0.93 in 2015 to 0.71 to 2016 it falls to 0.67 in 2017.
Debt to Equity Ratio
Total Liabilities/ Total equity
This Financial ratio indicates the relative proportion of shareholder’s equity and debt used to fiancé company’s assets. This ratio is also known as risk. High ratio generally means that a company has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt.
Debt to equity ratio for Chorus increased from 3.69 in 2015 to 3.70 in 2016 and 2017. It is in favour of company, as it does not increase much in last three years, which indicates that there is not too much risk for Creditors and short, long term, financial security for a company.

Debt to equity ratio for enable has decreased from 13.09 in 2015 to 2.40 in 2016. Enable experiences further decline in 2017 to 2.06. It indicates a solid performance in this area for the company.
Percent Profit margin to sales
This ratio gives us a clear picture of how much profit a company makes on each dollar received. It also indicates how well a company could potentially deal with higher costs or lower sales in the future.
Percent profit margin on sales for chorus increase to 0.15 in 2017 as compared to the baseline 0.13 in 2016 and same in 2015 with 0.13. This shows that sales may be contributing enough to the company’s bottom line.
Percent profit margin to sales for enable decreases in 2017 and reached in negative. It reached to low as -64.9 in 2017. In 2016, it was positive with 38.8. It indicates that company was in good condition last year in comparison to current year.
Equity Multiplier Ratio
Total Asset/Total Equity
This ratio measures company’s financial leverage. Use of more debts than equity to finance company’s assets purchase results in high equity multiplier ratio. This ratio is a variation of debt ratio.
Equity multiplier ratio for chorus remains almost same for last three years, which indicates that. It shows that company owned most of its assets rather than financing it. This is favourable for Chorus.
Equity multiplier ratio was highest for Enable in 2015 with 14.1, which decreased to 3.40 in 2016. Company’s performance is improving from year by year, as it comes down to 3.10 in 2017, which shows that more of company’s assets are now owned than financed.
Set criteria for chorus mentioned below – the most important criteria for chorus are to mainly dominate the market. New Zealand is not the big country that means only one company can rule the market if they want to establish themselves in the dynamic environment. In 2018 also chorus is still the major fibre supplier in the market in New Zealand
Reasonable range of possible solutions for chorus to increase their market share mentioned below –
1) Aggressive marketing – the kind of marketing strategy that chorus practice is very protective and dull they should follow aggressive approach which will be helpful for them to increase their market share of fibre.
2) Providing more services to their suppliers – chorus can provide more services to their suppliers which will be helpful to increase their market capital. Currently chorus is one of the largest suppliers of optic fibre in the market, but in the last 5 years the level of competition in the market.

3) Increased efficiency and effectiveness – chorus can increase their efficiency and effectiveness which means they make best use of the resources without any further wastage within specific period of time. The operation cost is getting expensive nowadays this approach will save their as the result they will see increased revenue in the company.
4) Market development – chorus can develop their market or say extent their market by adding more services to their suppliers. Right now chorus only deals with optic fibre but there are various opportunities where the company has immense potential to grow its parts and succeed.
5) Improved current services fast and forward – at the moment the internet speed provided by all the suppliers in New Zealand in not that fast and effective as compared to countries like United States. In these countries are already using 5g network, which allows them to access fast internet services at cheap price as the result more people uses the internet.

6) Cheap plans –Chorus is one of the biggest fibre suppliers in new Zealand , but the price at which they deal with other companies to provide them fibre is very high as the result after all the commission from supplier to dealer the customer gets very expensive plans, which makes it accessible to only few section of society as new Zealand is a small country if chorus wants to earn more revenue them they should make cheap plans so that every citizen can use their plans. No company is New Zealand offers less than 20 dollar plans which makes it even harder for the weaker section of population to afford to buy it.

Best solution chosen on the basis of set criteria is aggressive marketing strategies – chorus should choose aggressive marketing as their best solutions to their strategy in order to help them grow them in the market. The kind of competition in the market this marketing strategy will help to them with a boost to increase their market share and generate more revenue. Since the formation of chorus their marketing and advertisement is very dull and out-dated. The fact that new Zealand is the growing market and it is one of the youngest country all over the world do the need of internet will be their always. The amount of opportunities available in New Zealand in immense. It is about which every company will do their marketing effective they will be able to achieve its desired results. Chorus has the highest amount of potential because of its reliability and level of goodwill it has created in the eyes of the customers. This goodwill is a very useful asset for them but they need to be aware about the increase the level of competition in last few years. The competition is getting very immense only the best one will survive and remaining companies will have to suffer the consequences. Chorus has still got lot of time left to think about their marketing policies and plans. Marketing strategy plays a very crucial role as it generally shapes the company structure. In this dynamic environment here future is very uncertain for companies to survive attack is the best form of defence. Aggressive marketing will give them the boost that they want with their functioning. It will help them to establish themselves even more and fight with their competitors even more strongly. Chorus has Establish themselves in the market now what they want is to take this initiate move forward as set next level of market for them. there is no doubt that chorus has huge potential to rule the market not even in new Zealand if they do well they can expand their business in neighbouring countries like Australia and even big countries like – India, china and United states of America. Aggressive marketing will make their buyers and suppliers even more aware of the brand it will create that amount of goodwill in between the society that chorus can achieve its high standards.

Conclusions – there is no doubt that the chorus company has huge potential to rule the market but it has their own limitations too. The amount of competition is increasing very immensely. Now that the market is expanding themselves other companies like spark, Vodafone, enable are also very aware of that and on the basis of that they had formed their strategy too. During 2014, chorus used to earn huge profit from their business, but now time has changed. The chorus share price has shown positive amount of progress since 2014 as in 2015 their share price went down but they recovered very fast from it. The technology is changing day by day it not easy for any company to keep on evolving themselves day by day in order to sustain themselves in the market. There is always scope and room for improved the quality for the company every successful companies in the market had evolved their services and product line which makes them superior from other. Chorus needs to change their strategy to more of attacking form of marketing and advertisement. Since chorus started they had shown impressive amount of growth in its sector.
Challenges identified mentioned below for chorus –
More intense market competition –
Competitor awareness –
Changing government policies –
Expensive manufacturing price –
Less skilled staff –
Not easy to deal with customer taste and preferences –
Chorus (2017). Financial annual reports. Retrieved May 26 , 2018 from https://company.chorus.co.nz/reports
Who is Chorus ((2017). Who is Chorus Retrieved May26, 2018 from https://www.chorus.co.nz/who-is-chorus
Kaplan, R. S., ; Norton, D. P. (2001). The strategy-focused organization: How balanced scorecard companies thrive in the new business environment. Harvard Business Press.

1.1 Background
The process of transferring ideas, message, information and attitudes that provides the possibility of turning those data into action called communication, which is considered as one of the mankind’s basic and essential skills like any other skills. (Azari et al., 2015). Communication is the basic tool in nursing, a crucial element in health care.(Ferreiraa, Silva, Pires, Sousa, ; Calheiros, 2016). Good communication skills in the health care setting is very important to ensure patient satisfaction to the care provided, consulting, identify client’s needs and take appropriate actions, minimize the possibilities of client’s complaints and creating clients-provider trust. In facts communication is the means good means of exchanging information, concepts, values, beliefs in health care setting for better patient’s outcomes.
Communication skills use verbal and non-verbal communication skills that can convey the reasonable information from the sender to the receiver through specific medium of communication. The ability to express to express good communication skills capacity is crucial skills for every nursing student. This can be achieved by having regular training for students in communication skills knowledge to enhance their capacities and their application of this knowledge in improving patient care.(Furnes, Kvaal, & Høye, 2018)
Having good communication skills will be useful in encounter patients and their families with sensitivity, empathy, and moral accountability. The nursing students should learn those skills as any other skills. The effective care to the patient that will consider their ethnic group, religious and cultural background will provided sufficiently if the provider has knowledge in communication skills.(Sheldon, 2015)
However, despite this reasonable importance of communication skills in providing good care to the client, there is a challenge of applying this knowledge in the clinical setting. The complicated schedule of nurses in their clinical areas makes them to poorly applying the skills. Failure to do so results into patient’s dissatisfaction , complaints, poor adherence to treatment, mistrust of health care providers and poor consultation.
1.2 Problem statement.
There is great need for effective communication skills between health care providers and their clients in order to ensure effective flow of care. Many challenges including patient dissatisfaction, complaints, mistrust of health care providers and poor adherence to treatment are increasing as a result of poor communication skills between health care providers and their clients.There is need to improve communication and more training to create awareness about barriers to effective communication in related to nursing intervention, because of very busy schedule of nurses in majority of health care settings, they become less aware of the problem of effective professional communicationstyle.(Bello, 2017). The expected consequences of not fix the problem may result into decreased quality of care, unachievable nursing interventions, continuation of mistrust of healthcare providers by their clients, dissatisfaction to health care provided as well as complaints to the nature of nursing care provided. This study is going to focus in assessing the communication skills knowledge among nursing students who are studying at MUHAS to evaluate if they have reasonable knowledge in communication skills for better outcome to the patient.
My topic is “assessment of knowledge of knowledge of communication skills among nursing students at MUHAS”
This study is going to assess if nursing students having good knowledge of communication skills that is useful for better patient outcome. The study will come out with the results to explain about this knowledge. The population to be focused by this study specifically will be nursing students at MUHAS.
3.1 Broad objective
To assess knowledge assess knowledge of communication skills among nursing students at MUHAS.
3.2 Specific objectives
(i) To identify the common clinical communication skills nursing students have.
(ii) To identify if nursing students understanding about communication skills clues.
(iii) To identify major communication skills barriers among nursing students at MUHAS.
(iv) To identify if nursing students understanding about poor communication skills consequences in the clinical practices.
(i) What are the common clinical communication skills nursing students have?
(ii) Are nursing students aware of communication skills clues?
(iii) What are the main communication skills barriers facing nursing students at MUHAS.
(iv) What is the understanding of poor communication skills consequences to nursing students at MUHAS.
The researcher suggested the existence of relationship between dependent and independent variables which results into the prediction of the alternative hypothesis which states;
“There is significance knowledge of communication skills among nursing students at MUHAS”
The two key variables such us knowledge and communication skills are ones to given attention. The independent variable is knowledge while, communication skills is dependent variable. This means that communication skills will be affected by having its knowledge. To be good in communication skills knowledge is needed. The study will be structured to asses this knowledge.The good communication skills affected by having good knowledge and this influence capacity, treatment adherence, trustfulness, and good provider-patient relationship.

In the review of literature selected articles has been identified after narrowing the topic. The selection of literature based on relevancy of the article to the topic and current of the article. The topic is issued in assessing knowledge of communication skills among nursing students. The review of literature done under the following criteria;
7.1 Main issues to be addressed in the literature.
In literature review the following issues has been addressed to find what other researchers say in their studies. The following things have been addressed in the literature review:
(i) To understand experience in the development of the communications skills for both nursing students and registered nurses.
(ii) To find the consequences of poor knowledge in communication skills and what are the effects of teaching communication skills to nursing students on the quality of care for patients.
(iii) To identify the research methods of data collection, sampling techniques used by other researchers in developing of their works.
(iv) To identify what are limitations facing studies of other researchers, what are their recommendations and what the gap of knowledge needed to be addressed in communication skills.

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7.2 Evaluation of the reviewed literatures
From the literature it has explained that, good communication between nurses and patients is essential for the successful outcome of individualized nursing care of each patient. To achieve this, however, nurses must understand and help their patients, demonstrating courtesy, kindness and sincerity. Also they should devote time to the patient to communicate with the necessary confidentiality, and must not forget that this communication includes persons who surround the sick person, which is why the language of communication should be understood by all those involved in it. Good communication also is not only based on the physical abilities of nurses, but also on education and experience.(Kourkouta ; Papathanasiou, 2014)
The study conducted in University of Sadney, Australia explained, effective communication is a vital component of nursing care (Mullan, Mullan, ; Kothe, 2010). However, nurses often lack the skills to communicate with patients, careers and other health care professionals. Communication skills training programs are frequently used to develop these skills. However, there is a paucity of data on how best to evaluate such courses. The study evaluated the relationship between student self, rating of their own ability and their satisfaction with a nurse training course as compared with an objective measure of communication skills (Mullan et al., 2010). The sample included 209 first year nursing students completed a communication skills program. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and associations between measures were investigated. Paired samples t-tests showed significant improvement in self-rated ability over the course of the program. Students generally were very satisfied with the course which was reflected in both qualitative and quantitative measures (Mullan et al., 2010). However, neither self-rated ability nor satisfaction was significantly correlated with the objective measure of performance, but self-rated ability and satisfaction were highly correlated with one another. The importance of these findings is discussed and implications for nurse education are proposed. (Mullan et al., 2010)
The other study suggests, the communication between healthcare providers and patients affects patient care and safety. Nurses develop communication skills at the undergraduate level, after graduation and throughout their practice. This study explored perspectives of new graduates on the development and implementation of communication skills within the first six months after graduation. The study is descriptive study used an electronic survey to three cohorts of recent graduates. Surveys were sent within six months after graduation (Sheldon, 2015). The total of 700 surveys were sent to three cohorts of recent graduates with 206 surveys completed (response rates ranged from 26%-35%). Participants reported always feeling confident communicating with patients and families 27% of the time, and23.5% of the time with interdisciplinary teams. Only 50.8% reported always feeling confident to provide safe care all of the time with 44.5% reported feeling always able to ask colleagues for help with challenging situations (Sheldon, 2015). Then finally the study concluded, undergraduate nursing programs should incorporate more didactic communication skills training and simulation to prepare nursing students and increase their confidence to provide safe care and consult with colleagues for help. Communication skills training in practice settings after graduation to increase skill development and confidence during independent clinical practice.(Sheldon, 2015)
The study accepted (2017) in Islamic Azad University of Mahabad, in Urmia, Iran suggested nursing profession requires not only the academic knowledge but also the interpersonal relationships, technical, and intellectual abilities (Taghizadeh, Hasanpour-dehkordi, ; Shakhaei, 2017). The study aimed to determine the impact of teaching communication skills to nurse students on the quality of care given by nursing students. This study was a quasi-experimental research that was performed on 66 last year students and 132 patients using a goal-oriented sampling method in 2016. The data collection tools included a demographic information form of the units under study, a checklist of students’ communication skills, and a quality of care questionnaire for patients. The study tools were completed by the students and patients before the intervention and after completion of the training course. After collection, data were analyzed using SPSS v16 and descriptive and inferential statistics such as paired t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient (Taghizadeh et al., 2017). The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean quality of patients’ care prior to and following the intervention (p?0.001).Also, there was a significant difference between the means for nursing student’s’ communication skills before and after the intervention. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between mean scores of students and the quality of care and communication skills (p?0.001). The conclusion recommended that the professionals in the field of nursing incorporate “communication skills” into their instructional programs so that the nursing students acquire the requisite experience in the field prior to entering into this profession. Also teaching communication skills should be followed up after the students’ graduation.(Taghizadeh et al., 2017)
7.3 Identified gap of knowledge from the literature.
Lack of a strong association between student evaluation and performance is particularly worrying given that student evaluations using standardized tools remain the most widely used measure of course success (Wolfer and Johnson, 2003). Whilst further research may be warranted to replicate these findings, the current study provides an important insight into the relationship between student evaluations of a course and their own ability as it relates to performance. The data from this study suggests that such student evaluations do not meaningfully correspond to demonstrable communication skills.(Mullan et al., 2010). Therefore this study recommends to replicates the study to find strong association between student’sevaluation and real practices as far as communication skills is concerned.(Mullan et al., 2010)
It’s also proposed that, future research should ask new graduates what they would recommend to improve undergraduate and postgraduate education on communication skills. Studies could incorporate specific scales to measure health literacy and cultural awareness (Sheldon, 2015). These scales would help identify specific components of cultural awareness and sensitivity, and health literacy that are amenable to the development of interventions at the undergraduate level and for continuing education for practicing nurses. Future studies should include additional demographic information about respondents’ current work settings and duration of practice. Furthermore, institutional programs should be implemented that enforce inter professional training programs in academic and practice settings. These programs should emphasize communication skills, collaboration, collegiality, and conflict resolution to improve patient care processes, safety, and outcomes.(Sheldon, 2015)
From the literature we see the main recommendations including, finding the relationship between the evaluation methods and actual practice in communication skills, the studies also recommends on what should be done in order to improve communication skills in health care setting to improve the quality of care to the clients. The studies also recommend on how the institutional programs in can improve the communication skills to the nursing students. (Sheldon, 2015)


Azari, S., Mokhtari, S., Mousavi, H., Mohammadi, M., Aliyari, A., Salimi, M., ; Gh, A. (2015). Relationship between learning styles and interpersonal communication skills of nursing student in Medical Sciences Tehran University in 2012, 8(3), 178–183.
Bello, O. (2017). Effective Communication in Nursing Practice?: A literature review Opeyemi Bello Bachelor ‘ s Thesis Degree Programme in Nursing.
Ferreiraa, M., Silva, D., Pires, A., Sousa, M., & Calheiros, N. (2016). Clinical Skills and Communication in Nursing Students.
Furnes, M., Kvaal, K. S., & Høye, S. (2018). Communication in mental health nursing – Bachelor Students ‘ appraisal of a blended learning training programme – an exploratory study, 1–10.
Kourkouta, L., ; Papathanasiou, I. V. (2014). Communication in Nursing Practice, (February), 65–68. https://doi.org/10.5455/msm.2014.26.65-67
Mullan, B., Mullan, B. A., ; Kothe, E. J. (2010). Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course?: The relationship between self-rated ability , satisfaction and actual performance Nurse Education in Practice Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course?: The relationships between self-rated ability , satisfaction , and actual performance. Nurse Education in Practice, 10(6), 374–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2010.05.007
Sheldon, L. K. (2015). Development of communication skills in healthcare?: Perspectives of new graduates of undergraduate nursing education, 5(7), 30–37. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v5n7p30
Taghizadeh, R., Hasanpour-dehkordi, A., ; Shakhaei, S. (2017). Pharmacophore THE EFFECTS OF TEACHING COMMUNICATION SKILLS TO NURSING STUDENTS ON THE QUALITY OF CARE FOR PATIENTS, 8, 10–13.


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