1.1 Describe organisational policies, procedures and levels of authority in maintaining supplies  
 
Policy is something that a company adheres the policy would be in line with organisations objective. The policies in levels of authority in maintaining supplies which is that you have some rules and regulations which you have to follow for example in a business company you can have a lot of policies which is really important to have one of them can be no smoking or no food and drink or no swearing also attendance and time is key your only allowed to have certain time off and you need to make sure that your attendance is really good if it isn’t then you can get fired because missing a lot of days can make you fall behind on the work. The procedures for a business company is health and safety so the staff need to know the procedures if there is a fire they now how to react what to do and how to get out make sure they have all the details of who is in the building and also making sure, that everyone is evacuated. Stake the clear details of the details of the product with the product codes. you can order 2 ways either the order can be done through the order forms or through catalogue. Before ordering anything for your company makes sure that the order form is authorised by the office manager to make sure that no one is ordering extra products or buying anything that is not necessary. 
 
1.2 Explain how to carry out a stock check of stationery 
 
The most effective way to carry out a stock  check is to count all the stock. The stock check will then  be recorded on a stock check list and  then it will be typed up onto a computer record. Typing stock takes onto a computer allows you to keep a closer eye on stock movements and to make sure theirs no extra usage. There are different ways that you can carry out a stock check some of the ways are 
 
Minimum stock level – it’s where you identify minimum stock level I.e. order level. An example of a minimum stock level is when you have 2 people coming in for an assessment but you still need to make sure that you have the minimum products/stock at all times. 
Stock review- you need to make sure that you check the  stock consistently and that you review the products make sure you  have everything in  stock if you don’t then you have to write it down and then write it in the order list and give it to your manager to make sure that you are ordering the right amount of stock. 
Just in time- this aims to reduce stock cost by cutting the stock to minimum items are straight delivered when is  immediate use the company does not keep the stock they rely on deliveries so the delivery has to arrive exactly on time when it’s needed instead of ordering a large order and putting in the warehouse when the products arrive they are taken be used at the factory there  is a lot of benefits with this it’s saves time and money. 
 
 
 1.3 Describe the types of problems that may occur with deliveries and stock items  
There are different types of problem that may occur during a delivery one is that it can get delayed and that would cause a lot of problems for the company because if they have finished the stock and they need more products then it will cause a big problem in the business or maybe a big loss. another problem that could occur is that the stock could be damage and that also would cause a lot of problems and it would waste a lot of time sending the stock back and reordering or getting a refund it would waste a lot of time if you needed the stock urgently. Another can be the wrong items have been delivered again you would have to call the delivery company and let them know so they can deal with the situation. 
 
 
1.4 Explain how to deal with problems that occur with deliveries and stock items 
 
The problems that could occur with deliveries and stock items is that the stock can be damaged so you would have to contact the company and return the stock items and that would waste a lot of time for the company. The stock can delay so that could cause a lot of issues with the company like if you ran out of stock and you needed it asap then that would be a big issue for your company you would have to contact the delivery company and it would take time to fix the problem depending on how big the company is. Another problem that could occur is that te items could be   
 
 1.5 Explain the factors to take into account when ordering stationery 
There are many factors to take into consideration when ordering stationery, those factors includes price, delivery and discount. It is important to check the price when ordering stationery, it’s good to consider whether it’s cheaper elsewhere. Delivery is a key factor when ordering stationery, it’s important to see how quickly they can send out their goods and if they offer a next day service. A lot of companies offer discounted rates when items are ordered in bulk so it’s always worth enquiring about this discount when placing an order.  
 
 
 1.6 Explain the benefits and limitations of different potential suppliers, against organisational requirements 
When you looking into new suppliers it is important that you look at the prices being offered and compare them to what is currently being paid also look at the review of the company to make sure it hasn’t got any bad review and make sure that it does everything you need for your company , the prices what will be cheaper and best for the company so you could save money check that the products they sell are original and not replica or fake. 

1. ABSTRACT
Semantics is the line of study that is concerned with deriving meaning that is found in utterances. This involves several concepts including sentence relations to which presupposition and entailment belong. This category involves the following concepts; tautology, synonymy and contradiction. This paper serves to shed light on understanding of sentence relation, paying particular attention to presupposition and entailment, and the differences between these concepts to the effect of trying to clarify the confusion existent in there between.

2. UNDERSTANDING SENTENCE RELATIONS MEANING
Words do exhibit relations with one another in a language, sentences also do exhibit relations to one another. This means that sentences also relate in a specific way. You will find that words have relation that cause them to have similar meaning, also with sentences, they have specific relations of which such relations may be led by the reason of the use of particular words. Sometimes these relations may be of certain syntactic structure. But for one to know or be familiar with sentence relations, he or she must understand different concepts that fall under sentence relations. These are; synonymy, tautology, contradiction, entailment and presupposition. Below will be the description of each concept, basing more focus on entailment and presupposition.
Synonymy
Synonymy is a concept that deals with two sentences having the same truth value. Synonymy also can be confused as entailment. This is because when tested using the entailment concept, synonymy tends to hold. Two sentences p and q are synonymous if they both have the same truth value; that is if p describes a situation, q will also describe the same situation. Such sentences are referred to as paraphrases.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Jones owns the house
The house belongs to Jones
The composite truth table for the synonymous sentences above is as follows:
P q
T > T
F < F
T ? T
F ? F
The table is also applicable to 3 and 4 below. However the synonymous relation in this pair is induced by the syntax of the sentences.
The police pursued the robber
The robber was pursued by the police

Contradiction
Two sentences p and q are contradictory if they both affirm and deny the same proposition. For such sentences, when p is T q is F as shown below:
He is a bachelor
He is married

Pq
T>F
F<T
T?F
F?T
If ‘he’ is constant in 1 and 2, then the two sentences are contradictory. The reason why these two sentences are said to be contrary is because they hold different ideas. If one out of the blue, without having the subject in place, uses ‘he’ without the referent, the sentences in place will have a contradictory meaning. For these two sentences not be contradictory, there should be a referent. An example will be:
Tom is a bachelor
He is a bachelor
With the above sentences, we cannot say they are contradictory because both of them hold the same truth value. ‘He’ in sentence 4 will be a reference of Tom.
PRESUPPOSITION
Huang defines presupposition as ‘a proposition or an inference whose validity is taken for granted for a sentence to be true or for a speech act to be felicitous’, (Huang, 2007). Presupposition constitute at any given time the communicative background assumed to be known and accepted (Franck 1973). In most cases, people use presuppositions throughout without knowing it. For one to understand presupposition, first they must know the definition of what presupposition is, the types of presuppositions, what they do and how one can identify them. Also, one must be able to know what causes presuppositions, which is referred to as presupposition triggers.
Kroeger defines presupposition as ‘information that which is linguistically encoded as being part of the common ground at the time of utterance’, (Kroeger 2018). With common ground, Kroeger refers to everything that both the speaker and the hearer know or believe, also know that they have in common. This means that during the time of utterance, the hearer has the knowledge of what is being said by the speaker. Examples that are obvious include; knowledge about the world, we all know that there is one moon and one sun. This is a fact that no one can dispute or argue because evidence is already there. This may also continue to include knowledge that is observable in speech situations, the perfect scenario will be what the speaker is wearing or carrying. Also facts that have been mentioned before in that same conversation or discourse. From the above, we can simply say, a sentence is said to presuppose another sentence if its truth and that of its negation both imply that the presupposed sentence is also true.
Examples:
It is surprising that Magang passed the test.

Presupposition: Magang passed the test.

It is not surprising that Magang passed the test.

Presupposition: Magang passed the test.

The table below shows how presupposition relate or the structure in which it follows.

P q
T > T
F < T
T or F ? T
P presupposes q if q is part of the assumed background against which P is said. This simply means that q hold the same idea as P.

TYPES OF PRESUPPOSITION
Under the concept of presupposition, there are different types that are found here. These types of presuppositions account for the difference found in presuppositions. They depend more on the context used or that is found in presuppositions. Under types of presuppositions, I will discuss six different types of presuppositions and give as much examples to elaborate the context.
EXISTENTIAL PRESUPPOSITION
This type of presupposition is the assumption that there is existence of entities that are named by the speaker. Existential presuppositions are the main starting point for presupposition theory philosophy (Seuren 1994, cited in Lamarque 1997, 359). What this means is that the speaker won’t speak of something that does not exist. Also, when asked to account, it will be easy because the speaker can pinpoint the entities that he is referring to.

Examples below will show how existential presupposition is like.

Mary’s new car is beautiful.

There is exist a person called Mary.

Mary has a car.

Tom’s cat is cute.

Tom exist.

He (Tom) has a cat.

Professor Otlogetswe’s car is fast.

Professor Otlogetswe exist.

He has a car.

From the above examples, we can see that what the speaker utters, the listener already know that there are entities that are being referred to. It is not something that is uttered out of the blue.

FACTIVE PRESUPPOSITION
Factive presupposition is the assumption that argues that something is true, this ca be realized due to the presence of some verbs that are used in such presuppositions. To account for this, verbs such as “know”, “realize” and phrases that involve “glad” are used to show this type of presupposition. In most cases the presupposition is telling of what has already happened. The term ‘factive’ is used to classify these verbs. Examples that follow below will show how these presuppositions are realized.
He didn’t realize she was ill.

(;; she was ill)
Mary didn’t know that Thabo passed the exam.

(>> Thabo passed the exam.)
I am glad it’s over.

(;; It’s over.)
From the above examples, we can see that the sentences provided presupposes what follows after them.

LEXICAL PRESUPPOSITION
With lexical presupposition, the assumption is that, with the use of one word, the hearer will understand the meaning that the speaker is relaying. The speaker act as if another meaning is obvious to the listener. The listener knows of the facts being stressed here. Examples below will help understand what exactly lexical presupposition is.

Thabo stopped smoking.

(>> Thabo smoked before) the implication is that Thabo used to smoke.

You drove the car again.

(>> you drove the car before.)
Mpho closed the door again.

(>> Mpho closed the door before) the implication here is that Mpho closed the door before, then he found it open and closed it again. It is something he did before.

PRESUPPOSITION TRIGGERS
A presupposition trigger is a construction or item that signals the existence of presupposition in an utterance. Such structures include:
Definite expressions:
p: John saw the man with two heads
q: There is a man with two heads
Cleft sentences or pseudo cleft sentence:
p: It was Henry that visited Rome
q: Someone visited Rome
p: What John lost was his notebook
q: John lost something
Lexical triggers such as factive verbs:
P: Mary realized that she was in debt
q: Mary was in debt
p: They both regretted eating the banana
q: They ate the banana
Change of state verbs
p: Have you started exercising regularly
q: you didn’t exercise
ENTAILMENT
In pragmatics, entailment can be defined as the relationship that is found between two sentences, where the truth of one sentence requires the truth on another sentence. Saeed defines entailment as “a truth relation between sentences which holds regardless of the empirical truth of the sentences (Saeed 1997: 90). The truth of sentence B requires the truth of sentence A. This means that entailment can be referred to as a relationship that is found between two propositions that are expressed by two sentences.

Examples:
Matome is an intelligent student.

Ent: Matome is a student.

From the above sentence, we can see that the sentence “Matome is student” in its preceding sentence.
Raymond and Lorato flunked.

Ent: Lorato flunked.

Lorato or Raymond flunked.

Ent: Someone flunked.

Mary broke the window.

Ent: The window broke
Tumelo and Ditiro went to the party.

Ent: Ditiro went to the party.

Ent: Tumelo went to the party.

Thabo is a bachelor.

Ent: Thabo is married.

Pq
T>T
F<T or F
F?F
T or F?T
From the above sentences, one can note that there are sentences that are entailed on the other sentences. The “Thabo is a bachelor” entails “he is a bachelor” when the pronoun ‘he” refers to ‘Thabo’. To the hearer, this will make sense because they already know that a bachelor the speaker is referring to is Thabo.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENTAILMENT AND PRESUPPOSITION
Presupposition and entailment differ. When a presupposing sentence is negated, the presupposition survives as in examples 1 and 2:
I regret studying law
Pres: I studied law
I do not regret studying law
Pres: I studied law

However, in entailment, negating the entailing sentence results in the failure of the entailment as in the following examples:
Peter is my brother.

I have a brother (entailment holds)
Peter is not my brother

I have a brother (we are not sure whether I have a brother or not hence entailment no longer holds)
Between sentence 4 and 5, there is no entailment because sentence 5 cannot be said to be entailed in sentence 4.

Presupposition also holds in questioning, embedding with modals and in conditional clauses:
The king of France is bald.

Pres: There is a King of France.

Is the king of France bald?
Pres: There is King of France.

The King of France might be bald.

Pres: There is a King of France.

If the King of France is bald, then he should wear a hat.

Pres: There is a King of France.

1.Aging and frailty has a huge challenge within Canadian population and with public health, geriatric cases increases, with this, health worker needs to expand their knowledge to gain more understanding in health issues regarding older people and to have opportunity to improve the frailty needs in rural or urban areas. (Clegg, Young, Iliffe, Rikkert, & Rockwood, 2013; Lacas & Rockwood, 2012; McCracken et al., 2004).

2.The percentage rate of geriatric people in Canada regarding morbidity and health, the older the age the highest chance to experience having multiple chronic conditions and because of this, the level of needs of older people become dependent when they grow older. McCracken and Phillips, (2004)

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

3.The health policy of healthcare system in Canada increase in regards to how they provide a home place where older people to live in that will maintain old age people improve long term health care to lessen multiple chronic conditions. Golant, (2016, 2011, 2008)

4.Public Health facility for frailty age adult is a multi-issue dealing with fragmentation service delivery with treating and diagnosing acute and severe diseases in a condition when client, family, and caregiver transition from hospital to home and how to avoid accident to provide continuous care. (Challis, Stewart, Donnelly, Weiner, & Hughes, 2006; Clarfield, 2001; Manderson, McMurray, Piraino, & Stolee, 2012).

5.The government focused geriatric age client that has no longer needed acute care and this people has no family to live with, and that will not provide care that the facility provide. The lack of unity and communication between caregivers was a barrier to continuous client safety. (Brown, Mclafferty, & Moon, 2010; OECD, 2014; World Health Organization, 1978).

1. The graphic includes the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is a federal-statewide cooperative effort in which monthly estimates of total employment and unemployment are prepared for in the United States. The LAUS county data are estimated using a BLS prescribed multi-step estimation process, gathering a variety of information including, CES survey data, agricultural employment, and unemployment claims data for local areas. The estimates of the state’s employment/unemployment are adjusted so that all areas add to the statewide total. The data in the graphic reflects on the county where the person lives.
1. The reason why I chose this article is because San Diego County’s unemployment rate was 3.3 percent in October, up from 3.2 percent in September, according to the data released by the State’s Employment Development Department (EDD). Some companies may simply be unable to fill jobs because qualified workers don’t want to move to San Diego with its tight housing market and lower wages than might be available elsewhere. The unadjusted unemployment rate was 4.0 percent statewide and 3.5 percent for the entire U.S. over the same period. Total jobs in construction, financial services (particularly insurance carriers), administrative support and health care employment decreased by roughly 2500 jobs. While on the other hand, there was increases in transportation, manufacturing, tourism and government employment, according to EDD data.

1.1 Background
The process of transferring ideas, message, information and attitudes that provides the possibility of turning those data into action called communication, which is considered as one of the mankind’s basic and essential skills like any other skills. (Azari et al., 2015). Communication is the basic tool in nursing, a crucial element in health care.(Ferreiraa, Silva, Pires, Sousa, ; Calheiros, 2016). Good communication skills in the health care setting is very important to ensure patient satisfaction to the care provided, consulting, identify client’s needs and take appropriate actions, minimize the possibilities of client’s complaints and creating clients-provider trust. In facts communication is the means good means of exchanging information, concepts, values, beliefs in health care setting for better patient’s outcomes.
Communication skills use verbal and non-verbal communication skills that can convey the reasonable information from the sender to the receiver through specific medium of communication. The ability to express to express good communication skills capacity is crucial skills for every nursing student. This can be achieved by having regular training for students in communication skills knowledge to enhance their capacities and their application of this knowledge in improving patient care.(Furnes, Kvaal, & Høye, 2018)
Having good communication skills will be useful in encounter patients and their families with sensitivity, empathy, and moral accountability. The nursing students should learn those skills as any other skills. The effective care to the patient that will consider their ethnic group, religious and cultural background will provided sufficiently if the provider has knowledge in communication skills.(Sheldon, 2015)
However, despite this reasonable importance of communication skills in providing good care to the client, there is a challenge of applying this knowledge in the clinical setting. The complicated schedule of nurses in their clinical areas makes them to poorly applying the skills. Failure to do so results into patient’s dissatisfaction , complaints, poor adherence to treatment, mistrust of health care providers and poor consultation.
1.2 Problem statement.
There is great need for effective communication skills between health care providers and their clients in order to ensure effective flow of care. Many challenges including patient dissatisfaction, complaints, mistrust of health care providers and poor adherence to treatment are increasing as a result of poor communication skills between health care providers and their clients.There is need to improve communication and more training to create awareness about barriers to effective communication in related to nursing intervention, because of very busy schedule of nurses in majority of health care settings, they become less aware of the problem of effective professional communicationstyle.(Bello, 2017). The expected consequences of not fix the problem may result into decreased quality of care, unachievable nursing interventions, continuation of mistrust of healthcare providers by their clients, dissatisfaction to health care provided as well as complaints to the nature of nursing care provided. This study is going to focus in assessing the communication skills knowledge among nursing students who are studying at MUHAS to evaluate if they have reasonable knowledge in communication skills for better outcome to the patient.
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE TOPIC
My topic is “assessment of knowledge of knowledge of communication skills among nursing students at MUHAS”
This study is going to assess if nursing students having good knowledge of communication skills that is useful for better patient outcome. The study will come out with the results to explain about this knowledge. The population to be focused by this study specifically will be nursing students at MUHAS.
3. OBJECTIVES
3.1 Broad objective
To assess knowledge assess knowledge of communication skills among nursing students at MUHAS.
3.2 Specific objectives
(i) To identify the common clinical communication skills nursing students have.
(ii) To identify if nursing students understanding about communication skills clues.
(iii) To identify major communication skills barriers among nursing students at MUHAS.
(iv) To identify if nursing students understanding about poor communication skills consequences in the clinical practices.
4.0 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
(i) What are the common clinical communication skills nursing students have?
(ii) Are nursing students aware of communication skills clues?
(iii) What are the main communication skills barriers facing nursing students at MUHAS.
(iv) What is the understanding of poor communication skills consequences to nursing students at MUHAS.
5. HYPOTHESIS
The researcher suggested the existence of relationship between dependent and independent variables which results into the prediction of the alternative hypothesis which states;
“There is significance knowledge of communication skills among nursing students at MUHAS”
6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK.
The two key variables such us knowledge and communication skills are ones to given attention. The independent variable is knowledge while, communication skills is dependent variable. This means that communication skills will be affected by having its knowledge. To be good in communication skills knowledge is needed. The study will be structured to asses this knowledge.The good communication skills affected by having good knowledge and this influence capacity, treatment adherence, trustfulness, and good provider-patient relationship.

7. LITERATURE REVIEW
In the review of literature selected articles has been identified after narrowing the topic. The selection of literature based on relevancy of the article to the topic and current of the article. The topic is issued in assessing knowledge of communication skills among nursing students. The review of literature done under the following criteria;
7.1 Main issues to be addressed in the literature.
In literature review the following issues has been addressed to find what other researchers say in their studies. The following things have been addressed in the literature review:
(i) To understand experience in the development of the communications skills for both nursing students and registered nurses.
(ii) To find the consequences of poor knowledge in communication skills and what are the effects of teaching communication skills to nursing students on the quality of care for patients.
(iii) To identify the research methods of data collection, sampling techniques used by other researchers in developing of their works.
(iv) To identify what are limitations facing studies of other researchers, what are their recommendations and what the gap of knowledge needed to be addressed in communication skills.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

7.2 Evaluation of the reviewed literatures
From the literature it has explained that, good communication between nurses and patients is essential for the successful outcome of individualized nursing care of each patient. To achieve this, however, nurses must understand and help their patients, demonstrating courtesy, kindness and sincerity. Also they should devote time to the patient to communicate with the necessary confidentiality, and must not forget that this communication includes persons who surround the sick person, which is why the language of communication should be understood by all those involved in it. Good communication also is not only based on the physical abilities of nurses, but also on education and experience.(Kourkouta ; Papathanasiou, 2014)
The study conducted in University of Sadney, Australia explained, effective communication is a vital component of nursing care (Mullan, Mullan, ; Kothe, 2010). However, nurses often lack the skills to communicate with patients, careers and other health care professionals. Communication skills training programs are frequently used to develop these skills. However, there is a paucity of data on how best to evaluate such courses. The study evaluated the relationship between student self, rating of their own ability and their satisfaction with a nurse training course as compared with an objective measure of communication skills (Mullan et al., 2010). The sample included 209 first year nursing students completed a communication skills program. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and associations between measures were investigated. Paired samples t-tests showed significant improvement in self-rated ability over the course of the program. Students generally were very satisfied with the course which was reflected in both qualitative and quantitative measures (Mullan et al., 2010). However, neither self-rated ability nor satisfaction was significantly correlated with the objective measure of performance, but self-rated ability and satisfaction were highly correlated with one another. The importance of these findings is discussed and implications for nurse education are proposed. (Mullan et al., 2010)
The other study suggests, the communication between healthcare providers and patients affects patient care and safety. Nurses develop communication skills at the undergraduate level, after graduation and throughout their practice. This study explored perspectives of new graduates on the development and implementation of communication skills within the first six months after graduation. The study is descriptive study used an electronic survey to three cohorts of recent graduates. Surveys were sent within six months after graduation (Sheldon, 2015). The total of 700 surveys were sent to three cohorts of recent graduates with 206 surveys completed (response rates ranged from 26%-35%). Participants reported always feeling confident communicating with patients and families 27% of the time, and23.5% of the time with interdisciplinary teams. Only 50.8% reported always feeling confident to provide safe care all of the time with 44.5% reported feeling always able to ask colleagues for help with challenging situations (Sheldon, 2015). Then finally the study concluded, undergraduate nursing programs should incorporate more didactic communication skills training and simulation to prepare nursing students and increase their confidence to provide safe care and consult with colleagues for help. Communication skills training in practice settings after graduation to increase skill development and confidence during independent clinical practice.(Sheldon, 2015)
The study accepted (2017) in Islamic Azad University of Mahabad, in Urmia, Iran suggested nursing profession requires not only the academic knowledge but also the interpersonal relationships, technical, and intellectual abilities (Taghizadeh, Hasanpour-dehkordi, ; Shakhaei, 2017). The study aimed to determine the impact of teaching communication skills to nurse students on the quality of care given by nursing students. This study was a quasi-experimental research that was performed on 66 last year students and 132 patients using a goal-oriented sampling method in 2016. The data collection tools included a demographic information form of the units under study, a checklist of students’ communication skills, and a quality of care questionnaire for patients. The study tools were completed by the students and patients before the intervention and after completion of the training course. After collection, data were analyzed using SPSS v16 and descriptive and inferential statistics such as paired t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient (Taghizadeh et al., 2017). The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean quality of patients’ care prior to and following the intervention (p?0.001).Also, there was a significant difference between the means for nursing student’s’ communication skills before and after the intervention. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between mean scores of students and the quality of care and communication skills (p?0.001). The conclusion recommended that the professionals in the field of nursing incorporate “communication skills” into their instructional programs so that the nursing students acquire the requisite experience in the field prior to entering into this profession. Also teaching communication skills should be followed up after the students’ graduation.(Taghizadeh et al., 2017)
7.3 Identified gap of knowledge from the literature.
Lack of a strong association between student evaluation and performance is particularly worrying given that student evaluations using standardized tools remain the most widely used measure of course success (Wolfer and Johnson, 2003). Whilst further research may be warranted to replicate these findings, the current study provides an important insight into the relationship between student evaluations of a course and their own ability as it relates to performance. The data from this study suggests that such student evaluations do not meaningfully correspond to demonstrable communication skills.(Mullan et al., 2010). Therefore this study recommends to replicates the study to find strong association between student’sevaluation and real practices as far as communication skills is concerned.(Mullan et al., 2010)
It’s also proposed that, future research should ask new graduates what they would recommend to improve undergraduate and postgraduate education on communication skills. Studies could incorporate specific scales to measure health literacy and cultural awareness (Sheldon, 2015). These scales would help identify specific components of cultural awareness and sensitivity, and health literacy that are amenable to the development of interventions at the undergraduate level and for continuing education for practicing nurses. Future studies should include additional demographic information about respondents’ current work settings and duration of practice. Furthermore, institutional programs should be implemented that enforce inter professional training programs in academic and practice settings. These programs should emphasize communication skills, collaboration, collegiality, and conflict resolution to improve patient care processes, safety, and outcomes.(Sheldon, 2015)
From the literature we see the main recommendations including, finding the relationship between the evaluation methods and actual practice in communication skills, the studies also recommends on what should be done in order to improve communication skills in health care setting to improve the quality of care to the clients. The studies also recommend on how the institutional programs in can improve the communication skills to the nursing students. (Sheldon, 2015)

REFERENNCES

Azari, S., Mokhtari, S., Mousavi, H., Mohammadi, M., Aliyari, A., Salimi, M., ; Gh, A. (2015). Relationship between learning styles and interpersonal communication skills of nursing student in Medical Sciences Tehran University in 2012, 8(3), 178–183.
Bello, O. (2017). Effective Communication in Nursing Practice?: A literature review Opeyemi Bello Bachelor ‘ s Thesis Degree Programme in Nursing.
Ferreiraa, M., Silva, D., Pires, A., Sousa, M., & Calheiros, N. (2016). Clinical Skills and Communication in Nursing Students.
Furnes, M., Kvaal, K. S., & Høye, S. (2018). Communication in mental health nursing – Bachelor Students ‘ appraisal of a blended learning training programme – an exploratory study, 1–10.
Kourkouta, L., ; Papathanasiou, I. V. (2014). Communication in Nursing Practice, (February), 65–68. https://doi.org/10.5455/msm.2014.26.65-67
Mullan, B., Mullan, B. A., ; Kothe, E. J. (2010). Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course?: The relationship between self-rated ability , satisfaction and actual performance Nurse Education in Practice Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course?: The relationships between self-rated ability , satisfaction , and actual performance. Nurse Education in Practice, 10(6), 374–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2010.05.007
Sheldon, L. K. (2015). Development of communication skills in healthcare?: Perspectives of new graduates of undergraduate nursing education, 5(7), 30–37. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v5n7p30
Taghizadeh, R., Hasanpour-dehkordi, A., ; Shakhaei, S. (2017). Pharmacophore THE EFFECTS OF TEACHING COMMUNICATION SKILLS TO NURSING STUDENTS ON THE QUALITY OF CARE FOR PATIENTS, 8, 10–13.

x

Hi!
I'm Kyle!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out