1. Attendance Management

Monitoring and keeping the record of attendance of each employee helps management in identifying the early & late comers, also identify who has the most absences without management approval.
The management can save itself from extra cost by identifying the root problems and providing solution in time for late comers. Also the management can have information which employee is working full time completing their goals and objectives in given deadlines. This information will help organization in performing succession planning and lots of other organizational objectives.

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2. To Meet Legal Requirements

As per UAE labor law article 10 it is mandatory to keep a record of Employee documents such as passport copies, employment contracts, medical history, family details, wages payment and leave details.

For example to register company wages payment through WPS (Wages Protection System) in order to make sure that each employee is paid on time and evidence of it is recorded in WPS. This will make sure that employees cannot make any problem for the organization related to salary payments.

When it comes to physical environment it includes everything that is around the individual which include equipment, building, air, temperature. Where an individual stay, it can impact their health and wellbeing in a positive and negative way. In a health and social care setting an individual’s physically is very important. For example, poor ventilation can cause problems like increased airborne infections, influenza and even increase colds. When it comes to temperature, being too cold or too hot have their own problems. For example, being too cold can stop someone from concentrating or listen to what is being said. It can also make the individual sick and unable to retain information. Too hot can also cause individual to sleep off and lose concentration as well. In a residential care home, temperature is very important because old people tend to find it difficult to maintain their body temperature.

When air is polluted with fumes and smoke, contaminated Air, there are many chemicals in the air that are very harmful. The air should be fresh and clean for an individual to be able to breathe normally and safely Ventilation should also be considered as it can remove stale air and provide air movement. It is important that service users are far from smoke, toxic air, extra perfumes because it can affect an individual and can lead to health problems such as asthma, chest infections, respiratory illnesses etc

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When talking to a service user, some might be visually impaired, and some can see normally but however lighting can affect both. When it’s too dark or too light, individuals would not be able to communicate effectively, and this can lead to missed and unclear information. It is important that when a staff is talking to a service user, the service user needs to be able to see them. For example, a staff user talking to a service user in a dark room. The communication would be provided badly as the service user would not have a clear view of what is going on around them. Lighting in room, should be right and positioned at the right place so that it can enable the service user to do their activities and enjoy themselves. Poor lighting can also cause hazards especially to the visually impaired because when an individual cannot see what is going on around them, they tend to be in danger as they have poor vision. That’s why the environment must be safe for the service users and harmful objects, equipment’s or unnecessary furniture should be put away to prevent injury.

For example
In a residential care home. Miss Agnes who goes to oaks care home, has dementia. She is visually impaired slightly, but it is preferred for her to wear her glasses. She has a meeting with her career in her room to sort out her care plan but however Miss Agnes wants it in the garden which is next to their neighbours who are currently smoking. The weather has changed drastically as it is now cold. In Oaks care home, Mrs Agnes is currently in the social room, unfortunately a service user had poured his tea and because the floor is still wet a staff has placed a Yellow wet floor cone which is also near the way towards miss Agnes room.

First off all, the service user would have to wear her glasses as it is important she does so for her safety for example she would not barge into objects or furniture as they could be known as potential hazard which could result to her falling and slipping on the tea that was spilt. A career would have to assists Miss Agnes to her destination. The career would have to explain to Miss Agnes that the garden would not be a good idea as it is too cold, and the air is contaminated with smoke from the neighbours next door which could affect her health and concentration therefore it is better to have it in her room. As Miss Agnes has dementia it is right for the service user to help to get to her room as she might have forgot the way there.

In health and social care, there are many equipment’s which are used by different professionals. These equipment’s that could cause hazards are:
• Equipment’s left untidy which can block doors and fire exits or to cause an individual to fall.
• Lack of awareness of hazards: this could be moving objects or surfaces with chemicals or harmful substances on them
• Unsafe practices: this could be unprotected wires or overloaded sockets.
• Poor maintenance: this be broken equipment’s, frayed wiring kept in unsafe places.
When it comes to equipment’s hazards, service providers need to be aware, anticipate and avoid it.
When working with equipment’s in health and social care, it is important that service providers check that they are fully working and functional. When working with equipment’s, it is important that they are checked regularly in a scheduled form and recorded. When equipment’s are found to be faulty, they should be kept away or fixed because when used, they could read false results or cause injury to health providers and users. Example of equipment’s which need to be checked could be Hoists, medical equipment’s, x- ray machines, fire and safety checks etc.

Plug and sockets should be kept away and out of sight so that no one can trip on them or even get shocked. All electrics should be checked regularly and recorded because if the equipment is not safe, it can cause harm and injuries to the individual who may use it.
Computers are one of the main equipment’s we use in health and social care. A computer can also cause harm to an individual for example being positioned too high which can cause repetitive neck and back pains. It can also be bad for sight is the light is too bright or two low.

For example
In a residential care home. Miss Jason who goes to oaks care home, she is currently on a wheelchair would need help to get unto her bed as she has a meeting with her career. She is visually impaired slightly, but it is preferred for her to wear her glasses. She also has a side bed remote next to her with different directions. She has a meeting with her career in her room to sort out her care plan. the career is now on her way to meet Miss Jason, unfortunately a service user had poured his tea next to the tv switches which is also the way towards miss Agnes room.

Solution: in this situation, Miss Jason carer would have to check if the host works properly and safety before use so that she would not harm herself and Miss Jason. Miss Jason is slightly physically impaired so that is why it is important that she understands the remote next to her and how to use it so that she does not put herself at danger when a carer is not there to help. Now the carer is on her way to Miss Jason’s room, she needs to be aware of the spilt tea and put up a wet cone so that no one can slip. She also needs to inform other carers that the plugs are wet and should not be used now until dry to avoid shock or harm.

It is important that in health and social care, staffs should follow procedures, instructions correctly so that they do not put their selves and the service users in danger. A service providers safety is also as important as a service use safety. When procedures are not taking properly, it can lead to illnesses and infections. For example, in a care home, elderly individuals are found to be more vulnerable because their immune system is not as strong as their body gets older and fighting infection could take long as the body might not be able to act fast. All individuals who wear nappies, when removed, theses nappies should be thrown away and disposed in a clinical yellow bag which destroy any micro-organisms.

In a care home, there are many medical procedures which will take place. For example, the service users taking medication through a needle or through medication. It is important that when using a syringe, that it is a new one for each patient and it is thrown away after each use and the right medication is giving to the right individual if not there is a small risk that an individual might contact Hepatitis B or even HIV.

Gloves always need to be worn, as a service provider would be meeting with blood and thrown away after use. Needles are very sharp and can cause many injuries and infections if not disposed properly. Personal hygiene should also be considered straight away for example washing hands with water and soap as service providers would be touching different things when working with many and different clients.

For example
A care worker needs a patient their medication. The medication is however through a syringe. The care worker has two patients to cover before making breakfast for another service user.

Solution: in this situation, the care worker would have to wear her personal protective equipment’s such as a glove and bring two syringes for each patient and not using the same which could spread infections. She would also need to dispose each one she uses straight away and use another pair of gloves after washing her hands from the first patient, so she can go to the next. When making the patients food, she needs to wear a hair net and wash her hands before handling any food to stop infections and food posing

when it comes to the way a service provider deals with his or her job, that is could be their working practice. They way the provide care, handle and treat patients, prepare foods, giving injections. It is important in health and social care; rules and regulations should be followed if not it can lead to harm and risks to a service provider and service user. When handling an individual, they may slip and trip or be in an uncomfortable position. Theses mistakes can lead to strain, fractures for both service user and provider.

Also, when working in health and social care, staff should go through their sets of training on what to do, how to use equipment’s, how to identify hazards etc. they should also be aware of the potential risk and hazards so that they can avoid them and be safe

In a residential care home, mobility gets slower for the service users and they are very vulnerable as they can be injured very easily. That’s is why every service user should be handled with care and protected from any harm.
Staff should be trained when it comes to helping the service users with personal care. When preparing their food, they should also wear a hair net and wash their hands before starting any job, so infection does not spread. Staffs members should also be aware of cross contamination from different things and places. These germs can spread and can lead to food poisoning because of poor hygiene.

For example
Jenny is a new care worker in a residential care home, she knows how to use some equipment’s from her last placement. However, she does not know how to use a host to carry the patient from their bed.

Solution: before any staff can work in a health setting, they would need training even if they have worked in health before as every organisation is different. Jenny would need to go through a training programme and a mentor by her side so that she does not put herself and the service user at risk. She should be told how to use the equipment’s carefully and safety.

working conditions is seen as the way an individual works, such as the number of working hours they work, relations between other colleges, staffing levels etc. in health and social care there are many patients to attend to and this can cause a care worker to rush his or her job so that they can attend to everyone. This can also cause a care worker not to follow procedures properly which means the individual might not be treated fully and safely which can be a hazard.
In health and social care, there are different bands but however early years workers assistance pays are very low, and this can make them feel depreciated and this can be bad as the staffs may not follow procedures which are there to keep them and the service user safe
(www.NHS “workers, overpaid and under paid (2014)”) had stated that in united kingdom they were going to increase health workers pay to 1% but however the Scottish parliament had agreed in, wales agreed, but however only England refused the agreement and told health workers, they do not deserve a higher pay.

Health and social care deals with a lot of physical work and this could lead a care worker to have physical problems such as back and neck strains, numb hands etc which can lead to detrimental events. Tired staffs might not be able to concentrate properly when working many shits. This could put service users and the care worker at risk. Health can also be very emotional demanding causing a care worker to be moody, stressed and could also lead to low self esteem if they feel they are not seeing progress in their jobs.

For example
Jacki has been giving some documented work to cover before next Monday and it Friday. That means she would have to work over weekend to complete it as it is needed urgently. This is bad because when Jacki comes back to work, she might be tired. She might find it hard to concentrate and might make mistakes in her work causing errors. On Monday when she comes back, while working in a residential care home she would have to do some lifting of the patients. Jacki might not only injure herself but as well as the patient who is under her care as Jacki would not be physically fit due to the work overload.

A patient’s safety is also as important as a care workers safety. That is why in a health and social it is important that security systems are fitted in. Important doors should be locked and kept with the right individual. Windows should be open half way only, so that no individual can climb in and out.

Documents and folders should be kept out of sight and in the right hands. Personal information about service users should be kept safe and protected because it goes into the wrong hands it could outing an individual life at risk. That’s is why in health and social care, most important information and data is stored on the computer and kept safe password protected.

All care workers should learn the fire safety procedure so in case of a fire they can protect themselves and the service users. Not all service users can walk in case of a fire a plan and procedure should be made. That is why it is important to have regular fire safety checks to prepare everyone in case of a real one.

For example:
Jenny works in a residential care home and has just obtained some information about a service worker. Jenny needs to make sure that she keeps all the information to her self and whoever needs it. She should also not disclose the information to other staff’s members, family or friends.



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In spectrum sensing, hypothesis testing is widely used to test the sensing result for the presence of PUs to efficiently utilize the spectrum. We first explain binary hypothesis. In Binary hypothesis testing it sense either 0 or 1, 0 represents PU is not available and 1 represent PU available. It is widely used when parameters are known so, it requires also prior knowledge of known parameters. Based on fixed number of samples which means it has fixed sensing time. Binary hypothesis are further divided into two types.
? Neyman-Pearson test

In Neyman Pearson (NP) test, objective is to maximize the detection probability (Pd) than false alarm probability (Pf) which means Pd is always greater than Pf. LRT (likelihood Ratio test) is equivalent to NP test which shown below;

f (y|H1)
NP= __________

f (y|H0)

If NP > ? it represents H1 (PU available), otherwise H0 (PU isn’t available).

? Bayes test

In Bayes test, objective is to minimize the expected cost called Bayes Risk. Used to reduce the sum of all probabilities cost from probabilities of two incorrect decision cases.

Miss detection represented by P (H0 | H1)
False alarm represented by P (H1 | H0)
Probability detection represented by P (H1 | H1)

So, the Fusion Center minimize the Bayes risk by declaring H1 and H0 conditions.

As we mentioned above, Binary hypothesis testing is used when both hypotheses are known. In Composite hypothesis testing, it is widely used when there are unknown parameters in PDF’s. It doesn’t require prior knowledge of unknown parameters which is also called GLRT. The method which is commonly used to find the unknown parameters is by MLE (Maximum likelihood ratio). GLRT methodology is used because of its robustness and it is easy to implement.
? Another test, which is Rao test is typically used to detect the weak PUs at Fusion center. By the help of data fusion type (i.e. soft decision). Rao test is generally same like GLRT but doesn’t require MLE for unknown parameters.

? Another test, is linear test comes under Composite hypothesis testing is Linear test statistics, which is used to finding the unknown PUs as well as unknown channels .

? Third one is Statistic LMP detector is derived, when channel statistics are known. This model provides robustness to the interferences in Primary User signal also in channel gain. Also it is much reliable than NP- based LRT.
As previous hypotheses based on fixed number of samples and fixed sensing time, it is much different than both. Sequential testing is typically used to utilize spectrum by reducing sensing time, and requires variable number of samples. Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is proposed by Wald, which minimizes the sensing time as per detection performance.
In SPRT, samples are taken in sequence and then compared with both thresholds ?0 and ?1.
?0 ?1, FC decides H1
If likelihood ratio < ?0, FC decides H0

When ratio falls between two thresholds, it takes again observations until and unless it achieve final decision. The pros of SPRT is it requires fewer samples, less energy consumption, to achieve same detection performance.

? Based on known parameters
? Fixed samples
? Fixed sensing time
? Sense Either 1 or 0
? Requires prior knowledge
? Easy to implement
? Less expensive

? Based on unknown parameters
? Determine unknown parameter by MLE
? Fixed samples
? Fixed sensing time
? Doesn’t require prior knowledge
? Robust , easy to design
? Reduce sensing time
? Less energy consumption
? Much complex
? Expensive
? Have two thresholds
? Better performance

? In coherent sensing technique, it need prior knowledge of primary user signal to determine whether the signal channel is occupied or not.
? Need reference signal
? Types of coherent sensing technique

• Cyclostationary feature detection
• Matched filter detection

? In non- coherent sensing technique, it doesn’t need any prior knowledge of primary user signal to determine whether the signal channel is occupied or not.
? No need of reference signal
? Types of coherent sensing technique

• Energy detection
• Wavelet detection
• Compressed sensing

1. Explanation of the Practice
According to Virginia Satir, family therapy is necessary to address family pain and heal a family wounds.
Family therapy is a form of treatment that is designed to address specific issues affecting the health and functioning of a family. The family is involved across all 7 treatment components. According to Danielson et al.(2012), the Risk Reduction through Family Therapy (RRFT) protocol is devised into 7 components: Psycho-education, Coping ,Family communication, Substance abuse, PTSD, Healthy dating and Sexual Decision Making, and Victimization Risk Reduction and is administered through weekly , 60-90 minute sessions with adolescents and caregivers ( meeting individually with the therapist and as a family).
Family therapy can be used to help a family through a difficult time, a major transition, or mental or behavioral health problems in family members.(“Family Therapy, 2014”). Family therapy views individual’s problems in the context of the large unit: the family, (Dr Michaela Herkov. 2016). This type of therapy is that problems cannot be addressed or solved successfully without understanding the dynamics of the group.
Techniques and exercises from cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, behavioral therapy, or any other type of individual therapy can be employed by Family therapy. Therefore the techniques employed will depend on the specific problems the clients present with.
Emotional and behavioral problems in children are common reasons to visit a family therapist. According to Herkov (2016), children’s problems do not exist in a vacuum; they exist in the context of the family and will need to be addressed within the context of the family.
The reason behind this pilot randomized controlled trial study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of reducing substance use risk and trauma- related mental health problems among sexually assaulted adolescents in which Risk Reduction

1. Introduction
Human resource development forms an integral part of business improvement in companies all over the world. This assignment will discuss the challenges experienced in the local ICT industry, and global trends in human resource development. It will further explore the purpose of the Skills Development Act 97 of 1998 and on its implementation. In addition, training or development processes. Finally, the compatibility of the concepts of e-learning and learning organisations.
The rest of the assignment will provides details of the HRD wide-ranging, complex and challenging role, with specific reference to the South African situation from a strategic learning perspective.
2. Overview of Human Resource Development
Meyer (2016: 1-2) stipulated that, People play a crucial role in a company’s ability to produce products and services and, moreover, in a country’s ability to improve productivity and economic growth. The role of human resource development is therefore essential, especially in a country like South Africa in which its human resources are underdeveloped and the potential of its people is not fully realized. Subsequent World Competitiveness Reports (2016) have identified the lack of people development as one of the major stumbling blocks in regard to South Africa economy’s ability to compete in the global market. No country can sustain economic development and international competitiveness if its human resources are not developed to contribute significantly to the economy.
The field of human resource development (HRD) globally has evolved so rapidly over the past ten years that traditional training is under threat. Traditionally, training has been seen as a tool to give employees knowledge and skills to perform their work more effectively. With reference to the article, the traditional training model will not be able to satisfy the need of this new market. However, an increasing number of companies view HRD as an important business imperative to enhance competitiveness and overall business performance (Meyer, 2016: 02).
HRD is a series of activities that support behavioral change and learning opportunities for employees (Richman, 2015). HRD can defined as all the processes, systems, methods, procedures and programmes an organization employs to develop its human resource in order to equip its employees to be able to contribute to organizational performance. HRD encompasses both training and non-training interventions. People must be continuously develop, whether this process occurs as part of a training intervention or as a component of people development that occurs on a daily basis.
The role of HRD has broadened beyond training programme design. Effective instructional design remains important, but HRD practitioners are increasingly asked to create innovative systems and mechanisms to ensure performance improvement in the workplace. Moreover, the speed of technological and other changes, both in the workplace and the broader business social environment, requires more dynamic and flexible approaches of learning. The HRD practitioners is no longer only a trainer, but becomes a consultant to the rest of the organization in providing the support that enables the achievement of business objectives.
From a south African perspective, HRD is increasingly influenced by the new skills development system based on skills development within occupations, which is to be driven by the quality councils and in particular the quality council for trades and occupations (QCTO). In this new paradigm, the emphasis is on what the learner must be able to apply in the workplace as a result of learning. HRD practitioners should align their HRD programs and systems to support the implementation of a QCTO system. HRD is also a key element of the National Skills Development Strategy and other supporting government initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and improving our competitiveness as a nation.
3. International trends in HRD
Simultaneously with these trends in international relations and the world politico-economic order, a revolution has been taking place in the field of technology, especially in the field of information and communication technology. The move from the industrial age into the information age is resulting in an almost boundary-less world with individuals, businesses, Governments, etc. becoming more and more interconnected through computers and online systems such as the internet. Information flow and distance have become crucial variables in transactions between countries and organisations. Revolution technological developments have thus created the foundation for more free trade and for faster moving economic transactions and system across the globe (Westhuizen ; Wessels, 2013; 26) according to Meyer (2016: 2) A global revolution is taking place in the field of workplace learning. It is driven by the requirements of the information explosion, increased globalization, the changing nature of work and business, as well as changing learner needs and aspirations. The following are the challenges experienced in the global trends in the field of HRD
3.1.1 Globalisation
Many companies are entering international markets by exporting their products overseas, building manufacturing facilities or service centers in other countries, entering into alliances with foreign companies and engaging in e-commerce. One estimate is that developing economies and emerging markets such as those found in the BRIC nation (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) will be responsible for 68% of the growth of the world’s economy. The importance of globalization is seen in recent hiring patterns of large U.S. multination corporations that have increased their overseas workforce, particularly in Asia. Markets in Brazil, China, and India have resulted in 60% of general electric’s business outside the United States with 54% of employees’ overseas (Noe et.al, 2015:47).
Global companies are struggling both to find and retain talented employees, especially in emerging markets. Companies are moving into China, India, Eastern Europe, The Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, but the demand for talented employees exceeds supply. Also companies often place successful U.S. managers in charge of overseas operations, but these managers lack the cultural understanding necessary to attract, motivate, and retain talented employees (Noe et.al, 2015:47).
Nel & Werner’s (2014:372) view on globalization is that it has never been the simple all-embracing phenomenon promulgated by the free-market ideologists. Although, the basic ingredients of globalization are increased trade and the use of IT. Managers in organisations are now faced with the challenges and opportunities of managing any kind of organization in a global environment. Globalization promotes mutual reliance between countries and implies that the world if free from national boundaries and that ours is really a ‘borderless’ world. Increased global competition leads to radical renewal in most cases. One consequence of globalization is that HRM must be equipped with the right people with the right knowledge and skills to manage diverse workforces’ internationally.

3.1.2 Strategic HRD and talent management
The importance of managing HRD from a strategic point of view has evolved very rapidly over the past five years. However, it is now more difficult than ever to strategically plan HRD over the long term. The changes in the business environment are so rapid and unpredictable that strategic HRD must be aligned on a more regular basis, with the typical time span of a strategic plan being reduced from 10 years to three years. This means that strategic HRD plans must be flexible enough to accommodate changes in the environment (Meyer, 2016: 3)
3.1.3 Electronic, mobile and social learning
An increasing number of organisations worldwide are making use of electronic learning (e-learning) to facilitate the learning process. There has been an exponential growth in the power, speed and capacity of computer and other devices. Technological applications have become a necessity in society and the modern business environment. All jobs and functions are affected by information technology. The challenge is whether HRD practioners are equipped to deal with the technology revolution. Not only do HRD practioners have to prepare Managers and employees to become skilled in the use of technology in their day-to-day work, they have to acquire skills themselves to effectively use technology when they facilitate effective learning in the workplace. Responding to the technology challenge, some companies have started to make use of technology-based training or electronic learning (e-learning). However, m-learning and s-learning are powerful new developments to be optimized as of an overall e-learning strategy (Meyer, 2016: 309-310).
3.1.4 Management and leadership development
Most employees are promoted into management as a reward for excelling in the technical skills of a particular job of modern-day technologies. Traditionally, managers expected to plan, direct, staff and control. Currently, however, in a fast-changing business environment, the newly appointed manager is therefore armed with superior technical knowledge and skills, but is often lacking and even unaware of the complex knowledge and skills of managing work and employees. To the recently promoted, this is a new world with utterly different functions, skills, demands and criteria for success.
Traditionally in South Africa there are three distinct management level: supervisors or first line managers; middle managers; and senior managers. In practice however, there may be two or more grades at each management level. The levels are not always so clear cut. The current approach to cut as many layers as possible
3.1.5 Performance consulting
Performance consultant take a comprehensive system view of performance, examining the alignment of the total performance system in every venue at workplace (Meyer, 2016: 117).
The performance improvement process is dependent on the performance improvement consultant being competent as per the competencies. Industry awareness understanding the vision, strategy, goals, and culture of an industry; linking human performance improvement intervention to organizational goals. The performance improvement consultant needs to understand the interplay between the strategic imperative, the HRD contribution and the business goals. The interaction will effectively determine the success of the performance improvement outcome. The competent performance improvement consultant will understand the impact of their actions in the performance improvement process. many organisations decide to change their
HRD practitioners will create value for the organization when they understand and deliver on holistic performance, help the organization identify risks and plan to meet business-needs timeously.
Developing people at the centre of efforts to improve performance remains on ongoing challenge, in particular getting people to perform better in a fast-changing environment (Meyer, 2016: 147).

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3.1.6 Career and performance management
Global realities include burgeoning digital technology; a growing contingent workforce; demographic upheavals, such as ageing work forces, uncontrollable migration patterns and multi-generational workplaces; outsourcing of non-core activities; mega-mergers and acquisitions; change from production-oriented to service-oriented business; globalization involving commerce that makes national borders almost meaningless; and huge staff reductions resulting from economic downturns and restructuring of organisations. How is the HRD practitioner affected by such trends and new practices are appropriate to guide effective career development and talent management strategies.
Career management today is vastly different from the practice that was appropriate a generation ago. South Africa companies need to adapt to an increasingly competitive business environment and unique national trends and workplace dynamics, some of these challenges and their implications for comprehensive career development need to be explored fundamentally before sound practice can be established and the proactive HRD practitioner will need to create new knowledge and technologies in contributing to the full realization of human potential in the workplace. Some of the evolving challenges to be addressed include the alignment of continuous learning and career development to the emerging NQF, extending appropriate development programmes to increasingly diverse and contingent sectors of the organisation’s workforce and to build internationally competitive capacity in a competency-starved national human resource.
Training and knowledge transfer are part and parcel of continuous learning and successful reengineering and restructuring efforts in any organistion. The downside is that you must assume more responsibility for upgrading your skills and competencies than did previous generations of HRD professionals. You’ll need to reinvent your role and redirect your career trajectory every few years as your job’s skill requirements change, as the demands and definition of training changes, and as your organization goes through change.
3.1.7 Proactive needs identification
3.1.8 Training design
3.1.9 Evaluation of training
3.1.10 Employment equity and diversity training
With the increasing importance of aligning training to international business practices comes the realization that training across cultures has some potential pitfalls. If training is conducted without prior consideration to cultural differences, the outcomes can be disastrous. Various organisations in the United States of America, United Kingdom, China, Singapore and South Africa have embarked on major diversity management initiatives in order to address these issues. A holistic approach to diversity management is advocated, one that recognizes a diversity initiative as a process of organizational change that is associated with the acknowledgement of diversity as an important business strategy. The importance of diversity training as an important tool in supporting a diversity initiative and the ultimate goal of employment equity is increasingly emphasised. (Meyer, 2016: 5).
One of the most pertinent challenges facing South African employers in the workplace today is the implementation of employment equity and black economic empowerment plans to redress the effects of discrimination in the workplace and South African society at large.
Employment equity training and diversity training are the key components of an employment equity strategy. The two issues should not be seen as two separate entities, but rather as an integrative system of HRD. Employment equity traning relates to the training interventions instituted to ensure that a company conforms to the legislative requirements of the Employment Equity Act and implements effective HRD strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Diversity training can help an organization to create an environment in which employment equity can be successfully implemented.
Employment equity and diversity strategy contribute to the overall business strategy of the organization. The role of HRD would be to inform top management of the business benefits of employment equity and diversity, such as improving the capacity of the company to target the black and female markets. The human resource department will be requested to support the policy development process. the HR or HRD manager is usually a major influence on the employment equity process.
HRD will also play a significant role in terms of employment equity training. Managers will have to be trained on how to conduct the employment equity analysis and how to compile employment equity plan. HRD should therefore ensure that the training companies provide reflects the principles of employment equity, diversity and inclusiveness.
It is evident that HRD has a crucial role to play in ensuring that all employees and managers acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and values to make employment equity work. Employment equity and diversity training that is not well-planned and professionally developed, presented and integrated in organizational systems and culture has many pitfalls that can detrimentally affect employee morale and ultimately organizational performance. The end result of an effective employment equity training strategy is not only a more representative and effective workforce, but a more productive working environment in which business performance can be improved.

3.1.11 Learning organisation

3.2 Local trends in Human Resources Development
Meyer (2016,05) stated that Local trends in HRD such as South Africa are driven by Skills Development Legislation and national HRD needs by the government. According to Nel ; Werner (2015,195) national Skills Development strategy points towards the way in which South Africa can build its skills to enable it to compete more successfully in the global economy. HRD strategy emphasizes skills development in terms of the skill development for the small to medium micro-enterprise sector (SMME) as a key issue in order to enhance its employment-creating potential.
The challenges experienced in the local ICT industry such as South African industry are discussed below. From an HRD perspective, three important phases have emerged, such as the current training legislation; the outcome of the education, training and development (ETD) practices project, and lastly the development of national HR standards, including learning and developments (L;D) standards providing a clear framework for sound HRD practice.
Training legislation
Training legislation in South Africa regulates the training that takes place in organisations. The three main laws are the National Qualifications Authority Act 67 of 2008, which
4. Skills development
4.1 Skill Development Act No. 97 of 1998
According to the Government Gazette for Republic of South Africa (1998), “skill development Act No. 97 of 1998 was develop to provide an institutional framework to devise and implement national, sector and workplace strategies to develop and improve the skills of the South African work force; to integrate those strategies within the National Qualifications Framework contemplated in the South African Qualifications Authority act, 1995; to provide for learner ships that lead to recognized occupational qualifications; to provide for the ‘financing of skills development by means of levy-grant scheme and a National Skill Fund; to provide for and regulate employment services; and to provide for matters connected therewith.”
The purposes of the Act are:
Furthermore, the Government Gazette for Republic of South Africa (1998) stated the reason why the Act exists and are as follows?
a. To develop the skills of the South African workforce
• To improve the quality of life of workers, their prospects of work and labour mobility;
• To improve productivity in the workplace and the competitiveness of employers;
• To promote self-employment; and
• To improve the delivery of social services
b. To increase the level of investment in education and training in labour market and to improve the return on that investment
c. To encourage employers
• To use the workplace as an active learning environment;
• To provide employees with the opportunities to acquire new skills;
• To provide opportunities for new entrants to the labour market to gain work experience; and
• To employ persons who find it difficult to be employed;
d. To encourage workers to participate in leadership and other training programmed;
e. To improve the employment prospects-of persons previously disadvantaged by unfair discrimination and to redress those disadvantages through training and education;
f. To ensure the quality of education and training in and for the workplace;
g. To assist
• Work-seekers to find work;
• Retrenched workers tore-enter the labour market;
• Employers to find qualified employees: and
h. To provide and regulate employment services.
4.2 Recommendation
• As training and development in South Africa, especially at local government sphere which is closer to communities in service delivery, occupy strategic significance and relevance, the appointment of a dedicated skills development facilitator at senior level should be considered. The primary role of the skills development facilitator would be the compilation of the WSP and ATR.
• The training and development committee should be capacitated through appointment of additional human resources with sufficient organizational authority to make decisions.
• The GTLM needs to devise a credible and transparent communication strategy to ensure a speedy and reliable delivery of both strategy and operational information; and in this regards urgent efforts, such as investment in human and physical communication resources, have to be undertaken to streamline the ICT.
• The GTLM training and development policy document needs to be reviewed to give clarity to the role of the various stakeholders, such as the LGSETA, in the facilitation of training and development in the GTLM.
• Critical consideration is required to address the issue of the relevance of training and development programmes, and this should be done in collaboration with the various stakeholders, such as labour unions and community structures.
• Performance management should be monitored in order to enhance management accountability
• The GTLM should appoint accredited service providers in training and development
• Workplace Skills Plans should be developed in a transparent and consultative manner
• The Mayor’s Bursary Fund should be administered within training and development structures to ensure proper strategic budget planning.
• A management induction programme should be instituted to enable newly appointed managers to understand working circumstances and processes in the municipality.
5. Theoretical background
5.1 Training and development
Nel &Werner (2015:193) posits that Training brings about behavioral changes required to meet management’s goals for the organization and is presented as a result of technological innovation in an organization. According to Noe ; Hollenbeck e.t.c (2015, 289), training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate learning of job related competencies, knowledge, skills and behaviors by employees. The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge, skills, and behaviors emphasized in training and apply them to their day to day activities. Traditionally, companies have relied on formal training that’s trains and develop programs, courses, and events that are developed and organized by the company. Despite companies’ significant investments in formal training and development activities, informal learning is also important for facilitating knowledge and skill acquisition (Noe ; Hollenbeck e.t.c. 2015, 289). Aborampa ; Darkwa (2016) Intimates that training encompasses the adoption of both formal and informal approaches to impart knowledge so that people get the required skills to deliver.
Development, on the other hand, includes the formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessment of personality and abilities that help employees prepare for the future. It is aimed at employees serving in a managerial capacity or preparing for managerial posts within an organization Nel ;Werner (2015:194). According to Aborampa ; Darkwa (2016), development includes getting the skills, knowledge and other behaviors
Although development can occur through participation in planned programs, it often results from performing different types of work. Because it is future-oriented, it involves learning that is not necessarily related to the employee’s current job. Traditionally, training focuses on helping employees’ performance in their current job. Development prepares them for other positions in the company and increases their ability to move into jobs that may not yet exist. Development also helps employees prepare for changes in their current jobs that may result from new technology, work design, new customers, or new product market. Development is especially critical for talent management, particularly for senior managers and employees with leadership potential. As training continues to become more strategic, the distinction between training and development will blur. Both training and development will be required and will focus on current and future personal and company needs. (Noe ; Hollenbeck e.t.c 2015;406-407),
5.2 Training or development process
Training and development process refers to the stages or steps within a training and development program that ensures that the intended objectives can be achieved (Aborampa ; Darkwa, 2016). According to Noe ; Hollenbeck e.t.c (2015, 291) A key characteristic of training activities that contribute to competitiveness is that they are designed according to the instructional design process which refers to a systematic approach for developing training programs. They are two types of Training design process; instructional system design (ISD) and the ADDIE model (analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation). Table below presents the six stages of this process, which emphasizes that effective training practices involve more than just choosing the most popular training method.

The first stage is to assess needs to determine if training is needed. The second stage involves ensuring employees have the readiness for training, and they have the motivation and basic skills to master training content..
The training design process should be systematic yet flexible enough to adapt to business needs and completed simultaneously because feedback from each stage in the training progress can be useful for the other stages. Designing training unsystematically will reduce the benefits such as, choosing a training method before determining training needs or ensuring employees’ readiness for training increases the risk that the method chosen will not be the most effective one for meeting training needs. Also, training may not even be necessary and may result in a waste of time and money! Employees may have the knowledge, skills, or behavior they need but simply not be motivated to use them

(Noe & Hollenbeck e.t.c, 2015; 293) indicates that training Needs assessment, refers to the process used to determine if training is necessary. Three analysis are performed when doing a Needs assessment typically involves Organizational analysis, person analysis and task analysis. Table below shows the causes and outcomes resulting from needs assessment. Most cases training is necessary due to the following reasons; performance problem, new technology, internal or external customer requests for job training, job redesign, new legislation, changes in customer preferences, new product, or employees’ lack of basic skills as well as support for the company’s business strategy.
5.2.2 Organizational analysis
Three factors need to be considered before choosing training as the solution to any reason or pressure points: the company’s strategic direction, the training resources available, and support of managers and peers for training activities.
• Support of manager and peers- according to Noe ; Hollenbeck e.t.c (2015, 295) found that peer and manager support for training is critical. The key factor to success are a positive attitude among peers nd managers about participating in training activities; managers’ and peers’ willingness to tell trainees how they can more effectively use knowledge, skills, or behaviors learned in training on the job; and the availability of opportunities for the trainees to use training content in their jobs. If peers’ and managers’ attitudes and behaviors are not supportive, employees are not likely to apply training content to their jobs.
• Company strategy- the importance of business strategy for a company is to gain a competitive advantage and training should help companies achieve the business strategy. It is important to identify the prevailing business strategy and goals to ensure that the company allocates enough of its budget to training, that employees receive training on relevant topics, and that employees get the right amount of training. (Noe ; Hollenbeck e.t.c 2015, 295) example……….
• Training resources- it is necessary to identify whether the company has the budget, time, and expertise for training. Example……..
Person analysis- involves determining whether performance deficiencies result from lack of knowledge, skill, or ability or from a motivational or work-design problem; identifying who needs training; and determining employees’ readiness for training.
Task analysis – includes identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks, such as identifying equipment and the environment the employee works in, time constraints or deadlines, safety considerations, or performance standards.
Ensuring employees’ readiness for training
The second step in the training design process is to evaluate whether employee characteristics is motivated to learn, by ensuring employees’ self-efficacy; understanding the benefits of training; being aware of training needs; career interests, and goals; understanding work environment characteristics; and ensuring employees’ basic skill levels(Noe ; Hollenbeck e.t.c 2015, 300)
Creating a learning environment
According to Noe ; Hollenbeck e.t.c (2015, 300) learning is influenced by the learning environment. For employees to acquire knowledge and skills in the training program, the training program must have the factors necessary or learning principles for learning to occur. Such as, Employees need to understand why they need training and what they are expected to accomplish; the training context should be similar to work environment; trainees need to demonstrate or choose their practice strategy; opportunities for practice and feedback; eliminate distractions that could interfere with learning; and facilitate recall pf training content after training.
Ensuring transfer of training
Stage 4 is to ensure that trainees apply the content of training to their jobs. Transfer of training is influenced by manager support, peer support, opportunity to use learned capabilities, technology support, and self-management skills.
• Manager support emphasize the importance of attending programs and stress the application of training content to the job.
• Transfer of training can also be enhanced by creating a support network among trainees to discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job.
• Trainee is provided with or actively seeks experience with newly learned knowledge, skill, and behaviors from the training program.
• Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) may be used to enhance transfer of training by giving trainees an electronic information source that they can refer to as needed as they attempt to apply learned capabilities on the job.
• Training programs should prepare employees to self-manage their use of new skills and behaviors on the job.
Selecting training methods
Stage 5 involves choosing a training method that will provide the appropriate learning environment to achieve the training objectives. They are two types of training method, Presentation Method and Hands-on methods. Table below provides an overview of the use of training methods across all size companies. The instructor-led classroom still remains the most frequently used training method. However, it is important to note that the use of online or computer based for training continues to increase and expectations are that this trend with continue. However, regardless of the training method, for training to be effective it needs to be based on the training design model. One way to choose a method a training method is to compare methods; identify the type of learning outcome that you want training to influence.

Evaluating training programs

Stage 6 is valuation, determining whether training achieved the desired learning outcomes or financial objectives.
6. Concept of e-learning and learning organizations
6.1 Introduction
Various approaches to the delivery of training have evolved in modern times. These assists directly with the delivery of training to enhance the knowledge, skills, and behavior of employees.
6.2 Overview of the learning organization
Nel ; Werner (373) explains how everyone in the organization is engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling the organization to continuously experiment, change, improve, grow, learn and achieve its purpose. In learning organizations employees solve problems as well, which means putting things together in unique ways as part of renewal of the organization.
Characteristics of a learning organization

6.3 Overview of E-learning
According to Nel ; Werner (206) e-learning creates the environment for the new revolution in business that will create vast opportunities for the future. E-learning is a valuable tool for providing learning opportunities to public officials. It has been existing for the past ten years. However, a quarter of all learning is expected to take place electronically I five years’ time. Westhuizen & Wessels (2013;337)
Westhuizen & Wessels (2013;337) defined E-learning as a mode of learning in which the learning resources are provided electronically. Computer-based training product are the most common form of e-learning. Databases, slide shows, or other presentation formats on the computers are used to store learning topics and materials.
In its broadest form, e-learning is undertaken at the following two level;
• The provision of information via information or communication technologies in a very accessible and immediate way that can enable individuals to refresh or extend their knowledge and improve their performance; and
• The provision of interactive learning materials and packages designed to facilitate skills or wider personal development. The actual courses currently provided via e-learning focus mainly on IT skills and, to a lesser extent, on softer skills such as general management skill, or more specific aspects of management such as interviewing, negotiation, conducting meetings, etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of using computers as training tools
The following advantages and disadvantages are applicable when using computers:
• Self-paced learning is facilitated, and immediate feedback and reinforcement are provided.
• Computers are interactive, which makes learning very flexible and allows for learner control.
• Computer-assisted instruction can be conducted from remote sites, on all shifts. It can be fitted into lulls in the work schedule that would otherwise be unproductive.
• Managers and supervisors can be trained in their offices so that they are available to deal with job-related problems if necessary.
• Transportation and lodging costs for trainees are nonexistent, and overall training costs can be reduced once the system has been developed.
• There is consistent quality of instruction over time and from group and subjectivity is eliminated.
• Disruptions during instruction due to unexpected trainer problems such as illness are excluded.
• Updates and changes can be disseminated very quickly to all training points.
• Retentions of learning content is at least as good as in other instructional methods.
• Slow learners have a greater chance of success than in classroom training.
• Customized instruction can be developed according to each learner’s needs.
• Computers require motivated learners, and students must be familiar with computer operations before they can learn.
• Systems are costly to develop
• Computer technology is changing rapidly, and an effort will have to be made to keep abreast of the latest changes.
• There is still widespread computer illiteracy and an effort has to be made to help employees overcome obstacles.
The assignment discusses the international and local trends in HRD. It is evident that there are new and increasingly complex challenges for the HRD managers who wants to make a significant contribution to organizational performance in an increasing complex and fast-changing business and social environment. A strategic learning approach is needed to optimize HRD. The impact of worldwide trends and developments in a competitive business environment will constantly change the role of the HRD function. Companies are beginning to recognize the need for L;D and HRD professionals in their organization to keep their human resource at the cutting edge. Moreover, it appears that the information age requires a different kind of leaner, one who can learn very fast, one more highly skilled than in the past. The same principle applies to L;D managers as professionals.
The assignment explored the Skills Development Strategy overseen by the Department pf Higher Education and Training as a necessary component for economic development and growth in South Africa, as well as the NQF and QCTO established by the NQF Act as the basic mechanism for achieving the goals of the Skill Development Act. However, given the continuous prevalence of serious skills gaps in the country on the back of poor education system, dysfunctional SETAs and other skills development mechanisms, the whole skill development and higher education system is under review

“In the existing system more and more devices provide biometric sensors such as fingerprints or drawing on screen as alternative authentication options to unlock the devices, but still require passwords as the last help resource in case that biometric solutions fail to work with repeated tries. Even though, these new options cannot avoid the usability issue. A device still requires its user to repeatedly enter their passwords or pins, touch the screen with drawing, or place a finger on the fingerprint sensor. Therefore, how to minimize the usability issue of inconvenience is significant, essential but challenging”

“In our proposed system we propose a multi-sensor-based authentication framework for smartphone users. The framework leverages accelerometer, orientation, and touch size data which are gathered from an Android smartphone, and then, it uses Hidden Markov Model to train a user’s figure gesture and handholding pattern, which is dynamically authenticate the legitimate user of the device and distinguish the user from other unauthorized users. We introduce built-in sensors which are supported by the Android platform, summarize the past wok on sensor-based authentication. We present our proposed approach to authenticate user from various sensors, including sensor data collection, data preprocessing, modeling, and authentication”

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1.1 Explain what is meant by (UNIT 10)
A Diversity
Any differences between individuals and groups of people this can be a difference of cultural back ground, were a person comes from their nationality, colour of their skin, peoples religious beliefs what social class they belong to in society, also their preferred sexual orientation. Ability’s and disabilities.
Diversity to me is the differences between individuals which makes people unique.
B Equality
We should promote the rights of everyone as individuals, we all have the right to be treated with respect and to be treated fairly and given the opportunity to have choice as an individual.
C Inclusion
To promote a deliberate shift in culture to ensure that all individual feels respected and valued, always promoting access to opportunities that are available to everyone, always supporting people to participate in activities or in a social environment regardless of their abilities. Always identifying, understanding and breaking down barriers so that participation is sought.

1.2 Describe the potential effects of discrimination

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There are lots of different types of discrimination here are a few example’s

• Direct discrimination
• Indirect discrimination
• Victimization
• Harassment
• Sexual harassment

Effects of discrimination can impact an individual’s emotional wellbeing, physical appearance, this can also impact on an individual’s emotional or mental wellbeing which can be really hard to deal with.
This can impact on a person feeling anxious, sad, guilty, empty or depressed. The long term effects of discrimination can also effect Mental or emotional state which can gradually affect your physical health.

The States of Jersey Discrimination (Jersey) Law came into force on 1st September 2014. The first protected characteristic was race
The Law defines the protected characteristics, the types of discrimination that are prohibited in the workplace and the responsibility of employers and employees.

The Law defines the protected characteristics, the types of discrimination that are prohibited in the workplace and the responsibility of employers and employees

The protected characteristics were extended to sex, sexual orientation, gender reassignment and maternity & pregnancy from 1st September 2015
As of 1st September 2016 they have been extended to age, including recruitment, employment, retirement and goods & services provided to customers

From September 2018 they will be extended to cover disability (a long term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment/disfigurement which can have an adverse effect on their ability to engage in an activity)

Sources of further information

Government Equalities Office (GEO)
Equal opportunities in employment (CIPD)
Jersey Advisory & Conciliation Service (JACS)
Jersey Community Relations Trust (JCRT)
States of Jersey (2017) Equality and Diversity

1.3 Explain how inclusive practice promotes equality and supports diversity
Inclusive practise is when you promote an individual’s right to give them access to equal opportunities, ensuring that this happens in any setting will also help promote diversity. When including an individual this is to provide opportunities to use all of our services and facilities that are available. This gives the individual the opportunity to make their own choices in the activities they are interested in.
2 Be able to work in an inclusive way
2.1 Explain how legislation and codes of practice relating to equality, diversity and discrimination apply to own work role

As an RCCO working for the HSS Jersey, we have a number of policies and procedures on equality, diversity, inclusion and discrimination, we also have our own code of conduct that we must follow and abide by. This is and integral part of our role as a RCCO making sure that we improve the quality of services that individuals receive in a childcare setting.

3 Be able to promote diversity, equality and inclusion
3.3 Describe how to challenge discrimination in a way that promotes change
Working in any care setting it is about caring for our service users, it is up to everyone to respect and value each other as colleagues. This is one of our priorities as well as improving the patient experience and care. It is everyone’s right, whether you are a member of staff, a service user or a member of the public, to be treated as an individual and treated with respect.
At any time if any young person or service user makes any racist or discriminate comments then we would challenge and address this behaviour to understand what has been said as we do not tolerate this type of behaviour.
We ensure that our residents undertake regular key working sessions and supervisions for staff so that we can work on and challenge any types of discrimination and discuss the reasons why certain behaviours/practises are in place.
Making a record and evidencing this in individuals care plans to demonstrate how change can be made which should in theory help prevent discrimination in the future. If for any reason you observe any types of discrimination It is good practise to organise a team meeting or training sessions to show examples of what discrimination looks like to show staff ways that they can change their work to prevent and to understand discrimination in the workplace.

1. Cairo is the capital of Egypt and also the largest city in Egypt.
2. The Arab Republic of Egypt is the formal name of Egypt.
3. Though Christianity was the major religion in Egypt for the centuries, now 90% of the population of Egypt is Muslim.
4. For a long time in Egypt, there was the fashion of transparent dresses among the wealthy women.
5. The ancient Egyptians invented door locks and were the first to use the keys
6. Contraceptives and antibiotics were first used in Egypt.
7. The Egyptian pound is the main currency in Egypt.
8. In Ancient Egypt, mother was the head of the family. Moreover, even the pedigree was conducted only on the maternal line.
9. The longest river in the world, Nile is in Egypt.
10. Heracleion (the lost city of Egypt) was found under the sea after 1200 years.
11. The Egyptians had developed a postal service. They sent letters to the right address with the help of domesticated pigeons.
12. Alexander the Great was buried in Egypt.
13. 91% of Egyptian women aged between 15 and 49 years have undergone female genital mutilation.
14. Toothbrush and paste are the inventions of the Egyptians.
15. Cleopatra was the last active ruler of Egypt.
16. Egypt’s national animal is the Steppe eagle.
17. The ancient Egyptians never celebrated their birthdays.
18. Pyramid of Djoser is the oldest pyramid in Egypt.
19. The Great Sphinx of Giza is the world’s largest monolith statue.
20. Egypt is the only Arab country to have a movie industry.
21. Great Ancestor, Ramesses II ruled Egypt for 60 years and had 8wives, more than 90 children and more than 100 concubines.
22. Not only people or cats but also other animals were mummified. Archaeologists managed to find a crocodile mummy, whose length exceeded four meters.
23. The ancient Egyptians believed that the earth is flat and round, and the Nile flows through its center.
24. The average life expectancy in Egypt is 72.66 years,
25. Egyptian people are considered as one of the most obedient people.
26. The Pyramid of Khufu is the largest Pyramid in Egypt.
27. Egypt only receives 20mm of rainfall per year.
28. The famous Statue of Liberty was first intended to set up at Egypt.
29. The Pharaohs used to always cover their hair because common people were not allowed to see it.
30. Almost 90% of Egypt is desert.
31. The pyramids in Egypt are inspired by the rays of Sun, say some researchers.
32. In ancient times, the Egyptians used three calendars: daily agricultural, astronomical and lunar.
33. The pyramid of Giza is among the seven wonders of both the ancient and the modern world.
34. Egypt is the 66th most fertile country in the world.
35. In Ancient Egypt, more than 14,000 gods were worshipped by the people.
36. Construction of huge pyramids is not done by the slaves but by the paid workers.
37. In ancient Egypt, children did not wear any clothes at all until adolescence.
38. Rich Egyptians wore wigs, the hair of the Egyptians of the lower classes was long and sometimes braided.
39. The oldest dress is found in Egypt aged almost 5000 years.
40. It is a popular myth that Egypt has the largest pyramid, Mexico has the largest pyramid in the world.
41. Football is the most popular sport in Egypt.
42. Egypt’s main exports include cotton, aluminum, food products, and oil.
43. There are more than 118 pyramids in Egypt.
44. About 95% of the population of Egypt lives along the Nile River.
45. The first pyramid was originally enclosed by a wall 10 meters high. There were 15 doors in the wall. Only one of them opened.
46. There are many pathways in the Pyramid of Giza that are not even explored by the humans.
47. The pyramids were erected with stones so heavy it weighs up to 10 tons each. It is still unknown how this was done exactly.
48. The government of Egypt controls the major television and radio broadcast.
49. Killing a cat in ancient Egypt was punished by the death penalty.
50. In ancient Egypt, like women, men also used makeups, green (from copper) and black (from lead) colors, it was the belief that makeup protects the face from sun rays.
51. Exchanging the wedding rings tradition was first started in ancient Egypt.
52. The clock is the invention of the Ancient Egyptians.
53. The approximate date of the appearance of the hieroglyphs is 3000 BC.
54. The official language of Egypt is Arabic.
55. With the population of 95.69 million, Egypt is the largest Arab country in the world.
56. Gypsy is a short name for “Egyptian”.
57. Ancient Egyptians had a belief that cats are scared and keeping a cat in the house brings the good luck.
58. Egyptian women had equal rights as men, they can earn, sell or inherit property.
59. Egypt has one of the largest manmade dams, known as the Aswan high dam.
60. Most of the people think that the Pyramid of Giza has 4 sides but there are actually 8 sides.
61. In total there are about 700 unique hieroglyphs symbols that could be just a letter, a word, and even a sentence.
62. An ancient king of Egypt, King Tutankhamun died when he was just 18 years of age.
63. About 12% of the working population of Egypt is working in the tourist industry.
64. The Suez Canal, which links the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean is under the control of Egypt.
65. Scatomancy was very popular in Ancient Egypt, it is the act of telling the future through someone’s poop.
66. The Egyptians have a habit of not building roofs on their homes. Following the laws of this country, such buildings are considered unfinished, which frees their owners from taxes.
67. Some Egyptians married their sisters so that they know her duties and it reduced the number of pretenders to the throne.
68. Ancient Egyptians believed that the Nile River flooded each year because the goddess Isis crying.
69. Egypt has the oldest prosthetic limb in the world.
70. Egyptian pharaohs often were overweight, because their diet included honey, beer, bread, wine and food that were rich in sugar.


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