1. The first advantage I said above and it is far lower price than in the hotels or guesthouses.
2. Generally apartments short term rental in Bucharest and other cities are located in the center or near the center where everything is provided you: cafes, clubs, malls, restaurants.all within minutes of you.
3. Most companies that practice this type of accommodation offers various discounts and special offers for short term. For example, for three nights paid, tourists can receive anadditional free or reduced price when the apartment is contracted for a period of several days.

4. Some agencies such as Eastcomfort and offers its clients the opportunity to appeal to car rental services in Bucharest and offers 50% discount on airport return.
5. Another great advantage is privacy, comfort and luxury that you will have, leaving the impression that you do not stay in a foreign house and makes you feel like you are home.

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6. The check in and check out remain as flexible as in hotels with nonstop reception, and the advantage of total independence: the key of the apartment available.
7. Usually accommodation is not the number of people as in the case of hotels and guesthouses, the price is unique.

1. Christmas is the second most important Christian holiday after Easter.
2. Christmas is celebrated as the birthday of Jesus Christ but there are no records as 25th December is the birthday of Jesus.
3. 25th December was chosen because it coincides with pagan festival Saturnalia.
4. Christmas was first celebrated in 336.
5. The first artificial Christmas tree was made in the 19th century in Germany.
6. In Boston, from 1659 to 1681 it was prohibited to celebrate Christmas.
7. Firstly, Santa Claus was the short name given to the Christian Bishop of Turkey, St. Nicholas. He was wealthy and used to help the needy people and also became the protector of children.
8. Christmas is sometimes written as Xmas; X in Greek abbreviates for Christ.
9. In mid-17th century Christmas trees were decorated with candles.
10. Christmas trees were also decorated with candies, small gifts, cake, nuts, and fruits.
11. The tallest artificial Christmas tree is in Sri Lanka, it is 72.1 m.
12. The tallest real Christmas tree was 67.36 meters and was in Seattle, Washington.
13. The first artificial Christmas trees were made by Germans.
14. Christmas pudding is the main dish of Christmas.
15. The highest-grossing Christmas movie is Jim Carrey ‘How The Grinch Stole Christmas’.
16. in Canada, there is official address of Santa Claus- North Pole, H0H 0H0, Canada.
17. Approximately 350 million Christmas trees growing in the U.S. farms.
18. Before selling Christmas tree it is grown for 7-10 years.
19. Since 1850 Christmas trees were sold in the US.
20. Until June 26, 1870, Christmas was not the official holiday in the US.
21. Franklin Pierce was the first US president to put Christmas tree in White House.
22. The tradition of Christmas cards is originated in England.
23. The most expensive Christmas card was sold in the auction for £20,000 in the UK.
24. Santa Claus is known by different names around the world- in Russia Deushka Moroz, in Germany Kriss Kringle, etc.
25. Since 1960, half of the population Sweden still watch Donald Duck cartoon.
26. Jingles Bells was originally written for Thanksgiving, not for Christmas.
27. Red and white colored dress Santa Claus was first used by Coca-Cola for promotions.
28. People of Iceland celebrate Christmas Eve by exchanging books and spending rest of the night reading it and eating chocolates.
29. Japanese go to KFC for dinner on Christmas.
30. 230,000 tons of Christmas food is wasted every year.
31. 10 million turkeys are cooked on Christmas in the UK.
32. Burning Yule logs on Christmas is a symbol of luck, health and fertility, and also a guard against evil spirits.
33. Evergreen trees are a symbol of rebirth from the time of paganism.
34. In 2012, 30,000 people participated in Secret Santa organized by Reddit.
35. At the Christmas in Finland, it is customary to go to the sauna.
36. 6.8 million Apple and Android device are bought on the Christmas.
37. French gifted Statue of Liberty to the US on Christmas.
38. In honor of Christmas in Spain, the largest lottery is held annually.
39. In Germany and England, the main dish of the Christmas table is a roast goose or duck.
40. On the eve of the Christmas, Lithuanian Catholics eat only lean food
41. In Russia, Christmas celebration started in the 20th century.
42. The first song for Christmas was written in the 4th century AD.
43. In 2010, a Facebook study showed that 2 weeks before the Christmas is the time when most of the breakups happen.
44. The European live Christmas tree demand reaches about 50 million every year.
45. Oregon, North Carolina, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Washington are the most Christmas tree producing states.
46. The tradition of filling stockings with gifts on a holiday came from the story of three poor sisters. The legend says that one day St Nicholas made his way to them through the chimney and left gold coins in stockings.
47. The first Christmas cracker was invented in 1847 by sweets vendor Tom Smith
48. Charles Dicken wrote Christmas Carols in just six weeks.
49. Every year 1.6 billion Christmas Cards are purchased by Americans.
50. The first Christmas card was created by the Englishman Henry Cole in 1843.
51. In 1810, in the US, the public first saw Santa Claus.
52. The first case of the gift was noted in ancient Rome, where on the celebration of Saturnalia, children were given gifts.
53. orthodox Christian celebrate Christmas on January 7.
54. Traditional colors for decorating a Christmas tree are green, red and gold.
55. the first street Christmas trees with electric garlands appeared in Finland in 1906.
56. In Poland, spiders or spider webs are the usual decoration of the Christmas tree, because according to legend, the spider wove a blanket for Jesus when he was an infant.
57. The British wear paper crowns for the Christmas dinner. Crowns are stored in a special tube, which is called “Christmas cracker”.
58. On Christmas Eve in 1914, warring parties on the Western Front of the First World War stopped shooting and sang carols, and the next day German and British soldiers even exchanged handshakes and gifts.
59. In the Netherlands, on Christmas night, children put a shoe to the fireplace for gifts and put a carrot for a magic horse.
60. The Alexandrian theologians proposed to celebrate Christmas on May 26 in 200 BC.

1. Be interested – and seriously
The spark of a creative genius is simply an interest in something, be it a solution to a particular problem, a desire to learn more about an area or just curiosity. Without this interest in the construction of things, it will be impossible to overcome serious difficulties and go beyond the status quo. Therefore, the first step is to determine your interests. What really intrigues and excites you? What are you curious about? What do you want to know more about? These answers are the foundation for the development of your creativity.

2. Accept the complexity and paradoxes
Psychologist Mihai Chikszentmihayi says that geniuses do not lend themselves to classification: the key feature of their personality is complexity. They do not refer to any particular “type of personality,” they paradoxically combine features of different types of characters. They are able, as events develop, to switch between seemingly contradictory values ??and patterns of behavior. And you can learn how to act.

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3. Find a switch for your energy
Creative geniuses are able to give their work enormous attention and huge energy reserves – and for a long time. But they do not always exist in this mode. They balance long periods of concentration on work with long periods of relaxation. They also consciously relate to their energy and are able to turn off to reload – for example, to sleep in an unexpected moment or to retire from the bustle of the world to peacefully reflect.

In today’s world, when we are all online, this balance is difficult to find. But this is one of the key rules that you need to take into service if you want to repeat the experience of real creative geniuses.

4. Consider the world as an expert … but at the same time think like a beginner
High intelligence helps to think like a genius. But the connection between intellect and creativity is weaker than you think. Studies show that when IQ is above 120, the additional increase in IQ no longer gives an additional increase in creativity. And brilliant intelligence can even be an obstacle to creative thinking. Extremely intelligent people are too confident in their mental superiority, and this reduces curiosity, a desire to play and explore. They just stop learning, because they feel better than others.

Goethe said that the main feature of genius is naivety. Geniuses are able to combine children’s curiosity with wisdom. This allows them to generate a lot of diverse, crazy and seemingly unrelated ideas (taking the position of an aspiring enthusiast), and then find a distinct solution (taking the position of an expert who knows how to differentiate important from unimportant).

5. Take it seriously, but have fun!
Creative geniuses definitely treat work as a game, but this ease in itself does not allow you to finish things. Therefore, it is important to be able to switch and understand when you need to enter a hard, disciplined mode of work – this perseverance is necessary to break through barriers and make real innovations. The phase of creativity, associated with the generation of ideas, often relies on a person’s inclination to play. But there is a downside – the ability to develop and evaluate generated ideas. Here discipline, extreme self-respect and seriousness are important – it allows you to correctly use your energy and attention at later stages of working with the idea.

6. Communicate with people – but also stay alone with yourself longer
Most people view themselves as extroverts who like crowds and secular conversations, or as introverts, people who prefer to be on their own. But creative geniuses, apparently, appear in both hypostases either simultaneously, or more or less equally. To be very creative and to become an expert in some area, you need to spend a lot of time on practical development and development of skills, usually in isolation from everyday life. But at the same time, new research shows that a high degree of creativity is associated with frequent “outings” into the world, with the exchange of ideas, with interaction with other people. Many creative people even specially build their time to switch regularly between reflections alone and intensive social interaction. They understand that both are necessary,

7. Be cool … but sensitive
To a certain extent, creative geniuses are not capable of obeying gender stereotypes. Female geniuses are more likely to be more persistent, dominant personalities than other women, and male geniuses are more sensitive and cautious than men on average. In other words, the geniuses of both sexes are self-confident, persistent and capable of abrupt acts, but at the same time are attentive to other people and feel the situation.

Few can act on this level of complexity. But if you want to strengthen your creativity, you should look for opportunities to develop your emotional and social intelligence. Coaching can help.

8. Be a rebel, but do not reject the rules.
Creative personalities are often represented as rebel rebel fighters. In fact, all these geniuses first have to accept and master the rules of action in their particular field of expertise. Remember the rule of 10,000 hours? Every genius believes in the importance of the area he is engaged in, and therefore every genius is to a certain extent a traditionalist.

If you are an iron follower of traditions, you only strengthen the current state of affairs. But if you constantly and strongly risk without looking back at past values ??and achievements – it also never gives an innovative result. To master this paradoxical quality of geniuses, you need to understand the rules and all that was done before you, but at the same time be ready to adjust these rules – to bring your area and yourself to new creative heights.

9. Get carried away, but be objective
Mihail Chikszentmihayi, who interviewed nearly a hundred famous personalities, discovered that this paradoxical tension between attachment to his work and his ability to distance himself from her is one of the main drivers of innovation. If we do not have a strong attachment to our activities, we quickly lose interest in solving complex problems (and this is necessary to fully develop and evaluate the ideas of new solutions). But if we are not able to be objective and honest with ourselves, we will never be able to overcome our personal limitations and take full advantage of our strengths. Creative geniuses are able not only to step back from their work, but even criticizing it, tearing it apart is a critical skill that they use regularly.

10. Make plans, but do not stick to them.
Geniuses spend a lot of time planning, thinking, and strategically calculating what to do next. But they also have the strange ability to quickly abandon these plans in the light of new information or interesting opportunities. They know that creativity is not a black and white, linear process. On the contrary, the greatest innovations were usually the result of an unplanned, zigzag process. Geniuses know that no matter how much they plan, strict adherence to the plan leads only to the fact that you miss important opportunities from which a really new solution can be born.

1. Big Ben is the clock tower near the London Parliament building.
2. Big Ben is the largest omnidirectional clock in the world
3. Big Ben is the name of the largest of the five bells in the same Palace of Westminster.
4. Since its inception in 1859, it serves as the most accurate and reliable clock in London.
5. The real name of this attraction is “Clock Tower”. Big Ben is the nickname of the main bell located inside the building.
6. The accuracy of the Big Ben move is regulated with a stack of old one-penny coins weighing one and a half grams, which are placed on the pendulum, changing the frequency of its oscillations. Each coin adds 2/5 of a second to the clock.
7. The height of the digits on the Big Ben dials is approximately 60 cm.
8. The developer of Big Ben was Charles Barry, and the watch and dial were created under the guidance of the British architect Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin.
9. The watch was put into operation in 1859, on September 7.
10. the diameter of the dial is 7 m.
11. Each dial consists of 312 pieces of glass.
12. Big Ben is one of the most popular attractions in the UK.
13. The sound of chimes is heard within a radius of 8 kilometers
14. When Palace of Westminster was destroyed by fire in October 1834, the government decided to make new Parliament with clock tower, so that’s how we have Big Ben.
15. Fans of statistics have calculated that the minute hand of Big Ben pass a distance of 190 km per year.
16. The watch was put into operation in 1859, on September 7.
17. The first 61 meters of the tower with the clock consists of brickwork and stone facing, and the rest of the tower is made of cast iron.
18. During the Parliamentary session the dial of clock highlights differently.
19. The tower is tilted 8.66 inches to the north-west.
20. A pendulum weighing 300 kg and a length of almost 4 meters.
21. The bell of the tower did not stop working even during the Second World War.
22. Between the creation and commissioning of the clock went a very long time, which was accompanied by a number of problems: lack of financing, delays in delivery, incorrect calculations of the weight, and much more.
23. Every year at 11 o’clock, on the 11 November, Big Ben ring out, in honor of the armistice and the end of the World War I.
24. If Big Ben was built today, it would cost $ 200,000 US dollars.
25. The bell weighs more than 13.5 tons, and is today the second largest in Britain.
26. Because of the birds that sat on the arrow, in 1949 the clock began to lag for four minutes
27. The hour hand has a length of 3.2 meters (8 feet) in length, the length of the minute hand is 4.3 meters (14 feet).
28. The first failure with Big Ben occurred in 1976, it happened after 100 years of continuous work. In 1977, the landmark was again put into work.
29. To get to the bell you need to climb the 334 limestone steps.
30. The total height of the Big Ben is 96.3 m. This is higher than the Statue of Liberty in New York
31. In 2012, Big Ben chimed 40 times for 3 minutes, in honor of the start of the Olympic Games in London.
32. The best-selling souvenir among tourists in London is a miniature copy of Big Ben.
33. From 1939 to 1945, the dial of the clock did not light. This was done as a preventive measure to help protect it from attack during the World War II.
34. For the first time, the sound of Big Ben’s chimes was broadcast by the BBC on the eve of the new year, 1924, and this tradition continues till today.
35. In June 2012, the House of Commons announced that from now on the clock tower will be called the Tower of Elizabeth in honor of the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.
36. 7-meter dials are installed on all four sides of the clock tower. On each of it, it is engraved an inscription in Latin “God Save Our Queen Victoria I”.

1.Overview of The Industry
As for Arthur P, the industry he is about enter is car wash and auto detailing. The operations of the industry including not only clean and wash all kinds of vehicles such as cars, vans and trucks but also polish vehicles to make them be more smooth than normal through professional machines and detergents. In U.S., it consists of four different kinds of washing facilities like full-service washes, exterior conveyor washes, self-service car washes and automatic clean in the bay (Car wash industry statistics and trends, 2017). The development of car wash & detailing has gone through long history and experienced steady climb over the 5 years to current year. According to the data from United States Census Bureau (2018), more than 100,000 car wash machines used in the United States with approximately 6 billion dollars spent by US residents a year in car washing activities. According to industry analysis, we can pay attention to the economic condition of this company and its future condition.
2. Forecast

(Car washes revenue in the U.S.2010-2022(n.d.). Retrieved from www.statista.com/forecast.)
According to the statistics from professional institution, we can see that the industry experienced gradual increase over the past years and already reached approximately 10 billion dollars revenue in current year. Therefore, we can see a good prospect for development in the future.
2.Factors Analysis
As for the competitors, we already know that this industry has no absolute control by one or more big companies. Moreover, the potential entry of new competitors would be an essential force, because the spend of professional washing machines would be so high that make the start-up cost not affordable for some new entries. Additionally, the industry is facing with not only critical threats but also opportunities that influence the business. The continually rising prices of gas in recent years make consumers more likely use public transportations rather than frequently drive own cars, which will reduce the demand for car washing and auto detailing. However, the rising disposal income of American residents shows good opportunity for the industry, because it means consumers have more disposal money to spend on these services.
In summary, the industry has overall good benefits for Arthur P to invest although it also confronts with some threats and obstacles.

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1. Understand the importance of diversity, equality and inclusion.
It is important for children to be in a setting which demonstrates diversity, equality of opportunity and inclusion, this is so that it gives them the opportunity to make progress in all elements of development, in an emotionally secure and supportive environment. When working with children it is essential to practice these principles because without them children’s life decisions could be jeopardised.
1.1 Explain what is meant by:
Diversity means accepting and respecting that each individual is unique and understanding every individual’s differences. These differences can be gender, race sexual orientation, ethnicity, age, physical abilities and religious beliefs.
Equality means equal rights for everyone regardless of their differences and Identities. Equality represents the fact everyone should be treated the same.
Inclusion is when everyone has the equal right to access any services. In a child work force setting children of all physical emotional, and academic abilities are cared for in the same environment.
1.2 Describe the potential effects of discrimination
Discrimination is when someone is being treated unfairly based on their disability, gender, race or religion. It could also mean being treated less favourable than someone else in the same situation.
The potential effects of discrimination can be different for different people. The effects could be emotional, physical or a combination of both. For example if a child has ADHD, then a practitioner could feel inclined to exclude the child from the group activity because they feel the child is causing trouble. By doing this it could cause the child to feel left out and upset, this is also a form of bullying. This is why it important to beware of your actions when you are around children, you never know what affect you could have on them. Down below is a few more ways in which discrimination can affect children such as, they could feel:
• Depressed
• Isolated
• Withdrawn
• Angry
• Scared
• Worthless
• Unaccepted
All these elements of discrimination can affect the way a child perceives things in the future. No child well-being and learning opportunities should be limited due to the negative impact of prejudices and discrimination. This is why it is so crucial that you base your work on anti-discriminatory practice.
(Penny Tassoni, Kate Beith, Kath Bulman, Sue Griffin (2010) ”children & young people’s workforce, early learning ; children, pg. 22)
1.3 Explain how inclusive practice promotes equality and supports diversity
Inclusive is a practice which takes place to ensure that people are not excluded or isolated. It also helps support diversity by accepting and welcoming people’s differences and promoting equality by equal opportunities for all. Furthermore inclusive practice includes having an understanding of the impact that discrimination, inequality and social exclusion can have on an individual. By coming to terms with this it will allow you to ensure that the appropriate personalised care and support is exchanged. This can help the individual develop self-respect and self- worth and also to respect others around them and their unique differences. This is why it is so important that children are in an environment which promotes these types of practices so that when they grow up they won’t go around being judgemental towards others or prejudice.

2. Be able to work in an inclusive way
In order to work in an inclusive way, organisations must take into consideration that both the legal practices of the state and also the policy practices of a work setting. These practices help support the organisation in interacting with families in a will respectful way.
2.1 Explain how legislation and codes of practice relating to equality, diversity and discrimination apply to your own work role.
There are a number of legislations that are in place to help promote equality, diversity and to reduce discrimination such as:
• The disability discrimination act 2005
• The special educational needs and disability act 2001
• children act 1989 and 2004
• racial regulations 2000
• care act standards act 2000
• Equality act 2006
• Sexual discrimination act 1975
• Employment equality regulations 2003
The purpose of these legislations are to promote equality of opportunity for all regardless of their race, sexuality, age, gender or disabilities. Having these legislation in order shape the way in which a nursery provides and organises their services and the way a practitioner approaches their practices. If these legislations and standards are obeyed to then this ensures all the service users are treated with the same level of care and no special treatment is given to any individual. It is important to remember that although legislations are there to protect people, it doesn’t change people attitudes. This means that good practices should ensure that practitioners are regularly evaluated on their work ethic, they should also receive appropriate support and training in this area.
2.2 Show interaction with individuals that respects their beliefs, culture, values and preferences.
It is important that as a nursery practitioner that you respect each child and their families beliefs and life style. For example Christmas time is a holiday which is worldly celebrated but not everyone you come into contact will celebrate it, this could be due to religious beliefs. As practitioner you must do whatever you can to make children and their families feel comfortable and happy in a situation like this. If a child does not celebrate any public holiday then it is important that you don’t false them to participate with the holiday theme. In order to make sure that the child does not feel left out or excluded for the activity taking place then you should make it relevant to them, for example there are other holidays in which different religions celebrate such as Eid, Hanukkah etc. so it’s up to incorporate that into the lesson so that the child doesn’t feel left out. You could also speak to the child’s parent or carer to get a better understanding of their religion and beliefs this could give you more topics to discuss, it could also create a better relationship between the practitioner, the child and their families, by doing this it could lead to making them a lot more comfortable with the care their children will be receiving.

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3. Be able to promote diversity, equality and inclusion
Whilst working with children and families it is important that the practice in which you work at should be inclusive, promote equality and encourage positive attitudes towards diversity. Also a role of a practitioner is to inspire others to ensure children’s rights to have access to equality of opportunity in an inclusive environment in which diversity is seen in positive ways.
3.1 Demonstrate actions that model inclusive practice.
As a practitioner it is important that you help encourage children to have positive attitudes towards other children and people who may be different from them, this is so that children will be swayed from developing a negative and prejudiced views. In order to achieve this you can:
• Creating an environment, both physical and emotional, where everyone is invited to participate as much as they want to and everyone is treated with respect and kindness.
• Giving children the freedom to explore their ideas about disabilities through play and conversation, while guiding them to be aware and respectful of the feelings and perspective of child who have special needs. Practitioners should also encourage them to be respectful to people that came from different cultural backgrounds to them, that come from different families and people who look and sound different from them.
Research has shown that nurseries that demonstrate inclusiveness throughout their practices have an amazing opportunity to help shape children’s attitudes and behaviour towards people different to them e.g. disabled. Research has also shown that children who have repeated experiences with children with disabilities develop a much better understanding and acceptance that usually aren’t there in children who haven’t had that exposure. Shaping children’s attitudes while they are young is a tremendous responsibility and privilege that can have long-lasting effects.
3.2 Demonstrate how to support others to promote, equality and rights.
You could support others to promote equality and rights by keeping them informed about it, for example they could get information for a hand booklets. The hand booklets could be handed out to staff, clients, and client’s family members so that they could all work together to help promote equality. An organisation should provide training for their staff so that they can put into practices the knowledge they have learned into their daily work. Also most companies provide their staff with employee handbooks that include polices, code of conduct and code of practice, this could also help them understand equality more and promote it by the way they use it whilst working.
3.3 Describe how to challenge discrimination in a way that promotes change.
If a case of discrimination accrues whilst being at work it is important that the situation is reported to a senior member of staff properly. This is so that the insisted can be dealt with appropriately and quickly.
In other situations where discrimination could be challenged, is if you come across or over hear someone making discriminatory comment. Then they could possible challenged in calm and professionally way by explaining to them what they are saying is unacceptable and explain why others may be offended by their words. If an individual was speaking inappropriately, it could be dealt with by issuing a disciplinary. Further training on equality and diversity could be issued to educate them and widen their views on equality, diversity and inclusion.

Traditional Chinese medicine TCM is a form of alternative medicine which dates back to more than two thousand five hundred years. This ancient concept has been gaining popularity due to its effectiveness and extremely low side effects. It is now used in different countries throughout the world. TCM uses natural herbs and spices as medicine. It also applies treatment methods like acupuncture and moxibustion, which require highly skilled professionals. TCM is based on two interesting philosophies: Wu Xing and Yin and Yang. Wu Xing stands for the five elements.
Interestingly, a similar theory of five elements exists in Ayurveda, which is a form of traditional Indian medicine TIM.
In this report, the five element theory in TCM has been compared to the five element theory in Ayurveda.

The five element theory is the philosophical base on which TCM has been built and evolved. The five elements are known as “W? Xíng” in Chinese. The theory of these five elements explains phenomena which involve the interaction between internal organs in our body. This paves way to getting a further understanding of how diseases work and hence, how they can be treated. The five element theory is one of the main reasons why TCM has been working beautifully to cure and resolve complicated health conditions.
For this article, information has been retrieved from academic papers, blogs written by scholars in TCM and philosophy, the official website of the school of Ayurveda in California and also personal blogs of people who have used TCM and ayurveda and have shared their experience.
The five elements in TCM are wood, fire, earth, metal and water. In Chinese, they’re known as”mù”, “hu?”, “t?”, “j?n” and”shu?” respectively.1
The system of Wu Xing came to light during the Han dynasty, in the first century BCE 2 The theory of five elements is versatile, as it not only focuses on medicine, but also explains astrology, music and art.

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The five elements are in a constant state of interaction among one and other. These are “cycles”. There are two main types of cycles. One is the generating cycle, the other is the overcoming cycle. The generating cycle is understood by basic concepts of everyday life.
“Wood feeds fire”: This statement means that wood is required to be burnt in order to generate fire.
Fire then progresses to create ash, which is mixed to and becomes a part of earth. The fourth element, metal, is found on earth.
The bridge between metal and water is formed by the fact that metal bears water. Water is required for the growth of trees. Wood gets its nourishment from water.
This way, the five elements are required for creating each other. So, it can be concluded that one element cannot exist without another. These five generating processes promote development. This generating cycle is compared to how a mother nurtures the foetus in her womb.3
The second cycle is the overcoming cycle. This cycle speaks about how one element opposes the other element.
Wood leaves the earth and causes soil to erode. This is one of the main reasons why deforestation is really bad for our planet earth. Interestingly, TCM has explained these concepts much before deforestation became a problem.
Earth absorbs water and makes it dirty and muddy. This decreases its purity.
Water extinguishes fire. This is another way in which one element prevents the growth of another element.
Fire, on the other hand, can melt metal. It can change and manipulate the shape of a metal and can make metals lose their integrity.
The end of the overcoming cycle is with the metallic axe which chops wood off. This way, metal curbs the growth of wood and trees.
Both of these cycles are important for life. The first cycle makes things move forward while the second cycle exerts brakes. An imbalance in any of the cycles can cause a problem. It is not good if things go too fast or too slow. The two cycles described in the five elements theory, stress on the fact that we should all be in the perfect pace in order to be healthy.4
Each of the five elements have a corresponding season, emotion, direction, organ and planet.

4.1 WOOD
Wood corresponds to spring, which marks a juncture of growth. This is also the reason why wood’s planet is thought to be Jupiter, the biggest planet. The direction of wood is said to be east. Wood, signifies emotions of anger. In TCM, wood’s organs are the gallbladder and the liver.5

4.2 FIRE
Fire, on the other hand, represents summer which signifies high amount of energy and lots of light. Fire expresses strong emotions such as passion, love and joy. It brings positive vibes and is said to be the “most” yang of all the five elements. The planet for this element is Mars, which also corresponds to the colour red. The direction which fire represents is south. Heart and the intestine are the organs associated with fire.5

The third element, earth, doesn’t quite correspond to any particular season, but signifies the period of levelling of the temperatures, a gradual change of the hot summer to the cold winter, and vice versa. The direction of earth is centre. The main emotion of earth is sympathy. Earth corresponds to the stomach and the spleen.5

Autumn, the period of harvesting, is given by the element metal. Metal has a strong yin component which is the reason why its associated emotion is grief. Its direction is west and planet is Venus. The large intestines and lungs are represented by metal.5

Lastly, water indicates winter, which is cold and is a phase of retreat. The direction is north and the associated emotion is fear. Its associated planet is the one closest to the Sun, Mercury. Water is related to the kidney and the bladder. 5

The five elements are also associated with two particular body parts: one is the yin organ and the other one is the yang organ. 4

5.1 WOOD
The yin organ that wood signifies is the liver. Liver is the organ which is responsible for the smooth flowing of Qi (the vital force of life), promoting absorption and digestion, and is also responsible for regulating emotions. It is believed that the liver is the place in the body where “hun” resides. Hun refers to one’s spiritual consciousness. The liver is said to house emotions, along with impulses, speech and intelligence. In TCM, the liver is believed to be connected to the eyes, tendons and nails via meridians. So if there is any problem in the liver, there will be changes in the eyes and nails, which will hence make it easier to diagnose. If the blood going to the liver is decreased, there will be symptoms of blurred vision and dry eyes. On the contrary, if the liver is working too much, the eyes will get bulged and swollen. Similarly, if the nail beds look deformed in an individual, it indicates that there is a problem with their liver activity. As mentioned earlier, the emotion depicted by wood is anger. This statement also establishes that the liver is the most sensitive organ to anger. If a person is very angry, his liver will shunt the incoming Qi in an upward direction, towards the eyes, which is manifested as red eyes in angry people. Conversely, liver disorders also lead to irritability. People who are have a lot of tolerance have been proved to have better liver function.7 Also, people who have a very thin pulse generally have liver problems because it indicates that the liver’s function of storing blood is impaired.8
Drinking alcohol is said to stimulate the yin factor of the liver. Gall bladder is the yang organ. Greasy, oily food acts against the yang factor of the gall bladder. 4 Medically, this relation is very true because alcohol causes liver cirrhosis and eating too much oil could lead to gall stones. 5
Qi is said to be the most active in the gall bladder and liver between 11pm and 3am at night. At this time, they get nourished too. This is why it is very important to get good sleep at that time. This is the reason why people who do not get enough sleep at night seem irritated in the mornings.7 Since wood generates fire, it is the mother of the heart.

5.2 FIRE
Fire represents the heart. In TCM, the heart is thought to be the ruler of all organs in our body. It is thought to be the birthplace of thinking and seeing. It is known to be “Shen Ming” (??), which, in Chinese means God. This means, the heart is the most dominant and important organ, giving rise to all the blood vessels, hence making all the other body parts dependent on it.9 Furthermore, the heart is also considered to be the location at which consciousness exists.10 The heart is connected to the face and tongue. Interestingly, the tongue is seen as a geographic map of all the organs in our body. Different part of the tongue can be used to diagnose illnesses of the corresponding body parts.11 The tip of the tongue is the point which corresponds to the heart. 12

Figure 1: Making a diagnosis with the appearance of the tongue 24

The pulse is also commonly used to diagnose problems related to the heart. TCM has identified eighty different pulse qualities, each with their own significance. 13
The pulse for heart related problems is seen at the distal, lateral part of the forearm. Large segment findings might indicate irregular rhythm of the heart. 14 This is very cost effective and is much less risky as compared to western medicine, which uses a number of machines and invasive procedures to diagnose diseases. Hyperthermia and increased body heat could lead to heart diseases. This way, heart is directly connected to its element, fire. Also, since the taste bitter is also related to fire, people with heart diseases tend to crave bitter food.5 The small intestine is the yang organ which fire represents.

The Yang organ of earth is the stomach. It is known to be the feeder of Qi for all parts of the body. It is very similar to how the earth provides and nourishes everything in this planet. The stomach is strongly affected by emotions and it is viewed as an organ that not only ingests food, but also ingests emotions. The stomach is believed to be the most active between 7am and 9am. This is why, breakfast is the most important meal of the day.
The Yin organ represented by earth is the spleen. According to TCM, the spleen is the official earth of our body. The spleen not only substantiates at a physical level, but also nourishes our mind and spirits. 15 Deep lines from base of the nose to the lateral part of the lips indicate spleen and stomach infirmities. 5

The yin organ of metal is the lung. The lungs are the receivers of pure Qi from heaven. The lungs are extremely susceptible to cigarette smoke and so are the yang organs of metal-the large intestine. Cigarette smoke can not only cause lung cancer, but can also cause constipation. The large intestine is seen as an organ which chucks waste out of our body. Besides, it also is responsible for letting toxic emotions and negativity go out of our body. 16 Grief is the emotion associated with metal. That is why people who have depression also suffer from constipation. Also, grief is felt when people “let go” of us (Just the way the intestine lets go of things the body doesn’t need). Metal problems are seen as paleness in the face.
If a patient is suffering from asthma, it means that his metal component (lung) is not receiving enough support from his earth component (spleen). Asthma can also be caused by extreme sadness. This is how the earth controls metal.

Water’s yin organ is the kidney. Since kidney is a yin organ, it is involved in cooling the body. It also has a lubricating function, which reduces friction between substances. Kidney is directly related to bones, teeth and bone marrow. It is said to be the emperor of the skeletal system, controlling all two hundred and six bones in our body. Therefore, a kidney problem can present as lower back pain and knee pain.
The yang organ of water is the urinary bladder. According to the Yellow Emperor’s Classical Book of Internal Medicine, “The bladder is where the water converges and where, after being catalyzed by Qi, it is eliminated.” Hence, a dysfunction of the bladder would lead to the accumulation of Qi in our bodies, which is very dangerous. Problems with water’s organs are seen as dark eye bags as well as baldness. 17

Ayurveda is a form of Indian traditional medicine. It has not been researched much as compared to TCM. Although Ayurveda and TCM are from two different countries, they do have some similarities. Yoga and Tai Chi follow the same concept of “the flow of Qi” which is known as “chakra” in Indian medicine. In the next section, the five element theory of TCM will be compared to and contrasted with that of TIM.

Ayurveda is also based on a five element theory. The five elements in TIM are known as the Pancha Bhoota. Namely, akasha (ether), vayu (air), teja (fire), aap (water) and prithvi (earth) 18
Fire, water and earth are the elements which are present in both TCM and Ayurveda.
Fire represents summer and lots of energy and light.19
Water, just like in TCM, is linked to the urinary system in Ayurveda.

The organs represented by the five elements are very different in both forms of medicine, each with their own logical explanation.
Fire, in Ayurveda represents the eyes. Since eye is the organ that takes in the bright light. 19 Fire is also said to play an important role in digestion.
In Ayurveda, water is believed to be the foundation of earth. An imbalance in water elimination is seen as a change in a person’s ability to experience taste. Unlike TCM, Ayurveda attributes water’s characteristics to the season spring. This roots from the fact that flowers in spring require water to bloom.21
The organ related to earth is the large intestine. This is because the earth element is strongly related tot the sense of smell. Any discomfort or disorder in the rectum, for example, constipation or diarrhoea, produce a pungent smell. Also, a person with thick hair on their skin is said to have an excess of the element earth in their body.22
There are two elements which are different from TCM. They are, air and ether. Air in Ayurveda is believed to be the motion of life. Excess motion involves symptoms of hyper-excitability and diarrhoea. Whereas lack of motion involves slower heart rate, constipation and sluggishness. Air freely flows in the body and mind, providing vibes of faith throughout. The motion changes throughout life. As one grows older, the air component is said to decrease. This forms the basis of ageing. 23
Ether means space. The organ associated with it is the mouth. People born with the loss of speaking ability are said to have a deficiency of ether. Ether is found in empty spaces in our body such as intestine and lungs. An excess of ether takes up a lot of space and reduces the space for tissues and cells. Hence, there is a loss of function. This explains diabetes. People with excess ether are said to be predisposed to diseases such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease (both, which involve tissue destruction in the brain).

Both TCM and Ayurveda have interesting concepts. It is mind blowing how such forms originated many years ago when there was very little technology. This proves that our ancestors were really intelligent.
Although different, TCM and TIM have their own perspective of looking at medicine and the world. Perspective is very important. If everyone thinks in the same way, there will be no innovation. So, it is always good to consider things from different frames of references so that one can draw a big picture and understand medicine better. This shows how one disease can be seen in many ways. However, TCM has been established much better than Ayurveda has.
In my opinion, these forms of alternative medicine have a very bright future due to the reduced side effects and risks. They don’t involve harmful, aggressive techniques like surgery and chemotherapy, but use milder methods to combat diseases. This, however, is very time consuming. In today’s busy world, I believe time is the reason why traditional medicine is not as widely used as allopathy is. These forms of alternative medicine need to have more studies and clinics trials so that many more people trust them and make them their choice of treatment. This would not only cut down costs for costly equipments, but also turn human’s life into a healthier one.

Firstly, I’d like to thank my teachers who have taught me TCM and have inspired me to choose this topic. This review paper has been possible with the support and encouragement from my parents and friends. I’m very grateful to have chosen this topic as I got to learn a lot of new things regarding TCM and the traditional medicine of my own country.

1. The huge pyramids are immaculate tetrahedrons.
2. Throughout history, the pyramids were considered to be the tombs of the pharaohs, today scientific opinions on this subject are divided.
3. The mystery of Egyptian buildings is now associated with the scientific message of the ancient world about its idea of the universe.
4. Pyramids are one of the most ancient historical monuments, keeping the secrets of the ancient civilization, which we still have to open.
5. In the design parameters, according to some researchers, we need to look for ancient encrypted prophecies.
6. The pyramidal inch in Egypt is considered a sacred measure.
7. If you add the sums of diagonals of one pyramid (in inches), then you can calculate the number of years for which our planet makes a complete revolution.
8. All the pyramids are on the west bank of the great river Nile, that is, from the sunset, when the power of the world of shadows (the dead) came.
9. For the construction of the largest pyramid which is Giza pyramid, 2300000 blocks, made of stone, weighing from 2 to 50 tons, were used.
10. The most mysterious pyramids are in Giza (next to the current Cairo).
11. The pyramid, if divided along the perimeter, gives the number Pi (moreover, the accuracy of calculations is up to one thousandth).
12. Initially, the pyramids had a finish in the form of a facing stone (from white limestone).
13. Each side of the pyramid was originally so polished that it reflected the rays of the sun (you can imagine how these magnificent buildings shone).
14. The radiance of the pyramids was so powerful that it could be seen from the moon.
15. The surface of the pyramids was decorated with precious stones.
16. Despite the fact that the pyramids were built in the hottest desert, inside the buildings it was always stably cool (about 20 degrees Celsius).
17. Almost all researchers equally describe the incredible work of the creators of these majestic structures from huge boulders, but the methods of stone processing and construction technology are still a mystery.
18. Disputes are also being made on the number of employed labor in building pyramids, if they were slaves (at least 100,000 people).
19. The pyramids were built for a long time, respectively, and the technology of construction was changed.
20. Scientists concur that the construction of one pyramid could have taken about 200 years, despite the fact that the construction was held all year round.
21. Some researchers managed to learn some more facts about the pyramids, for example, that the construction of several pyramids was carried out with a large time interval, but with what it was connected, is still unknown.
22. In the 20th century, construction engineers noticed one interesting regularity: the arrangement of the pyramids in Giza corresponds to the location of several constellations.
23. Pyramids are often associated with the existence of the mysterious Atlantis.
24. At the base of the Sphinx there are traces of water erosion.
25. Until now, there is no consensus on the grounds for such a large-scale idea, taking into account temporary, material and other costs.
26. The largest pyramid has changed in height for centuries.
27. The pyramid of Cheops was the highest building in the world until the end of the 19th century (that is, it kept the world record for several millennia in a row).


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