1.0 Executive Summary

This document is a Software Project Management Plan (SPMP) for the development of a Mobile Learning Platform. This plan provides information regarding the project pertaining to the project organization, managerial process, technical process scheduling and budget. The SPMP is the controlling document for managing this project and will be maintained referenced in order to satisfy project requirement.

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The project is to develop a JKUAT mobile learning application to make education and training available on the go-anytime and anywhere, at your own convenience. The intended audience are the students and the lecturers.
There has been the issues of students not knowing the date of exams, there time table, when CATs are being taken. Other problems are issue of jam hence not making it to lectures on time. This helps students who are employed and cannot make it to class on time or are on travel duties.
It will help the lecturers mark attendance of the students and the distribution of course lectures and assignment, (Monitor student’s activities.) All this can be solved by the development of this learning platform.
Online learning creates flexibility by eliminating the need for learning to happen at a set time and a set place. Mobile takes learning flexibility even further by making instructional content such as videos, podcasts, and other multimedia formats available on smartphones and tablets. What’s more learners have the added flexibility of being able to access this content on their mobile devices whenever and wherever they want.
1.0.1 Statement of Work
This effort includes the following:
• Define the needed functions.
• Further define the critical functions and requirements.
• Form a project team.
• Create and approve a project charter
• Create and approve a project plan for the product development
• Implement a test bed focusing on high priority functions
• Test functionality and assess strengths and deficiencies of the product and implementation methods
• Make recommendations and project plan for a full production, including
o Roles and responsibilities
o Functions to include
o Implementation methods
o Timeline
• Report findings
1.0.2 Objectives
Using the mobile phone as a learning platform can help create a sustained, supportive learning environment even beyond the classroom.
The platform should be able to:-
• Improve completion and retention rates.
• Provide for learning flexibility.
• Allow for collaborative learning i.e. shared calendars and access to forums.
• Enable learners to perform tasks on time and interactively.
• Better performance.
• Get feedback/compliments on assignments.
1.0.3 Constraints
The following limitations and constraint have been identified for this project:-
• Connectivity problems when it comes to uploading and downloading of information because of poor or absent mobile network signals.
• Limited information due to the mobile screen size and resolution
• Device compatibility with the type of content
1.0.4 Assumptions
The following assumptions were made when developing this statement of work:-
• JKUAT will continue to support staff involvement with this project.
• More specific staff commitment levels will be defined in the project plan.
The Charter was approved on ……..
2.0 Scope Overview
2.0.1 Work Breakdown Structure
Figure 2.0.1 Work breakdown

2.0.2 Business scope
Phase 1 – Requirements
• Define and prioritize preliminary list of functions
• Assess user needs and modify functions and priorities if appropriate
o Create online survey
o Advertise on existing data discovery sites and newsletter
o Compile results and compare to functions list and modify as appropriate.
• Assess mobile service requirements.
o Clarify what comprises comprehensive documentation of mobile service
o Agree on a list of key characteristics that must be addressed to achieve trust in mobile service.

Phase 2 – Implementation
• Identify training needs of implementation group
• Research functionality and configuration options
• Develop a plan for which product functions will be implemented
• Develop a configuration plan
• Install and configure software
• Implement client functions and complete design work
• Develop a test plan and test cases
• Test implemented functions
• Assess how implemented functions meet the defined needs
• Describe what other functionality is needed
• Recommend how that functionality might be acquired or created

Phase 3- Make Recommendations and Plan for Production
• Make recommendation for a production
o Functions to include
o Implementation strategy
o Roles and responsibilities
o Estimated up front and ongoing costs
o Benefits and Risks
• Mobile service level agreements
o Develop a template for a service level agreements
• Report to the stakeholder’s on progress.
2.0.2 Scope Management Plan
Proposed scope changes will be assessed in terms of impact to project schedule and cost. Any changes to this scope must be documented in a revised version of the project plan. Approval of Project Manager is required. Any scope changes involving staffing changes also require the approval of the project owners.

3.0 Budget Overview

Estimated budget for the project:-
All staff time, hardware, software and other resources will be contributed in-kind from participating organization. A request will be made to JKUAT to allow for staff interruption during working hours for some key project tasks.
3.0.1 Budget Management
Any changes to the budget must be documented in a revised project plan. Approval of Project Manager and Project Owners is required.
4.0 Project Team
The following people and organization are stakeholders in this project and included in the project planning. Additional project team members will be added as needed.

Project Owners: Ensure adequate resources are available and track project status.
• JKUAT Nairobi center
Project Manager: Lead the planning and execution of the project.
• Pondi Brian
Project team members: Plan and design the product and advice on implementation.
• Joan Tarus
• Andrew Kyalo
• Ruth Omayo
Implementation Team: Implement test bed version of the product.
• Pondi Brian
• Joan Tarus
• Andrew Kyalo
• Ruth Omayo
Survey Team: Plan and implement a user survey.
• Andrew Kyalo
• Ruth Omayo

Service Requirement Team: Identify issues related to Mobile service requirement and how they might be implemented.
• Pondi Brian
• Joan Tarus
4.1 Project Team Management
The project manager coordinates the project tasks assigned to team members. Changes to the project team require approval of the Project Manager for the affected areas if relevant. Changes will be tracked in revisions to the project plan.
5.0 Project Schedule
Key project tasks, responsible team members and estimate hours:
Detailed project schedule is provided below.
5.0.1 Schedule Management
The project Schedule will be posted online and updated as tasks are completed. Any changes to the schedule must be documented in a revised project schedule.

Table 5.0.2 Project Functions and Activities:

Functions/Activity Description Date
Project initialization Initial review of the project and planning of specifications 1 March 2018
Project report Report progress to stakeholders 4 March 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 6 March 2018
Operations Concept Document Present operational concept documentation 6 March 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 7 March 2018
Operational concept signoff Management verifies meeting standards 9 March 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 10 March 2018
Question responses Deliver answers to stakeholders questions 12 March 2018
Project report Report progress to stakeholders 14 March 2018
SPMP Draft Deliver draft version of project management plan 16 March 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 17 March 2018
SPMP final Present final-version of SPMP to the stakeholder 19 March 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 21 March 2018
SPMP signoff Management verifies SPMP meets standards 23 March 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 23 March 2018
Question responses Deliver answers to stakeholders questions 26 March 2018
Requirement specification draft Draft preliminary version of requirement specification. 30 March 2018
Program design Begin initial design of the application 30 March 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 30 March 2018
Requirement specification final Present final version of requirement specification to stakeholders 1 April 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 4 April 2018
Requirement specification signoff Stakeholders verify requirement specification meets standards 6 April 2018
Application design document draft Begin functional design development for programming representation of data 6 April 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 7 April 2018
Application design documentation final Present final version of design documentation to stakeholders 9 April 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 11 April 2018
Application design documentation signoff Stakeholders verifies design document meets standards 13 April 2018
Application design documentation draft Design functional development programming representation of data 13 April 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 14 April 2018
Question responses Deliver answers to stakeholders questions 16 April 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 18 April 2018
Application design documentation final Present final version of design document 20 April 2018
Software testing manual draft Draft preliminary version of the application testing manual 20 April 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 21 April 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 25 April 2018
Application design documentation signoff Stakeholders verifies design document meets standards 27 April 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 28 April 2018
Application testing manual final Present final version of testing manual to stakeholders 30 April 2018
Application user’s manual draft Draft preliminary version of user’s manual 30 April 2018
Question responses Deliver answers to stakeholders questions 30 April 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 1 may 2018
Software testing manual signoff Stakeholders verifies testing manual meet standards 3 may 2018
Application user’s manual final Present final version of user’s manual to stakeholders 3 may 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 4 may 2018
Proof-of-concept Mobile learning application Demonstrate a working prototype based on specification 6 may 2018
Test report draft Draft preliminary version of test report 6 may 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 8 may 2018
Application user’s manual signoff Stakeholders verifies user’s manual meets standards 10 may 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 11 may 2018
Test report Final Present test results to stakeholders 13 may 2018
Question responses Deliver answers to stakeholders questions 13 may 2018
Progress report Report progress to stakeholders 15 may 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 18 may 2018
Test report signoff Stakeholders verifies test report meets standards 20 may 2018
Project planning meeting Discuss goals, objectives, and issues 25 may 2018
Formal project presentation Formally present the product to stakeholders 27may 2018
Product prototype Deliver product prototype to stakeholders 28 may 2018

Table 5.0.3 Gantt chart

Functions/Activity March April May
Weeks
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Project initialization
Project report
Project planning meeting
Operations Concept Document
Progress report
Operational concept signoff
Project planning meeting
Question responses
Project report
SPMP Draft
Project planning meeting
SPMP final
Progress report
SPMP signoff
Project planning meeting
Question responses
Requirement specification draft
Program design
Project planning meeting
Requirement specification final
Progress report
Requirement specification signoff
Application design document draft
Project planning meeting
Application design documentation final
Progress report
Application design documentation signoff
Application design documentation draft
Project planning meeting
Question responses
Progress report
Application design documentation final
Software testing manual draft
Project planning meeting
Progress report
Application design documentation signoff
Project planning meeting
Application testing manual final
Application user’s manual draft
Question responses
Progress report
Software testing manual signoff
Application user’s manual final
Project planning meeting
Proof-of-concept Mobile learning application
Test report draft
Progress report
Application user’s manual signoff
Project planning meeting
Test report Final
Question responses
Progress report
Project planning meeting
Test report signoff
Project planning meeting
Formal project presentation
Product prototype

6.0 Communication Plan
The project team will maintain a schedule of meetings. All members, project owners and others who have expressed interest are included in the list for meeting agendas and meeting notes. If a particular meeting is not needed, it will be cancelled. The members us Google Doc for collaborative work. This work is accessible only to authorized users. Additional or alternate team members collaborative work sites will be considered if the need arises.
The stakeholders will be kept up to date of the progress of the project through their representatives.

Individual task teams will work closely on a weekly or daily basis while completing specific tasks.
7.0 Risk Management
As issues arise within the project, the team members will determine if the issue is significant enough to report it to the Project Manager. The Project Manager, in consultation with the Team, will decide if the issue should be reported to the full project participants. If so, the collaborative site will be used as a place to describe and track issues. For project team members to continue efficiently, it is desirable that most issues be resolved within the team or with consultation with the Project Manager. Issues may include testing results, unexpected problems, and other items that impact project completion.
8.0 Monitoring and Controlling Plan
Project monitoring will be done in all meetings and approved by the Project Manager. The major monitoring mechanism is the testing phase of the project. Suggestions with regards to documentation can be made by team members and the stakeholders and shall be approved by the Project Manager
9.0 Project Plan Documents Summary
All significant electronic project documentation will be posted on the collaborative site. Team members will determine when a document is sufficiently complete to post on the site.
10.0 Approval
Below is documentation of confirmation that project owners and project manager have reviewed the information contained in this document and approve of this as the formal project plan for the JKUAT Nairobi Mobile learning platform.

Table 10.0.1 Project approvals
Title Name Signature Date
Client Representative
Customer Representative
Project Manager
Software Lead Development
Software Quality Control

The Project Plan will be approved by the Project Owners and Project Manager. Project Changes will be approved by the Project Owners and Project Manager too.

1. INTRODUCTION
STARBUCKS IS AN AMERICAN COFFEE COMPANY AND COFFEE HOUSE CHAIN.STARBUCKS WAS FOUND IN SEATTLE,WASHINGTON IN 1971. THIS STORE WAS OPENED BY THREE PARTNERS I.E BOWKER,BALDWIN AND SIEGL.THESE 3 PARTNERS WERE INSPIRED BY ONE OF THE LEADING COFFEE ENTERPRENEUR NAMELY ALFRED PEET.
THE STARBUCKS MISSON STATEMENT IS : TO INSPIRE AND NURTURE THE HUMAN SPIRIT – ONE PERSON,ONE CUP AND ON NEIGHBOURHOOD AT A TIME.
STARBUCKS IS CONSIDERED AS THE MAIN REPRESENTATIVE OF “SECOND WAVE COFFEE” INITIALLY DISTINGUISHING ITSELF FROM OTHER COFFEE SERVING VENUES BY ITS TASTE,QUALITY AND CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE WHILE POPULARIZING DARKLY ROASTED COFFEE.STARBUCKS SERVE HOT AND COLD DRINKS,WHOLE-BEAN COFFEE AS VIA,ESPRESOO ETC.
STARBUCKS HAS NOMINATED AS ONE OF THE LARGEST COFFEE HOUSES ALL OVER THE GLOBE.IT HAS APPROXIAMATELY 21,000 PLUS STORES LOCATED IN 61 COUNTRIES ALL OVER THE WORLD.THE KEY SUCCESS OF STARBUCKS IS BECAUSE OF ITS EMBRACED DIVERSITY,APPLYING HIGH STANDARDS IN OPERATIONS,TO PORTRAY RESPECT AND INTERGRITY,TO RECOGNIZE THE LEVEL OF PROFIT EARNED AND ALSO TO CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS THE ENVIRONMENT.STARBUCKS IS A SINGLE COFFEE SHOP THAT DOES NOT HAS A SINGLE DIRECT COMPETITOR.
STARBUCKS HAS FACED CERTAIN DIFFICULTIES, IT HAS BEEN ACCUSSED OF SELLING UNHEALTHY PRODUCTS AND HAS BEEN THE TARGET OF MULTIPLE CONTROVERSIES.STARBUCKS HAS A WELL ESTABLISHED FUTURE IN ALL PARTS OF GLOBE WAS DUE TO THE STRATEGIC DECISION MADE TO MOVE AND EXPAND ITS STORES.

2. PESTEL- PESTEL ANALYSIS IS A FRAME WORK OR TOOL USED BY MARKETERS TO ANALYSE OR MONITOR THE MACRO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS (EXTERNAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT) THAT HAVE AN IMPACT ON THE ORAGANISATION.THIS TOOL IS MAINLY USED WHEN STARTING A NEW BUSINESS OR ENTERING A FOREIGN MARKET.IT IS OFTEN USED WITH OTHER ANALYTICAL BUSINESS TOOLS SUCH AS THE SWOT ANALYSIS AND PORTERS FIVE FORCES TO GET A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF A SITUATION AND ALSO RELATED INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTOR.

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2.1 PESTEL STANDS FOR
A.POLITICAL
B.ECONOMIC
C.SOCIAL
D.TECHNOLOGICAL
E.ENVIRONMENTAL
F.LEGAL

A. POLITICAL – POLITICAL FACTORS IS ALL ABOUT HOW AND TO WHAT DEGREE A GOVERNMENT INTERVENCES IN THE ECONOMY OR A CERTAIN INDUSTRY.POLITICAL FACTOR INCLUDE GOVERNMENT POLICY,POLITICAL STABILITY OR INSTABILITY,CORRUPTION,FOREIGN TRADE POLICY,TAX POLICY,LABOUR LAW, ENVIRONMENTAL LAW,TRADE RESRTICTIONS.CONSIDERING THE ABOVE LIST IT IS CLEAR THAT POLITICAL FACTORS OFTEN HAVE AN IMPACT ON ORAGANISATIONS AND HOW THEY DO BUSINESS.THE GOVERNMENT MAY ALSO HAVE PROFOUND IMPACT ON NATION’S EDUCATION SYSYTEM,INFRASTUCTURE AND HEALTH REGULATIONS.
B. ECONOMIC – ECONOMIC FACTORS ARE DETERMINANTS OF A CERTAIN ECONOMY’S PERFORMANCE THAT DIRECTLY IMPACTS A COMPANY AND HAVE RESONATING LONG TERM EFFECTS.FACTORS INCLUDE ECONOMIC GROWTH,INTEREST RATES,EXCHANGE RATES,EMPLOYMENT OR UNEMPLOYMENT RATES,INFLATION RATE,DISPOSABLE INCOME OF CONSTUMERS,BUSINESS AND SO ON.ECONOMIC FACTORS GREATLY AFFECT HOW BUSINESS OPERATES AND MAKES DECISIONS.
C. SOCIAL – SOCIAL FACTORS ARE ALSO KNOWN AS SOCIAL CULTURAL FACTORS.THESE FACTORS INVOLVES SHARED BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES OF THE POPULATION.MAINLY FOCUS ON SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND EMERGING TRENDS.THESE FACTORS INCLUDE:
1. POPULATION GROWTH
2. AGE DISTRIBUTION
3 .HEALTH CONSIOUSNESS
4. CAREER ATITUDES
5. SAFETY EMPASIS
6. LIFESTYLE ATITUDES
7. CULTURAL BARRIERS ETC
THESE FACTORS ARE OF PARTICULAR INTEREST AS THEY HAVE A DIRECT EFFECT ON HOW MARKETERS UNDERSTAND CUSTOMERS AND WHAT DRIVES THEM.FIRMS OR ORGANISATIONS ARE LIKELY TO SUCCED IF THEY CAN ADAPT PRODUCTS AND SERVICES TO PREVALENT SOCIOCULTURAL CONDITIONS.
D. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS – TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS CONSIDER THE RATE OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT THAT COULD AFFECT A MARKET OR INDUSTRY.HENCE FIRMS MUST FOCUS AND STAY ON TOP OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES TO REMAIN COMPETITIVE IN THEIR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES.TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECT MARKETING AND THE MANAGEMENT IN DISTINCT WAYS:
• NEW WAYS OF DISTURBUTING GOODS AND SERVICES
• NEW WAYS OF PRODUCING GOODS AND SERVICES
• NEW WAYS OF COMMUNICATING WITH TARGET MARKETS
IT CREATES OPPORTUNITES FOR NEW PRODUCTS AND PRODUCT IMPROVEMENTS IN TERMS OF MARKETING AND PRODUCTION.IT ALSO HELPS TO UNDERSTAND LEVEL OF INNOVATION,TECHNOLOGICAL AWARENES,TECHONOLOGICAL INCENTIVES ETC.
E. ENVIRONMENTAL – ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATE TO THE INFLUENCE WEATHER AND CLIMATE,ENVIRNOMENTAL POLICIES,CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE CAN CAUSE VARIOUS IMPACT ON MANY INDUSTRIES INCLUDING FARMING,TOURISM AND INSURANCE.ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS HAVE BECOME IMPORTANT DUE TO THE INCREASING SCARCITY OF
RAW MATERIALS,POLLUTION TARGETS,DOING BUSINESS AS AN ETHICAL AND SUSTAINABLE COMPANY,CARBON FOOTPRINTS TEARGETS SET BY GOVERNMENTS(THIS IS A GOOD EXAMPLE WERE ONE FACTOR COULD BE CLASSIFIED AS POLITICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL AT THE SAME TIME).DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING AND WITH GREATER ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS THIS EXTERNAL FACTOR IS BECOMING A SIGNIFICANT ISSUE FOR FIRMS TO CONSIDER.
F. LEGAL – LEGAL FACTORS INCLUDE HEALTH AND SAFETY,EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES,ADVERTISING STANDARDS,CONSUMER RIGHTS AND LAWS,ANTITRUST LAW,COPY RIGHT AND PATENT LAWS,FUTURE LEGISLATION AND COMPETATIVE LEGISLATION TDISCRIMINATION LAWS,LABELLING AND PRODUCT SAFETY.COMPANIES OR ORAGANISATIONS MUST UNDERSTAND WHAT IS LEGAL INORDER TO TRADE SUCCESSFULLY.IF AN ORAGANISATION TARDES GLOBALLY THIS BECOMES A VERY TRICKY AREA TO GET RIGHT AS EACH COUNTRY HAS ITS OWN SET OF RULES AND REGULATIONS.

2.2 IMPACT OF PESTEL ON THE STARBUCKS:
A. POLITICAL FACTORS – POLITICAL FACTORS HAVE A DEEP IMPACT ON STARBUCKS SALES AND IT IS AFFECTED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY.THE KEY POLITICAL IMPERATIVE STARBUCKS FACES IS THE CONCERN OVER SOURCING OF ITS RAW MATERIALS THAT HAS ATTRACTED THE ATTENTION OF THE POLITICIANS IN THE WEST AND IN THE COUNTRIES FROM WHERE IT SOURCE ITS RAW MATERIAL.THIS REASON MADE STARBUCKS KEEN ON ADHERING TO SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL NORMS AND TO FOLLOW SOURCEING STRATEGIES THAT ARE APPROPRIATE AND IN CONFORMANCE TO THE FAIR TRADE PRACTICES THAT HAVE BEEN APPROVED UPON BY GLOBAL COOPERATIONS AND THE GOVERNMENT DEVELOPING.ANOTHER POLITICAL ISSUSE WHICH STARBUCKS FACES IS THE REGULATORY PRESSURES WITHIN ITS HOME MARKET IN THE UNITED STATES BECAUSE OF GREATER SCRUNITY OF THE BUSINESS PROCEESS THAT MULTINATIONALS BASED IN US ARE SUBJECTED TO.STARBUCKS ALSO NEED TO FOLLOW THE LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN THE COUNTRIES FROM WHERE STARBUCKS BUYS THE RAW MATERIAL.ACTIVISM AND INCREASED POLITICAL AWARENESS IN DEVEOPING COUNTRIES HAVE MADE THIS ESSENTIAL.SOME OTHER FACTORSTO CONSIDER ARE
• TAX POLICY
• EMPLOYMENT LAWS
B. ECONOMIC – THE FOREMOST EXTERNAL ECONOMIC FOR STARBUCKS IS THE ONGOING GLOBAL ECONOMIC RECESSION WHICH AS EXPLAINED IN THE INTRODUCTION HAS DENTED THE PROFITABILITY OF MANY COMPANIES.THIS HAS CONVINCED BUYERS TO SHIFT TO CHEAP ALTERNATIVES.AS THEYY DID NOT QUIT BUYING COFFEE,STARBUCKS SHOULD SEEK AN OPPORTUNITY HERE.THE COMPANY HAS TO DEAL WITH RISING LABOR AND OPERATIONAL COSTS.THE INFLATIONARY ENVIRONMENTAND FALLING PROFITABILITY IS CAUSING A LOT OF STRESS.SOME OTHER FACTORS WHICH AFFECT STARBUCKS ARE:
• LOCAL CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES
• LOCAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT IN DIFFERENT MARKETS
• TAXATION LEVEL
• INTEREST RATES AND INFLATION
C. SOCIAL – STARBUCKS CAN OFFER CHEAPER ALTERNATIVES,IT HAS TO DO IT WITHOUT SACRIFICING ITS QUALITY AND THIS IS THE KEY SOCIO CULTURAL CHALLENGE THAT THE COMPANY FACES AS IT EXPAND ITS CONSUMER BASE TO INCLUDE THE CONSUMERS FROM THE LOWER AND THE MIDDLE TIERS OF THE INCOME PYRAMID.THE “GREEN” AND “ETHICAL CHIC” CONSUMERS ARE ALSO CONCERNING.THEY FRET ABOUT SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS OF THE BRANDS.STARBUCKS HAS TO BE AWARE OF THIS TREND.THE OLDER GENERATION IS LIKELY TO TAPER OFF AND HENCE STARBUCKS WOULD HAVE TO LOOKOUT FOR TAPPING THE GEN X AND THE MILLENIALS AS A PART OF STRATEGY. OTHER SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS TO FOCUS ON ARE:
• CHANGING FAMILY PATTERNS
• CONSUMER PREFERENCES
• CHANGING WORK PATTERNS
• THE LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF THE POPULATION IN LOCAL MARKETS
• CHANGING VALUES AMONG POPULATION
D. TECHONOLOGICAL – STARBUCKS IS IN A GOOD POSITION TO ENJOY BENEFITS OF THE EMERGING MOBILE WAVE.STARBUCKS HAS TIED UP WITH APP BASED DISCOUNT COUPONS IS HELPING IT RIDE THE MOBILE WAVE EASILY.IT IS AN ERA OF TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECT THE PROFITABILITY OF ANY BUSINESS.THE COMPANY INTRODUCED WIFI CAPABILITIES IN ITS OUTLETS ALREADY.INTERNET IS IMPORTANT TO THE CONSUMERS.THEY CAN NOW SURF THE WEB AND DO WORK WHILE SIPPING STARBUCKS COFFEE.THIS IS ADDED VALUE TO THE BRAND.IT HAS ALSO FOCUSED ON DIGITAL INNOVATION TO DRIVE BUSINESS,IT HAS LAUNCHED MOBILE ORDER AND PAY FEATURE.OTHER TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ARE
• EMERGENCE OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY
• DEVELOPMENTS IN AGRICULTURE
• BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DEVEOLPMENTS
E. ENVIRONMENTAL – THE MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE A BRAND IS HIGHER IS ITS POPULARITY AND THE BETTER IS ITS BRANDS.SUCH BRANDS OBTAIN HIGHER LOYALTY FROM THEIR CUSTOMERS.STARBUCKS HAS ALSO MADE SIGNIFICANT INVESTMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES.IT IS WORKING TO BRING ALL ITS STORES TO LEED BUILDING STANDARDS AND TO APPROACH THEIR DESIGN AND MAINTAINENCE IN A MANNER THAT IS INCLUSIVE OF ITS ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY GOALS.IT IS ALSO WORKING TO SHRINK ITS ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT BY INCREASING RECYCLING AND BY REDUCING THE WASTE RELATED TO CUPS AND OTHER TYPES OF PACKAGING.IT ALSO FOCUSES ON WATER AND ENERGY CONSERVATION.
ANOTHER IMPORTANT AREA WHERE ITS ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES ARE FOCUSED IS CLIMATE CHANGE.IT IS HELPING FARMERS MITIGATE THE EEFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE.OVERALL IT HAS INVESTED SIGNIFICANTLY IN ENVIRONMENT RESPONSIBILITY AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY.
F. LEGAL – LEGAL COMPLIANCE IS AN IMPORTANT REQUIREMENT FOR ANY BUSINESSES.HOWEVER,THER SITUATION IS MORE COMPLEX FOR THE ONES OPERATING IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT.SUCH COMPANIES ARE FACED WITH DIFFERENT LAWS IN DIFFERENT NATIONS.FROM THE TAX RATES TO THE LABOR LAWS AND OTHER TYPES OF LAWS,ALL OF THEM DIFFER ACROSS NATIONS.STARBUCKS IS ESPECIALLY CAUTIOUS REGARDING ETHICS AND LEGAL COMPLIANCE.
IT HAS ENACTED A SPECIAL BUSINESS ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM THAT FOCUSES ON TRAINING THE EMPLOYEES AT COMPLIANCE AND ETHICS.THROUGHOUT THE GLOBE WHERE ITS BUSINESS OPERATES THE COMPANY IS FOCUSED ON REMAINING COMPLIANT WITH LAW.APART FROM IT,THE FOCUS IS ALSO ON NON DISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL TREATMENT OF ALL THE EMPLOYEES.WHILE IT REDUCES THE CHANCES OF LEGAL HASSLES,IT ALSO HELPS THE BUSINESS OPERATE FAIRLY AND CREATE A BETTER BRAND IMAGE.

3. PORTER’S 5 FORCES
PORTER’S FIVE FORCES IS A MODEL WHICH IDENTIFIES AND ANALYZES FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES THAT SHAPE EVERY INDUSTRY,IT HELPS IN DETERMINING AND INDUSTRY’S WEAKNESS AND STRENGTHS.IT IS ALSO USED TO IDENTIFY AN INDUSTRY’S STRUCTURE TO DETERMINE COOPERATE STRATEGY,PORTER’S MODEL CAN BE APPILIED TO ANY SEGMENT OF THE ECONOMY TO SEARCH FOR PROFITABILITY AND ATTRACTIVENESS.
A. COMPETITIVE RIVARLY IN THE INDUSTRY – THIS AREA EXAMINES HOW INTENSE THE COMPETITION CURRENTLY IS IN THE MARKETPLACE,WHICH IS DETREMINED BY THE NUMBER OF EXISTING COMEPETITORS AND WHAT EACH IS CAPABLE OF DOING.RIVARLY COMPETITION IS HIGH WHEN THERE ARE JUST A FEW BUSINESSES EQUALLY SELLING A PRODUCT OR SERVICE,WHEN THE INDUSTRY IS GROWING AND WHEN CONSUMERS CAN EASILY SWITH TO A COMPETITORS’S OFFERING FOR LITTLE COST.RIVALRY TENDS TO BE ESPECIALLY FIERCE IF:
• COMPETITORS ARE NUMEROUS OR ARE ROUGHLY EQUAL IN SIZE OR MARKET POSITION.
• INDUSTRY GROWTH IS SLOW
• FIRMS HAVE DIFFERING GOALS,DIVERSE APPROACHES TO COMPETING OR LACK FAMILARITY WITH EACH OTHER.
WHEN RIVALRY COMPETITION IS HIGH,ADVERTISING AND PRICE WARS CAN ENSUE,WHICH CAN HURT A BUSINESS BOTTOM LINE.
B. THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS – THE FORCE EXAMINES HOW EASY OR DIFFICULT IT IS FOR THE COMPETITORS TO JOIN THE MARKET PLACE IN THE INDUSTRY.IF AN INDUSTRY IS PROFITABLE AND THERE ARE FEW BARRIERS TO ENTER,RIVALRY SOON INTENSIFIES.WHEN THE MORE NUMBER OF ORGANISATIONS COMPETE FOR THE SAME MARKET SHARE,PROFITS BEGINS TO FALL.IT IS ESSENTIAL FOR EXISTING ORAGANISATIONS TO CREATE HIGH BARRIERS TO ENTER TO DETER NEW ENTRANTS.THE THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS IS HIGH WHEN:
• EXISTING FIRMS DO NOT POSSESE PATENTS,TRADEMARKS OR DO NOT HAVE ESTABILISHED BRAND REPUTATION
• THERE IS NO GOVERNMENT REULATIONS
• PRODUCTS ARE NEARLY IDENTICAL AND THERE IS LOW CUSTOMER LOYALITY
C. THREAT TO SUBSTITUTE NPRODUCTS OR SERVICES – THIS FORCES IS ESPECIALLY THREATENING WHEN BUYERS CAN EASILY FIND SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS WITH ATTRACTIVE PRICES OR BETTER QUALITY AND WHEN BUYERS CAN SWITCH FROM ONE PRODUCT OR SERVICE TO ANOTHER WITH LITTLE COST.TECHNOLOGICAL ADAVANCES CAN LEAD TO THE DEVEOLPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS THAT SUBSTITUTE EXISTING ONES.
D. BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS – STRONG BARGAINING POWER ALLOWS SUPPLIERS TO SELL HIGHER PRICED OR LOWEER QUALITY RAW MATERIALS TO THEIR BUYERS.THIS DIRECTLY AFFECTS THE BUYING FIRM’S PROFITS BECAUSE IT HAS TO PAY MORE FOR MATERIALS.SUPPLIERS HAVE STRONG BARGAINING POWER WHEN:
• THERE IS FEW SUPPLIERS BUT MANY BUYERS
• FEW SUBSITITUTE RAW MATERIALS EXIST
• SUPPLIERS HOLD SCARE RESOURCES
• SUPPLIERS ARE LARGE
• COST OF SWITCHING RAW MATERIALS IS ESPECIALLY HIGH
• WHEN THERE IS NO SATISFACTORY SUBSTITUTES

E. BARGAINING POWER OF CUSTOMERS – THE BARGAINING POWER OF A CUSTOMERS INCREASES WHEN THEY PURCHASE A LARGE SHARE OF THE FIRMS OUTPUT,THE PRODUCT IS IMPORTANT TO THEM,CLOSE SUBSTITUTES ARE READILY AVAILABLE,AND THE PRODUCT IS RELATIVELT STANDARDIZED.BARGAINING POWER OF A CUSTOMER IS ALSO REFFERED AS THE MARKET OF OUTPUTS,THE ABILITY OF CUSTOMERS TO PUT THE FIRM UNDER PRESSURE,WHICH ALSO PRESSURE,WHICH ALSO AFFECTS THE CUSTOMER’S SENSITIVITY TO PRICE CHANGES.FIRMS CAN TAKE MEASURES TO REDUCE BUYER POWER,SUCH AS IMPLEMETING A LOYALITY PROGRAM.BUYER’S POWER IS HIGH IF BUYERS HAVE MANY ALTERNATIVES.
POTENTIAL FACTORS –
• BUYERS CONCENTRATION TO FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO
• BUYERS INFORMATION AVIALABILITY
• BUYERS SWITCHING COST
• DEGREE OF DEPENDING UPON EXISTING CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION
• BUYERS CONCENTRATION TO FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO

3.2 IMPACT OF PORTER’S FIVE FORCES ON STARBUCKS
A. COMPETITIVE RIVALRY IN THE INDUSTRY – STARBUCKS FACES MODERATE TO HIGH FORCE OF COMPETITIVE RIVALRY OR COMPETITION IN THE FOOD SERVICE AND COFFEE HOUSE INDUSTRIES.THE LARGE NUMBER OF FIRMS IS AN EXTERNAL FACTOR THAT INTENSIFIES COMPETITIVE RIVALRY.THE ENTRY AND THE EXIT BARRIERS ARE SMALL.THE MAIN FACTOR THAT MODERATES THE COMPETITION FOR STARBUCKS IS ITS MARKET SHARE.IT HAS THE HIGHEST MARKET SHARE FOLLOWED BY DUNKIN AND McCAFE. HOWEVER THE PREMIUM QUALITY AND PRODUCT BASED DIFFERENTIATION THAT STARBUCKS USES ALSO GIVE SOME EDGE OVER ITS COMPETITORS.HOWEVER, THE INDUSTRY HAS MATURED AND GROWTH RATE HAS MODERATED AS A HIGH NUMBER OF PLAYERS ARE COMPETITING FOR MARKET SHARE.STILL OVERALL THERE IS ALWAYS SPACE IN THIS INDUSTRY FOR NEW PLAYERS,WHICH ADDS TO THE INTENSITY OF COMPETITION IN IT.
THIS ANALYSIS SHOWS THAT STARBUCKS HAS BEEN ABLE TO MODERATE THE COMPETITIVE THREAT AGAINST IT BASED ON PREMIUM QUALITY OF ITS PRODUCTS AS WELL AS QUALITY OF CUSTOMER SERVICE.APART FROM IT,THE GLOBAL COFFEE BRAND HAS EXCELLENTLY MANAGED ITS SUPPLY CHAIN WHICH HAS REDUCED THEIR BARGAINING POSITION.STARBUCKS HAS ACQUIRED SOME EXCELLENT COMPETENCIES AND BUILT A STRONG BRAND THAT GIVES IT A COMPETITIVE ADAVANTAGE IN THE INDUSTRY.
B. THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS – THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS FOR STARBUCKS IS MODERATE.THE BARRIERS ARE NOT VERY HIGH AND THE INTIAL INVESTMENT TO START A COFFEE BRAND IS NOT HIGH EITHER.NEW ENTRANTS CAN COMPETE WITH BRANDS LIKE STARBUCKS AT LOCAL LEVEL.HOWEVER THE POSSBILITY OF BEING SUCCESSFUL REMAINS LOW TO MODERATE.STARBUCKS HAS A GRABBED A LARGE MARKET SHARE BASED ON ITS INFRASTRUCTURE, EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCT QUALITY.STILL,SWITCHING COSTS BEING LOW,THE NEW BRANDS CAN ATTRACT CUSTOMERS USING LOWER PRICES.SO THE THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS REMAINS.HOWEVER,IT GETS MITIGATED TO A LARGE EXTENT BY BRAND IMAGE,MARKET SHAREAND OTHER FACTORS LIKE LOYALITY. AN IMPORTANT FACTOR THAT GIVES THE STARBUCKS BRAND A COMPETITIVE EDGE IS ITS ACCESS TO RAW MATERIALS AND SUPPLIERS.THE THREAT HAS INCREASED TO SOME LEVEL DUE TO THE ENTRY OF McDONALDS IN THE LINE THROUGH McCAFE.
C. THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS OR SERVICES – THE NUMBER OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS FOR THE STARBUCKS BRAND COFFEE IS HIGH.FROM JUICES TO TEA AND ALCOHOLIC AS WELL AS NON ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES THERE ARE SEVERAL SUBSTITUTES AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET.THERE ARE PUBS AND RESTAURANTS THAT PROVIDE BOTH GOOD AMBIENCE AND QUALITY PRODUCTS.ANOTHER SOURCE OF THREAT IN THIS AREA ARE THE HOME MADE PRODUCTS THAT THE CONSUMERS CAN MAKE AT HOME.APART FROM IT THE SWITCHING COSTS ARE NEGLIGIBLE.THESE ALL FACTORS MAKE SUBSTITUTE A MODERATE TO BIG THREAT.STILL,THERE ARE SOME FACTORS THAT MODERATE THIS THREAT TO SOME EXTENT.APART FROM THE PREMIUM QUALITY COFFEE,EXCELLENT CUSTOMER SERVICE AND A GREAT AMBIENCE,STARBUCKS ALSO SELLS PREMIUM PACKAGED COFFEE AND COFFEE MAKERS.PREMIUM QUALITY AND BRAND LOYALTY MODERATE THE THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE TO SOME EXTENT.
D. BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS – SUPPLIERS CAN EXERT ONLY LOW TO MODERATE PRESSURE TO STARBUCKS.THE BRAND HAS ITS OWN SUPPLIER DIVERSITY POLICY THAT IT USED TO SELECT THE SUPPLIERS.ETHICAL SOURCING IS ANOTHER MAJOR POLICY AT STARBUCKS.THE BRAND SOURCES COFFEE ETHICALLY FROM SEVERAL PARTS OF THE WORLD.IT IS ALSO GROWING WITH COFFEE FARMERS DIRECTLY THAT HAS HELPED IT GAIN HIGHER CONTROL OVER ITS SUPPLY CHAIN.IT ELIMINATED THE MEDITATORS AND STARTED SOURCING FROM THE FARMERS DIRECTLY.STARBUCKS HAS DEVELOPED GREAT RELATIONSHIPS WITH BOTH TEA AND COCOA FARMING COMMUNITES TO EDUCATE THEM,ABOUT BETTER COCOA FARMING PRACTICES AND TO HELP THEM DERIVE MAXIMUM PROFITS FROM IT.ALL OF THIS HAS WORKED TO REDUCE THE CLOUT OF THE MEDITATORS AND THE SUPPLIERS.MOREOVER,THE NUMBER OF SUPPLIERS IS HIGH AND STARBUCKS HAS PLENTY OF ROOM TO EXERCISE CHOICE.SO ITS EXCELLENT SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN THE LAST DECADE HAS REDUCED THE BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS AND BROUGHT IT LOW.
E. BARGAINING POWER OF CUSTOMERS – THE BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS IN CASE OF STARBUCKS IS MODERATE TO LOW.THE SIZE OF INDIVIDUAL PURCHASES IS SMALL AND SO SINGLE BUYERS DO NOT HOLD ENOUGH INFLUENCE.APART FROM IT THE COFFEE BRAND HAS A DIVERSE CUSTOMER BASE.ITS CUSTOMERS ARE MAINLY QUALITY SENSTIVE AND WILLING TO PAY HIGHER PRICES FOR PERMIUM QUALITY PRODUCTS.STILL, THE PRICES CANNOT BE EXCESSIVELY HIGH BECAUSE CUSTOMERS WATCH FOR SUCH TRENDS WOULD START SWITCHING.MOREOVER,THE PRODUCT MIX OF STARBUCKS IS DIVERSE.

4. STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS – RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER GROWTH OF STARBUCKS ONE WAY IS TO
? INCREASE INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION : THE FIRST AND FOREMOST RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STARBUCKS WOULD BE TO INCREASE ITS EXISTENCE IN INTERNATIONAL COUNTRIES( EXCLUDING UNITED STATES OF AMERICA).AGGRESSIVE MARKETING STRATEGIES SHALL BE FOLLOWED AT STARBUCKS TO EXPAND ITS OPERATIONS.STARBUCKS SHALL TRY TO REDUCE ITS MARKETIG STRATEGIES IN US.AS IT HAS ENTERED THE MATURED STAGE OF PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE.
? BECOME ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY : MANY EFFORTS HAVE BEEN MADE BY STARBUCKS TO IMPROVE THEIR IMAGE AS A ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY STORE:STILL THERE IS SCOPE FOR FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS.SOME OF THE WAYS WHICH SHALL BE FOLLOWED BY STARBUCKS TO BECOME AN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY STORE WOULD BE TO RECYCLE THE PORCELAIN CUPS,ENCOURAGE THE CUSTOMERS NOT TO WASTE THE FOOD PRODUCTS AND RECYCLE THE PLASTIC STARBUCKS CARDS.
? CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENTS IN THE COFFEE :IT WOULD BE AN IMPORTANT TASK FOR STARBUCKS TO CONTINUALLY IMPROVE THE TASTE OF THE COFFEE.IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF COFFEE,STARBUCKS SHALL ANALYZE ITS BREWING SYSTEMS ON TIMELY BASIS AND CONSIDER RENOVATIONS.THEY SHALL PATENTS AND COPYRIGHT THEIR WAY OF ACCOMPLISHING THE BREWING PROCESS.THIS WILL ADD AS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR STARBUCKS.
? TECHNOLOGICAL FRIENDLY ATMOSPHERE : STARBUCKS SHALL TRY TO BUILD A TECHNOLOGY FRIENDLY ATMOSPHERE.WITH THE RISE IN INTERNET FACILITIES AN INCREASING SHIFTS HAVE BEEN MADE FROM CONSUMER’S WORK LOCATIONS TO HOME OFFICES.STARBUCKS HAVE BE REGARDED AS A MEETING SPACE WHERE IN AN ADDITIONAL FACILITY APART FROM WIFI WOULD BE PROVIDED TO THE CUSTOMERS.
5. CONCLUSION
IT IS NO DOUBT THAT STARBUCKS IS ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL COMPANY IN THE WORLD.THEY USED A SIMPLE STRATEGY,CONNECTING LINKS BETWEEN TREATING EMPLOYEES WITH DIGNITY AND RESPECT AND PRODUCING A GOOD PRODUCT AND SERVICES.THAT WAS THE MAJOR FACTORS THAT DIFFERENTIATE STARBUCKS FROM OTHERS AND BRING THE SUCCESSFUL TO STARBUCKS.THE FUTURE OF STARBUCKS,WHICH IS IN A FAST GROWTH PHASE,IS APPARENTLY TO BE SUCCESFULL AND PROMISING.DEFENDING AND GROWING A COMPETITIVE POSITION REQUIRES FIRMLY BUILT STRATEGIES BASED ON ITS UNIQUE,VALUABLE AND LEADING CAPABILITIES AND RESOURCES,RATHER THAN THE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES THEMSELVES,PROACTIVELY RESPONDING TO EVER CHANGING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT TO KEEP FENDING OF ITS COMPETITORS.ALTHOUGH CURRENTLY THERE IS NO FORMIDABLE COMPETITORS FOR STARBUCKS LEADERSHIP IN BOTH INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC MARKETS,IT SHOULD NOT TAKE IT FOR GRANTED FOR GOOD.TOMORROW’S DESTINY OF STARBUCKS SHOULD DEPEND ON ITS STRATEGIC CAPABILITY TO PRESERVE AND SUSTAIN ITS STRENGTH ,OFFSET WEAKNESS,AVOIDS THREATS AND CAPATILIZE ON OPPORTUNITIES.IF STARBUCKS WOULD CORRECTLY IDENTIFY AND DEAL WITH THE ISSUES UNDER CURRENT AND NEAR FUTURE CIRCUMSTANCES,IT COULD REMAIN EXICTED ABOUT FURTHER GROWTH AND CONTINUES TO BE PROSPEROUS.

1.3. Economic growth
Economic growth means a sustained increase in per capita national output or net national product over a long period of time. It implies that that the rate of increase in total output must greater than the rate of time. It may be asked here; is there no growth in a country where nation’s output and population increase at the same rate so that per capita output remains constant? And, is there growth in a country where both output and population decease-the former decreasing at lower rate than the latter-so that per capita output increase? The answer to these questions is certainly in the negative. If output and population grow at the same rate, there would be no increase in per capita income and there would be no improvement in the general standard of living, despite increase in output. Such a growth is considered to be a good as stagnation in the population than decrease in the output amounts to general decay in the economy.
Thus, economic growth implies a considerable and sustain increase in per capita with or without increase in population. Another qualification of economic growth is that the national output should be composed of such goods and service which satisfy the maximum number of people. Besides, for economic growth to be, the increase in output must be sustained over the long period.
Short-run increase followed by a similar decrease in the output does not mean economic growth. Also seasonal, occasional and cyclical increase in output do not satisfy the condition of sustained economic growth (DWIVED, 2005).
1.3.1. Determinant of economic growth
There are four most important determinant of economic growth:
1. Human resources and its quality,
2. Natural resources,
3. Capital formation, and
4. Technological development.
These four factors are considered the “four wheels” of economic growth. The social and political factor. Let us now see how see how those factors contribute to economic growth of country.
Human resources and its quality
Human resources of a country is the most crucial factor in it economic growth. Human resources are comprised of available labor force and their qualities of labor depend on the level of its education, training, skills, and its inventive and innovative abilities. Quantity and
Quality of manpower are both equally important. A large supply of unskilled labor forces a long with its skill in the sources of all goods and services.
An excess of labor force kind works as barrier rather than a force in economic growth. An important aspect of human resources is that excess and scarcity of labor force are both an advantage and a disadvantage in the process of economic growth. The excess of labor force in Indian has proved a burden on the economy and a barrier to rapid economic growth, particularly the uneducated, untrained and unskilled manpower. According to an estimate, there are 30 million unemployed people in Indian, Unemployed people consume without producing it reduces the rate of saving and investment. On the other hand, scarcity of labor in oil rich Middle East countries constrained their real growth severally during the 1970s and 1980s. They had to depend on imported labor for all kinds of their manpower needs and they still do to a great extent (DWIVED 2005-470).
Natural resources
Natural resources of a country include the area of usable land, and resources on natural water (rivers and lakes). Forest, landscape, etc. Underground resources include oil and natural gas and minerals. Favorable climate and environmental conditions add to the natural resources endowments of a country. The countries with rich natural resources endowments have a much larger growth potential an those lacking natural (DWIVED, 2005).

Resources. However, natural resources are passive factors of growth. The exploitation and use of natural resources depends on the quality of manpower, availability of capital and motivated manpower can do miracles in economic growth. These factors which may be co said contributed to rapid growth of United States, France, and Germany, U.K… Canada and Australia. However, there are countries which only one natural resources, e.g., Saudi Arabia, UAE and Kuwait, but they have the highest per capita income in the world. In contrast, there are tiny countries like Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan which have a (DWIVED. 2005). Small resources endowment, but they have the high rate of economic growth, Japan is one of the most prominent examples of countries having achieved the highest growth rate during the post war 2 period with a small area of land natural resources. The quality of manpower has played a vital role in the economic growth of these among these among the developing countries, these among the developing countries. These examples apart countries rich in natural resources, and skilled manpower with high level of motivation and driven provided a more foundation for a high growth rate.

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Capital formation

Capital is defined as man-mad of production. It includes machinery, plant and building, means of transport and communication, electricity, plant and social overheads like, railways, road, schools colleges, hospitals, etc. building man-made means of production is known as capital formation. Capital enhances the productivity of lobar. In other word, large a large quantity of good and services are produced per unit of time. This means that a high growth rate.
Capital formation require saving men and material resources form their use in consumer goods and transforming them into producer goods. In economic jargon, capital formation means sacrificing current consumption and saving to be invested in capital gods (machinery, plant, building, and equipment etic). In general, the countries with high rate of saving and investment have a high rate of economic growth (DWIVED, 2005).

Technology

Technology used in the fourth vital determinate of economic growth. Technologies refer to scientific method and technique of production. In effect, technology means the amount of labor. Capital-labor ratio is a broad measure of technology. Technological development means improving the technique of production through research and innovation.
Technological development results in large output for a given amount of mean, material and time. Invention of steam engines and railways, telephones and wireless, electricity Airplane and computer are few examples of technological development over the past two countries. Evidence available in economic history show that countries which technological development at a higher pace have made stronger stride in the fold of economic growth economically backward countries which are unable to a chive technological development on their own have to import technology form other countries. Countries using inefficient technology have evidently grown at a slower pace. An important aspect of technological development or technological innovation is the choice of appropriate technology. The choice and use of inappropriate often lead to a higher social cost of production.
A choice of labor saving technology by a labor surplus economy lead to grow with unemployment. Under such condition, not only are the advantages of technological development lost but there are social and political tensions in the country due to growing unemployment and unequal distribution of income (DWIVED, 2005)

Social and political factors

Social and political systems, organizations, institution, social value etic. Also an important role in the development process of an economy, social factors like customs, traditions, beliefs harmony, and attitude towards the materials life and well-being, determine, to a considerable extent, the pace of economic growth. A society of illiterate and rational organization of society. Such a society finds it very difficult to achieve a high growth rate (DWIVED, 2005).
Form of government and its economic role and policies matter to a greater extent in determining the level and rate of economic growth of a country. The role of government has been discussed in detail in one of the subsequent chapter.
Here, it may briefly that government plays a promotional role, provides adequate and efficient industrial infrastructure, build an efficient system of utilities invested in industries in which private investment is inadequate, remove weakness of the market system helps economic growth.
On the other hand, a government that throttles business activities through it economic policy, controls and regulations as did Indian government prior to the 1991reformes through its license, permit, quota raj encourages inefficient and mal allocation resources and restrains economic growth.

Furthermore political stability has always provide conducive to economic growth by encouraging industrial endeavors. An honest, sincere and efficient government builds public confidence optimism and the light kind of attitude towards society and country, and commitment towards the nation and public welfare. In the contracts, if the government is dishonest ministers, bureaucrats and government administrative infrastructure, it promote inefficient even the private business, increases cost of production, encourages mal practices in the private sector. All these hamper growth. More dangerously, it build a corrupt system, a corrupt society and degrades social and human value, in this social environment, individuals care only for their private gains, one can imagine the impact of hawala, fodder, government housing and JMM (bribe) scandals, security scan and shoddy defense deal exposed by tahalek on the society and business in Indian.

1.3.3. Measures of economic growth

Economic growth is a sustained expansion of production possibilities measured as increase in real GDP over given period. Rapid economic growth maintained over a number of years can transform a poor nation into rich one. Also economic growth is an increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP. Growth is usually calculated in real terms, i.e. inflation-adjusted terms, in order to net out the effect of inflation on the price of the goods and services produced.
In economics, “economic growth” or “economic growth theory” typically refers to growth of potential output, i.e., production at “full employment,” which is caused by growth in aggregate demand or observed output.

For purposes of evaluating how economic growth can fit into economic development, it is often helpful to focus on the growth rate of GDP per capital that is output per person rather than simply on overall output. Mathematically, GDP per capital is expressed as: GDP per capital-GDP/population

General macroeconomic conditions are very important in terms of changes in investment. So; economic growth will depend to some extent upon the stability of the economy like fiscal balance, and reasonably predictable level of inflation. Macroeconomic stability reduces the risks of investments and might therefore be seen as a necessary condition for growth. Fiscal balance ensures that there is less risk of inflation, because there will be less risk of governments printing money. This may also stabilize the exchange rate and allow interest rates to be set at reasonably low level, so further encouraging investment. Stability is also an important factor in the amount of foreign direct investment a country may be able to attract. For developing counties this may be the only realistic source of investment funds (MECHAEL, 2010)

1.3.3.1. Factors Affecting Economic Growth

Industries tries experience cycles of economic growth and contraction based on many factors. These include the overall health of the markets, consumer preferences and even seemingly unrelated world news and events. Although some companies perform better than others in their industry, the global factors that affect the industry as a whole must be contemplated when planning to start or grow a business.

? Interest Rates

Interest rates can impact the growth of an industry in several ways. In large-ticket industries such as vehicle manufacturers or cruise companies, an increase in interest rates can prevent customers form borrowing to finance the purchase of these types of products and services. High interest rates also deter companies form investing in new capital and expansion. On the other hand, falling interest rates can stimulate industries to grow, which can stimulate industries to grow, which can lead to innovation and higher employment levels.

? Currency Strength

The value of the U.S. dollar compared to other foreign currencies such as the Yuan, yen and the pound is important even for companies that do not import or export goods. Consumers have a choice to purchase goods or services originating in the United States or in other countries. If the U.S. dollar strengthens, companies in the industry that purchase inputs form other countries are able to be more competitive in pricing. In industries that are heavily reliant on foreign raw materials and processing, such as the clothing industry, the entire sector can be lifted or depressed with a strengthening or weakening of the dollar.

? Government Intervention

Many industries are regulated by the government in one form or another. Government agencies such as the Environmental protection Agency, the Food & Drug Administration or the U.S. Department of Agriculture maintain standards that all operators in an industry must follow for the safety of consumers, employees, or natural resources. Some industries are more heavily regulated than others and new laws and rules can shake up an entire industry and depress growth. For example, new child toy safety laws implemented under the consumer product Safety improvement Act in 2009 threatened to wipe out many small toy producers as the requirements to test and certify the toys were cost-prohibitive to all but large toy manufacturers. Proposed changes to the Act may help alleviate the burden on small manufacturers and resellers.

? Environmental Impact

Economic growth in an industry can be impacted not only by the environmental effect the products or services have but also by consumers’ perceptions of that impact. For example, the market for fur apparel declined drastically over the course of a few years in the 1990s when consumers perceived that raising and killing small animals for their fur was both inhumane and a poor use of land. Although the industry is once again picking up with international demand, the number of fur farmers in the country has substantially declined. If the public views an industry’s products or services as being harmful or unsafe, most companies within the sector can experience a marked decline in sales quickly.

? Overall Economic Health

The economic state of the country and consumer confidence can also spur growth and development or harm it. In recessionary times, consumers begin limiting their purchases to the essentials, foregoing luxury or big-ticket items. Companies also scale back production, hiring and the development of new products and services to ensure that their finances can weather the storm. In periods of overall economic growth, these companies once again expand.
The opposite is true in industries that dear in basic consumer goods that everyone needs regardless of the economy: food, diapers, and staple goods. Demand picks up for these necessities as consumers stock up on them and substitute basic goods for luxury goods (example: people buy more groceries to eat in rather than go to a restaurant). In inflationary times, the demand for staple goods declines as consumers can afford more luxury substitutes (Delong, 1996-58).

1.4. Relationship between economic growth and inflation

If economic growth is caused by rising Aggregate demand increases faster that productive capacity (LRAS) – then economic growth is likely to cause inflation. The relationship between inflation and growth rate (GDP) plays out like a very delicate dance. For stock market investors, annual growth in the GDP is vital. If overall economic output is declining or merely holding steady, most companies will not be able to increase their profits, which is the primary driver of stock performance. However, too much GDP growth is also dangerous, as it will most likely come with an increase in inflation, which erodes stock market gains by making our money (and future corporate profits) less valuable. Most economists today agree that 2.5-3.5% GDP growth per year is the most that our economy can safely maintain without causing negative side effects (Delong, 1996).

Over time, the growth in GDP causes inflation, and inflation begets hyperinflation. Once this process is place, it can quickly become a self-reinforcing feedback loop. This is because in a world where inflation is increasing, people will spend more money because they know that it will be less valuable in the future. This causes further increases in GDP in the short term, bringing about further price increases. Also, the effects of inflation are not linear; 10% inflation is much more than twice as harmful as 5% inflation. These are lessons that most advanced economies have learned through experience; in the U.S., you only need to go back about 30 year to find a prolonged period of high inflation, which was only remedied by going through a painful period of high unemployment and lost production as potential capacity sat idle ( Delong, 1996-58). In general, the findings reveal that there is a negative relationship between inflation and growth that is statistically significant and of an economically interesting magnification magnitude. These findings were put through numerous robustness check. As an interesting by-product of their studies, the authors developed a sequential decision “tree” technique in order to prove that inflation is not only a statistically significant determinant but also one of the most important determinants of growth.
At very low rates of inflation (around 2-3 percent a year or lower), inflation and growth are positively correlated. Otherwise, inflation and growth are negatively correlated, but the relationship is convex, so that the decline the decline in growth (Bruno, and easterly. 1995).

1.4.1. Growth and low inflation

It is possible that we can have economic growth without causing inflation. If growth is caused by increased productivity and investment, then the productive capacity of the economy can increase at the same rate as Aggregate Demand. This enables economic growth without inflation. For example, between 1993 and 2007, the UK experienced low inflationary growth. This is partly due to economic growth being sustainable i.e. close to the 2.5% average; it was also due to productivity improvements such as privatization and more flexible labor markets.

1. In 1821, Florida became a U.S. Territory with General Andrew Jackson as military governor.
2. Over 18 percent of Florida’s area is covered with water.
3. Tallahassee is the capital of Florida.
4. Florida is also known as “the sunshine state”.
5. Most of the people think that Florida is the southernmost U.S. state, but it’s not true, Hawaii is the southernmost.
6. Tourism is the largest industry in Florida.
7. Jacksonville is the largest city of Florida.
8. Florida is a peninsula, that means it is almost surrounded by water.
9. 1,000 people move each day to Florida.
10. The meaning of “Florida” is “flowery” is Spanish.
11. Florida Has the Only Museum in the US Dedicated to Japan and Japanese Culture.
12. Agriculture is the second largest industry in the state after tourism.
13. Florida has the highest number of a golf course in the U.S.
14. there are about 1,300 golf courses in Florida.
15. The state got its name from explorer Ponce de Leon, who called it La Florida, or “the flowery place.”
16. Florida is probably the only state in the nation whose constitution is reviewed every twenty years.

17. The population of Florida is 20.98 million.
18. It is third most-populated state of U.S.
19. The GDP of Florida is 967.3 billion USD.
20. Florida is mostly flat. It is less than 100 feet above sea level.
21. The population of the capital of Florida is only 191,049.
22. The largest lake in Florida is Lake Okeechobee.

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23. The Florida Museum of Hispanic and Latin American Art in Coral Gables is the first and only museum in the United States dedicated to the preservation, diffusion, and promotion of Hispanic and Latin American Art.

24. Miami installed the first bank ATM, especially for rollerbladers.

25. Any place in Florida is at distance not more than 60 miles (100 km) from the ocean.
26. Florida produces 70% of the U.S. oranges.
27. There is only one state embassy in Washington and that is Florida House.
28. Florida supplies 40% of the world’s orange juice.
29. The Walt Disney World Resort is in Florida. It is the planet’s most visited and biggest recreational resort.
30. Florida is also home to the world’s most dangerous tree – the Manchineel tree.
31. Florida is the flattest state in the USA.
32. The South Florida Museum houses the world’s largest collection of fossilized poop.
33. Benjamin Green, a Miami pharmacist, invented first suntan lotion.
34. A quarter of all phosphate mined on the planet is in Florida.
35. Florida is the only state that has 2 rivers both with the same name. There is a Withlacoochee in north central Florida (Madison County) and a Withlacoochee in central Florida.
36. Florida was Spanish territory for 280 years, which is longer than the U.S. has officially existed.
37. Greater Miami is the only metropolitan area in the United States that borders with two national parks.
38. Florida is the largest producer of citrus fruits, strawberries, watermelons, tomatoes, snap beans, cucumbers, and sugar.
39. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States.
40. A museum in Sanibel owns 2 million shells and probably the world’s only museum devoted solely to mollusks.
41. In 1982 the Florida Keys declared themselves independent under the name “The Conch Republic”. This lasted two minutes.
42. Florida has a museum of poop. The South Florida Museum has the world’s largest collection of fossilized poo.
43. The Benwood, on French Reef in the Florida Keys, is known as one of the most dived shipwrecks in the world.
44. The US city with the highest rate of lightning strikes per capita is Clearwater, Florida.
45. From Cape Canaveral, Florida, NASA’s first communication satellite—Echo 1–was launched on August 12, 1960.
46. Palm Beach County’s beaches are home to around 16,000 turtle nests.
47. Venice, FL is known as the Shark Tooth Capital of the World. Hunting for fossilized shark teeth is a treasured pastime of the visitors and residents.
48. Florida has the highest percentage of people over 65.
49. During the 1991 Gulf War Jacksonville was the busiest military port.
50. Port Miami is the largest passenger port in the world, and one of the largest cargo ports in the United States.
51. In 2009, the United States Census Bureau estimated that Florida’s population spent 49.1% of personal income on housing expenses.
52. The Jacksonville football stadium, called EverBank Field, is one of the largest and grandest stadiums in all of Florida.
53. Mechanical refrigeration was the invention of Dr. John Gorrie in Florida in 1851.
54. Florida only borders with two states Alabama, Georgia.
55. The state is the largest producer of sweet corn and green beans in the United States.
56. South Florida is the only place on earth where alligators and crocodiles coexist in the wild.
57. Carrabelle, Florida is home to the world’s smallest police station, it’s literally an old telephone booth
58. Plant City is also known as winter strawberry capital of the world. It hosts the annual Florida Strawberry Festival in the late winter.
59. Florida is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.
60. The highest point of Florida is Britton Hill (105 m).

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
General objective
To assess occupational stress and its influence on employee motivation paying attention to workers at Ayrshire Mine.
Specific objectives
1. To identify the sources of occupational stress which affect employee motivation.
2. To examine the effects of job stress on employees in the performance of their job.
3. To analyse the relationship between perceived levels of stress and individual differences.
4. To scrutinise the magnitude and patterns of occupational stress on employee motivation.
5. To understand which occupational stress factor plays a crucial role in affecting employee motivation.
6. To examine coping strategies adopted to motivate employees at the mine.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the sources of occupational stress which affect employee motivation?
2. How does these effects disturb employees in performing their job?
3. Analyse how perceived levels of stress are related to individual differences?
4. What magnitude of occupational stress has negative influence on employee motivation?
5. Which factor contribute more to low motivation among staff of Ayrshire Mine?
6. Are there any strategies which can be adopted to enhance the motivation of employees?
1.5 AIM OF THE STUDY
Occupational stress is one of the most pervasive problems an organization has to contend with. Stress Management is important to healthy functioning of organizations as it seeks to increase employee motivation since one can clearly focus on tasks, better memory, improved immune system and better blood pressure. Job stress leads to absenteeism, decrease employees’ efficiency and increased turnover. For the prosperity of an organization, it is a prerequisite that its employees work in a stress free environment. In Zimbabwe, occupational stress is not being given the best attention it deserves and so very little has been done as far as assessing the role of stress on job performance within organizations.
This study is vital as healthy, motivated and less stressed employees are more focused towards offering services and performing their duties. It is in the light of this that this study is deemed important, as it will:
? Create awareness among managers on the need to provide the needed platform to help prevent occurrence of job stress.
? Help human resources practitioners to have a better understanding on issues of motivation and performance.
? The study has the potential to stimulate, among scholars and students, an interest in the study of stress among workers in Zimbabwe.
1.6 LIMITATIONS
In carrying out the investigation the researcher may encounter the following limitations:
There might be unavailability of respondents due to other work commitments. The researcher is a full time student which means the research will be carried out as a part time, this may limit the researcher to cover wider spectrum. The respondents may fear to respond to questionnaires for a number of ethical reasons, with this in mind the researcher will use various strategies to mitigate the above probable challenges. Of great concern are ethical matters and also the design of the research instruments so that they are correctly interpreted by the respondents. The researcher will conduct a pilot study to be certain that the respondents adequately understand the requirements of the research and finally the researcher will emphasize to the respondents that everything will be published anonymously.
1.7 DELIMITATIONS
The scope of the study is the examination of the stress levels perceived by employees at Ayrshire mine, and to explore their effects on the magnitude of employee motivation. The study will also examine if there is a possible correlation between the organizational support and the level of motivation. The research is limited to a single case study, which is carried out at Ayrshire Mine, a mining company in Zimbabwe.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS
In carrying out the study, researcher assumes that the sample will be representative of the whole population. More so, the researcher assumes that he will be given access to all relevant information and that all questionnaires will be returned, also researcher will assume that the respondents will be complaisant.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Stress – There is no unilateral consensus over the definition and so various scholars have come up with various definitions of occupational stress to suit different situations. For better understanding of the definition of occupational stress, the parental definition (of stress) was reviewed. Shirom (1982) defined stress as an individual’s perception that stressors exceed his or her capabilities and resources leading to negative outcomes. Stress is also used in relation to the actual demands that are placed on humans which are referred to as stressors. Cotton (1996) postulates that stress can also be in the context of being a process of a multi¬faceted concept that occurs in a temporal and dynamic manner which is influenced by the interaction of a multitude of contributory factors.
Occupational stress – Specifically, occupational stress has been defined by Rohan (2003) as anything regarding the working environment or nature of work itself that causes individual perceived stress. Leka et al (2003) further expanded the definition of work related stress as the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their abilities and knowledge which challenge their ability to cope.
Employee – Hornby (2010) defined an employee as a person who is paid to work for somebody. The International Labour Organization elaborate this definition by stating that employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rate, or pay in kind. It is important to know that an employee is one who under contract is employed by an employer in either a private or public entity of an organization to work for a particular organization, with a reward at the end of the work.
Motivation – There have been various definitions of motivation across different disciplines in the academia ranging from the field of management, psychology to allied sciences. According to Page (2008), Motivation is defined as the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Robbins (2005) defined motivation as the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organisational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.
1.10 DISSERTATION OUTLINE
1.11 CONCLUDING REMARKS
In a basic manner, the first chapter is a preliminary chapter which conveys the objectives, background, and problem statement, research questions of the research on occupational stress influence on employee motivation. Limitations and delimitations of the research are also underlined in the first chapter. With a smooth shift from the first chapter, we move into the second chapter which encompasses the literature review of the research. The second chapter provides the ample review of the literature related to the problem which is being investigated. The chapter should contain the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and the historical overview of the problem, contemporary trends related to the problem and important research data published about the problem.

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1.1 Identify legislation and codes of practice that relate to handling information in social care settings.
• The data protection Act 1998: – is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament designed to protect personal data stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system. It follows the EU Data Protection Directive 1995 protection, processing and movement of data. Individuals have legal rights to control information about themselves. Most of the Act does not apply to domestic use.
• The Freedom of information Act 2000: – The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) generally provides that any person has the right to request access to federal agency records or information except to the extent the records are protected from disclosure by any of nine exemptions contained in the law or by one of three special law enforcement record exclusions.
• Carers Code of Practice: – A list of statements that describes the standard of professional code and practice required of a social care worker as they go about their daily work.

1.2 Explain how legal requirements and codes of practice inform practice in handling information.

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It is important and a legal requirement for all personal record and information to be kept from unauthorised readers.
All paper documentation in my work place relating to both staff and individuals are all kept in a locked office in filling cabinets under lock and key.
Electronic documents are also kept securely with passwords and encrypted to prevent hackers and unauthorised viewing as incompliance will bring about a breach of both staff and individuals confidentiality and rights. All records need to be written clearly in black ink not forgetting to record the date time and must be accurate. If there be any writing error, it only needs a clear line put through and initialled.

2.1 -Explain how to maintain records that are up to date complete accurate and legible.
Systems of records can be manual and electronic.
Manual system deals with any paper record, support and care plans, staff record etc. When in use need to be out general view and needs to be locked away.
Electronic system relates to databases, emails etc. stored on hard drives. These must be stored strong passwords protected, good internet security and must be encrypted.
2.2 -Describe practices that ensure security when storing and accessing information.
Some records and documents may contain personal or confidential information, these need to be kept secured and locked and do not need to be left about.
Ways of ensuring the security of this information include the use of strong passwords for all sensitive information stored on computers, storing sensitive filed information in locked cabinets, all such information needs to have controlled access.
2.3 Describe features of manual and electronic information storage systems that help ensure security.
All records must be validated by making sure they are up to date and signed and dated. This way it tells the needs of the individual has been met as the law states if it was not written down, then it never happened.
3.1 -Explain how to support others to understand the need for secure handling of information.
To ensure others understand the need for secure handling of information, there is the need for everyone to complete induction training and shadowing, highlighting the policies and procedures on handling information. They must understand what information they can share, who to share with, and how to report if something unusual happens to an individual.
3.2 -Explain how to support others to understand and contribute to records
The best way to support others to understand is by shadowing, thus attaching a new carer to a senior carer with lots of experience, who will spend time to explain what to do and make sure the one shadowing understands. Another way to support others to understand and contribute to records is liaising with colleagues, exchanging views and coming up with suggestions which will be in the best interest of the individual.

1. In the early illustrations, Father Frost / Santa Claus embodies the image of a strict discipline symbol and is not at all like the good-natured pot-bellied elf, as it is known today …
Strict Father Frost
2. All letters to Santa in America go to Santa Claus, Indiana.
Letter from Santa
3. The calculations of engineers involved in the development of Voyager spacecraft flight paths exclude the possibility of planetary clashes on Thanksgiving Day (November 24) and Christmas Day (December 25).
Spacecraft
4. In Peru, there is a village where residents settle all last year’s conflicts and disagreements with the help of fisticuffs. After the New Year’s fight, they begin with a clean slate.
The boys are fighting in a circle
5. In ancient times there was such a tradition – on Christmas Eve telling terrible stories. But it remained in the last century.
Frightened girl reading a book
6. Many zoos willingly accept Christmas trees after the holidays. It turns out that conifers – but not dried and not fallen – are a real delicacy for some animals.
Goats eat spruce
7. The song of Irving Berlin – White Christmas – became the most successful single in history. In the world, more than 100 million copies of it were sold.
White Christmas
8. At Christmas in Newfoundland, a group of people dresses in costumes, hiding faces, walks to their homes, and while the hosts try to identify guests, they sing festive songs and dance.
People with bags on their heads
9. Every year Paul McCartney earns about half a million dollars for his Christmas song, which many critics have called his worst creation.
Paul McCartney
10. A large part of the population of Sweden during the Christmas holidays is revising cartoons with Donald Duck in the 60s.
Donald Duck
11. Most of Denny’s restaurants were built without locks. And this was a real problem for employees, when in 1988 they first decided to close for Christmas.
Danny’s Cafe
12. During the Christmas holidays in 2010, the Colombian government conducted one very unusual operation.
Decorated Christmas tree in the forest
In the jungle, a few dozen trees were decorated with garlands. Lights with traffic sensors lit up when the rebels were walking alongside. On some trees, banners with inscriptions that reminded that at Christmas any miracles are possible, including the beginning of a new life. The encouraging slogans helped to restore 331 rebels to the society, for which the operation received an award in the field of strategic marketing.

13. Many famous Christmas songs were written by the Israelites.
Six-pointed star in the New Year’s cap
14. On Christmas Day in 1914 – during the First World War – a truce was established between Germany and Great Britain.
Military
Representatives of different nationalities decorated shelters and dwellings, exchanged presents, and even played soccer matches in neutral territory.

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15. In 1918 and for the last 40 years, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia sent giant New Year trees to Boston as a token of gratitude for the support provided to the victims during the explosion in Halifax in 1917.
Decorated Christmas tree in the center of the city
16. In 1867, one industrialist heard the Christmas carol of Dickens. The work so touched him that he immediately closed the factory for the holidays, and each employee was given a turkey.
Christmas on the street
17. The interval between the 16th and 19th centuries is usually called the “small ice age” – the temperature during it kept at a few degrees below normal. That is why in many songs and carols of that time Christmas is called “white”.
People at the rink
18. “Bohemian Rhapsody” – Queen – the only song that hit the British Christmas chart twice – the first time in 1975, and the second – in 1991.
Name of the song
19. In Nazi Germany, attempts were made to turn Christmas into a non-religious holiday celebrating the arrival of Hitler. St. Nicholas was to be replaced by Odin, and swastikas were to appear on the tops of the Christmas trees.
Hitler
20. American company Bicycle during the Second World War created a special deck of cards.
Card deck
If you wet your shirts, they showed a plan to escape from the Nazi camps. These cards became gifts for all prisoners of war in Germany. And none of the Nazis could reveal this secret.

21. Artificial Christmas trees are designed for use for more than 20 years. All this time, the trees retain color saturation … and maybe even become greener;)
Christmas tree plantation
22. Americans very often use the abbreviation – X-Mas. The letter “X” in it is the Greek “chi”, which stands for “Christ.”
X
23. Forty years ago, KFC’s fastfoods launched a very successful advertising campaign, thanks to which many Japanese still traditionally hold a Christmas dinner here. The place is popular enough that a table in KFC for Christmas needs to be booked for 2 – 3 months.
24. Residents of Oslo, Norway, give the Londoners a living tree every year. This is a token of gratitude for the support and assistance provided during the Second World War.
City tree
25. Christmas purchases account for one-sixth of all annual retail sales in America.

1. Mission & Vision Statement:
PDS & CE Authority is totally devoted an entire occupied for accomplishing the subsequent strategic goals set forth through the idealistic initiative of Chief Minister Punjab M.M Shahbaz Sharif :-
• To establish that all kids can exceed expectations, if equal opportunity is given them.
• To regenerate desire among the deprived people.
• To build up moral, esteem driven future pioneers.
• To battle social imbalance and ease destitution
• To contain fanaticism by instilling resistance, human pride and agreement.
The impression of Daanish Schools (DS) is the belief of this imaginative and prescient. The prominent functions are:-
• To permit the poorest sectors of the society to have get entry to first-class education atmosphere and facilitating infrastructure system.
• Daanish Schools (DS) are being recognized with an goal to provide excellence learning to all youngsters, belonging to poorest society like emergent areas of Punjab.
• These residential Daanish schools (DS) will arrange for the most neglected sections of population in Punjab’s poor regions, imparting children with free, excessive great and first-class education of the kind which make differ from other private schools.
2. Introduction about Daanish School Syatem:

Daanish Schools (DS) education System was commencing with the goal of improving education and enhancing poverty by the administration of Punjab government. On February, 2010, an Authority Act-2010 was passed by the provincial assembly of Punjab with the name referred to as daanish schools (DS) and Center of Excellence (COE’s) Authority. Precise the guarantee of the government, the authority is managed by the chief minister (CM) of the province himself. The body consists on parliamentary members, related administration, members of international society and well known educationists.

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According to the Daanish Schools (DS), the word” daanish” is a Persian language phrase, carried out in Urdu. In perspective of that Daanish Schools (DS) are being with a clear concept to battle poverty through educating the exceptional children of the deprived families. In Punjab Province Daanish Schools (DS) are providing level of poor childrens on stage field in the society and culture.
These schools show the positive action for the ignored community of the poorest people of Pakistan. The Daanish schools (DS) are implied just for boys and girls students of poor society and deprived community who required special concentration by the government. In any case, an additionally 10% quota has been reserved for self-finance students who bear expenses.
3. Aims & Objective of Daanish Schools:
An initiative scheme has been taken by the chief minister (CM) and his government to recognize poverty through providing attain to free education of deprived and poor families of society and empowering the human resources. The CM Punjab has made different impedances to improve the poverty, which is first priority of government.
The chief minister (CM) is truly examining initiatives on following all factors of education in the education sector:-
? Core content of quality
? Attendance of teacher
? Training of teachers
? Ability to teach
? Up gradation and standardization of curriculum

The Daanish Schools (DS) will pursue their personal curriculum, designed specially to enhance creative through skills and effect civic & social values. Our major strategic aim to use education as a core focus to battle poverty and organize a culture based. The Daanish School (DS) would give overall improvement of underestimated students with the importance of sports, academics, physical training combined with community responsibility and social activities.

b) Head office address
Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority (PDS & CEA)
Near Punjab university new campus, Research station, Japanese cell building ,
canal bank Lahore, Pakistan.
Email Address:[email protected]
Contact No. : 042-99230633, 042-99232065, 04299231737-40
Fax No.: 042-99231739

c) Product lines
PDS &CE Authority have following two components in School category. The one of most important Governing Body (GB Members) conveyer by the local Distrci Coordination Officer (DCO) or Deputy Commissioner (DC), has a supervision of each school is running by.
i. Daanish Schools (DS)
ii. Centers of Excellence (COE)
i. Daanish Schools:
In First component of Daanish schools category, Currently 14 Daanish Schools (Boys and Girls) are functioning at seven different locations in Punjab; one for the girls and the other for boys. i.e.
• Daanish School (DS RYK) Rahim Yar Khan

• Daanish School (DS HSPR) Hasilpur

• Daanish School (DS CHSTN) Chishtian

• Daanish School (DS HRNL) Harnoli (Mianwali)

• Daanish School (DS JND) Jand (Attock)

• Daanish School (DS DGK) Dera Ghazi Khan

• Daanish School (DS FZPR) Fazilpur (Rajanpur)

ii. Center of Excellence:
In the second component, 10 well-known Govt. High Schools (H/S) have been confirmed as Centers of Excellence (COE). It was an additional commence is to exchange Government high schools of selected areas to promote into COE’s). The following Govt. high schools have been transformed into Center of Excellence (COE’s) and are operation beneath the territory of PDS & CE Authority:
• Center of Excellence, Govt. High School No.01 (Boys) Dera Ghazi Khan
• Center of Excellence, Govt. Central Model High School (Girls) Dera Ghazi Khan
• Center of Excellence, Govt. High School (Boys) Muzaffargarh
• Center of Excellence, Govt. Normal High School (Girls), Muzaffargarh
• Center of Excellence, Govt. High School (Boys) Jaranwala
• Center of Excellence, Govt. High School No.01 (Girls) Hafizabad
• Center of Excellence, Govt. Boys Pilot Secondary School Sialkot
• Center of Excellence, Govt. Girls Lady Anderson Higher Secondary School Sialkot
• Center of Excellence, Govt. Boys High School Rojhan, Distt Rajanpur
• Center of Excellence, Govt. Girls High School Rojhan, Distt Rajanpur

d) Competitors:
There is not any significant competitor in Punjab Province with Punjab Daanish Schools, but some schools have to promote education like:
• Punjab Education Foundation schools Muzaffargarh
• Tayyab Erdigon School Basira
• Sardar Korey Khan School Muzaffargarh

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