1. Introduction
US airline industry is listed at the bottom of the profitability table of industries in the country 2000-2013. The industry has struggled a lot to make profits. An American investor Waren Buffet once quoted that investors in this industry had cumulatively lost more money than it had made. During the first quarter of 2015, it was clear the strong upswing in the profitability of US airlines that had begun in 2012 was continuing into 2015. Airline profitability was benefiting from the fall in oil prices and the revival of the US economy. The US airline industry had been plagued by intense competition and dismal profitability since it was deregulated in 1978. Several airline were in chapter 11 bankruptcy for long period of time. Even with the recent revival, the profit margins of the major US carriers remained thin. The financial miseries of the airline industry were not restricted to the US: the global airline industry had consistently failed to earn returns that covered its cost of capital.
2. Current state of US airline industry
There are two eras in the history of US airlines, first was the ear of regulation which stayed until 1978 and second the era of deregulation. Following the act of deregulation airline industry is controlled by free market. This stimulated more competition in the business and stimulated the creation of many low cost carriers. Then consolidation came and network of airways formed which gave the industry a new structure. Several important mergers and alliances are also formed between big and small firms which more led to new industry structure.
3. Secure strategy and industry evolution
Changes in the strategies of the airline as they strive to adjust to the competition in the industry and gain competitive advantage has resulted in the firm structure of airline industry. Change in point-to-point route by hub-and-spoke route provided greater significance by increasing efficiency and allowing dominance of major carriers in regional market. The effect of continued new entry in reducing seller concentration in the industry has been offset by mergers and acquisitions between existing players. The rising of many low cost carriers had resulted in the need for major carriers to make many price cuts. Frequent-flyer-scheme was the most successful initiate to build customer loyalty.
4. Industries strategy analysis and evaluation
Airlines industry like any other business environment its decision and performance can be influenced by different factors. As it’s described on porters’ five forces that shape industry completion airline industry is one of the industries that can be influenced by this forces intensely. Knowledge of this this forces can help a company understand the structure of its industry and take out a position that is more profitable and less vulnerable to attack (Harvard business review p.80).
In the past some forces have had a more significant effect than others. For example, there was a low level of threat from new entrant to industry profitability since the barriers were relatively high. In more recent times, the competitiveness of the industry has seen the minimization of barriers such as capital requirements; technology has created easier and cheaper access to distribution channels and new and efficient business models direct an absolute cost advantage. Hence the US airlines industry may face challenges with foreign carriers or regional carriers start up. It is required to have substantial capital and high economies of scale, minimal product differentiation. The rivalry between the established competitors had caused a depression in the industry because of the larger airlines firms’ high ration of fixed in relation to variable costs. To establish and maintain their services, airlines have a high level of fixed operating costs such as labor, fuel, aircraft, engines, spare parts, IT services, airport equipment, airport handling services, sales, catering, training, insurance and other expenses. The majority of the proceeds from ticket sales are paid out to different external providers and internal cost centers. Most of the cost for airline are fixed. The variable cost associated with serving another passenger on the flight is often negligible compared to the fixed costs. Airlines will sell seats at anything over their variable costs. This means that revenues may not always be sufficient to cover the fixed costs. As mention above, after deregulation of the industry, pricing became an area used to try to gain advantage. Low cost carriers reduced service allowing them to charge low prices for fares. Given the large availability of substitution such as fast trains, boats and the belief from consumers that there was virtually no difference in the product, demand was elastic price. This in turn caused legacy airlines to reduce their prices on specific flights that had a high degree of substitution. When coming to bargaining power of suppliers, stratified price sensitivity is considered. Consumers that are price sensitive tend to buy on the basis of price. Vice versa consumers that are not price sensitive tend to buy on the basis of other factors such as convenience, comfort and amenities. Powerful suppliers capture more of the value for themselves by charging higher prices, limiting quality or services, or shifting costs to industry participants. Many key suppliers enjoy oligopoly or monopoly status and some have regulatory power. For instance, major airports, air navigation service providers and security services can essentially dictate the price they charge for use of their facilities and services. Powerful suppliers, including suppliers of labor, can squeeze profitability out of an industry that is unable to pass on cost increase in its own prices. Legacy carriers continue to be burdened by many of the characteristics of the pre-deregulation period: unionized work forces, high wages, comprehensive benefits, hugely expensive pension plans and restrictive work rules. Not surprisingly, airline unions resist reducing wages and benefits or easing work rules. Thus, union contracts, which have been negotiated and renegotiated over the legacy carriers’ long history, contain successive accretions, tradeoffs and concessions made by management over the years to avoid strikes and maintain labor peace.
5. Conclusion
In US airline industry, predominantly the capital intensive, key success factors are as follows; service promotion and in-flight services, efficient management of cost by focusing on the price during volatile periods and maintaining fuel procurement. Another key success factor is route system that is to organize the route where to fly and how frequently. As airlines experienced instability in capacity and profitability, they introduced new initiative that is frequent flyer miles a currency alternative between airline and consumers and a major turning point for airline. It also resulted in an increase in customer retention.
6. Recommendations
Fuel, labor and customer experience are the three main airline costs in general. Customer experience should be the main for airlines to increase retention and benefit. Furthermore the airline industry should create needs based segmentation, engage customer via two way communication channels and develop voice of the customer program to uncover customer and marketing insights.

1.0 Introduction.
According to Eurostat (2017) explained that water is essential for life and can be referred as surface water and ground water and also there is renewal water resource which calculate the internal flow which comprises precipitation minus actual evaporation. Water can obtained through the combination of hydrogen and oxygen which results to water. Water has been good service both human being and other living things, water is on demand for life on earth because every living organism require water in order to survive. The source of fresh water is associated with the presence of forest and mountainous ecosystem which contribute largely on the presence of fresh water (Reid et al., 2005). The world population has increased and there is high demand for water resource use though there is increase of water scarcity compared to the ratio of the population consumption on water resource. Therefore the aim of this study will be to speculate factors for water scarcity and demand with the ratio of population, challenges facing water utility with the current population increase in the city areas also the study will find out the measures to be taken sustainable and accessible of water resource for economic and social development.
1.2 Background of the research problem
The urban population of the world is forecasted to reach 6.3 billion people from 3.4 billion in 2009, in which it present population growth and net migration. This increased population in the urban areas stress the demand of water with high consumption, also the urban population lack access to improved water supply and sanitation up to 20% since the millennium Development Goals has been established. The water demand in the world has been dramatically increased due to the increase number of people with high demand to water resource also due the development of economic activities such as agriculture , production of energy , industrial uses and human consumption is very high (UN Water 2008). The world population for supply of water is approximately to reach four billion people and sometimes up to two thirds of the global population. The current trend incur the global climate change has led to the threat on sustainable water suppl. the global fresh water has been expanding up to a mean rate of about 20% between 1960 and 2000 , in which the water use has doubled in one decade. The use of water by human has been unattainable. From 5% to 25% of global freshwater use exceeds long term accessibility and about one billion people live in areas with no good access to freshwater to sustain their life. Therefore also it has been explained that water use is predicted to grow by approximately 10% between 2000 and 2010 compare with rate of 20% over the past forty years (Reid, et al2005).

The globalization has created a broad and wide economy opportunity for all the companies around the world to have access the global and dynamic market. In a constantly change business environment, it has make the companies to keep up with the emerging trends so that they are not left behind. According to Heather Hatty (2017), competing in the dynamic and global markets describes that fast moving of changes within the global markets on customer level and the competitor level. These dynamic and global environments is greatly influence the market. The global forces and trends tend to determine ho the companies interact with the customers and how they deal to the competition in marketplace.
The dynamic and global market affecting the company to focus on the sustainability of their business activities and compete with the competitors. This is because, the changing in the business environment contributes to the strengthening and maintain their marketing strategies in order to compete in the vast and fast moving environment in today’s business world. Besides that, the changing in the market also require the companies to create competitive advantage to attract and retaining their consumers and also need to acquire the information and knowledge of their competitors in the dynamic and global marketplace. This is due to keep their competitive position in the industry.
In the business world, there are two major competition which involving the non-traditional competitors and also traditional competitors. The traditional competitors are are companies that use method of direct marketing in which they can interact with the customers face to face in the business activities that involves the distribution of products and the transactions. On the other hands, non-traditional competitors are the companies that use new technology or non traditional methods of providing their products and services. In the growing trends of technology in the market, non-traditional competitors are said the most profitable in the world. This is because, with the coming of the digital era, we can see companies are emerging and forming the non-traditional methods in delivering their products and services to reach a wide customer.
Hence, how will these two competitors will compete in the dynamic and global markets in order to reach their consumers? The global markets are becoming more easily to access if these two competitors develop their marketing strategy effectively and efficiently to grab the opportunity and avoiding threats that impact their companies.?
Although the non-traditional competitors is said to be the most profitable companies in the business world and the digital technologies have changed the way of marketers doing business, however, not to forget also the traditional competitors in their contribution to the economy. The traditional competitors are also significant to compete in the dynamic market as they also have the strategies that enable them to compete against the non-traditional competitors. The traditional competitors can compete in the dynamic and global market because it still remains as a key lever in enhancing and promoting business.
The methods and strategies of the traditional competitors in order to compete in the dynamic market is by creating strong branding with customers (Ashley Orndorff, 2018). This tactic and techniques are still matter in the dynamic and global market because it can build a strong and cohesive brand that is always been important to business of a company. Through this method, customers will interacts with the business on various and multiple channels, the associations with the brand is more important because this will keeps the consumers’ experience with the company consistently across channels. Besides, the methods of localize offline (to build trust also an effective strategies of the traditional competitors in dealing with non-traditional competitors in the dynamic market. By localizing and market offline with the core consumers, they can stay on top of mind of their customers. This is because, they interact and engaged through direct marketing with the customers during the business transaction and this will leads to creates trust among the customers.
Moreover, traditional competitors implement the methods of putting the effort and invest in press in dealing with the non-traditional competitors. This is due to people still read news and advertising is still the most powerful strategy to connect with the potential customers. By investing in writing for good storytelling in the content and doing things that are newsworthy can reach the customers and drive them to engage with the brand directly. Hence, the implication of strategies of the traditional competitors in competing the non traditional competitors is it can provides and creates a positive customer experience on the offerings of the company and thus it will also increase the brand awareness. This is because, they able to have physical interact and engaging with the products which can capture their loyalty through the experiential marketing rather than through digital marketing. Furthermore, traditional competitors can create competitive advantage through their implemented strategies that differ from the non-traditional competitors.?
Non-Traditional competitor’s strategies depend on the new and unusual marketing methods. Anything that out from the categories of traditional marketing can be reflect on as competitors, but the term has typically referred to a more specific range of marketing tactics. The goal of competitors advertising is to create amazing advertising experiences that seizure attention through their creativity and unpredictably. Much of competitors require putting advertisement in ways, hoping to order the attention of natural or humble viewers (Marketing school, 2012).
Since the non-traditional competitors depend on many uncertain factors, it is important for any campaign to go through wary planning. Developing a comprehensive marketing plan does not make this strategy any more predictable, but it can help to focus on the efforts and maximize the possibility for success. The first strategy of the plan is to identify the target viewers. This important strategies helps to decide whether the competitors marketing method makes sense or not. If a product has mass retrial, something like a soda or movie release, marketers might plaster city streets with creative ads. But if the product has more limited retrial, software for accountants, for example, a widespread ad campaign would be a waste of resources. If they can recognize who will buy the product makes the target audience easier to reach. Hence, this will make the non-traditional competitors compete in the dynamic market.
Other than that, the next strategy will be to pick the competitors method that will be apply. The specific method employed has to be chosen carefully for the way it will impact consumers and the message that it will project. Companies will need to study market research and seek advice from branding experts to find the best way to place their advertising messages with their intentional customers. At this point, it may be necessary to consult deals for advertisement spaces in usual places. Non-traditional advertising frequently creates its own marketing channels. If the goal is to show ads in places where ads have never been before, this will need wary negotiation between the advertiser and the property owner.
The final strategy of a competitor’s plan will be to identify the metrics for success or failure. This can be the most difficult strategy because competitors often have scattered goals. Rather than only increasing sales, competitors can be used to redefine the image of a brand, or to introduce product lines to new demographics. Before any campaign is put into place, empirical guides need to be set up for judging the success of the campaign.

As a conclusion, the use of the non-traditional competitors in the retail trade has increased and this had important impact on many clients’ buying process. One of the most problems that the business people are interested is the problem of growth and access to the non-traditional. This growth includes entertainment, e-commerce, e-banking and e-marketing. All cue point to both business and clients growing dependence on the non-traditional and its related processes in the whole world. Non-traditional has important feature on possibility to facilitate the information search for consumers. The process of product purchase is encouraged by giving permission to users in order to achieve greater quantities and more detailed information, it’s depend on the product features, prices, and the availability of a common value of the supply, especially when the non-traditional is used in concurrences of search of traditional marketing channels.
However, e-marketing has been suggested that the impact of the internet marketing was limited to simply creating a websites and using the non-traditional as a new tool for some support measures. Non-traditional lead to the changes in business and also in marketing. The non-traditional as a tool shapes the differences between traditional and competitors. Evaluation of the internet as the main e-marketing tool, it is required to compare the traditional marketing mix and 4C’s marketing model elements with new forms of these elements which are acquired online. The traditional competitors also will benefit the economy of a business because it still important to modern business.
Last but not least, the inspection of the affected competitors became clear that the decision may have move from the manufacturer to user side. Through marketing situation, the manufacturer will decide which products they want to produce, but now the consumer is a key element on determining the decision will be used. The main problem is no longer the production of the product but the problem is communication with the consumer. It takes time to build contacts, it is because the user is not a machine that in certain periods comes on the market and buy the unit of a systematize product. User is a person who wants attention, helpful services, spare parts, etc. Buying decision is no longer a decision of buying an item. It is the solution to create long-term relationship with the consumers in the market. Contrarily, the increase growth of opportunities of company are in emerging marketplace that filled with the unfamiliar customer needs, channel structures and also the political system.

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1. It has been observed that the Wet land is in a polluted state with heavy siltation and occasion presence of solid waste diposition in the sanctuary areas.
2. Due to heavy siltation in many parts of the sancuary has become considerably shallower resulting in the growth of many unwanted weed species such as duck weed including growth of reeds. The changes in the water depth may affect the communities of wintering and resident waterfowl.
3. It has been observed that surrounding area, especially the grassy patches, agricultural fields and marshes around the sanctuary provides important feeding grounds which are observed to be in a declining state which has adverse impact on the wintering ducks and other birds which are dependent upon these feeding grounds at Okhla.
4. Due to urban and industrial developments near by Sanctuary areas over the past few decades there has been a considerable loss of the remaining semi-natural marshes and open fields around the Yamuna and OBS is rapidly becoming an island in a concrete jungle.
5. It was observed that piles of garbage around the sanctaury areas not only polluting the air and water quality in the santuary but also contaminating and depleting the ground water in the sanctuary. Due to these reasons once the sanctuary considered safe havens for various plants, birds and animal species now looks vulnerable which needs immediate human intervention to reverse its condition.
6. During the study, on spot assessment of the of the wetland revealed severely degraded water quality with high concentration of pollutants such as TDS and low concentration of the dissolved oxygen indicated the highly degraded state of the wetland.

1.5 History of Ethical Hacking:  
    1.5.1 Narendramodi App:
    1.5.2 Rajya Sabha Website:
On the march 19 group of hacker which is known as the Lulzsec india claimed that they have hacked in the rajya sabha website in which only member of rajya sabha and admin have access.They had bypassed the password verification page and gained access to the website.They uploaded two screenshots on Twitter showing that they have hacked in the Amit Shah’s(President of the Bharatiya Janata Party) account, one screen shot was having the photo of amit shah portal and the second screen shot was showing the request that he has to change his address
1.5.3 Fortnite Game Hack:
Fortnite is very famous online game and it’s users are increasing every day because of this more and more hackers are paying attention to hack into the users account. Recently some users claimed that their accounts have been taken over and they have charged for the items that they never bought and because of this they have lost hundreds of dollars.
1.5.4 ISRO server hack:
Security experts have claimed that the ISRO servers are affected by the malware this malware was so dangerous that hacker could have taken control on the rocket launches and failed them.
On the december 2017 security researchers claimed that there is one virus in the ISRO server that is known as the XtremeRAT, at the starting they ignored this after that when the french researcher Robert Baptiste reported through the twitter ISRO removed that virus from the servers.
1.5.5 facebook data leak:
2. OWASP vulnerabilities
    The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is the world wide non profitable organization with the main goal to improve security of the software. Every year they publish a list of top 10 vulnerabilities of the web application for the reference purpose. According to the top 10 vulnerabilities list published in 2018 they are as follows with the way to prevent them:

2.1 SQL Injection:
    Injection attacks are the type of attacks with provide ability to the hacker for data theft, data loss and even full system compromise. In this attack attacker provide untrusted input to the program ,which then get executed by the interpreter and effect the software or data. Injection attack is one of the most powerful and oldest attack to hack the web application.
    Suppose we have one application in which user need to login first in order to use the application. We ask for username and password and then using below SQL search query we search for the user, and compare it with the entered data if it mach user is logged in.
      “SELECT * FROM Table WHERE Name=”+name;

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Here we are taking data from the user and using it in the query without checking that it is valid or not. It provide attacker flexibility to run SQL query and do whatever he wants with the database. For example if we type { ” or “”=””; DELETE * FROM Table WHERE “1”=”1} instead of name of the user SQL search query will be converted into two queries which are as follows:
    SELECT * FROM Table WHERE Name=”” or “”=””;
    DELETE * FROM Table WHERE “1”=”1″

    Here Second statement delete all the data form the table.
    To prevent this attack we must check user input for validation some of the techniques by which injection attack can be prevented are as follows:


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