1. Introduction
US airline industry is listed at the bottom of the profitability table of industries in the country 2000-2013. The industry has struggled a lot to make profits. An American investor Waren Buffet once quoted that investors in this industry had cumulatively lost more money than it had made. During the first quarter of 2015, it was clear the strong upswing in the profitability of US airlines that had begun in 2012 was continuing into 2015. Airline profitability was benefiting from the fall in oil prices and the revival of the US economy. The US airline industry had been plagued by intense competition and dismal profitability since it was deregulated in 1978. Several airline were in chapter 11 bankruptcy for long period of time. Even with the recent revival, the profit margins of the major US carriers remained thin. The financial miseries of the airline industry were not restricted to the US: the global airline industry had consistently failed to earn returns that covered its cost of capital.
2. Current state of US airline industry
There are two eras in the history of US airlines, first was the ear of regulation which stayed until 1978 and second the era of deregulation. Following the act of deregulation airline industry is controlled by free market. This stimulated more competition in the business and stimulated the creation of many low cost carriers. Then consolidation came and network of airways formed which gave the industry a new structure. Several important mergers and alliances are also formed between big and small firms which more led to new industry structure.
3. Secure strategy and industry evolution
Changes in the strategies of the airline as they strive to adjust to the competition in the industry and gain competitive advantage has resulted in the firm structure of airline industry. Change in point-to-point route by hub-and-spoke route provided greater significance by increasing efficiency and allowing dominance of major carriers in regional market. The effect of continued new entry in reducing seller concentration in the industry has been offset by mergers and acquisitions between existing players. The rising of many low cost carriers had resulted in the need for major carriers to make many price cuts. Frequent-flyer-scheme was the most successful initiate to build customer loyalty.
4. Industries strategy analysis and evaluation
Airlines industry like any other business environment its decision and performance can be influenced by different factors. As it’s described on porters’ five forces that shape industry completion airline industry is one of the industries that can be influenced by this forces intensely. Knowledge of this this forces can help a company understand the structure of its industry and take out a position that is more profitable and less vulnerable to attack (Harvard business review p.80).
In the past some forces have had a more significant effect than others. For example, there was a low level of threat from new entrant to industry profitability since the barriers were relatively high. In more recent times, the competitiveness of the industry has seen the minimization of barriers such as capital requirements; technology has created easier and cheaper access to distribution channels and new and efficient business models direct an absolute cost advantage. Hence the US airlines industry may face challenges with foreign carriers or regional carriers start up. It is required to have substantial capital and high economies of scale, minimal product differentiation. The rivalry between the established competitors had caused a depression in the industry because of the larger airlines firms’ high ration of fixed in relation to variable costs. To establish and maintain their services, airlines have a high level of fixed operating costs such as labor, fuel, aircraft, engines, spare parts, IT services, airport equipment, airport handling services, sales, catering, training, insurance and other expenses. The majority of the proceeds from ticket sales are paid out to different external providers and internal cost centers. Most of the cost for airline are fixed. The variable cost associated with serving another passenger on the flight is often negligible compared to the fixed costs. Airlines will sell seats at anything over their variable costs. This means that revenues may not always be sufficient to cover the fixed costs. As mention above, after deregulation of the industry, pricing became an area used to try to gain advantage. Low cost carriers reduced service allowing them to charge low prices for fares. Given the large availability of substitution such as fast trains, boats and the belief from consumers that there was virtually no difference in the product, demand was elastic price. This in turn caused legacy airlines to reduce their prices on specific flights that had a high degree of substitution. When coming to bargaining power of suppliers, stratified price sensitivity is considered. Consumers that are price sensitive tend to buy on the basis of price. Vice versa consumers that are not price sensitive tend to buy on the basis of other factors such as convenience, comfort and amenities. Powerful suppliers capture more of the value for themselves by charging higher prices, limiting quality or services, or shifting costs to industry participants. Many key suppliers enjoy oligopoly or monopoly status and some have regulatory power. For instance, major airports, air navigation service providers and security services can essentially dictate the price they charge for use of their facilities and services. Powerful suppliers, including suppliers of labor, can squeeze profitability out of an industry that is unable to pass on cost increase in its own prices. Legacy carriers continue to be burdened by many of the characteristics of the pre-deregulation period: unionized work forces, high wages, comprehensive benefits, hugely expensive pension plans and restrictive work rules. Not surprisingly, airline unions resist reducing wages and benefits or easing work rules. Thus, union contracts, which have been negotiated and renegotiated over the legacy carriers’ long history, contain successive accretions, tradeoffs and concessions made by management over the years to avoid strikes and maintain labor peace.
5. Conclusion
In US airline industry, predominantly the capital intensive, key success factors are as follows; service promotion and in-flight services, efficient management of cost by focusing on the price during volatile periods and maintaining fuel procurement. Another key success factor is route system that is to organize the route where to fly and how frequently. As airlines experienced instability in capacity and profitability, they introduced new initiative that is frequent flyer miles a currency alternative between airline and consumers and a major turning point for airline. It also resulted in an increase in customer retention.
6. Recommendations
Fuel, labor and customer experience are the three main airline costs in general. Customer experience should be the main for airlines to increase retention and benefit. Furthermore the airline industry should create needs based segmentation, engage customer via two way communication channels and develop voice of the customer program to uncover customer and marketing insights.

1.0 Introduction.
According to Eurostat (2017) explained that water is essential for life and can be referred as surface water and ground water and also there is renewal water resource which calculate the internal flow which comprises precipitation minus actual evaporation. Water can obtained through the combination of hydrogen and oxygen which results to water. Water has been good service both human being and other living things, water is on demand for life on earth because every living organism require water in order to survive. The source of fresh water is associated with the presence of forest and mountainous ecosystem which contribute largely on the presence of fresh water (Reid et al., 2005). The world population has increased and there is high demand for water resource use though there is increase of water scarcity compared to the ratio of the population consumption on water resource. Therefore the aim of this study will be to speculate factors for water scarcity and demand with the ratio of population, challenges facing water utility with the current population increase in the city areas also the study will find out the measures to be taken sustainable and accessible of water resource for economic and social development.
1.2 Background of the research problem
The urban population of the world is forecasted to reach 6.3 billion people from 3.4 billion in 2009, in which it present population growth and net migration. This increased population in the urban areas stress the demand of water with high consumption, also the urban population lack access to improved water supply and sanitation up to 20% since the millennium Development Goals has been established. The water demand in the world has been dramatically increased due to the increase number of people with high demand to water resource also due the development of economic activities such as agriculture , production of energy , industrial uses and human consumption is very high (UN Water 2008). The world population for supply of water is approximately to reach four billion people and sometimes up to two thirds of the global population. The current trend incur the global climate change has led to the threat on sustainable water suppl. the global fresh water has been expanding up to a mean rate of about 20% between 1960 and 2000 , in which the water use has doubled in one decade. The use of water by human has been unattainable. From 5% to 25% of global freshwater use exceeds long term accessibility and about one billion people live in areas with no good access to freshwater to sustain their life. Therefore also it has been explained that water use is predicted to grow by approximately 10% between 2000 and 2010 compare with rate of 20% over the past forty years (Reid, et al2005).

The globalization has created a broad and wide economy opportunity for all the companies around the world to have access the global and dynamic market. In a constantly change business environment, it has make the companies to keep up with the emerging trends so that they are not left behind. According to Heather Hatty (2017), competing in the dynamic and global markets describes that fast moving of changes within the global markets on customer level and the competitor level. These dynamic and global environments is greatly influence the market. The global forces and trends tend to determine ho the companies interact with the customers and how they deal to the competition in marketplace.
The dynamic and global market affecting the company to focus on the sustainability of their business activities and compete with the competitors. This is because, the changing in the business environment contributes to the strengthening and maintain their marketing strategies in order to compete in the vast and fast moving environment in today’s business world. Besides that, the changing in the market also require the companies to create competitive advantage to attract and retaining their consumers and also need to acquire the information and knowledge of their competitors in the dynamic and global marketplace. This is due to keep their competitive position in the industry.
In the business world, there are two major competition which involving the non-traditional competitors and also traditional competitors. The traditional competitors are are companies that use method of direct marketing in which they can interact with the customers face to face in the business activities that involves the distribution of products and the transactions. On the other hands, non-traditional competitors are the companies that use new technology or non traditional methods of providing their products and services. In the growing trends of technology in the market, non-traditional competitors are said the most profitable in the world. This is because, with the coming of the digital era, we can see companies are emerging and forming the non-traditional methods in delivering their products and services to reach a wide customer.
Hence, how will these two competitors will compete in the dynamic and global markets in order to reach their consumers? The global markets are becoming more easily to access if these two competitors develop their marketing strategy effectively and efficiently to grab the opportunity and avoiding threats that impact their companies.?
Although the non-traditional competitors is said to be the most profitable companies in the business world and the digital technologies have changed the way of marketers doing business, however, not to forget also the traditional competitors in their contribution to the economy. The traditional competitors are also significant to compete in the dynamic market as they also have the strategies that enable them to compete against the non-traditional competitors. The traditional competitors can compete in the dynamic and global market because it still remains as a key lever in enhancing and promoting business.
The methods and strategies of the traditional competitors in order to compete in the dynamic market is by creating strong branding with customers (Ashley Orndorff, 2018). This tactic and techniques are still matter in the dynamic and global market because it can build a strong and cohesive brand that is always been important to business of a company. Through this method, customers will interacts with the business on various and multiple channels, the associations with the brand is more important because this will keeps the consumers’ experience with the company consistently across channels. Besides, the methods of localize offline (to build trust also an effective strategies of the traditional competitors in dealing with non-traditional competitors in the dynamic market. By localizing and market offline with the core consumers, they can stay on top of mind of their customers. This is because, they interact and engaged through direct marketing with the customers during the business transaction and this will leads to creates trust among the customers.
Moreover, traditional competitors implement the methods of putting the effort and invest in press in dealing with the non-traditional competitors. This is due to people still read news and advertising is still the most powerful strategy to connect with the potential customers. By investing in writing for good storytelling in the content and doing things that are newsworthy can reach the customers and drive them to engage with the brand directly. Hence, the implication of strategies of the traditional competitors in competing the non traditional competitors is it can provides and creates a positive customer experience on the offerings of the company and thus it will also increase the brand awareness. This is because, they able to have physical interact and engaging with the products which can capture their loyalty through the experiential marketing rather than through digital marketing. Furthermore, traditional competitors can create competitive advantage through their implemented strategies that differ from the non-traditional competitors.?
Non-Traditional competitor’s strategies depend on the new and unusual marketing methods. Anything that out from the categories of traditional marketing can be reflect on as competitors, but the term has typically referred to a more specific range of marketing tactics. The goal of competitors advertising is to create amazing advertising experiences that seizure attention through their creativity and unpredictably. Much of competitors require putting advertisement in ways, hoping to order the attention of natural or humble viewers (Marketing school, 2012).
Since the non-traditional competitors depend on many uncertain factors, it is important for any campaign to go through wary planning. Developing a comprehensive marketing plan does not make this strategy any more predictable, but it can help to focus on the efforts and maximize the possibility for success. The first strategy of the plan is to identify the target viewers. This important strategies helps to decide whether the competitors marketing method makes sense or not. If a product has mass retrial, something like a soda or movie release, marketers might plaster city streets with creative ads. But if the product has more limited retrial, software for accountants, for example, a widespread ad campaign would be a waste of resources. If they can recognize who will buy the product makes the target audience easier to reach. Hence, this will make the non-traditional competitors compete in the dynamic market.
Other than that, the next strategy will be to pick the competitors method that will be apply. The specific method employed has to be chosen carefully for the way it will impact consumers and the message that it will project. Companies will need to study market research and seek advice from branding experts to find the best way to place their advertising messages with their intentional customers. At this point, it may be necessary to consult deals for advertisement spaces in usual places. Non-traditional advertising frequently creates its own marketing channels. If the goal is to show ads in places where ads have never been before, this will need wary negotiation between the advertiser and the property owner.
The final strategy of a competitor’s plan will be to identify the metrics for success or failure. This can be the most difficult strategy because competitors often have scattered goals. Rather than only increasing sales, competitors can be used to redefine the image of a brand, or to introduce product lines to new demographics. Before any campaign is put into place, empirical guides need to be set up for judging the success of the campaign.

As a conclusion, the use of the non-traditional competitors in the retail trade has increased and this had important impact on many clients’ buying process. One of the most problems that the business people are interested is the problem of growth and access to the non-traditional. This growth includes entertainment, e-commerce, e-banking and e-marketing. All cue point to both business and clients growing dependence on the non-traditional and its related processes in the whole world. Non-traditional has important feature on possibility to facilitate the information search for consumers. The process of product purchase is encouraged by giving permission to users in order to achieve greater quantities and more detailed information, it’s depend on the product features, prices, and the availability of a common value of the supply, especially when the non-traditional is used in concurrences of search of traditional marketing channels.
However, e-marketing has been suggested that the impact of the internet marketing was limited to simply creating a websites and using the non-traditional as a new tool for some support measures. Non-traditional lead to the changes in business and also in marketing. The non-traditional as a tool shapes the differences between traditional and competitors. Evaluation of the internet as the main e-marketing tool, it is required to compare the traditional marketing mix and 4C’s marketing model elements with new forms of these elements which are acquired online. The traditional competitors also will benefit the economy of a business because it still important to modern business.
Last but not least, the inspection of the affected competitors became clear that the decision may have move from the manufacturer to user side. Through marketing situation, the manufacturer will decide which products they want to produce, but now the consumer is a key element on determining the decision will be used. The main problem is no longer the production of the product but the problem is communication with the consumer. It takes time to build contacts, it is because the user is not a machine that in certain periods comes on the market and buy the unit of a systematize product. User is a person who wants attention, helpful services, spare parts, etc. Buying decision is no longer a decision of buying an item. It is the solution to create long-term relationship with the consumers in the market. Contrarily, the increase growth of opportunities of company are in emerging marketplace that filled with the unfamiliar customer needs, channel structures and also the political system.

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1. It has been observed that the Wet land is in a polluted state with heavy siltation and occasion presence of solid waste diposition in the sanctuary areas.
2. Due to heavy siltation in many parts of the sancuary has become considerably shallower resulting in the growth of many unwanted weed species such as duck weed including growth of reeds. The changes in the water depth may affect the communities of wintering and resident waterfowl.
3. It has been observed that surrounding area, especially the grassy patches, agricultural fields and marshes around the sanctuary provides important feeding grounds which are observed to be in a declining state which has adverse impact on the wintering ducks and other birds which are dependent upon these feeding grounds at Okhla.
4. Due to urban and industrial developments near by Sanctuary areas over the past few decades there has been a considerable loss of the remaining semi-natural marshes and open fields around the Yamuna and OBS is rapidly becoming an island in a concrete jungle.
5. It was observed that piles of garbage around the sanctaury areas not only polluting the air and water quality in the santuary but also contaminating and depleting the ground water in the sanctuary. Due to these reasons once the sanctuary considered safe havens for various plants, birds and animal species now looks vulnerable which needs immediate human intervention to reverse its condition.
6. During the study, on spot assessment of the of the wetland revealed severely degraded water quality with high concentration of pollutants such as TDS and low concentration of the dissolved oxygen indicated the highly degraded state of the wetland.

1. – Kapag marami ng kaguluhan sa ibat ibang bahagi ng bansa. Kapag hindi na nagkakasundo ang bawat isa. Nilalabanan na ang pamahalaan.
– Gusto ng pamahalaan ipatupad ang Batas Militar upang ang kanilang kapangyarihan ang manaig laban sa sambayanan dahil ito ay hindi na nila makontrol.

Grade7ste14thquarter. (2017).Martial Law 1972. Retrieved from HYPERLINK "http://grade7ste14thquarter.wordpress.com/2017/03/02/martial-law-1972-2/" http://grade7ste14thquarter.wordpress.com/2017/03/02/martial-law-1972-2/
– Si Juan Ponce Enrile ay ipinanganak noong Pebrero 14, 1924 sa Gonzaga, Cagayan to Petra Furungganan. Siya ay head ng Department of Defense. Siya ang nag uutos na hulihin ang mga nanggugulo sa bansa.

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DATA PRIVACY OFFICER (DPO).(2013): Juan Ponce Enrile. Retrieved from
3. – Ang aking unang naging reaksyon ay pagdududa. Sa tingin ko kay scripted ang mga sinasabi ni Enrile dahil malapit siya sa pamilya Marcos. Hindi lang naman siya ang may sariling bersiyon kung ano ang mga nangyari noon. Mataas mga ang posisyon niya noon ngunit hindi pa din sapat ang kanyang naging batayan.
– Ang nangyaring pagpapatupad ng batas militar noong 1972 ay dahil sa sinabi ni Marcos sa planong pag-ambush kay Juan Ponce Enrile, ang naging dahilan ng pagdeklara ng martial law.

Hannah Mallorca.(2017): Ano-ano ang dapat mong malaman tungkol sa martial law?.De La Salle University. Retrieved from http://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/amp.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/170927-dapat-malaman-martial-law-pilipinas
4.- “History was totally distorted to favor one group”
– “What they know is what they read or heard” ito ay isa sa mga pahayag ni Enrile patungkol sa mga tinatawag na millenials. Hindi nga sapatang nalalaman ng mga kabataan ngayon patungkol sa martial law pero malinaw sa kanilang isipan na hindi din sila dito sang ayon.

– “Little by little the truth will come out” lalabas at lalabas pa din ang katotohanan kahit anong tago mo pa nito.

Mara Cepeda. (2018).LIST: False claims of Juan Ponce Enrile on Martial Law. Retrieved from http://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/212460-list-false-claims-juan-ponce-enrile-martial-law
5.- Sila ang mag asawa na nanguna sa EDSA Revolution. Si Benigno Simeon Aquino Jr. Ipinanganak noong Nobyembre 27, 1932 sa Tarlac at namatay noong Agosto 21, 1983. Isa siyang chief leader noong panahon ng martial law sa ilalim ng pamumuno ni President Ferdinand E. Marcos. Maria Corazon Aquino o mas kilalang Cory Aquino, ang unang babae na naging Presidente ng Pilipinas. Nagtapos siya ng pag aaral sa Mount St. Vincent College sa New York City.

– Hill, Gerald N. and Kathleen Thompson. Aquino Assassination: The Story and Analysis of the Assassination of Philippine Senator Benigno S. Aquino. Sonoma, CA: Hilltop Pub., 1983. HYPERLINK "http://www.notablebiographies.com/An-Ba/Aquino-BEnigno.html" http://www.notablebiographies.com/An-Ba/Aquino-BEnigno.html
– Sa tingin ko mali ang aking naging pananaw kay Enrile, dapat din nating marinig ang panig niya ukol sa nakaraan. Isa siya sa nakasaksi sa mga pangyayari ng panahon ng martial law. Siya ang halos nakakaalam ng lahat ng importanteng pangyayari ng nakaraan. Dahil malapit siya sa dating Presidente Marcos. Subalit hindi pa din maiaalis ang kamalian na nagpahirap sa lahat.

– Mara Cepeda. (2018).LIST: False claims of Juan Ponce Enrile on Martial Law. Retrieved from http://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/212460-list-false-claims-juan-ponce-enrile-martial-law
7. – Makararamdam ako ng galit dahil hindi ako sang ayon sa pag papatupad ng martial law. Hindi naging maganda ang naging epekto nito sa mga taong nakaranas nito. Kung ako man ay nabuhay ng panahong iyon isa din ako sa nais mapabagsak kay President Marcos at isa din ako sa magsusulong ng karapatang pantao. Maraming nasayang na buhay ng dahil lamang sa maling pagpapatupad ng batas.

– People Power ang kapangyarihan ng mga tao sa Pilipinas ay naging malaking parte laban sa pamumuno si Ferdinand Marcos.

THOMAS, M. (1995).Introduction. In The Anti-Marcos Struggle: Personalistic Rule and Democratic Transition in the Philippines (pp. 1-14). Yale University Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt32bsgx

1.1 Background of the Study
Women autonomy is the process of building women’s store of resources of physical, social, economic and psychological demand. According to Gandhi’s view women are needed not only for equality framework but also for building a stronger and unified state (Upadhyay, 2010). Women’s autonomy is crucially dependent on various influencing factors like education, age, social status, geographical location, decision making power. Among these factors women education and asset ownership dominates their autonomy.
Both women and men are very important for the decision making process by both men and women participation causes a fruitful result in the household. The participation of women in the household decision making is one of the ways of women autonomy (Ansari et al., 2014). Deb, (2015) concluded that the main scenery of here is that women are dominated by men in family decision making mostly in child bearing, son preferences. In some cases they have to face domestic violence for this cause. The household decision rather than individual creates more knowledgeable solution. Women decision making in family matters like financial, agricultural, relocation, education, fertility helps to make wise and peaceful solution.
After the “UN Declaration of the Decade of Women” in 1975, importance on women education has emphasized. And it captures the focus of govt. agencies and international donor agencies. According to the “World Conference on Women”, held in Beijing in 1995, and meant that for improving women education institutional participation is mostly needed. The educated women added value in family decision making (Bochynek, 1995).
In the national GDP women have a major influence. According to “The Asian Age” (2017) it is 34%. Now a day’s women are participating in the financial sector of household as well as for the nation. According to Baliyan, (2014) in the rural area the participation of women in decision making for financial matters is very negligible. This creates a gap between rural and urban area women autonomy. Govt. policies have implemented to remove this gap but these are not well applicable for all the remote area. For this reason measurement of women autonomy in rural area is very important.

1.2 Objective of the Study

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1.5 History of Ethical Hacking:  
    1.5.1 Narendramodi App:
    1.5.2 Rajya Sabha Website:
On the march 19 group of hacker which is known as the Lulzsec india claimed that they have hacked in the rajya sabha website in which only member of rajya sabha and admin have access.They had bypassed the password verification page and gained access to the website.They uploaded two screenshots on Twitter showing that they have hacked in the Amit Shah’s(President of the Bharatiya Janata Party) account, one screen shot was having the photo of amit shah portal and the second screen shot was showing the request that he has to change his address
1.5.3 Fortnite Game Hack:
Fortnite is very famous online game and it’s users are increasing every day because of this more and more hackers are paying attention to hack into the users account. Recently some users claimed that their accounts have been taken over and they have charged for the items that they never bought and because of this they have lost hundreds of dollars.
1.5.4 ISRO server hack:
Security experts have claimed that the ISRO servers are affected by the malware this malware was so dangerous that hacker could have taken control on the rocket launches and failed them.
On the december 2017 security researchers claimed that there is one virus in the ISRO server that is known as the XtremeRAT, at the starting they ignored this after that when the french researcher Robert Baptiste reported through the twitter ISRO removed that virus from the servers.
1.5.5 facebook data leak:
2. OWASP vulnerabilities
    The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is the world wide non profitable organization with the main goal to improve security of the software. Every year they publish a list of top 10 vulnerabilities of the web application for the reference purpose. According to the top 10 vulnerabilities list published in 2018 they are as follows with the way to prevent them:

2.1 SQL Injection:
    Injection attacks are the type of attacks with provide ability to the hacker for data theft, data loss and even full system compromise. In this attack attacker provide untrusted input to the program ,which then get executed by the interpreter and effect the software or data. Injection attack is one of the most powerful and oldest attack to hack the web application.
    Suppose we have one application in which user need to login first in order to use the application. We ask for username and password and then using below SQL search query we search for the user, and compare it with the entered data if it mach user is logged in.
      “SELECT * FROM Table WHERE Name=”+name;

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Here we are taking data from the user and using it in the query without checking that it is valid or not. It provide attacker flexibility to run SQL query and do whatever he wants with the database. For example if we type { ” or “”=””; DELETE * FROM Table WHERE “1”=”1} instead of name of the user SQL search query will be converted into two queries which are as follows:
    SELECT * FROM Table WHERE Name=”” or “”=””;
    DELETE * FROM Table WHERE “1”=”1″

    Here Second statement delete all the data form the table.
    To prevent this attack we must check user input for validation some of the techniques by which injection attack can be prevented are as follows:

1.0 introduction during the past few years there has been an increase attention regarding mental health mental disorders and social life. more studies have focused on understanding relationships and especially the mother-child relationship how it works and the benefits of it. but when individuals start to take advantage of such relationships concerns will appear. this research will discuss some aspects of the mental disorder munchausen syndrome by proxy. the disorder that causes many conflicts due to its nature. to better understand the disorder the other type of it should be explained. munchausen syndrome ms is a disorder that initially was used in 1950s to diagnose a patient with self-induced illnesses to get the care and attention that was given to sick people. it was named after baron von munchausen a guy that used to tell unreal stories about his life. walk and davies 2010 majority of ms individuals are males between 30-50 years old glazier 2009 munchausen syndrome by proxy msbp was firstly recognized in 1977 and was mentioned in the dsm-iv under the term of factitious disorders by proxy. this disorder is characterized by someone triggering illnesses for another person in their care. usually the perpetrator is a caregiver and the victim is a child or an elderly in their care it is considered as a form of child abuse glazier 2009 msbp was introduced by roy meadow a british pediatric nephrologist. when he was faced by two cases of children. one of them was diagnosed with hematuria after looking at the tests of the child they found out that the childs urine sample was mixed with the mothers blood and the second child passed away because of salt poisoning. from these cases meadow distinguished between two types of caregivers: the one that causes the illness salt poisoning and the one that fabricates the symptoms contamination of the urine sample squires and squires 2013 the abusers will mostly be familiar with the medical treatment either by the experience they get from being a patient or by being healthcare provider or by searching on the internet criddle 2010 majority of individuals with msbp are females mostly mothers of no specific age they either suffered from childhood emotional neglect or abuse had been involved in self-harm being alcoholic or abused drugs or having mental disorder of some type glazier 2009 msbp is more common that one might expect but knowing exactly the prevalence of this disorder is still unknown squires and jr 2010 1.1 research gap. lack of information and articles on msbp accurate treatment and prevention in arab world. 1.2 aim of the research. to discuss the importance of munchausen syndrome by proxy. to cover the gaps regarding its diagnosis motivations treatment its impacts on proxy and support it with example on the impacts on the proxy. 1.3 methodology of the research. in this research the data are collected from google scholars and google.com. all is in form of secondary data such as academic articles and journals. the information is gathered through reading understanding and analyzing those articles then the information relevant to the topic is written. 2.0 discussion 2.1. symptoms and diagnosis. in the case of msbp where the perpetrator is falsifying the sickness of the child mostly the symptoms will be observed on the child. symptoms might include the following: fabricating an illness manipulating the sample provided to physician for examination e.g. adding blood to the sample inducing an illness e.g. obstructing the respiratory tract forcing the child to drink liquids containing some chemicals or microorganisms the abused child will have symptoms that does not match any disease and in some cases when physician thinks that they controlled the disease a sudden and unexpected relapse might happen sense 2006 fabricating and claiming the existence of sexual abuse flaherty and macmillan 2013 diagnosing this disorder is uneasy for physicians due to the nature of the disorder its almost impossible to accurately detect or it takes a lot of time and resources cömert et al. 2018 according to meadow and rosenberg msbp can be diagnosed through the following: the disease must be made up by a parent or someone who is responsible for the child. symptoms brought to the physician are usually vague and can take more than one for identification usually the parent will not be satisfied and will not accept the causes of the disease. the disease indicators and severe symptoms disappears once the parent is away from the child cömert et al. 2018 pediatricians needs to be aware and suspicious when they see a child with recurrence of illness an illness with unexplainable symptoms that leads to several procedures or when there is inconsistency between the physical examination history and the childs health flaherty and macmillan 2013 2.2. causes and motivations. the causes of msbp still not known or understood there is no single reason or multiple reason that was found common in all patients of msbp but there are some factors that may contribute: steel 2009 personality problems such as sociopathic histrionic narcissistic personality bipolar disorder or being involved in sadomasochist behaviors. early childhood experiences like being abused physically sexually or being neglected. motives of msbp individuals vary among abusers it can include: gaining sympathy and respect of others being the only mother that take care of a sick child. showing off their knowledge and that they can easily manipulate physicians or experts. escape other responsibilities in life education employment by taking care of an ill child. have social life by being part of hospital family. financial aid. community support criddle 2010 2.3. treatment. in the process of treating a person with msbp the safety of the child should be first prioritized the most effective way is to remove the child immediately from the house and a safe environment should be provided. then evaluate the parent to see if the parent recognizes his illness or not auxemery 2014 since treating individuals with msbp is uneasy because it requires honesty the only available treatment would be through psychotherapy in the form of cognitive-behavioral therapy walk and davies 2010 2.4. impacts on proxy. victims of msbp usually are infants and children under 5 years they seek the approval acceptance attention and love from their mothers by acting as being sick in front of the physicians. some reported that victims of msbp grew up to be patients of munchhausen syndrome or to abuse their own children criddle 2010 the effects of falsified illness on victims might include the impacts on: daily life and functioning: it would increase the child absenteeism from school due to continuous illnesses david s. bell 2015 having difficulty in coping with colleagues due to physical and psychological factors glazier 2009 lead to social isolation david s. bell 2015 .0 physical health: the physicians will prescribe medicine according to the mothers described symptoms the side effects of this medicine will appear in case of healthy child. also children has frequent hospitalization going through unnecessary procedures some of those procedure are very painful bass and glaser 2014 the induced illnesses were linked with other serious problems and diseases and even caused death in some of the severe cases. bass and glaser 2014 depending on each medicine and on chemicals and other factors the child was taking and being exposed to will cause permanent physical damages and disorders such as: brain damage severe learning disabilities and developmental delay glazier 2009 psychological health: victims will suffer from psychological disorders the severity of the disorder depends on the age of the child and the duration of abuse the child might suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder emotional problems conduct disorders specific phobias fear of blood hospitals nightmares social development delay depression concentration difficulty decrease in self-worth and suicidal thoughts glazier 2009 2.5. example of msbp and its impacts from previous case study. a recent study was conducted on a syrian 20-months-old baby boy living in lebanon refugee camp with his mother while his father being imprisoned in syria. the mother was continuously taking the baby to the hospital for eye bleeding. she was trying to get the staffs trust and sympathy by telling them stories about the husbands supposed incarceration and the circumstances that they faced in syria or still living in the refugee camp. but after doing the proper testing and giving all possible treatment the childs health kept deteriorating. during 6 months of repeated visitation to the ophthalmology clinic. staff and doctors started suspecting child abuse situation the child was eventually removed from the mothers care after he lost his vision in both eyes. the mother was taken into custody and the child was placed in orphanage shibbani hamzeh and sharara-chami 2017 3.0 recommendations pediatricians or healthcare providers usually are not familiar with msbp distinguishing between concerned parents and parents seeking attention is the physicians job to discover. but since there is no criteria or certain diagnosis for this disorder it is harder to determine whether they should report their concerns or not. also because of the loving and caring nature of the parents physicians tend to believe the childs history afforded to them by the parents. and the way the parents persuade the physicians by giving detailed medical history makes it tougher to detect any lies squires and jr 2010 for the previous reasons msbp is a challenge for pediatricians and other healthcare providers to diagnose and find the accurate percentages of prevalence cömert et al. 2018 the following recommendations should be taking into consideration for the new researches to look for and for to increase awareness about the importance of this disorder. to make more studies about the prevention of the disorder. to make accurate diagnostic criteria for physician to follow. to find the effective treatment for patients of msbp. 4.0 conclusion to conclude munchausen syndrome by proxy is a form of child abuse. compared to other forms of child abuse msbp can be considered as a rare disorder its very dangerous illness and very little research has been done on this topic. the physicians should be aware be and be able to differentiate between a concerned mother and a mother with msbp. msbp patients fabricate or induce symptoms that does not fit into any disease the proxy child in most of the cases go through a lot of painful procedures and unnecessary tests that affect the childs health. various impacts will be on both the patient and the proxy it can be devastating. if the childs health is getting better while the mother is not there or the symptoms worsen if shes present then those are indicators for physician to suspect child abuse and msbp case. through the research it has been found out that msbp patients suffered from different personality disorders and being traumatized and exposed to different types of childhood abuse. furthermore their children suffered from physical illnesses as well as psychological disorders on short and long term. msbp patients mainly seek attention by being the caring and devoted mother that takes care of a sick child. treating this disorder is still not definite and the childs safety should be prioritized. the research was done in a limited time so there was no enough time to find more articles that cover the topic. specifying the topic made it harder to find references.

1. A Review of Hospitality Internship: Different Perspectives of Students, Employers, and Educators
Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 12:377–402, 2012 JWU Library

The tripartite benefits of a formal internship, according to Patterson, are apparent: The students gain real world experience, the academic program enhances its reputation, and employers have an improved pool of student applicants from which to draw when recruiting.

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With 351 student interns from 12 different colleges, one third of the students indicated that they could not, or did not, connect classroom lectures and theory with what they observed in their internship; nor did they feel that their academic courses had adequately prepared them for their industry experiences.

In another study of 307 students drawn A Review of Hospitality Internship 389 from four hospitality schools and colleges in Hong Kong, Lam and Ching report atypical finding that student’s perception scores for internships were lower than their expectation scores.

In another study involving 285 student interns from seven colleges in South Korea, Cho investigated student perspectives of internships by measuring expectations and satisfaction.

A Review of Hospitality Internship 391 Zopiatis and Constant highlight five gaps in the relationship between the hospitality industry and educators in Cyprus, in terms of student’s internship practices: the expectations of the student and educational institution; student’s expectations versus their actual experiences; the relationship and interaction between the student and the hospitality organization; the industry education relationship; and the educational institutions control over their students placements.

Employers should monitor the student and check in with him or her periodically; at the end of the internship, the student should be provided with an official evaluation.

A Review of Hospitality Internship 399 Ko, W.H. Training, satisfaction with internship programs, and confidence about future careers among hospitality students: A case study of universities in Taiwan.

2. The realistic preview may not yield career satisfaction


International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2009

Objectives Hospitality management programs in post-secondary education usually include an experimental component, in an effort to more fully prepare the student for the demands of the hospitality industry.

May university hospitality programs include an experiential learning requirement, but the requirement may be in the form of only the “Work experience”; the synthesis and understanding of the industry and its unique characteristics may be left for the student to ponder on his own.

Turnover in the hospitality industry Turnover is a seemingly age old characteristics challenge of the hospitality industry.

Methodology The purpose of the research study was to determine if a gap exist between industry preview/ preparedness and actual industry satisfaction.

Implications for practitioners gaining a realistic preview of the industry was a key point in the literature review for industry retention and for job satisfaction.

If the realistic industry preview is strong, then the dilemma with career satisfaction provides human resource practitioners with a targeted time period to orient and socialize the young manager in the first hospitality management position post-graduation.

An exploratory study of internship practices in hospitality education and industry’s perception of the importance of internships in the hospitality curriculum.

3. Are they leaving or staying: A qualitative analysis of turnover issues for Generation Y hospitality employees with a hospitality education


International Journal of Hospitality Management 46 (2015)

In this article writer speaks about worst experiences of students during internship.

As per research and analysis of experiences in internship, the participants who were still in the hospitality industry responded to questions about what would cause them to leave; what would cause them to stay; what are the most desirable traits of the hospitality industry; what were the most desirable traits of the hospitality industry; and what were the least desirable traits of the hospitality industry.

There were some other participants who were no longer in the hospitality industry responded to questions about what caused them to leave their hospitality career; what would cause them to return to the hospitality industry; what were the most desirable traits of the hospitality industry; and what were the least desirable traits of the hospitality industry. Correspondence plot of qualitative data collected from open-ended turnover questions from hospitality graduates who were in the hospitality industry or have left the hospitality industry.

Last one, Hospitality graduates who were no longer in the hospitality industry finished the statements “I left my career in the hospitality/ tourism industry because,” and “The least desirable trait of my career in the hospitality/tourism industry was.” Response themes are in Table 2.Correspondence plot of qualitative data collected from open-ended turnover questions from hospitality graduates who were in the hospitality industry or have left the hospitality industry.

The most alarming of these three is they had no other choice, responses included “I’ve lost everything and have nowhere else to turn to…” and “I was out of work and unable to secure a new job in my current industry.” Other responses following the same path, but with a stronger tone were the 5.1% of individuals who stated they would not return to the hospitality industry, responses included “NEVER,” “Not sure I would,” and “I would not….” Hospitality graduates who left the hospitality industry shared a couple of the same perceived most desirable traits of the hospitality industry, these included they enjoyed working with people and liked every day being different and exciting.

The least desirable traits are the working conditions, long hours, and difficult customers and what would cause the graduates to leave or caused them to leave are some hospitality graduates who left the industry stated they would never return to the hospitality industry. Many students have a strong passion for the industry.
4. A Comparison of Student and Practitioner Perspectives of the Travel and Tourism Internship

Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, sport and Tourism education- 2008

As per article writer states, using a web-based survey of 48 items, the study explored how students and practitioners differed in their view regarding the role of the internship experience; the role of the internship agency, the intern’s abilities; and factors in selecting an internship.

Articulating the responsibilities of interns and internship supervisors prior to the internship is a key element in a successful internship.

In many internship experiences, there is an inconsistency between what students believe they are capable of doing and what internship supervisors believe the student intern can do.

The instrument, which was a modification of the Knemeyer and Murphy instrument, consisted of 48 items that were divided into four sections: 1) the role of the internship experience; 2) role of the internship agency; 3) intern abilities; and 4) factors in selecting an internship.

Regardless, the overall success of the internship experience “Ultimately lies with the interns and their willingness to accept and learn from challenges and experiences, open their minds to new Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 7(1), 31 – 39 36 Beggs, Ross and Goodwin A Comparison of Student and Practitioner Perspectives of the Travel and Tourism Internship ideas, their ability to learn and adapt to the unexpected, and their contributions to the sponsors’ operations.

Providing a salary in addition to housing may make an internship more attractive to students, and allow agencies to attract more and possibly better qualified students to their internships.

Internships are a vital part of many academic programs and play an important role in the transition of students from the college environment to the work environment.

Because of this, all students should be strongly encouraged to engage in an internship experience.

In order to better provide quality internship experiences, it is vital that internship agencies and students have comparable perceptions and expectations of the internship experience.

This study has identified some incongruities between practitioners and students related to the purpose of the internship experience; role of the internship agency; intern abilities; and factors in selecting an internship.

5. Hospitality internships in Cyprus: a genuine academic experience or a continuing frustration?

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2007

The target population of the study included all students pursuing an accredited hospitality degree in a private or government sponsored tertiary educational institute in Cyprus, and who have completed at least one hospitality internship practice.

Hospitality professionals: internship problems and student “Qualities” Consistent with student findings, the most important problem that hospitality professionals experience when dealing with hospitality internships are the requirements imposed by the Cyprus Government.

The findings on internship-specific problems that are associated with the opinions of hospitality professionals are presented in Table II. For years, many Cypriot hospitality experts, especially educators, have been claiming that interventions by hospitality employee labour unions pose serious challenges and obstacles to student internships on a variety of fronts such as the availability of positions, selection of shifts, and monetary rewards.

A five-point Likert scale was used with 1 indicating “Least important” and 5 “Most important” Table III. Characteristics of a “Quality” hospitality intern IJCHM 19,1 72 Statistical differences between Cypriot and international students Research findings revealed that hospitality students are not all the same.

Statistical differences between private and government sponsored students Although a direct comparison between hospitality students pursuing hospitality degrees in private educational institutions and those at the government-sponsored institution initially was not a primary objective of the study, it was decided to conduct a number of comparative statistics in order to discover if the student experience differs in any way.

Hospitality educators must ensure that internships adequately prepare students to enter the hospitality industry upon their graduation by complementing their theoretical knowledge with the actual practice.

Opportunities for overseas Hospitality internships in Cyprus 75 IJCHM 19,1 76 internships should be available to both European Union and non-European Union hospitality students, who will be given the option of either a local or an international internship experience.


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