1. Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, in a large family with many children.
2. He was an active politician, writer, inventor, founder of a huge number of various public organizations, hospitals, and educational institutions.
3. He is called one of the “founding fathers” of the United States.
4. Benjamin Franklin portrait is printed on a hundred-dollar bill.
5. Benjamin independently studied French, Spanish, Italian, and also Latin language.
6. Benjamin invented a lightning rod.
7. Benjamin Franklin was the first Post Master General of the United States
8. From 1776 to 1785, Benjamin Franklin was the US ambassador in Paris.
9. For many years Franklin suffered from gout.
10. He was one of the three people who signed The American-French treaty of alliance (1778) and the Versailles Peace Treaty (1783).
11. He created the first detailed map of the Gulf Stream in 1970.
12. Franklin was elected a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1779.
13. He also contributed in building first successful fire insurance company.
14. In his own printing house, Franklin printed even paper money.
15. Benjamin Franklin was the founder of the first US public library.
16. He invented bifocals glasses.
17. He loved swimming, in his early childhood he made wings for hands to swim.
18. He published many of his works in newspaper with female names like Polly Baker, Busy Body and many more.
19. Benjamin Franklin founded the Union of the Fire Society, a fire fighting company in America.
20. He participated in the creation of the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution.
21. He also collected extensive data on storm winds and proposed a theory explaining its origin.
22. He has developed his own time management system.
23. Franklin founded a group called “Junto”, which included his like-minded people who wanted to make changes in society and express their creativity.
24. In the US there is a bridge across the Delaware River, named after Franklin, it is known as the Benjamin Franklin Bridge and connects Philadelphia and Camden.
25. Franklin loved to eat fish but he then decided to become vegetarian.
26. He was very fond of chess and was engaged in music.
27. In 1790, Benjamin Franklin tried to abolish slavery.
28. Benjamin Franklin never patented any of his invention.
29. In middle age, Franklin suffered from obesity.
30. Benjamin Franklin invented odometer.
31. In 1727 he founded his own printing house in Philadelphia.
32. One of his first successful literary works was The Poor Richard’s Almanack (1732-1758).
33. In 1753, for merits in the field of studying electricity, the Royal Society of London awarded Franklin with the gold medal of Copley, at that time the most prestigious award of that time.
34. He could play musical instruments like guitar, harp and violin. He invented the glass harmonic.
35. Benjamin Franklin invented a medical catheter, a chair-rocking chair and much more.
36. Due to weak financial conditions, Benjamin started working with his brother in the print shop at the age of 12.
37. In 1721, Benjamin brother started publishing magazine for which Benjamin wants ot write article but his brother denied to publish.
38. Benjamin secretly published articles from other publishing house and so many of it are famous today.
39. Franklin almost killed himself twice while performing experiments.
40. He appeared on the first US postage stamp
41. Franklin invented mechanical arms to reach the upper shelves of library.
42. More than 30 colonies of the United States have renamed in honor of Benjamin Franklin.
43. Franklin was the first deputy postmaster of North America.
44. Benjamin Franklin National Memorial is located at the Franklin Institute, the most visited museum and one of the oldest centers of science and development of education in the United States.
45. Franklin married his childhood friend, who was called Deborah Read in 1730. They had two children.
46. Franklin owns more than 14 different halls of Fame.
47. The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, which he wrote between 1771 and 1790 (was published posthumously) is considered a classic of the genre even today.
48. He was known as “The only President of the United States who was never President of the United States”.
49. He died on April 17, 1790 at the age of eighty-four.
50. About 20,000 people took part in his funeral.

1) Executive Summary
This report was commissioned to examine how the government can help improve and influence incentives in the Irish Labour market. This research draws attention to the fact that in June 2018, unemployment in Ireland stood at 5.1% (statista.com). Although this figure has decreased from previous years, Ireland still has an unemployment rate greater than many other EU countries (statista.com). To reduce this unemployment rate, it is recommended that the Irish government:
• Alter the current tax structures to create a greater incentive to work.
• Alter the social welfare payment conditions.
• Create greater incentives to take up education to up-skill our workforce.

2) Introduction
This report was put together to provide information based on evidence as to what governments can do to create incentives in the Irish Labour market. The idea of this report was to firstly understand why people become unemployed and remain unemployed but secondly, to provide recommendations as to how to increase the labour supply in Ireland. The report is constructed by firstly providing the rationale behind unemployment and why individuals decide to remain unemployed. Based on this rationale, the report provides recommendations and solutions to negate the motive to remain unemployed. The report will discuss how tax policies, unemployment insurance, incentives to educations can all influence the motivation to work and what the governments can do to create a greater incentive in the Irish labour market to work.
3) Reasons for Unemployment in Ireland
A major disincentive for employment is a high income tax rate. Ireland has one of the highest marginal tax rates in the world. The OECD highlights that in 2016, Ireland with a top rate of 52% is in the top 15 OECD countries to have a marginal rate above 50%. Generally, this rate is applied at earnings of around €70,000. Such countries include Sweden (€67,000), Denmark (€65,000) and the Netherlands (€68,000). (OECD Tax Database-OECD). However, In Ireland people begin to pay at a slightly lower rate of 49%, at a substantial lower level of earnings. This results in a greater proportion of people’s incomes being taxed at a higher rate in Ireland. For example, once PRSI and USC are included, people will pay this higher tax rate of 49% on anything above €33,801. (Ireland-OECD). As evidence that higher income tax rates lead to greater unemployment, a study was conducted by Newell and Symons (1990). This study found that external factors such as: a taxation system that makes increases in wages quite small after taxes are paid and an increase in unemployment payments relative to the average wage were big contributors leading to a disincentive to work. Based on this research, it is key that the Irish government should alter their taxation system by reducing the threshold at which income begins to be taxed at the higher band rate. Then the Irish government will likely see greater increases in the supply of labour particularly for those who are middle income earners.

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4) Measures to Increase Labour Supply:

a) Examples of Changed Tax Policies
Evidence suggests that lower income taxes are one of the most powerful engines of job creation and rising prosperity. The Heritage Foundation conducted a recent study which looked at the rates jobs were created in high tax states such as New York and California, compared with low tax ones such as Texas and Florida. The difference was significant, by a large margin, the low tax states did much better. (Telegraph-Take a lesson from the US)
In the US, there are federal and state income taxes. Everyone is liable to pay federal taxes, but state taxes depend on the state in which you live in. Certain states don’t levy any additional income taxes at all, including Texas, Florida, Alaska, Nevada, New Hampshire, Tennessee, Washington and Wyoming. The remainder impose some additional income tax, up to about 13pc on top of the federal rate in California and New York City. So, throughout the country there are wide variations in the different rates of income tax you are liable to pay. (Telegraph-Take a lesson from the US)
Interestingly, chief economist ‘Stephen Moore’ of The Heritage Foundation study, compared the rate of job creation between low and high tax states. Most people observing this study might expect the highest rates to be in New York, home to Wall Street’s dominant financial industry, or in California, where the tech giants of Silicon Valley have been creating wealth on a huge scale. However, that wasn’t how it turned out. Much more new jobs were created in zero-tax states such as Texas and Florida than in either of their higher tax competitors. (Telegraph-Take a lesson from the US)
Between the years 2008 and 2013, California lost jobs overall, even though certain tech companies created large employment in San Francisco. Texas, by contrast, created 1m new jobs. For every new job in California, Texas created two. For every new job in New York, Texas created five. (Telegraph-Take a lesson from the US)
This hypothesis can be furthered backed up by going back further as the results become even more dramatic. During the period from 1990 to 2014, Texas had created 65pc more jobs and Florida 46pc more. During this period on the national scale, the US as a whole has seen employment levels rise by only 27pc, but California has only created 24pc more jobs and New York 9pc more. Overall, the nine states that don’t have their own income tax all performed better over that period than the nine highest tax states, which also include Hawaii and New Jersey. (Telegraph-Take a lesson from the US). This example provides evidence that lower income tax countries tend to experience a greater supply of labour and thus greater employment. Ireland, based on this example and the research above should apply this method to create a greater incentive to work in the Irish labour market.

b) Unemployment Insurance
If the Irish government wish to create incentives in the labour market, it is important that unemployment insurance is reduced. Unemployment insurance is a disincentive to work. It can be understood as an income replacement program. The replacement ratio is:

Net income from Unemployment
Net income from employment

In Ireland, replacement ratios tend to be high and high (RR’s) reduce the incentive to work. Evidence gathered by the Department of Public Expenditure showed


The collections of the research contain of five chapters as following:

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In Chapter 1, it demonstrates the research results which represent as the summary of Chapter 2, 3, 4, and 5. The opening introduction of the research project in relation which the purchase intention in residential property is comprise. Besides that, the research background in the problem statement and the research objectives, research questionnaire and significant of the study are further review.
In Chapter 2, the introduction and review of the suitable literature about the element will be review. Moreover, the review of the suitable theoretical approach is needed and the conceptual framework is urged for further study. Therefore, suitable hypotheses will be arising and finally conclusion of Chapter 2 will be drawn.
In Chapter 3, the research design will be more details. In addition, the data collection methods will be discussed. Subsequently, sampling design and construct measurement will be securitized. Besides that, data preparation process will be illustrated and data analysis that express the program used to interpret the data is discussed. Ultimately, there will be the conclusion for Chapter 3 by providing a synopsis of the main themes addressed in the chapter.
In Chapter 4, it will demonstrate about descriptive analyses which deeply discuss the respondent’s demographic characteristic and central of tendencies measurement of constructs. Nevertheless, inferential analyses are involved as it is important for explore the individual element and its relationship with another element. Finally, conclusion of Chapter 4 will present the connection for next chapter.
In the Chapter 5, it will contain about the introduction as a connection to the main themes of the previous chapter and outline of the aim and organization of the Chapter 5. This

chapter will present the outline of the statistical analyses of the whole descriptive and inferential analyses. Besides that, it also added the discussions of the major findings to justify the research objectives and hypotheses. The implications of study which also been added the managerial implications create the practical implications for policy makers and practitioners. Last but not less, the limitation of the study will be talk about.

In research background, the writer has explained about the evolution and current style of property offered by developer and buyer buying purpose specifically in Perak. Problem statements were explained in the upcoming section about the issue or weakness of the past studies in residential property particularly.
Next, the author wants to brief about the research objectives. It shows one broad objective, and three specific objectives in these studies. Three research questions and four hypotheses have been explained. Finally, this fact-finding will discuss the important or in other words the significant of this study. This research is important for manager, employees, customers, and further researchers to enhance the residential property in Perak and Malaysia particularly because when the property developer want to launch a new development, this research can become a guide to them.

1. Bargaining power of Suppliers (high)
SIA has two major suppliers of aircraft which are Airbus and Boeing which are able to maintain. Currently, SIA has 11 planes on order and should be extended to add extra plane to minimize the aircraft leased cost. Fuel cost is gradually 27% of the airline expenditure between 2016-2018 because of the fuel hedging achieved in FYE 2017/2018. Staff cost was 16.2% in 2017/18 and 15.6% in 2016/17, increased by 5.4%.
SIA Engineering Co., Ltd is a Division of SIA for aircraft safety and servicing and productivity, efficiency, pleasant and more value-added services to create a strong stage of Airline Industry’s dealer power since 1992.

2. Bargaining power of Customers (high)
Consumers bargaining strength is very strong because they can choose another airline easily due to the fact of a lot of airlines in the world. Luxury travellers are willing to pay higher prices in return for excellent services is the main concern. Common travellers are more demanding about the price than services. Since Kris flyer program had been promoted to retain customer loyalty and in addition should add-on services like sky spa, in-flight massage treatments and jacuzzi in the air will be more attractive.
Singapore visitor and tourism arrivals are kept increasing year by year and mostly from China and India. They usually buy air ticket from the travel agency and should change the reward incentive rather than zero-commission policy by SIA to travel agency to make it full capacity (81.1% in 2017/18).

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3. Rivalry in the industry
SIA fleet average age is approximate 7years with diverse plan services, one of the attractive reasons to the customers. The customers always compare in term of provided services and prices and are able to have a gorgeous experience in the airline industry. SIA important transformation plan “bold radical measures” which was developed revenue and more passengers to filling up more seat per aircraft to improve SIA processes efficiently and positive impact on the bottom line, as well as enhancing organisational and operational effectiveness.

4. Threat of new entrants (low)
The aircraft refurbishing solution mainly in the various parts used for cabin and interior are made from specific types of lightweight materials to make it luxury quotient of VIP cabins and commercial cabins. On the other hand, decreases the gross weight of aircraft, which result in fuel savings. As the airline enterprise, nowadays deregulation of Low-Cost Carrier (LCC) with lower fares and higher load factors. SIA have the strong impact on the customer with their services compare with various existing airlines.

5. Threat of a substitute products or services (low)
SIA had target especially on medium and long-haul flight luxurious traveller that alleviation and time when travelling with less cost. In same time developed to train talent staffs to emerged as expert staffs, so their offerings are higher among than opponent and do not easily to replacement in the same industry. SIA is focusing substantially on the digital realm, to set up an internal digital-innovation unit to increase its digital capabilities and capacity to reclaim world’s No. 1 spot.
• add extra planes to minimised lease fee and more destinations point
• replace some parts of fuel utilization with the solar energy system to decrease dependence on fuels usage.
• Substitute with Robot instead of Staffs cabin crews to be vibrant innovation culture in airline industry


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