1) Describe how to challenge discrimination in a way that promotes change.
In a care setting it is important that any discrimination is quickly dealt with. It might be the case that the staff member didn’t realise how they were working was discriminating against the clients.
I can promote change by supporting staff to understand about discrimination. I could help them to work in a person-centred approach. For example If I saw that they were asking the verbal clients what they wanted for lunch and assuming what non-verbal clients wanted, I could suggest to them the following.
-To show the client items of food for example, bread or pasta. Then once they have chosen, a filling or topping etc.
-To get that staff member to support the client to make their lunch, maybe using hand-on hand-on-hand technique for example.
-Promote the staff to think about how they can support the clients to make their own choices and be involved in things more.
If we only help the clients with things that they have no capacity to understand (medication etc) and supporting the client to make their own food/ wash their own laundry, we are allowing them to live as independently as possible. They will have a good self-esteem.
If discriminatory practises continued I would follow the complaints procedure.

1) Potential Entrants (Threat of new entrants) – When it comes to the hotel industry there are considered to be several big hotel giants that are already in the market such as Marriott, Hilton, Hyatt, Accor, IHG etc. Therefore if a new hotel chain plans to enter the market the new entrant has to go through a lot of difficulties. Hotel Industry is all about changes in terms of services, products through technology and if a new entrant can possess technology in a unique way to sell its products or services, customers might be impressed with it and might switch in this case so there is always a threat to big chains from new entrants. An example can be seen where Ovolo Nishi formerly known as Hotel Hotel has acquired the market because of its unique ways in terms of services through technology.
2) Power of Buyers – Consumers, Guests actually known as buyers acquire the advantages as hotels cannot make money, profits until and unless their products and services such as rooms, restaurants, bar’s etc are being used. There are considered to be millions of people that use the products/ services of IHG Hotels and therefore if the buyers (guests) didn’t like the services/ product it will be very easy for them to switch brands resulting in losses, collapse to the organisation. In order to avoid it hotels need to be very careful in terms of their guest’s preferences, what they dislike. Preferences can be in terms of rooms, food and beverage, other services provided by the hotel.
3) Power of Suppliers – IHG has different suppliers across the world. Suppliers hold an advantage in terms of particular rates offered to a particular hotel. For example rivalry among hotels such as IHG and Hyatt will influence the suppliers to increase their rates on supplied products as well as services. Suppliers have a key and can damage a hotel’s reputation if something goes wrong.
4) Competitive Rivalry – It can be classified as competition between the hotels in order to increase market share. In order to retain customers (guest’s) hotel offers different types of loyalty and membership programs to have an edge over their rivals. Hotels are seen these days acquiring smaller brands to obtain competitive advantage. An example can be seen where Accor Hotels have merged with Mantra Hotel Group to obtain competitive advantage. Therefore, Crowne Plaza an InterContinental Hotel Group Brand offer excellent services to its guests including business, corporate, leisure, families etc and is itself competitive.

1.6 Operationalization of Variables
In the literature review, relevant relationships among various factors has been identified. The Irritation and Invasiveness are the factors that were found affecting attitudes towards high frequent targeted online retargeting.
The Irritation is based on previous studies of consumer attitudes towards frequent advertising; while the Invasiveness is based on previous studies on consumers’ attitudes towards targeted advertising.
Variables will be operationalized by testing customers’ perception of each of the independent, and dependent variables. Likertscale will be used in all these items to ensure consistency of our questionnaire.
1.7 Time Horizon
Sekaran and Bougie (2013) identifies two different types of time horizons: cross-sectional and longitudinal. The selection of the method depends on which research strategy is being used.
Longitudinal studies measure the independent variable more than once over a given period of time, which makes it possible to study the changes in the variable. By contrast, cross-sectional studies only measure the independent variable once.
Since the research is not examining how attitudes have changed over time towards the online retargeting, a cross-sectional study is more suitable choice. All things considered, it will be a cross-sectional non-contrived field study, which will be conducted through a survey and depend on primary data.
1.8 Data Analysis
For the research SPSS statistics software will be used for the entire data analytical analysis and reporting of the results. Regression analysis, correlation analysis and descriptive statistics is to be used to analyze the relationships among variables.
1.9 Limitations
Since this study is focusing only on Egyptian online consumers, and using convenience sample for sampling. The results cannot be generalized; accordingly this study will help only to give some applicable insight on the Egyptian programmatic market.


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