1. Mass Media effect of lifestyle and attitude effects.
A. How does communicating through traditional media different from new media?
Traditional media, or as some refer to as old media, has been used in the marketing and advertising world for years. When related to advertising, traditional media encompasses that of television, newspaper, radio and magazine ads. These forms of communication are the steadfast ways that businesses have reached both consumers and other companies for decades. They are the roots of advertising and the most common form utilized by businesses on a daily basis. Though traditional media is effective, over the course of the last few years we have seen more and more businesses utilizing new media to reach its target audiences.
New media is the future of advertising. More and more consumers and businesses rely on new media to find their information. Ultimately, new media refers to content that is easily accessible via many different forms of digital media. When related to advertising, some examples of new media include online advertising (retargeting, banner ads, etc.), online streaming (radio and television) and social media advertising. Each of these are means in which businesses have the capability to reach consumers and other businesses with ease.
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New media is a form of mass communication such as using the internet on the other hand traditional media includes newspaper, television, radio etc.
The benefits of new media include the fact that it’s a two way communication platform unlike traditional media. It allows its users to give their opinions instantly unlike with mediums such as newspapers where they have to wait for the editor to actually print their concerns and most
often than not, they don’t get printed.
New media allows everyone to have an opinion which can be good if used positively to create a better influence on people.
Blogging and microblogging is imbibed by new media that allows people to explore places and things and write about their experiences.
With the advent of new media in a heavy way one thing is definitely true that it is here to stay.
B. How has the Internet changed the characteristics of the sources of mass communication? (Emerging media trends)
Media audience are becoming less mass and more selective. In today’s audience, less time available for media, and when audience members do spend time with the media, they tend to look for content geared to their special interest. There are more media today to choose from: TV networks, DVDs, video games, YouTube, movies and local radio stations. Advertisers have turned from mass to target marketing, paying a premium to reach those people most likely to buy their product or services.
Then there is convergence, this is a process of coming together or uniting in a common interest or focus. Operational convergence is several media properties in one market combine their separate operations in a single effort. In this way, it saves money because rather than hiring a separate new staff for each medium. Each medium can promote their partners.
Also there is the Increased audience control. Many years ago, viewers had to watch programs broadcast by local stations and the major networks according to the media’s schedule. Recent technological advances allowed time shifting, or recording a program to be viewed at a more convenient time. For many decades most people dependent on the news provided by their local newspaper or TV network, but today audience member can choose from 24 hour cable news network, internet sites (CNN) and Google News. Before the Internet, consumer with something to sell had to rely on the local newspaper classified ads section, but today they can create their own ads on eBay or Carousel.
Then, multiple platforms was created everywhere. Make content available to consumer using a number of delivery methods to a number of receiving devices. Newspaper or magazines have Websites for their digital versions that usually includes video clips. Ais Kacang podcast is a digital media format comprising of a series of talk shows with specific themes that listeners can stream digitally. (One Fm, Hot Fm, Fly Fm, Kool Fm)
YouTube, Flickr, Wikipedia are depending heavily on user-generated content. Member generate posts on Twitter and Facebook.
Mobile media can access the Internet through applications programs rather than through traditional Web browser. People can watch movies and TV shows, read books, newspapers, and magazines and surf the Internet on their smartphones or iPads.
Social media are online communication that use special techniques that involve participation,
conversation, sharing, collaboration and linkage. Communication takes place at four levels, including intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and mass. Mass communication role are to inform, to persuade, to amuse and to enlighten. Seven trends that characterize modern mass communication audience segmentation, convergence, increased audience control, multiple platforms, user-generated content, more mobility and social media.
C. What examples can you offer of mass communication reflecting lifestyles? How about the opposite-lifestyles reflecting mass communication?
While media affect lifestyles, they also reflect lifestyle changes that come about for reasons altogether unrelated to the mass media. For better or worse media affect socialization process by giving young esters access to information. Socialization means learning to fit into society. Socialization begins at home. Children imitate their parents, brothers and sisters. From listening and observing children learn values. Socialization process expands to include the influence of friends, neighbors, school and media.
In earlier times the role of media came into effect in children’s lives late because books, magazines and other factors. Today, TV. And the Internet have displaced much of the socialization influence that once came from parents.
Living Patterns; Mass media both reflect lifestyles and shape them. In earlier times, TV kept people at home in their living rooms in the evenings. Media companies adjust their products
according to the changes caused by other changes.
Intergenerational Eavesdropping; Mass media have eroded the boundaries between the generations, genders and other social institutions. Media dealt with a diversity of topics and allowed people in on the secrets of other groups.
D. How frequently does Internet trigger sudden and drastic changes in public opinion? Offer examples.
Business leaders are not very different from the lay person because they too desire social approval, and their decisions are often shaped by social opinion. Pino Audia, a professor of management and organizations at Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College in the US, shows that all business decisions are not necessarily driven by market forces, but rather by subtle pressures that stem from public opinion.
Take for instance the federal minimum wage in the US, which has remained at $7.25 per hour for the past six years. Still, big corporations like Wal-Mart, McDonald’s, Starbucks, Ikea, Aetna and Gap in the past year increased the wages of their entry-level workers to $9, $10, or even $16 per hour. While these companies said it was for higher employee retention and better customer service, Audia asks why this cascade of raises is happening now.
The reason for this sudden move is more likely because of a 2014 Pew Research Centre poll
than business reasons, he maintains. The poll showed 73% of those surveyed supported
increasing the federal minimum wage to $10.10 per hour.
Even when organizations inform their stakeholders about how well they are meeting targets, it is also to build accountability. Audia says this comes from a natural desire to justify your conduct to those whose support you seek. In a working paper, titled The symbolic management of performance: Public opinion and attention to performance in a public arena during the Iraq War, Audia looks at the Pentagon press briefings from 2003 to 2006 to see how their content changed when public support of the war shifted.
The nature of accountability also changes based on when an organization makes a decision. Audia says organizations tend to be more open to public opinion before a decision is made.
By analysing various press clippings during the war, he found that when public support of the war was high, the press briefings gave more attention to combat performance, even if it was nothing to boast about. But when public opinion about the war went south, the press briefings were silent about performance.
He says here openness makes way to being defensive when individuals have committed themselves to a course of action. In those cases, leaders engage in “defensive bolstering”, where instead of “acknowledging mistakes they may have made, they form more rigidly defensive views and have a hard time writing off sunk costs”.
For Audia, this research on public opinion and public assessment of performance is applicable to leaders in the business world as well, since leaders of large organizations, whether in government or the private sector, face similar levels of accountability pressures.
2. Mass media effect from theories of mass communication
A. To what degree do you think mass media influence you? Does your personal experience relate to the various theories of mass communication?
In contrast to the extreme views of the direct effects model, the agenda-setting theory of media stated that mass media determine the issues that concern the public rather than the public’s views. Under this theory, the issues that receive the most attention from media become the issues that the public discusses, debates, and demands action on. This means that the media is determining what issues and stories the public thinks about. Therefore, when the media fails to address a particular issue, it becomes marginalized in the minds of the public.
When critics claim that a particular media outlet has an agenda, they are drawing on this theory. Agendas can range from a perceived liberal bias in the news media to the propagation of cutthroat capitalist ethics in films. For example, the agenda-setting theory explains such phenomena as the rise of public opinion against smoking. Before the mass media began taking an antismoking stance, smoking was considered a personal health issue. By promoting antismoking sentiments through advertisements, public relations campaigns, and a variety of media outlets, the mass media moved smoking into the public arena, making it a public health issue rather than a personal health issue. More recently, coverage of natural disasters has been
prominent in the news. However, as news coverage wanes, so does the general public’s interest. Media scholars who specialize in agenda-setting research study the salience, or relative importance, of an issue and then attempt to understand what causes it to be important. The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation. Agenda-setting research traces public policy from its roots as an agenda through its promotion in the mass media and finally to its final form as a law or policy
Practitioners of the uses and gratifications theory study the ways the public consumes media. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. For example, you may enjoy watching a show like Dancing With the Stars while simultaneously tweeting about it on Twitter with your friends. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Each of these uses gratifies a particular need, and the needs determine the way in which media is used. By examining factors of different groups’ media choices, researchers can determine the motivations behind media use.
A typical uses and gratifications study explores the motives for media consumption and the consequences associated with use of that media. In the case of Dancing With the Stars and Twitter, you are using the Internet as a way to be entertained and to connect with your friends. Researchers have identified a number of common motives for media consumption. These include relaxation, social interaction, entertainment, arousal, escape, and a host of interpersonal and social needs. By examining the motives behind the consumption of a particular form of
media, researchers can better understand both the reasons for that medium’s popularity and the roles that the medium fills in society. A study of the motives behind a given user’s interaction with Facebook, for example, could explain the role Facebook takes in society and the reasons for its appeal.
Uses and gratifications theories of media are often applied to contemporary media issues. The analysis of the relationship between media and violence that you read about in preceding sections exemplifies this. Researchers employed the uses and gratifications theory in this case to reveal a nuanced set of circumstances surrounding violent media consumption, as individuals with aggressive tendencies were drawn to violent media.
Another commonly used media theory, symbolic interactionism, states that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction. This means the way you act toward someone or something is based on the meaning you have for a person or thing. To effectively communicate, people use symbols with shared cultural meanings. Symbols can be constructed from just about anything, including material goods, education, or even the way people talk. Consequentially, these symbols are instrumental in the development of the self.
This theory helps media researchers better understand the field because of the important role the media plays in creating and propagating shared symbols. Because of the media’s power, it can construct symbols on its own. By using symbolic interactionist theory, researchers can look at the ways media affects a society’s shared symbols and, in turn, the influence of those symbols
on the individual.
One of the ways the media creates and uses cultural symbols to affect an individual’s sense of self is advertising. Advertisers work to give certain products a shared cultural meaning to make them desirable. For example, when you see someone driving a BMW, what do you think about that person? You may assume the person is successful or powerful because of the car he or she is driving. Ownership of luxury automobiles signifies membership in a certain. socioeconomic class. Equally, technology company Apple has used advertising and public relations to attempt to become a symbol of innovation and nonconformity. Use of an Apple product, therefore, may have a symbolic meaning and may send a particular message about the product’s owner.
Media also propagate other noncommercial symbols. National and state flags, religious images, and celebrities gain shared symbolic meanings through their representation in the media.
The spiral of silence theory, which states that those who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation, explains the role of mass media in the formation and maintenance of dominant opinions. As minority opinions are silenced, the illusion of consensus grows, and so does social pressure to adopt the dominant position. This creates a self-propagating loop in which minority voices are reduced to a minimum and perceived popular opinion sides wholly with the majority opinion. For example, prior to and during World War II, many Germans opposed Adolf Hitler and his policies; however, they kept their opposition silent out of fear of isolation and stigma.
Because the media is one of the most important gauges of public opinion, this theory is often used to explain the interaction between media and public opinion. According to the spiral of silence theory, if the media propagates a particular opinion, then that opinion will effectively silence opposing opinions through an illusion of consensus. This theory relates especially to public polling and its use in the media
The media logic theory states that common media formats and styles serve as a means of perceiving the world. Today, the deep rooting of media in the cultural consciousness means that media consumers need engage for only a few moments with a particular television program to understand that it is a news show, a comedy, or a reality show. The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. For example, think about a TV news program that frequently shows heated debates between opposing sides on public policy issues. This style of debate has become a template for handling disagreement to those who consistently watch this type of program.
Media logic affects institutions as well as individuals. The modern televangelist has evolved from the adoption of television-style promotion by religious figures, while the utilization of television in political campaigns has led candidates to consider their physical image as an important part of a campaign.
The cultivation analysis theory states that heavy exposure to media causes individuals to develop an illusory perception of reality based on the most repetitive and consistent messages of a particular medium. This theory most commonly applies to analyses of television because of that medium’s uniquely pervasive, repetitive nature. Under this theory, someone who
watches a great deal of television may form a picture of reality that does not correspond to
actual life. Televised violent acts, whether those reported on news programs or portrayed on television dramas, for example, greatly outnumber violent acts that most people encounter in their daily lives. Thus, an individual who watches a great deal of television may come to view the world as more violent and dangerous than it actually is.
Cultivation analysis projects involve a number of different areas for research, such as the differences in perception between heavy and light users of media. To apply this theory, the media content that an individual normally watches must be analyzed for various types of messages. Then, researchers must consider the given media consumer’s cultural background of individuals to correctly determine other factors that are involved in his or her perception of reality. For example, the socially stabilizing influences of family and peer groups influence children’s television viewing and the way they process media messages. If an individual’s family or social life plays a major part in her life, the social messages that she receives from these groups may compete with the messages she receives from television.
B. Select one (1) theory of mass communication and answer the following question.
i) Origin of the selected theory
iii) Strength and weaknesses
iv) Application of the theory in past research
v) Identify an example in your recent experience and apply in the selected theory
In mid-20th century most of the developing countries and third world nations have used this social responsibility theory of press which is associated with “the Commission of the Freedom of Press” in United States at 1949. In the book “Four theories of Press” (Siebert, Peterson and Schramm) it’s been stated that “pure libertarianism is antiquated, out dated and obsolete.” That paved way for replacement of Libertarian theory with the Social responsibility theory.
Modern view of business advocates assumption of social responsibility by business. The arguments in favour of social obligation are discussed below:
Business belongs to Society; Business is a part of society. Therefore, businessmen must consider it to be their duty to satisfy the needs of society. Social improvements may be brought about by developing educational opportunities, pollution control, or upliftment of back ward people.
Long-term Interest of Business; It is in the interest of business to fulfill the demands and aspirations of the society. The people who have good environment, education and opportunities make better employees, customers and neighbors for the business.
Fear of Government Intervention or Regulation; In case the business fails to respond to social needs voluntarily, the government may force business to discharge social obligations through legislation. This will reduce the freedom and flexibility of business. Hence it is in the interest of business community to voluntarily fulfil its obligations to the society.
Public Image; A business can develop credibility with public by responding to the society’s demands. Good public opinion is the precondition for the success of any business. Therefore, the businessmen must be shown concern for social obligations.
Moral Justification; Every business uses capital and physical and human resources of the society for business purposes. It also depends on society for the disposal of goods and services. Further, business firms make use of various common facilities provided by society like roads, power and water supply. Therefore, it is the moral responsibility of business to contribute to the well-being of society.
Consumers’ Consciousness; The consumers are well informed. They expect higher quality products at reasonable rates. If they do not get fair treatment from business, they will organize themselves and compel the business to assume its social responsibilities.
All people have a degree of social responsibility, and some will willingly take on more social responsibility than others. When an individual tries to help society, the effort should be lauded, but the consequences for the individual concerned are not always happy ones. Dilemmas will often later emerge to determine whether an individual feels inclined to continue to help society.
One of the biggest advantages of having social responsibility is that it gives a person a feeling of satisfaction in knowing that he is helping society. The realization that someone, as just one individual, can make a difference is also something that will encourage him to continue helping society. It will also give an individual confidence in striving to achieve more and put forward his own ideas — rather than only answering to the requests of others. Helping others will give a person a good reputation in a community. This good reputation will also make it easier for an individual to use her good name to push forward additional good work. This individual’s opinion will be sought within a community. Once a person has proved herself to be a socially responsible person, she will be given opportunities to become more involved in helping the community. Feeling respected will also be a nice feeling in itself.
When people think of putting social responsibility into practice, they will often be encouraged by others. Problems will arise when an individual, who puts in a lot of time and effort, becomes taken for granted. Once that individual feels that his efforts are not being fairly recognized, then the motivation to carry on will sometimes be eroded. It’s important that people who do take on a lot of social responsibility are made to feel appreciated for their work.
Sometimes an individual will be so competent at handling social responsibility that she will be given too much. This will become draining for some individuals, or it will make some begin to feel that they are more powerful than they actually are. If a person isn’t ready for too much responsibility, then she is also more likely to make mistakes. For someone who has built up a good reputation in a community, a negative change in fortunes will be devastating.
Research literature has it that the social responsibility theory was born as a result of problems created by its predecessor, the libertarian theory of the press. This was in the twentieth century. The libertarian theory of the press as the theory that held sway at the time, gave journalists excessive freedom to publish whatever they like. At the time, political authority rests with the individual. Government’s role is to provide the domestic and foreign peace, but the individual is supreme in politics, a belief spelled out in the US Constitution. With these assumptions, posit that the theory reflects Milton’s concept of the “marketplace of ideas” where anyone could operate a printing press, particularly anyone aligned with a political group. Anyone who ran the presses of the day, because they were partisan, would provide partisan versions of reality. With time, people started finding faults with the prevailing theory due to factors like the industrial revolution, multimedia society, and growth of intellectualism. By this time, the press was observed to have abused this freedom; it had become irresponsible and the victim of a number of negative practices which culminated into a negative media operation christened “yellow journalism”. This was epitomized by sensationalist practices, irresponsibility and character assassination by the media practitioners. Then came a clarion call for the visitation of the libertarian theory. Thus in the 1940s, a group of scholars were commissioned to look into this issue – the Hutchins Commission – funded by the founder of Time magazine, Henry Luce. The commission which had no journalist as member, was led by the then-president of the University of Chicago, Robert Hutchins. This commission deliberated for four years before settling in 1947 on five guidelines for a socially responsible press. They first observed that the number of media outlets is limited and that people are often self-interested and sometimes lazy. After reviewing what the real functions of the press to society should be, the Social Responsibility theory was proposed and introduced. They came out with a report they titled “A Free and Responsible Press”. The commission listed five goals for the press, including the need for truthful and complete reporting of all sides of an issue. The commission concluded that the American press’ privileged position in the Constitution means that the press must always work to be responsible to society. The rise of the social responsibility theory also gave rise to journalism professional associations such as the American Society of Newspaper Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists and the Sigma Delta Chi. And in Nigeria, Nigeria Union of Journalists (NUJ) and other more segregated associations for advertisers and public relations practitioners. It is also worthy of note that the United States, Japan, Britain, and many other European countries subscribe to this theory.
The experience that I can relate in this theory is that on November 3rd 2016 I had a business school trip to Indonesia. We were learning and experiencing people who work in 3rd world country that are helping famous brands like Nike and Adidas. They were the people who got hired by Nike, they work in a terrible condition and they (Indonesian) have went through lots of pain and sickness during the process of making the products for Nike. This teach us that Nike have used people in 3rd world country to work as a labour for their product, this also proves how much of a CSR (corporate social responsibly) they have not shown. People (Indonesian) don’t earn much working as labours for Nike. They earn really little and can even barely buy a packet of medicine when their sick. But if they fell ill and was needed to purchased some medications. After the purchasing, they have no more money to spare. This is my experience and I hope that Nike will do a better job in CSR.