1. Introduction
Poverty in Ethiopia is a widespread and remains a major challenge of sustainable development and stability.
There are multi-dimensional problems like extreme poverty, unemployment, low per capita- income, and unequal income distribution facing in developing countries like Ethiopia that deepens the rate of poverty.
As a result the government of Ethiopia is framing different strategies policies to create job opportunities and to pull the county out of these problems. One of the strategy is to create jobs and accommodate maximum number of citizens has been emerged, i.e. the establishment of Micro and Small Enterprises. The government of Ethiopia has issued the national Micro and Small Enterprises Development Strategy for the promotion of small and micro enterprises in 1997 and revised the strategy in 2011 in order to integrate the development of the sector with the countries five year Growth and Transformation Plan.
However, the MSEs in Ethiopia are facing many challenges while performing in accordance with the designed strategy. Among other factors lack of access to finance is prominent. For any business firm finance plays a great role whether to start up, growth, diversify or expand.
Some authors argue that Riba (1999) the major constraint for Micro and Small Enterprises ( MSEs) growth expansion, diversification is not the shortage of access to finance. It is rather lack of access to medium and long-run credit (time duration of credit) that hinders MSEs. Because, most credit available for MSEs are on short term loans.
Therefore, the purpose of this study focuses on the effect of finance as it leads to success or failure in the operation of the firms.
Furthermore, the study analyzes some important variables such as adequacy of loan size, interest rate, loan term ( loan duration) and availability of loan on time to assess whether aces to finance by itself appropriate or inappropriate.
1.1 Background of the Study
For any business firm, it is obvious that finance plays a key role in any aspect of its operations. Finance is used to start up, expand, diversify and for working capital of the firm.
Without working capital, any business enterprise cannot achieve its objectives. Micro and small enterprises also need finance since they are concerned as a part of business enterprises.
Any business enterprise including MSEs need finance from start up to growth, expansion, diversification and smooth operation at any time in its life cycle (Mckernan and Chem, 2005).
In developing countries the informal sector that mainly constitutes microenterprises is the major source of generating employment and income for the urban population. ILO (2000) estimated the share of informal employment to the total non-agricultural employment accounts for nearly half or more in all regions of the developing world and about 72% in sub-Saharan Africa. Besides employment creation, they also play a very important role in the developing world economy. For example, in Sub Saharan Africa, the contribution of the informal sector in non-agriculture Gross Domestic product (GDP) is about 41 %. Hence, their efficiency matters in determining overall economic performance and poverty reduction.(Truneh Abebe p9)
Despite their potential to improve economic growth, micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in developing countries lack serious attention. They produce largely for the low income group and employ lower levels of techniques. Many of them are self-employed type with a low transformation rate into higher size categories and their innovative activities are limited (Gebreeyesus, 2009). MSE…1A
Ethiopia, as one of developing country to improve the performances and raise the contribution of MSEs to the economic growth, has integrated MSEs as a strategic tools in the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) and forwarded a MSE development strategies to promote the sector. However the sector confronted several factors that affected its performance to grow and develop to its potentials (Werotew, 2010:226-37). MSE…1A
More importantly, the sector is facing financial challenges, which impeded its role in the economy. These challenges are lack of access to credit, insufficient loan size, time delay and collateral (Gebrehiwot and wolday, 2006). In addition to this, Wattanapruttipaisan (2003), Molhotra et al. (2006), Beck (2007) and Vandenberg (2009) also stated that acute financial constraint is a strong obstacle for MSEs in developing countries.
According to Molhotra et al. (2006), MSEs play a pivotal role in developmental goals such as in improving living standard, distributing income fairly among low level and high level group, reducing unemployment rate, fostering linkages among various economic sectors, easy to begin and expand, labor intensive, require small capital, low technology, and little know – how, this sector is receiving due attention of policy makers and development practitioners. Furthermore, MSEs serve as a bridge to reach at the technically advanced medium and large enterprises. It is undisputable to the fact that there is expansion and diversification of MSE sectors in our country, Ethiopia. However, these expansion and diversification of MSE sectors is not satisfactory. So, the country should work or dig out more and more on this sector to compete with other developed nations.
In connection to the idea of Molhotra et al. (2006), Wattanapruttipaisan (2003) pointed out the role of MSEs in providing individuals with better job opportunities, facilitate the import and export transactions among countries. Generally, to create comfortable ground for MSEs, finance is the major determinant one.
Among the seven classifications of MSEs, the study has focused on the following MSE sectors, which are currently survive in the locality. These are Construction materials, Metal and Woodwork, Service sector, Manufacturing, Urban agriculture and Trade and Commerce sectors in Basketo Special Woreda of South Nation Nationalities and Peoples Region of Ethiopia.

1.2 Problem of the Statement

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In almost all economies of the world, Micro and Small Enterprises Sectors contribute to the economy of nations’ by creating employment opportunities, production of goods and services and other value added activities. The existence of a strong small business sector is necessary for the boosting of the economy. However, the transition of this sector to medium and large business sectors is as crucial to preserve the flow of new small businesses into the economy. In addition, such transition or growth will further reduce the unemployment rate and increase the number of products or services offered to the society. ……..(Truneh Abebe)
As stated in the (OECD, 2006), the difficulties that MSEs encounter when trying to access financing consists of many incomplete range of financial related activities, regulatory rigidities or gaps in the legal framework, lack of information on both the bank’s and the MSE’s side. Banks and other financial institutions may avoid providing financing to certain types of MSEs in particular for those which are in start-up and very young firms that typically lack sufficient collateral, or firms whose activities offer the possibilities of high returns but at a substantial risk of loss.
In Ethiopian context, as to the Ethiopian government’s strategy, Growth and Transformation plan, micro and small enterprises are the bridge to achieve the goals of the government (MoFED, 2011). Since Ethiopia is a developing country, policy makers of the country pay due attention for MSE sectors. Due to their low capital requirement, easy of start-up and operate, easy to operate in urban and semi urban areas or environments with small expenditure, they attract the attention of the government. Even though MSEs are believed to require low capital expenditure, still finance is the primary requirement to start and run MSEs. Capital is important to start-up, expansion, diversification and operation of MSEs. However, due to:

Limited access to working capital and long-term credit
? Legal and regulatory restrictions
? Inadequate infrastructure
? High transaction costs
? Limited managerial and technical expertise
? and other multiple and interrelated constraints (OECD, 2006),
MSEs growth, development, expansion, diversification and promotion is not progressing much as expected to achieve.
Studies conducted so far concluded that the problem of MSEs are access to working capital and long term credit, inadequate loan size, inadequate infrastructure, high transactional cost, limited managerial and technical experts and marketing problems World Bank, (2008), Hailay (2003) and Gebrehiwot and Wolday (2006). Even though many authors have concluded the above listed problems of MSEs, they are still don’t agree on each point. For example, Wattanapruttipaisan (2003) stated that lack of access to finance is a strong obstacle for MSEs in developing countries. In contrast, Riba (1999) argued that the major constraint for MSEs’ growth, expansion, diversification and promotion is not the lack of access to finance rather its loan term, to medium and long-term credit, whereas Malhotra et al (2006) shared the arguments of both sides. In addition to this, these authors did not identify some more serious problems.
This research will focus on the effect of finance that is whether it leads to success or failure in the operation of the firm. The major focus is on adequacy of loan size, interest rate, loan term (loan duration), and the availability of loan on time (delays in loan request processing). The variables have been analyzed to assess whether the access to finance by itself is appropriate or inappropriate

Komunikasi ialah sesuatu proses yang membentuk dan berkongsi idea, perasaan dan makna dalam sesuatu ucapan sama ada interaksi bertulis ataupun ucapan awam. Kebiasaannya proses yang melibatkan seseorang individu dan interaksi mereka dengan elemen elemen seperti saluran, bunyi (gangguan), mesej dan maklum balas diterima (Trenholm, 2008). Oleh itu, dalam berkomunikasi dalam masyarakat kita haruslah mengikuti peraturan, norma dan amalan dalam komunikasi untuk mewujudkan hubungan dua hala dengan menduga perasaan dan pemikiran individu yang akan menerima mesej yang kita mahu sampaikan.
Selain itu, komunikasi dalam kehidupan seharian kita amatlah penting kerana ia akan mewujudkan hubungan dua hala antara individu. Oleh itu, meskipun di mana kita berada, pengetahuan dan kepakaran tentang cara untuk berkomunikasi sangat penting untuk menjamin persefahaman antara dua belah pihak. Komunikasi akan terjadi apabila maklumat yang penting boleh dipindahkan daripada diri sendiri kepada orang di sekeliling yang akan menerima maklumat yang mereka hendak sampaikan (John Corner, 1993). Keadaan ini juga memerlukan kedua-dua pihak memahami tentang maklumat yang hendak dikongsi bersama. Namun begitu, kekurangan maklumat dan bahasa yang tidak jelas yang disampaikan oleh individu akan menyebabkan komunikasi tersebut tidak akan berjalan dengan sempurna. Keadaan ini juga, dengan berkomunikasi kita pasti akan mampu memahami diri sendiri serta diri orang lain.
Teori komunikasi ini merupakan kerangka fikiran yang menerangkan fenomena semulajadi atau fenomena sosial tertentu seperti penerangan, penjelasan, penilaian atau ramalan tindakan manusia berdasarkan kaedah saintifik yang berlaku dalam komunikasi (Steven A. Beebe, 2016). Teori komunikasi juga merupakan hipotesis yang telah terbukti benar yang telah dibuktikan oleh para penyelidik yang mengkajinya. Melalui teori ini juga dapat digunakan oleh pengarah urusan dalam memastikan pekerjanya dapat melakukan kerja dengan baik. Seorang pengarah urusan ini haruslah mengetahui teori-teori komunikasi yang sesuai dalam memastikan fungsinya sebagai pengarah urusan dapat memberi arahan yang sesuai dan tepat kepada pekerjanya. Oleh itu, terdapat fungsi teori komunikasi yang dijalankan oleh pengarah urusan seperti mengawal, menganjurkan, kejelasan, fokus, pemerhatian, prediktif, heuristik dan sebagainya (Sue Walton, 1995).

1. Membantu pengarah urusan membuat ramalan.
Seorang pengarah urusan dapat meramalkan bagaimana interaksi pekerjanya akan berkembang supaya dapat mengekalkan tahap kawalan tertentu (Bhat, 2012). Pengarah urusan mestilah menggunakan beberapa jenis teori tentang cara bercakap dengan pekerjanya untuk memberi pemahaman yang bagus agar dapat mencapai visi organisasi. Walaupun peristiwa yang diperhatikan berlaku pada masa lalu, tetapi berdasarkan data dan pemerhatian, ini harus dibuat perkiraan keadaan yang akan terjadi jika hal-hal yang dijelaskan oleh teori juga tercermin dalam kehidupan hari ini. Sebagai contoh, fungsi ramalan ini amat penting untuk bidang kajian komunikasi seperti perundingan dan perubahan sikap, komunikasi dalam organisasi, dinamika kumpulan kecil, pengiklanan, komunikasi awam dan media massa. Melalui ramalan yang dibuat oleh pengurus urusan, sesuatu perkara dapat menghasilkan keputusan yang lebih baik kerana dapat mengawal dan meneka apa yang akan berlaku. Oleh itu, fungsi ramalan yang dijalankan oleh pengarah urusan dapat menjangka sesuatu yang akan berlaku pada masa akan datang.
2. Pengarah urusan dapat menyusunkan rangka kerja.
Penganjuran merujuk kepada tugas para pengurus atau pengarah dalam membentuk satu struktur oraganisasi yang menjelaskan penyusunan kerja-kerja dan pengagihan kerja-kerja tersebut berserta sumber-sumber yang diperlukan dalam organisasi (Bhat, 2012). Ini bermakna bahawa dalam memerhatikan realiti kita tidak boleh melakukannya secara berasingan kerana ia perlu dilakukan secara berpasukan. Dalam merealisasikan perancangan yang telah dibuat, pengarah urusan dapat merangka kerja kepada pekerjanya supaya aktiviti pengurusan untuk mengagihkan kerja dan sumber-sumber untuk pekerjanya supaya dapat mencapai matlamat oraganisasi. Sebagai contoh, terdapat modal, kakitangan dan bahan mentah yang mencukupi dalam organisasi supaya organisasi dapat berjalan dengan lancar dan dapat membina struktur kerja yang baik. Oleh itu, pengorganisasian kerja oleh pengarah urusan, ia perlu dilakukan dengan teliti dan mengambil kira pelbagai aspek oleh pekerja dan sumber organisasi agar pengurusan sebuah organisasai dapat berjalan dengan sempurna. Melalui teori komunikasi yang diamalkan dapat memudahkan pengarah urusan menjalankan penganjuran rangka kerja yang sangat teliti dan dapat mencapai matlamat organisasi tersebut.

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3. Pengurus urusan dapat mengawal organisasi.
Mengawal ialah langkah-langkah kawalan dan menilai prestasi dan mengambil tindakan pembetulan oleh pengarah urusan jika berlaku kesalahan agar matlamat dan visi organisasi dapat dicapai. Dalam teori komunikasi kita dapat melihat bahawa teori boleh berkembang menjadi nilai atau norma yang dipegang dalam kehidupan seharian dalam melakukan kerja. Sebagai contoh, pengarah urusan akan membuat peraturan-peraturan dalam memastikan setiap apa yang dilakukan mestilah mengikut etika kerja yang ditetapkan. Tambahan pula, dalam kawalan mestilah mempunyai elemen-elemen penting dalam proses pengawalan seperti menetapkan piawai prestasi, mengukur prestasi semasa dan sebagainya. Oleh itu, matlamat utama dalam melakukan kawalan adalah untuk memastikan sejauhmanakah fungsi perancangan berhasil dilaksanakan berbanding dengan apa yang dirancangkan serta mengambil tindakan pembetulan.
4. Pengarah urusan dapat menjelaskan sesuatu perkara dengan baik.
Kemahiran menjelaskan adalah aspek yang sangat penting untuk pengarah urusan sebagai ketua urusan kerana kebanyakan komunikasi mempunyai pengaruh besar terhadap pemahaman pekerja dalam bentuk penjelasan. Melalui fungsi teori komunikasi ini dapat membantu pengarah urusan menjelaskan sesuatu maklumat dan matlamat supaya pekerja dibawahannya dapat memahami apa yang patut dilakukan dalam mencapai matlamat organisasi. Sebagai contoh, seorang pengarah urusan yang mempunyai kemahiran komunikasi yang baik dapat menyampaikan mesej yang dengan baik kepada kepada pekerjanya seperti maklumat yang dihantar seharusnya tidak mengelirukan pekerja. Penguasaan kemahiran kemahiran menjelaskan yang ditunjukkan oleh pengurus urusan akan membolehkan pekerjanya mendapat pemahaman yang kukuh mengenai masalah yang diterangkan. Oleh itu, penjelasan yang bagus dapat mempengaruhi orang lain dalam melakukan sesuatu kerja secara tidak langsung dapat mencapai matlamat organisasi.
5. Pengarah urusan dapat membuat pemerhatian.
Teori komunikasi tidak hanya memberikan penjelasan, tetapi juga memberi panduan tentang bagaimana cara untuk kita memerhatikan dalam sesuatu perkara. Melalui pemerhatian yang dibuat oleh pengurus urusan dapat menilai prestasi pekerjanya secara tidak langsung dapat meningkatkan prestasi pekerja. Sebagai contoh, pengurus urusan seharusnya memerhatikan tingkah laku pekerjanya untuk memastikan tugas yang diberikan dapat disiapkan pada masa yang telah ditetapkan. Pemerhatian ini amatlah penting kepada pengarah urusan kerana setiap pemerhatian dapat mengesan sama ada strategi yang digunakan sama ada memberi kesan yang positif atau negatif. Oleh itu, fungsi pemerhatian kepada pengarah urusan ini dapat membantu pengarah urusan menilai setiap perkara yang dilakukanya serta dapat mengelakkan konflik yang bakal berlaku.

Kesimpulannya, komunikasi adalah perkara amat penting dalam memulakan suatu perhubungan dalam kalangan masyarakat. Komunikasi juga telah menjadi fenomena pembentukan sebuah masyarakat atau komuniti bersepadu oleh maklumat, di mana setiap masyarakat sendiri berkongsi maklumat untuk mencapai matlamat yang sama. Hal ini juga menunjukkan bahawa tanpa berkomunikasi kita tidak mampu untuk mengembangkan idea kita kepada orang lain dan akan hidup bersendirian. Tambaha pula, melalui penggunaan teori komunikasi dalam perhubungan dapat membantu pengarah urusan menjalankan tugasnya dengan teratur dan kemas. Oleh itu, fungsi teori komunikasi ini sememangnya penting dalam membentuk konsep kendiri yang positif kepada pengarah urusan.
Teori komunikasi adalah kemahiran yang sangat penting kepada pengarah urusan kerana ia bukan sahaja diperlukan dalam kehidupan seharian kita, tetapi juga sangat penting dalam semua aktiviti profesional dan sosial. Ia juga merupakan sebagai panduan dalam membuat keputusan dan mengambil tindakan apa yang sepatutnya dilakukan. Melalui teori komunikasi ini membantu pengarah urusan untuk menjadi lebih cekap dan berkemampuan menyesuaikan diri dengan orang lain kerana situasi yang sentiasa berubah-ubah.
Akhirnya, komunikasi dalam kalangan masyarakat adalah penting dalam mewujudkan keharmonian dan kesejahteraan dalam kalangan masyarakat serta dapat mengelakkan konflik yang akan wujud. Konflik yang timbul dalam kalangan masyarakat biasanya disebabkan oleh terjadinya kehilangan komunikasi yang terjadi dalam kehidupan masyarakat pada masa kini. Oleh itu, pengetahuan tentang teori komunikasi membolehkan seseorang membuat jangkaan atau ramalan, untuk membuat rancangan untuk menangani keadaan. Oleh itu, sebagai individu, ahli keluarga, ahli organisasi, pemimpin dan pengikut, ia dapat memberi peranan yang lebih berkesan jika teori komunikasi menjadi asas kehidupan seharian.

1. Mass Media effect of lifestyle and attitude effects.
A. How does communicating through traditional media different from new media?
Traditional media, or as some refer to as old media, has been used in the marketing and advertising world for years. When related to advertising, traditional media encompasses that of television, newspaper, radio and magazine ads. These forms of communication are the steadfast ways that businesses have reached both consumers and other companies for decades. They are the roots of advertising and the most common form utilized by businesses on a daily basis. Though traditional media is effective, over the course of the last few years we have seen more and more businesses utilizing new media to reach its target audiences.

New media is the future of advertising. More and more consumers and businesses rely on new media to find their information. Ultimately, new media refers to content that is easily accessible via many different forms of digital media. When related to advertising, some examples of new media include online advertising (retargeting, banner ads, etc.), online streaming (radio and television) and social media advertising. Each of these are means in which businesses have the capability to reach consumers and other businesses with ease.

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New media is a form of mass communication such as using the internet on the other hand traditional media includes newspaper, television, radio etc.
The benefits of new media include the fact that it’s a two way communication platform unlike traditional media. It allows its users to give their opinions instantly unlike with mediums such as newspapers where they have to wait for the editor to actually print their concerns and most
often than not, they don’t get printed.
New media allows everyone to have an opinion which can be good if used positively to create a better influence on people.
Blogging and microblogging is imbibed by new media that allows people to explore places and things and write about their experiences.
With the advent of new media in a heavy way one thing is definitely true that it is here to stay.

B. How has the Internet changed the characteristics of the sources of mass communication? (Emerging media trends)
Media audience are becoming less mass and more selective. In today’s audience, less time available for media, and when audience members do spend time with the media, they tend to look for content geared to their special interest. There are more media today to choose from: TV networks, DVDs, video games, YouTube, movies and local radio stations. Advertisers have turned from mass to target marketing, paying a premium to reach those people most likely to buy their product or services.

Then there is convergence, this is a process of coming together or uniting in a common interest or focus. Operational convergence is several media properties in one market combine their separate operations in a single effort. In this way, it saves money because rather than hiring a separate new staff for each medium. Each medium can promote their partners.

Also there is the Increased audience control. Many years ago, viewers had to watch programs broadcast by local stations and the major networks according to the media’s schedule. Recent technological advances allowed time shifting, or recording a program to be viewed at a more convenient time. For many decades most people dependent on the news provided by their local newspaper or TV network, but today audience member can choose from 24 hour cable news network, internet sites (CNN) and Google News. Before the Internet, consumer with something to sell had to rely on the local newspaper classified ads section, but today they can create their own ads on eBay or Carousel.

Then, multiple platforms was created everywhere. Make content available to consumer using a number of delivery methods to a number of receiving devices. Newspaper or magazines have Websites for their digital versions that usually includes video clips. Ais Kacang podcast is a digital media format comprising of a series of talk shows with specific themes that listeners can stream digitally. (One Fm, Hot Fm, Fly Fm, Kool Fm)

YouTube, Flickr, Wikipedia are depending heavily on user-generated content. Member generate posts on Twitter and Facebook.

Mobile media can access the Internet through applications programs rather than through traditional Web browser. People can watch movies and TV shows, read books, newspapers, and magazines and surf the Internet on their smartphones or iPads.
Social media are online communication that use special techniques that involve participation,
conversation, sharing, collaboration and linkage. Communication takes place at four levels, including intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and mass. Mass communication role are to inform, to persuade, to amuse and to enlighten. Seven trends that characterize modern mass communication audience segmentation, convergence, increased audience control, multiple platforms, user-generated content, more mobility and social media.

C. What examples can you offer of mass communication reflecting lifestyles? How about the opposite-lifestyles reflecting mass communication?

While media affect lifestyles, they also reflect lifestyle changes that come about for reasons altogether unrelated to the mass media. For better or worse media affect socialization process by giving young esters access to information. Socialization means learning to fit into society. Socialization begins at home. Children imitate their parents, brothers and sisters. From listening and observing children learn values. Socialization process expands to include the influence of friends, neighbors, school and media.

In earlier times the role of media came into effect in children’s lives late because books, magazines and other factors. Today, TV. And the Internet have displaced much of the socialization influence that once came from parents.

Living Patterns; Mass media both reflect lifestyles and shape them. In earlier times, TV kept people at home in their living rooms in the evenings. Media companies adjust their products
according to the changes caused by other changes.

Intergenerational Eavesdropping; Mass media have eroded the boundaries between the generations, genders and other social institutions. Media dealt with a diversity of topics and allowed people in on the secrets of other groups.

D. How frequently does Internet trigger sudden and drastic changes in public opinion? Offer examples.
Business leaders are not very different from the lay person because they too desire social approval, and their decisions are often shaped by social opinion. Pino Audia, a professor of management and organizations at Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College in the US, shows that all business decisions are not necessarily driven by market forces, but rather by subtle pressures that stem from public opinion.

Take for instance the federal minimum wage in the US, which has remained at $7.25 per hour for the past six years. Still, big corporations like Wal-Mart, McDonald’s, Starbucks, Ikea, Aetna and Gap in the past year increased the wages of their entry-level workers to $9, $10, or even $16 per hour. While these companies said it was for higher employee retention and better customer service, Audia asks why this cascade of raises is happening now.

The reason for this sudden move is more likely because of a 2014 Pew Research Centre poll
than business reasons, he maintains. The poll showed 73% of those surveyed supported
increasing the federal minimum wage to $10.10 per hour.

Even when organizations inform their stakeholders about how well they are meeting targets, it is also to build accountability. Audia says this comes from a natural desire to justify your conduct to those whose support you seek. In a working paper, titled The symbolic management of performance: Public opinion and attention to performance in a public arena during the Iraq War, Audia looks at the Pentagon press briefings from 2003 to 2006 to see how their content changed when public support of the war shifted.

The nature of accountability also changes based on when an organization makes a decision. Audia says organizations tend to be more open to public opinion before a decision is made.
By analysing various press clippings during the war, he found that when public support of the war was high, the press briefings gave more attention to combat performance, even if it was nothing to boast about. But when public opinion about the war went south, the press briefings were silent about performance.

He says here openness makes way to being defensive when individuals have committed themselves to a course of action. In those cases, leaders engage in “defensive bolstering”, where instead of “acknowledging mistakes they may have made, they form more rigidly defensive views and have a hard time writing off sunk costs”.

For Audia, this research on public opinion and public assessment of performance is applicable to leaders in the business world as well, since leaders of large organizations, whether in government or the private sector, face similar levels of accountability pressures.

2. Mass media effect from theories of mass communication
A. To what degree do you think mass media influence you? Does your personal experience relate to the various theories of mass communication?
In contrast to the extreme views of the direct effects model, the agenda-setting theory of media stated that mass media determine the issues that concern the public rather than the public’s views. Under this theory, the issues that receive the most attention from media become the issues that the public discusses, debates, and demands action on. This means that the media is determining what issues and stories the public thinks about. Therefore, when the media fails to address a particular issue, it becomes marginalized in the minds of the public.

When critics claim that a particular media outlet has an agenda, they are drawing on this theory. Agendas can range from a perceived liberal bias in the news media to the propagation of cutthroat capitalist ethics in films. For example, the agenda-setting theory explains such phenomena as the rise of public opinion against smoking. Before the mass media began taking an antismoking stance, smoking was considered a personal health issue. By promoting antismoking sentiments through advertisements, public relations campaigns, and a variety of media outlets, the mass media moved smoking into the public arena, making it a public health issue rather than a personal health issue. More recently, coverage of natural disasters has been
prominent in the news. However, as news coverage wanes, so does the general public’s interest. Media scholars who specialize in agenda-setting research study the salience, or relative importance, of an issue and then attempt to understand what causes it to be important. The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation. Agenda-setting research traces public policy from its roots as an agenda through its promotion in the mass media and finally to its final form as a law or policy

Practitioners of the uses and gratifications theory study the ways the public consumes media. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. For example, you may enjoy watching a show like Dancing With the Stars while simultaneously tweeting about it on Twitter with your friends. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Each of these uses gratifies a particular need, and the needs determine the way in which media is used. By examining factors of different groups’ media choices, researchers can determine the motivations behind media use.

A typical uses and gratifications study explores the motives for media consumption and the consequences associated with use of that media. In the case of Dancing With the Stars and Twitter, you are using the Internet as a way to be entertained and to connect with your friends. Researchers have identified a number of common motives for media consumption. These include relaxation, social interaction, entertainment, arousal, escape, and a host of interpersonal and social needs. By examining the motives behind the consumption of a particular form of
media, researchers can better understand both the reasons for that medium’s popularity and the roles that the medium fills in society. A study of the motives behind a given user’s interaction with Facebook, for example, could explain the role Facebook takes in society and the reasons for its appeal.

Uses and gratifications theories of media are often applied to contemporary media issues. The analysis of the relationship between media and violence that you read about in preceding sections exemplifies this. Researchers employed the uses and gratifications theory in this case to reveal a nuanced set of circumstances surrounding violent media consumption, as individuals with aggressive tendencies were drawn to violent media.

Another commonly used media theory, symbolic interactionism, states that the self is derived from and develops through human interaction. This means the way you act toward someone or something is based on the meaning you have for a person or thing. To effectively communicate, people use symbols with shared cultural meanings. Symbols can be constructed from just about anything, including material goods, education, or even the way people talk. Consequentially, these symbols are instrumental in the development of the self.

This theory helps media researchers better understand the field because of the important role the media plays in creating and propagating shared symbols. Because of the media’s power, it can construct symbols on its own. By using symbolic interactionist theory, researchers can look at the ways media affects a society’s shared symbols and, in turn, the influence of those symbols
on the individual.
One of the ways the media creates and uses cultural symbols to affect an individual’s sense of self is advertising. Advertisers work to give certain products a shared cultural meaning to make them desirable. For example, when you see someone driving a BMW, what do you think about that person? You may assume the person is successful or powerful because of the car he or she is driving. Ownership of luxury automobiles signifies membership in a certain. socioeconomic class. Equally, technology company Apple has used advertising and public relations to attempt to become a symbol of innovation and nonconformity. Use of an Apple product, therefore, may have a symbolic meaning and may send a particular message about the product’s owner.

Media also propagate other noncommercial symbols. National and state flags, religious images, and celebrities gain shared symbolic meanings through their representation in the media.

The spiral of silence theory, which states that those who hold a minority opinion silence themselves to prevent social isolation, explains the role of mass media in the formation and maintenance of dominant opinions. As minority opinions are silenced, the illusion of consensus grows, and so does social pressure to adopt the dominant position. This creates a self-propagating loop in which minority voices are reduced to a minimum and perceived popular opinion sides wholly with the majority opinion. For example, prior to and during World War II, many Germans opposed Adolf Hitler and his policies; however, they kept their opposition silent out of fear of isolation and stigma.

Because the media is one of the most important gauges of public opinion, this theory is often used to explain the interaction between media and public opinion. According to the spiral of silence theory, if the media propagates a particular opinion, then that opinion will effectively silence opposing opinions through an illusion of consensus. This theory relates especially to public polling and its use in the media

The media logic theory states that common media formats and styles serve as a means of perceiving the world. Today, the deep rooting of media in the cultural consciousness means that media consumers need engage for only a few moments with a particular television program to understand that it is a news show, a comedy, or a reality show. The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. For example, think about a TV news program that frequently shows heated debates between opposing sides on public policy issues. This style of debate has become a template for handling disagreement to those who consistently watch this type of program.

Media logic affects institutions as well as individuals. The modern televangelist has evolved from the adoption of television-style promotion by religious figures, while the utilization of television in political campaigns has led candidates to consider their physical image as an important part of a campaign.

The cultivation analysis theory states that heavy exposure to media causes individuals to develop an illusory perception of reality based on the most repetitive and consistent messages of a particular medium. This theory most commonly applies to analyses of television because of that medium’s uniquely pervasive, repetitive nature. Under this theory, someone who
watches a great deal of television may form a picture of reality that does not correspond to
actual life. Televised violent acts, whether those reported on news programs or portrayed on television dramas, for example, greatly outnumber violent acts that most people encounter in their daily lives. Thus, an individual who watches a great deal of television may come to view the world as more violent and dangerous than it actually is.

Cultivation analysis projects involve a number of different areas for research, such as the differences in perception between heavy and light users of media. To apply this theory, the media content that an individual normally watches must be analyzed for various types of messages. Then, researchers must consider the given media consumer’s cultural background of individuals to correctly determine other factors that are involved in his or her perception of reality. For example, the socially stabilizing influences of family and peer groups influence children’s television viewing and the way they process media messages. If an individual’s family or social life plays a major part in her life, the social messages that she receives from these groups may compete with the messages she receives from television.

B. Select one (1) theory of mass communication and answer the following question.
i) Origin of the selected theory
ii) Assumption
iii) Strength and weaknesses
iv) Application of the theory in past research
v) Identify an example in your recent experience and apply in the selected theory

In mid-20th century most of the developing countries and third world nations have used this social responsibility theory of press which is associated with “the Commission of the Freedom of Press” in United States at 1949. In the book “Four theories of Press” (Siebert, Peterson and Schramm) it’s been stated that “pure libertarianism is antiquated, out dated and obsolete.” That paved way for replacement of Libertarian theory with the Social responsibility theory.

Modern view of business advocates assumption of social responsibility by business. The arguments in favour of social obligation are discussed below:

Business belongs to Society; Business is a part of society. Therefore, businessmen must consider it to be their duty to satisfy the needs of society. Social improvements may be brought about by developing educational opportunities, pollution control, or upliftment of back ward people.

Long-term Interest of Business; It is in the interest of business to fulfill the demands and aspirations of the society. The people who have good environment, education and opportunities make better employees, customers and neighbors for the business.

Fear of Government Intervention or Regulation; In case the business fails to respond to social needs voluntarily, the government may force business to discharge social obligations through legislation. This will reduce the freedom and flexibility of business. Hence it is in the interest of business community to voluntarily fulfil its obligations to the society.

Public Image; A business can develop credibility with public by responding to the society’s demands. Good public opinion is the precondition for the success of any business. Therefore, the businessmen must be shown concern for social obligations.

Moral Justification; Every business uses capital and physical and human resources of the society for business purposes. It also depends on society for the disposal of goods and services. Further, business firms make use of various common facilities provided by society like roads, power and water supply. Therefore, it is the moral responsibility of business to contribute to the well-being of society.

Consumers’ Consciousness; The consumers are well informed. They expect higher quality products at reasonable rates. If they do not get fair treatment from business, they will organize themselves and compel the business to assume its social responsibilities.

All people have a degree of social responsibility, and some will willingly take on more social responsibility than others. When an individual tries to help society, the effort should be lauded, but the consequences for the individual concerned are not always happy ones. Dilemmas will often later emerge to determine whether an individual feels inclined to continue to help society.

One of the biggest advantages of having social responsibility is that it gives a person a feeling of satisfaction in knowing that he is helping society. The realization that someone, as just one individual, can make a difference is also something that will encourage him to continue helping society. It will also give an individual confidence in striving to achieve more and put forward his own ideas — rather than only answering to the requests of others. Helping others will give a person a good reputation in a community. This good reputation will also make it easier for an individual to use her good name to push forward additional good work. This individual’s opinion will be sought within a community. Once a person has proved herself to be a socially responsible person, she will be given opportunities to become more involved in helping the community. Feeling respected will also be a nice feeling in itself.

When people think of putting social responsibility into practice, they will often be encouraged by others. Problems will arise when an individual, who puts in a lot of time and effort, becomes taken for granted. Once that individual feels that his efforts are not being fairly recognized, then the motivation to carry on will sometimes be eroded. It’s important that people who do take on a lot of social responsibility are made to feel appreciated for their work.

Sometimes an individual will be so competent at handling social responsibility that she will be given too much. This will become draining for some individuals, or it will make some begin to feel that they are more powerful than they actually are. If a person isn’t ready for too much responsibility, then she is also more likely to make mistakes. For someone who has built up a good reputation in a community, a negative change in fortunes will be devastating.

Research literature has it that the social responsibility theory was born as a result of problems created by its predecessor, the libertarian theory of the press. This was in the twentieth century. The libertarian theory of the press as the theory that held sway at the time, gave journalists excessive freedom to publish whatever they like. At the time, political authority rests with the individual. Government’s role is to provide the domestic and foreign peace, but the individual is supreme in politics, a belief spelled out in the US Constitution. With these assumptions, posit that the theory reflects Milton’s concept of the “marketplace of ideas” where anyone could operate a printing press, particularly anyone aligned with a political group. Anyone who ran the presses of the day, because they were partisan, would provide partisan versions of reality. With time, people started finding faults with the prevailing theory due to factors like the industrial revolution, multimedia society, and growth of intellectualism. By this time, the press was observed to have abused this freedom; it had become irresponsible and the victim of a number of negative practices which culminated into a negative media operation christened “yellow journalism”. This was epitomized by sensationalist practices, irresponsibility and character assassination by the media practitioners. Then came a clarion call for the visitation of the libertarian theory. Thus in the 1940s, a group of scholars were commissioned to look into this issue – the Hutchins Commission – funded by the founder of Time magazine, Henry Luce. The commission which had no journalist as member, was led by the then-president of the University of Chicago, Robert Hutchins. This commission deliberated for four years before settling in 1947 on five guidelines for a socially responsible press. They first observed that the number of media outlets is limited and that people are often self-interested and sometimes lazy. After reviewing what the real functions of the press to society should be, the Social Responsibility theory was proposed and introduced. They came out with a report they titled “A Free and Responsible Press”. The commission listed five goals for the press, including the need for truthful and complete reporting of all sides of an issue. The commission concluded that the American press’ privileged position in the Constitution means that the press must always work to be responsible to society. The rise of the social responsibility theory also gave rise to journalism professional associations such as the American Society of Newspaper Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists and the Sigma Delta Chi. And in Nigeria, Nigeria Union of Journalists (NUJ) and other more segregated associations for advertisers and public relations practitioners. It is also worthy of note that the United States, Japan, Britain, and many other European countries subscribe to this theory.

The experience that I can relate in this theory is that on November 3rd 2016 I had a business school trip to Indonesia. We were learning and experiencing people who work in 3rd world country that are helping famous brands like Nike and Adidas. They were the people who got hired by Nike, they work in a terrible condition and they (Indonesian) have went through lots of pain and sickness during the process of making the products for Nike. This teach us that Nike have used people in 3rd world country to work as a labour for their product, this also proves how much of a CSR (corporate social responsibly) they have not shown. People (Indonesian) don’t earn much working as labours for Nike. They earn really little and can even barely buy a packet of medicine when their sick. But if they fell ill and was needed to purchased some medications. After the purchasing, they have no more money to spare. This is my experience and I hope that Nike will do a better job in CSR.

1. Saliva can be emitted through two reflexes known as simple salivary reflex and conditioned reflex. Simple salivary reflex happens when chemoreceptors are stimulated by the presence of food and send signal to the medulla oblongata which thusly signal the arrival of more saliva. The conditioned salivary reflex happens when there is no oral incitement. Seeing hearing or smelling nourishment can trigger this reflex.
Autonomic control
The salivary organs create saliva and secrete it. The salivary glands are affected by the autonomic sensory system. The ANS consist of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic system. The sympathetic happens when there is no adrenalin which enacts the alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. This results in decrease of saliva secretion. The parasympathetic happens when there is presence of food. Acetylcholine is discharged and the acinar cells secrete saliva. The more parasympathetic incitement more saliva secreted.
2. Cephalic stage
The cephalic phase is controlled by the brain, phase starts before food is ingested generally when the food is still in the mouth. This is initiated by sight, smell of food and the taste of food that stimulate appetite and the more appetite an individual has, the greater the stimulation. The cerebral cortex is stimulated and transmit signal to the hypothalamus, the medulla and the parasympathetic sensory system through the vagus nerve and to the stomach through the gastric organs in the stomach. This stage represents 20% of gastric secretion related with eating food. This part of the cephalic reflex is inhibited when an individual has no appetite. This cause Enterochromaffin-like cells to secret histamine and increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach. There will likewise be an impact on G cells to expand gastrin circulation.
Gastric stage
When food enters the stomach the gastric glands secrete gastric juice. The stomach extends starting stretch receptors that sends signal to the medulla and back to the stomach through the vagus nerve. This reason the gastric organs to secrete more gastric juice. In part processed protein activates the G cells that are found in the pyloric area of the stomach to secret gastrin. The stimulation of G cells fortifies the gastric organs to secrete gastric juice. Little peptide and amino acids from the breakdown of proteins buffer the stomach acid to keep the pH from dropping to much As digestion continues, the peptides empty the stomach, causing the pH to drop low. When the pH reaches below 2, G cells and pariental cells are inhibited and the gastric phase is slowed down and the hydrochloric acids and pepsin decreases. Close to two third of gastric secretion occurs during this phase. Food that has been ingested stimulate gastric secretion in two ways: By stretching the stomach which activates two reflexes: a short reflex and a long reflex. And the second gastric activity is by raising the pH.

3. The landing of chyme in the duodenum start the intestinal phase and it controls the gastric movement through hormones and nervous reflexes. The duodenum help aid secretion of gastric juice and afterward inhibit it once more. The duodenum stretches vagal reflexes that invigorate the stomach peptide and amino acids in the chyme that stimulate G cells to secrete gastrin. However, the acid and semi digested fats in the duodenum invigorate the enterogastricc reflex. The stomach gets inhibitory signal from the duodenum through the enteric sensory system and furthermore medulla gets inhibitory signs from the duodenum to restrain vagal stimulation. A decrease in the vagal stimulation stimulate sympathetic neurons that sends inhibitory signal to the stomach. Two hormones are engaged with the duodenum in particular the cholecystokinin and secretin. Cholecystokinin is found in the duodenum where it is incorporated and secreted by the enteric endocrine cells. Partially digested proteins and fats in the small intestine stimulate its production. At the point when chyme enters the small intestine in huge amounts the cholecystokinin is released into the blood and it bind to the receptors on pancreatic acinar cells initiating a secretion of large amount of digestive enzymes. The second hormone secretin is found in the epithelium of the small intestine produced by the endocrinocytes. Presence of acid in the duodenum cause secretion of secretin because of the stream of acid loaded chyme from the stomach through the pylorus. The primary function of secretin is to stimulate duct cells to secret water and bicarbonate. The enzymes secreted by the acinar cells are flown out of the pancreas, through the pancreatic duct into the duodenum.
4. Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine
Proteins are large molecules that are needed by the body but cannot be absorbed directly. The protein should be broken down into amino acids then those amino acids recombined to form specific proteins for example enzymes, antibodies and hormone. The breakdown of protein happens from the stomach and proceed to the small intestine. Pepsin start the breakdown of protein by breaking peptide bonds holding protein together. Proteins are then broken down into polypeptide in the stomach which at that point move to the small intestine. Enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase are secreted from the pancreas and enters the duodenum with the assistance of brush border enzymes. The peptide bonds holding the polypeptide are broken down into little peptides (two amino acids). The enzymes continue to breaking down molecules into amino acids which are small and are then absorbed through the small intestine lining and into the circulatory system.

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5. Ruminants are given this name because they ruminate (chew the cud). Ruminants cannot digest their own food (grass) therefore, depend on microbes to digest complex polysaccharides for them. They have evolved their stomach to be able to house these microbes. Microbes are important because they produce enzymes such as cellulase and other enzymes necessary to break down plants material. The first microbe is the Fibrobacter succinogenes which break down glucose into acetate and succinate as by product. Ruminoccus flavifaciens which is involved in the digestion of plant cell wall because it contain high concentration of cellulase and hemicellulase activities. The product produced are hydrogen, acetate which is used as an oxidasable substrate and the succinate as a growth substrate. Megasphaera elsdenii is found in young ruminant and ferments glucose used for gluconeogenesis. Most of these microbes produces enzymes that break down glucose in the host’s stomach for energy. Cellulose broken down to fatty acids can be absorbed by the rumen wall. Most bacteria use cellulase enzyme complexes that bind to bacteria surface to digest polysaccharide. Starch and cellulose are broken down into glucose while hemicellulose and pectin are fermented. Fungi release more soluble cellulase than bacteria and are therefore more successful in fermenting plant particles. Both the fungi and archaea are lost from the ruminoreticulum at a slower rate than bacteria because they attach to food bolus. This is a better way of ensuring their survival because they reproduce at a slower rate than bacteria. Microbes and ruminants have a symbiotic relationship. The microbes in the gut benefit by receiving nutrient from the ruminant and the ruminant benefit by digestion of its food and the relationship is mutualistic.


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