1. DIABETES:
Type II diabetes is the main cause of premature illness or death, mainly due to the increased risk of CVD. In which the blood glucose levels are high enough for a person. The diabetes may also leads to the blindness, amputation and kidney failure. 7
The majority of clinical trials reported the effects of botanicals on inflammatory biomarkers in diabetic patients. These patients deserve special attention for intensive management of hyperglycemia & other metabolic disorders.6 In this disease the primary goal of antihyperglycemic therapy is to decrease hemoglobin A1C to less than 7 %. These patients are given some drugs to prevent from the major metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance.7 Diabetes is the hereditary disorder in which the glucose level is raised in the patient’s body due to the less enzymatic action or deficiency of some enzymes that helps in the metabolism of glucose.7 In this disease, the person’s weight is loss at very short intervals. Glucose is not absorbed by cells and remain in blood that causes the release of more and more insulin and the production of extra amount of insulin weakens the body and may eventually wear out the beta cells.6 Once the pancreas is no longer able to produce enough insulin than a person becomes hyperglycemic and will be diagnosed with type II diabetes.2
2. HYPERTENSION:
An elevation of systolic and diastolic pressure is another metabolic disorder.1 These patients have normal blood pressure levels about 140/90 mm Hg are considered as elevated. Those patients are highly at risk of CVD.7 In this category, patients are mostly suffer from diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney diseases, coronary artery diseases.7
3. CENTRAL OBESITY:
Obesity is related to the insulin resistance. It contributes to hypertension, hyperglycemia, high serum cholesterol and low HDL-C and these lead to the CVD.4 In this disorder the person’s BMI is increased due to the increase in body mass, and the fatty deposits on the abdomen. Adipose tissues are considered to be the site of energy that could be generate if needed, that’s why they are the active source of inflammatory cytokines and substances that can promote the atherosclerosis. This tissue can cause the abnormalities in liver and muscles owning to alternations or levels of fatty acids within the cells and related changes in fatty acid oxidation.2
4. ATHEROGENIC DYSLIPIDEMIA:
It is the another metabolic syndrome caused by the increased in triglycerides level, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C. These patients have elevated concentration of apoB, a lipoprotein whose concentration indicates the presence of highest atherogenic potential. However, apoB concentration may give the clear representation of CVD than LDL-C.3
5. PROTHROMBOTIC AND PRO-INFLAMMATORY STATE:
Fibrinogen and other activators and inhibitors, and C- reactive proteins and elevated with high levels in some patients with some metabolic disorders, resulting in prothrombotic and pro-inflammatory effect. C-reactive protein is highly sensitive protein i-e greater than about 3mg/dl represent the state of inflammation and highly risk of ASCVD.4
6. INSULINE RESISTANCE:
It is the state in which normal tissues do not able to target their respective tissues. In this disease, insulin is not able to promote glucose uptake, inhibit hepatic glucose production and suppress lipolysis.7Hyperinsulinemia is developing in this state, and pancreas is unable to secrete sufficient amount of insulin to maintain glucose hemostasis. This disease is associated with increased risk of ASCVD, and it also relates with the type II diabetes.6
7. CLASSIC GALACTOSEMIA:
The inborn error of galactose metabolism, which is caused by the deficiency of enzyme galactose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase, resulting in accumulation of metabolites galactitol and galactose 1-phosphate. Patients take galactose which cannot be digested by enzymes and remain in blood. Mason and Turner now invented the galactose free milk for infants to prevent them from this condition. The most troubling situation is that when the person continuously takes the galactose free diet is becomes suffer from the long term diseases and the metabolic syndromes.8

8. BREAST CANCER:
It has been declared that the association of individual components of the metabolic syndromes is with breast cancer. The mechanism by which the breast cancer is associated with metabolic syndromes is still unknown. Insulin may exert its effect directly on epithelial cells by activating AKT and ERK pathways which have important roles in tumorigenisis, it also stimulate the breast cancer cells synergistically with oestradiol. 9
9. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE:
In this disease, inflammation occurs in peripheral tissues that lead to multiple impairing or cell functions and body metabolism. In AD, tumors necrosis levels and reactive oxygen species increases in the brain tissues. Neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration occurs in metabolic stress. Metabolic stress also includes disturbances in proteostasis and activation of signaling pathways that mediate cellular stress.11
10. HYPERGLYCEMIA:
It is a chronic stress which is due to either reduced uptake of glucose by cells or increased synthesis of glucose. To maintain glucose hemostasis, the adrenocorticotropic activity is elevated during stress; due to this all glucose pathways would be affected.7 In the glycolytic pathway under stressful condition, the pyruvate produce higher amount of lactate anaerobically because of the reduced activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, in spite of this the TCA cycle activity will be high because of the availability of substrates for TCA cycle by the oxidation of lipids.11
RECENT RESEARCH:
In women and men, metabolic syndromes were seen in 10% and 15% of subjects with NGT, 42% and 64% of those with type II diabetes. The risk of coronary heart diseases and stroke was increased threefold in subjects with the syndromes (P

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1.1- Depending on the situation I am in at work will require a different type of communication. For example, written communication methods like emails, letters and reports are all generally used in a more formal setting; when needing to inform a member of staff about information, while verbal communication will often be appropriate for informal situations – this situation is also obviously used in a meeting setting, but then a report/agenda (written) will be created for the meeting detailing what is to happen or what has been addressed in the meeting. Non-verbal communication involves the use and understanding of body language, this mainly happens when 2 or more people are together. The method of communication I use will always depend on who I am communicating with and also the type of information I am passing over.
1.2- As vaguely mentioned, depending who I am talking to will depend on the method of communication. For example, if I was communicating with a group of children I would change the way I speak so that the children understand the words I am saying, whereas if I was talking with my head of department then it would be a whole different situation.
1.3- a- The aim of having correct grammar is to ensure what is written is correctly understood. When a sentence contains grammatical errors it can be difficult to read and can cause misunderstandings. It is always important to use correct grammar when writing or speaking effectively to help people get a better understanding of what is said and to express communication more precisely and effectively.
b. It is important to use correct sentence structure in business communication so your writing has variation and isn’t always the same. Using a variety of sentence types can emphasise different points and ideas. A good sentence structure allows the communication to be correctly interpreted whereas a poor sentence structure can be easily misinterpreted.
c. It is essential to use correct punctuation to enable the communication to be readable and easy to understand. Correct punctuation is used is a variety of ways in written communication, for example, it is used to separate sentences and to clarify the meaning of something. An error in punctuation can convey an incorrect meaning to what was initially intended.
d. It is important to use the correct spelling in business communications as precise spelling makes it a lot clearer to understand the text. Incorrect spelling can lead to a lot of confusion, mistakes being made and communications being misconstrued. One misspelled word can change the entre meaning of a sentence giving the reader the wrong message or impression, this is called homophones, for example – To,/two/too, know/no, stare/stair and also the most common one there/their/they’re.
1.4- a large part of face to face communication is made up of non-verbal information and is expressed by body language and tone of voice. The tone of your voice includes the volume which you speak, the type of emotion you have will affect the way the words are said and the tone will change. This can lead to being misinterpreted and misjudges on how you say something, passing over the wrong information and impression – especially if you are talking to a manager. Body language reveals subconscious messages when communicating. Examples of body language include eye contact, facial expressions composure and gestures. Body language is recognised as instinctively. Without having to be told what it means. When relaying messages a lot of the time it isn’t what you say it is how you say it, if your body language contradicts this, the message will not be clear to whom you’re talking to.

1. Introduction

1.1 Background
Heavy rainfalls as well as runoff from the upstream hills in India have led to early flooding of vast areas of croplands of haors and low-lying areas of northeast Bangladesh. Flooding started on 28th March and gradually affected six districts (Habiganj, Kishoreganj Moulavibazar, Netrokona, Sunamganj, and Sylhet). Rising water overflowed and breeched embankments in many places and inundated vast areas of cropland, damaging a significant number of houses and impacting the lives of more than 30% of the population of these six districts (CAN report, 2017).

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As agricultural land in this region remains under water for a large part of the year, there is only one cropping season in the haors and this early onset flooding destroyed the 2017 crop of Boro rice (the primary crop) at its blooming stage, 20 30 days before harvest. The daily Dhaka Tribune has estimated, based on Ministry of Agriculture’s calculation, that the country may lose around 800,000 MT of Boro rice this season1. Standing water has been contaminated by rotten paddy and plant a large number of fish and ducks have died2, although the exact cause is, as yet, unknown. Distress selling of livestock as a negative coping mechanism has already been reported. This loss of the primary crop, together with the associated loss of income for agricultural laborers and the loss of fish, will create sever food insecurity on top of the high underlying poverty in the area unless assistance is received(CAN report,2017).

The haor areas of northeast Bangladesh are almost entirely single cropped areas with the majority of the communities dependent solely on the boro3 rice crop cultivated from October to May. Significantly heavier rainfall and runoff from India caused early flooding across more than half the haor area, destroying the rice crop, fodder and killing fish and ducks. It is estimated4 that 4,667,000 people in 450 Unions (out of 530) in 60 Upazilas (out of 62) have been affected (to varying degrees) in the six districts of Sunamganj, Sylhet, Netrokona, Kishoreganj, Habiganj, and Moulvibazar. With 65% of its population affected, Sunamganj district is worst hit followed by Netrkona (33%) and Sylhet (25%). Approximately 21% of the population is affected in the other districts (Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief-Government, 2017).
Hardcore poverty and under nutrition are fundamental problems in Bangladesh There is a close relationship among poverty, landlessness, and unemployment. The rural landless, constituting about 50 percent of rural households, depend mainly on agriculture for employment. Since demand for labor in agricultural production is seasonal, during the slack season, the landless remain virtually unemployed. Even for most farmers, it is difficult to check out a respectable living from the limited land that the average Bangladeshi farmer owns. Landless and marginal farmers must often resort to self-employment. But self-employment is often not profitable enough to allow them to step out of poverty. It is therefore logical to expect that the public development strategy in Bangladesh would include programs designed to generate employment, particularly in rural areas, to reduce poverty. In fact, over the years, Bangladesh has accumulated extraordinarily rich, diverse experience in Poverty-reduction efforts, many of which involve employment generation schemes (Ahmed, 1990).
1.2 Literature Review
A few relevant literatures pertaining to hazard and risk assessment flood affect carried out in Bangladesh has reviewed here.

Hossain (2013) developed Flood risk that affects central (deeply flooded) haor basin in North-East region of Bangladesh by preparing hazard map for different return periods of flood hazard , assess agricultural flood damage by developing a damage model and preparing risk map by developing a risk model

Islam N. (2011) established damage assessment methodology where flood damage assessment has been performed through a case study in Bangladesh. In this study, non agricultural sector damage for urban flood has considered. Also depth and duration parameter were considered for the establishment of damage model.

Chowdhury and Karim (1996) developed risk-based zoning maps considering only cyclonic storm surge floods of 45 land units in the Ganges tidal flood prone area. Hazard factors were based on the simulated spatial distribution of 100-year flood depths while the vulnerability factors were based on the distribution of population densities. The land units more grouped into low risk, moderate risk, high risk and severe risk zones.

Mojumder and others (2009) find out – consolidated fund for the program has been arranged by pooling together the grants and assistance from different bilateral and multilateral donors including the WFP as well as allocations from the government for rural development.

Discussing of above literature, it has been seen that the implementation process of Governments initiatives facing early flood and people perception is very important to know and this study will deal with those matters.

1.3 Scope of the Study
The study result serves for three types of stakeholder i.e. the policy maker, the respondents and the researchers.
1.3.1 Benefits of the Policy Makers
The result of this research can help to carry a message to concern ministry to take best initiatives to create the opportunities to render a flexible service towards flood affected people in Haor area. A general knowledge about present condition of area coverage of grants implementation in early flood prone areas and how efficiently the process is using for face the crop hazards, which is depicted from the study, can help to be considered as a very important issue for development by the policy makers. The findings of the study can help in increasing government intervention for better welfare in the Haor areas.
1.3.2 Benefits of the Respondents
As the study reflects of present condition of early flood affected area, the respondents who are in Haor areas will get a general knowledge about the opportunities of grants. The study will make them aware about their right, opportunities as well as responsibilities also. The rural people can get information about various services which are provided by government and can get a comparative knowledge about both of them. The refection of the study can give them strength to protest sufferings that may be faced by them.
1.3.3 Benefits of the Researchers
The study can be a medium to know the existing coverage of government grant process in local government level in Bangladesh. The researchers will get clear hints about the barriers which are creating the gap between government’s response and the perception of early flood affected people.
1.4 Research questions
1. How response program implement at the Union level in early flood?
2. How much effective the implementation process grants?
3. What is the perception of flood affected people at government’s response.

1.5 Overall objective:
To provide a shared understanding of the impact of the Flood and effectiveness of government’s response in North-Eastern haor districts of Bangladesh.
1.6 Research objectives
1. To know the implementation process of government’s response program at Union level in early flood.
2. To identify the limitation of response process at Union level.
3. To know the affected people’s perception on governments response.
1.7 Rational of the study

Early floods have been a big threat to the livelihoods of the haor people, especially sharecroppers and landless farmers. Although crops are also damaged by drainage congestion, hailstorms, cyclones and pests, flooding is the major cause of damage, mainly to rice crop. Government generate some response to face early flood affected haor areas such as- seasonal employment for large numbers of people , Social Safety Network(SSN), special grants, seeds distributing, etc(Rahman, 2017).

If it’s implementation process goes under due instructions and with a co-ordinate way it will be possible faster development in Haor area. For benefits of the project include improved agricultural production; enhanced marketing opportunities, and rehabilitation; improved transportation and communication; and reduced physical damages of crops loss and human lives cause of early flood ,- this is emerge to know the flood hazards and implementation efficiency and effectiveness of Government’s steps to face early flood affect.

2. Research Design

2.1Typology of Study:
This study is based on exploratory research.

2.2 Why Exploratory Methodology:
Exploratory research attempts to develop a general understanding and common familiarity with a phenomenon and form new ideas and to achieve new insight into it. In this research exploratory methodology will be use because this study is an attempt to understand the present state of early flood affected people in haor and also understand the implementation process of government’s grants and attempt.

2.3 Research Method
Data will be collected through the survey method.
2.4 Approach of the Study
In this study quantitative approach will be used.
2.5 Sources of data
I. Primary Sources: The primary data will collect from individuals through simple questionnaire.
II. Secondary Sources: Secondary sources of data will use to enrich this study. Secondary data will collected from published books, e- books, journals, articles, reports of different organization which are related to the study.

2.6 Technique of Data Collection
The technique of data collection depends on the nature and objective of the study and availability of related resources. The primary data will be collected through most common method of data collection technique mixed questionnaire (Open ended and close ended) and participant observation. Secondary data will be collected through content analysis of internet browsing and published magazines and journals

2.7 Sampling Method and sample size
Two Union Parishade of different Upazila (Mohon Gonj and Dharmapasha) will select purposively (most flood prone area) in this study. All the men and women living in the Tetulia Union (Mohan Gonj) and Rajapur (Dharmapasha), the officers and employers who are working and engaged in the implementation process of FFW at the Union, beneficiaries of the programme, local representatives of Union level are the population of this study. Different sampling method will use to select respondents as follow
Category of respondents Professions/ positions Sampling method Total number of respondents
Government officials Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO) Purposive 1*2=2
Project Implementation Officer (PIO) Purposive 1*2=2
Local elected representative UP Chairman Purposive 1*2=2
UP Member Purposive ( for having experience on FFW) 3*2=6
Beneficiaries FFW beneficiaries Accidental (from the list of beneficiaries of sampled UP Member) 3*3*2 = 18
Non beneficiaries FFW/VGDF non beneficiaries Accidental 3*2= 6
Civil society Local elite, teachers , businessman Purposive 2*2=4
Total respondents = 40

2.8 Basic information about sampled Union
Union NO 1
Name 3 NO. Tetulia Union Parishad
Upazilla Mohon Gajn
Area 9898 acre
Population 18905 (census, 2011)
Village 22
Literate rate 24.30 % (education census, 2001)
Established 1994

Source: Bangladesh Jatiyo Tottho Batayon (27 July, 2017).
Union No 2
Name Sukhairh-Rajzapur South Union
Upazilla Dharmapasha
Area 9850 acre
Population 19920 (census, 2011)
Village 21
Literate rate 22.50 % (education census, 2001)
Established 1992

Source: Bangladesh Jatiyo Tottho Batayon (27 July, 2017).
2.9 Time Frame
To complete the research work approximately 6 months will be taken. This Time distribution is followed to conduct this research:

Items 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
Selecting a tentative research problem, collecting materials and submit to the supervisor for approval
Reading and reviewing literature as well as Writing Research Proposal
Submission, correction, final supervision, revision, presentation and approval of research proposal
Develop interview Schedule and data collection
Data Processing ; Analysis
Writing a draft and a final report Submission of research paper and approval of supervisor

2.10 Limitation of the Study
Making a research project is a complex and skillful work. It needs so much time and meditation. It needs to predict future effects. In doing so, some problems may have to face. These problems are as follows:
• It may have some errors due to limited of time.
• It is hard for the study to conduct a worthy research work due to lack of experience, skills, inadequate information and limited financial support.
• Problem identification and title appropriation takes long time.
• Data collection was very expensive, no institutional grants was allocated for the researcher.
• Unfavorable weather condition.

3.0 Conceptual framework
The conceptual framework presented the relationship between the specific concepts which have been studied.
In this part of research, different variables are identified on the basis of causal relationship. There are two types of variables.
• Independent Variable

• Dependent Variable

Independent Variable:
It means such variable that influence or seen to influence other variable.
Dependent Variable:
Dependent variable is those that result the function of independent variables.

Independent variables Dependent variables

1. Condition of flood affected people

1. Governments grants
2. quantity of grants
3. Early Flood
4. Implementation process of governments responses
5. Distribution of grants
6.Effectivness and efficiency of governments initiatives

4.0 Definition of key word
4.1 Union level
At present, Union level means the Union Parishad – the lowest tier of administration, is functioning through elected representatives in rural Bangladesh. According to the latest amendments of the Local Government (Union Parishads) Ordinance, 1983 a union is divided into nine wards. Each UP consists of a Chairman and nine members in the general seats – one from each ward. In addition, three seats have been exclusively reserved for women members, who are elected by the voters of the concerned three wards. The UP Chairman is directly elected by the voters of the entire union, while the voters of the concerned ward elect nine members in the general seats on the basis of adult franchise. The Chairman is considered a member of the Parishad though he enjoys the privileges of using casting vote as and when required. Both Chairman and members are paid honoraria by the government (Siddiqui, 2005).

4.2 Major Haor System
The haor basin contains about 47 major haors and some 6,300 beels of which about 3,500 are permanent and 2,800 are seasonal. Baram, Banka, Habibpur, Maka and Makalkandi haors form a single large water body during the monsoon. Ghulduba haor, Ranga and Baudha beels are located in the lower east side of the basin in Netrokana district (Khan, 2010). Tangua, Shanir, and Matan haors are situated in the deep northern basin at the foot of the Meghalaya Hills. Dekhar haor, Pathar Chanli haor, Jhilkar and Jhinkar haors cover the east of the Tangua system. Sonamoral, Halir, Joydhona and Dhankunia haors are in the north side of the Tangua haor (Khan, 2010). The Jamaikata, Mahai, Nalua and Parua haor systems are on the eastern rim of the basin. Hakaluki, Chatal Bar, Haila, Kawadighi, Pagla and many smaller haors are situated in the central Sylhet lowlands. Hail haor lies between the Tarap and Banugach hill ranges in the southeast zone. Dingapota, Ganesher, Tolar, Anganer, Bara and Humaipur haors are located in the south of the basin. Etna and Sania haors are in the Kishorganj district and
Khaliaghuri haor is in the east Mymensingh district (Hossain, 2013).

References
(1. HCTT Coordinated Needs Assessment (CAN), 2013.Floods in Northeast (Haor) areas of Bangladesh, April-May 2017, The Department of Disaster Management (DDM), Bangladesh.
2. Flood damage information, April 2017, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, Bangladesh.
3. Ahmed, A. U. S.; Rashid, M.; Sharma and S. Zohir. 2004. Food aid distribution in Bangladesh: leakage and operational performance. IFPRI Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper No. 173, Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.

4. Hossain Md Sabbir, 2013. Flood Damage and Risk Assessment Model in the Haor Basin of Bangladesh, Bangladesh University of Engineering ; Technology Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
5. Islam, K.M.N., 2011. Handbook of Flood Loss Assessment Methods in Non-agricultural
Sectors, a case study of Bangladesh, VDM Verlag Dr. Muller, Germany.
6. Chowdhury J.U., Karim M. F., 1996. A risk based zoning of storm surge prone area of the Ganges tidal plain, Journal of Civil Engineering, The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh, Vol. CE 24, No. 2, 1996.

7. Mojumdar, Kasem, Abul, M.; Islam, Muinul, Muhammad.; Alom, Shamsul, Md.; Rahman , Mahmudur, Md, 2009. “Transparency and Accountability for Ensuring Food Security in Bangladesh: A Study on Field Institutions”. Final Report CF # 3/07. National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme.
8. Siddiqui, Kamal. 2005. “Local Government in Bangladesh”. Dhaka: The University Press Limited.
9. Bangladesh Jatiyo Tottho Batayon, 15 October 2017. (URL; http://sukhairrajapurnorthup.sunamganj.gov.bd/site/page/40ec9277-0757-11e7-a6c5-286ed488c766

Assessment (CNA)

Department of Public Administration
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet-3114
Questionnaire
On
Implementation process of Food for Work Program at Union level; A study on 3 NO. Tetulia Union, Netrokona
(The questionnaire will be used for research purpose only and your information and answer will be treated strictly confidentially.)

Union Parishade Chireman
1. What role do you play in PIC?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Do you arrange monthly meeting?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. How a project selected?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. How cash/food grain of FFW handover to union?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. On which basis beneficiaries are selected?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. What problem do you face?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

7. Is there any political biasness in project selection?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. Do you visit projects regularly?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

9. Do you have specific remuneration to carry out the project?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

10. Do you have any suggestions for the project implementation?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Union Parishade Member
1. What is your role in PIC?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. How a project selected?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Do you have any role to select the project?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. How laborer is selected?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. How much you pay to the laborer?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. Is there any payment for you to carry out the project?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

7. How UP chairman handover the food grain to you?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. Is rules /regulations are followed properly for FFW?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

9. What problem do you face?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO)

1. As the chairman of Upazila Rural Infrastructure Reconstruction And Maintenance Committee, what is your role?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. How the food grains are allocated under FFW program in your Upazila?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. How the amount of money is distributes under FFW program in your Upazila?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Are the meetings held regularly?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

a. Yes ……. No ……… not always ……….

5. Do the members of Upazila Rural Infrastructure Reconstruction and Maintenance Committee attend regularly?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Yes ……. No …..
……………………………..
If not, Please state the reasons.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. Do you visit the projects regularly?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. On which basis the committees select the project?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. Do you think there are any malpractices of FFW in implementation process at union level?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. Do you feel over responsibility?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. Is the project report submitted properly?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11 How does the committee ensure proper use of allocated resources for the project?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. How does the committee ensure the disbursement of due remuneration to the laborer worked under FFW projects?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Project Implementation Officer (PIO)

1. What role do you play in FFW?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. Do you visit the project regularly?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. Is there feasibility study conduct on project proposed by Union Parishade?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4. How often do you visit different project?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Is there any political pressure to select project?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. What problem do you face?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Beneficiaries

1. Have received any benefit from the FFW program?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
If yes, when and how?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Do you think there is any nepotism to select beneficiaries?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Is there any malpractice you have witnessed in paying remuneration?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Do you think you got fewer wages?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. What do you prefer, cash or kind?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. What do you prefer, rice or wheat?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Non- beneficiaries/ local teachers, businessman

1. Do you aware of FFW program?
……………………………………………………………………………………
2. Why don’t you involve in FFW program?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Is there any irregulation in FFW programe according to your observation?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
If yes, what?
……………………………………………………………………………………..
4. Do you feel deprived?
………………………………………………………………………………………
5. Was there any signboard visible for ongoing project?
………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. Do you think local representative corrupted in FFW process?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
If yes, haw?
…………………………………………………………………………………
7. Was the project selected with priority and according to local peoples demand?
………………………………………………………………………………………
8. Are the project taken around the living area of UP chairman?

1.5 Significance of the study
The study revealed sufficient information to the public on how integrity, objectivity, confidentiality and competence of internal auditors influence internal audit effectiveness. Hence, public institutions will benefit from the study findings to improve their internal audit functions.
Also, the study provided useful information which assist national and international professional bodies in reviewing and recommending best approaches of applying code of ethics for internal auditors in their public sectors.
Likewise, the study provided reference materials for students on internal audit courses and consequently contributes to their professional development.
Furthermore, the study is very important to academic researchers as the information provided will assist them in developing research papers focusing on the relationship between internal audit effectiveness and code of ethics for internal auditors. The findings of the study show that, there is a slightly linear relationship between the effectiveness of internal audit function and the elements of the code of ethics for internal auditors. Thus, this kind of findings will ultimately help academic researchers in the fields of auditing and accounting.

1. Additive Manufacturing
Additive manufacturing is method for producing three dimensional objects irrespective of their shape or geometry. Normally, manufacturing method involves processes like cutting shearing and forming. But additive manufacturing involves a different way of joining the materials together to form the object.

1.1 Aspects over Conventional Manufacturing

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i. Additive manufacturing has ability of greater design. This means complex assemblies can be printed in one process which makes the manufacturing process simple. Many of the constraints using traditional manufacturing are reduced.
ii. Usually tooling is a great barrier in production processes because of their high cost. But in additive manufacturing tooling requirement can be fully eliminated.
iii. Additive manufacturing can be done in anyplace. The data file of the object to be printed can be sent digitally and can also be manufactured in homes. This reduces the transport requirement.
iv. Traditional manufacturing process always has some geometrical limitations and is a time-consuming process. But additive manufacturing is a fast process and complex parts are also easily made.
v. Machines are very compact and the resources required are very less compared to conventional manufacturing machine. Skilled labour is a mandatory requirement in conventional manufacturing, which is eliminated in additive manufacturing.
vi. Customizing is another advantageous option in additive manufacturing. Parts can be modified according to the personal requirements. E.g.: Medical sector
vii. Overproduction of parts can be stopped due to manufacture of exact demand requirement. This improves the efficient usage of the material.
viii. The risk and cost of manufacturing can be minimized in additive manufacturing methods. A major benefit of additive manufacturing process is the reduction of development time (from concept to final product) of the object.
ix. There are two materials used in additive manufacturing process the powder and the support material. Both materials can be mostly recycled and reused improving material efficiency.
x. Additive manufacturing is environmental beneficiary because it can be done anywhere, reducing the emission of gases due to transport.
xi. Now a days 3D printing machines are widely used and they are cost effective but the injection moulding machines are still expensive.

1.

“It’s not like other feelings.
At once both older and younger.
It gives birth itself to the reasons
that give it life.
When it sleeps, it’s never eternal rest.
And sleeplessness won’t sap its strength; it feeds it.”

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The stanza 6-11 is conveying the idea that hatred is a dependent feeling that everyone feels at some point in their life. And there will always be hatred in the world, sometimes  without even warranting a reason. It also states that we can be easier to be more prickly and hate something with lack of sleep.

2.

“Oh these other feelings,
listless weaklings.
Since when does brotherhood
draw crowds?
Has compassion
ever finished first?
Does doubt ever really rouse the rabble?
Only hatred has just what it takes.”

The stanza 21-28 in is comparing hatred with other feelings, saying that it is much simpler to feel hatred for things than feel brotherhood, compassion, and doubt. It is saying that people are more likely to come together in groups to show hate for someone or something, and not as likely to do the same for love.

3.

“Let’s face it:
it knows how to make beauty.
The splendid fire-glow in midnight skies.
Magnificent bursting bombs in rosy dawns.
You can’t deny the inspiring pathos of ruins
and a certain bawdy humor to be found
in the sturdy column jutting from their midst.”

The stanza 24-40 is conveying the idea that hatred is destructive, hurts feelings, and is crummy; and people need to accept that. It makes it sound less negative by using words that would be associated with a more positive feeling positive to create a sort of mocking tone. The irony is that it is praising hatreds strengths and beauty by using only images of destruction and chaos. And it puts the reader in an awkward position were we cant deny that we kind of let i happen, almost if there was a strange seductive force behind it.

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