1. Yourlastname 1 Student Name Professor Name Subject 18 Nov 2015 Media’s Investment in Promoting Body Dissatisfaction Introduction One cannot help but become aware that body image relates to population’s judgement with regards to their own bodies. The focus here lies in arguing that it happens as the majority of people are focused on comparing themselves to other individuals. Since people appear to be exposed to numerous media images, it is worth saying that media images occur as the major concept for a vast amount of these comparisons. Obviously, when people come to understanding the fact that their bodies emerge to be substandard due to such comparisons, they are likely to experience a serious depression; in addition, the category of those who tend to compare themselves to media images prove to be unable to cope with an extremely low self-esteem; and, consequently, they may easily develop the complex of incompleteness, which will result in exceptionally negative outcomes, including, for instance, the emergence of eating disorders, which often depend on the “woman’s view of her body” (Farley 101). One cannot but encounter the fact that the impact of media on people’s perception of the aesthetics of sexual attractiveness as well as their own body appears to be mostly ironic, given that as the US citizens turned to be heavier, female models have become much thinner and male models appeared to be more muscled. In view of many widely-acknowledged sociologists as well as psychologists, it becomes apparent that one should distinguish several theories elucidating the way that the media impacts people’s body image, incorporating social
2. Yourlastname 2 comparison theory, emerging self-schema interpretation, and third-person influence. On the basis of the above-said, one should be conscious that media is making it harder to find the real beauty due to the systematic displaying retouched photos and promoting body dissatisfaction. Contemplation upon People’s Perception The survey on body image – the way people tend to perceive their own bodies and how these viewpoints develop – was pioneered in the first quarter of 20th century (clearly 20s) by Paul Schilder. A peculiar thing is that Shilder’s definition of body image claims that one should consider it as “the picture of our own body which we form in our mind, that is to say, the way in which the body appears to ourselves” (Grogan 3). A number of the modern- day scholars advance an assertion that the aforementioned definition proves to underestimate all the sophisticated entity of the given field of studies; one should be conscious that body image is likely to refer to a number of different constructs starting from judgements in respect of the issues of weight, size, to being satisfied with the abovementioned areas. Evidently, the term “body image’ incorporates both the way the individuals perceive the bodies cognitively and feel about their appearance. A particular attention should be drawn to the fact that the surveys on body image bear witness to that it actually affects many other dimensions of people’s life. Experiencing dissatisfaction with one’s body image is likely to bring in substantial challenges to pass. Taking a view of the strategy that the contemporary communication channels are focused on, it becomes absolutely clear that the media culture maintains the tendency of making the society feel pressured mainly about their body images; obviously, media promote “the unrealistic ‘Barbie-doll’ body shape” (Davis & Katzman 58). Therefore, the average
3. Yourlastname 3 individual appears to be exposed to hundred of beauty images regularly, and such images, which may often possess a sexually-oriented appeal, mirror an imaginary body image that has nothing to do with the real body image. The principle of removing media body images from the reality of today’s people results in negative consequences, including people’s unwillingness to accept their imperfect bodies. On the other hand, one should pay special attention to the fact that bodies portrayed by the media emerged to be much thinner as well; and those who contradict the slender ideal bodies “prejudice through their life span” (Grogan 10), respectively. Considering the issue of pressure about body image, it is worth saying that such a practice has undergone multiple phases of its formation; and, consequently, before the rise of the digital era, which can be characterized by the introduction of electronic mass media, the messages with regards to body images could be looked through in different books and newspapers – and going back to earlier days – in various paintings as well. Present-day media prove to have a financial investment in maintaining body dissatisfaction; obviously, media revenues are much dependent on drawing special attention to the body industry. Such a connection gives evidence that the link between communication channels and advertising unreal body images raises serious questions regarding the final outcomes of consumer trends (Vancura). Reconsidering Body Standards in the Media The ideal body shapes introduced by the communication channels have turned to be much thinner and fitter since the second half of the 20th century; and one should take into account the fact that comparing the reinterpretation of the body images among both genders, women’s body image has undergone much more substantial transformation. At the same time, as for the US society, people became heavier here. To be precise, the number of obese
4. Yourlastname 4 people has tripled. The movement towards thinner women’s body images has demonstrated a slow development since the early 20th century. It is important to admit that in the 1920’s through newspapers as well as the emerging cinematography, a much thinner body image was widely popularized. The ideal woman’s form has faced substantial changed during the Great Depression; all in all, the ideal form remained comparatively slender during the hard times of the Second World War. Regarding the postwar trend towards the issue of domesticity, it has resulted in occurrence of ultra-feminine figures, including such as, for instance, Marilyn Monroe who apparently had larger breasts yet much thinner waists; in any way, one should become aware that it was just a temporary shift of focus from thin body images. To put the matter differently, female models continued to shrink during the 1980’s and 1990’s. It was the time of putting the females into much narrower body frames. On the basis of the aforementioned history of women’s change in beauty over the decades, one can come to understanding that the females’ norms of beauty images require being thin; concerning the males, they are told to possess sculpted muscles. Today’s people appear to exist within the framework of media-saturated space. Numerous surveys suggest that the prevailing majority of all females tend to be hooked on reading magazines, the bulk of all people watch approximately 4 hours of television each day; additionally, the population is exposed to hundreds of body images while having a walk, reading the newspapers, and surfing the Web, which “remains largely unregulated” (Bell ; Dittmar 489). One should vividly see an entirely negative influence of such a constant exposure. The various studies suggest that the impact is usually felt in several fields. The thing is that people tend to compare themselves to unreal body images they observe via communication channels, internalize these artificial images as the standard, and absorb the information that they have
5. Yourlastname 5 to take into consideration the significance of their appearance. A peculiar thing is that the process of comparing oneself to stereotypic body images represented by media as well as internalizing the images as the principal argument is likely to negatively affect people; all in all, modern-day watching culture cannot tell the truth about self, and the fact that “fat bodies out of control no longer appeared powerful and competent” (Schwartz 122) does not make sense. Getting to Know the Trends in Body Dissatisfaction Obviously, the influence of media on body images appears to be rather complex; it is not just about the exposure that forces people to distinguish the shortcomings of their bodies; one should understand that the individuals are not struck equally by the exposure to unreal body images. The thing is that some people react rapidly to beauty photos and the others emerge to be resistant. The distinct reactions to media images can be explained by individual virtues. In other words, those being more self-conscious, focused on predominately the appearance and who suffer from eating disorders are more likely to be affected by the media – a mechanism deteriorating the everyday’s life of those who have weight problems (Pollack- Seid). The studies give evidence that the females consider the media as the key source of the comprehended societal pressure to follow the trend for a thin body. A cross-sectional survey observing the trends within the area of body image satisfaction made it certain that females had reported relatively more satisfaction in 1960’s than in 1990’s,whereas the males’ attitude towards the body images had appeared to have the same body satisfaction between the abovementioned time frames; and, consequently, it is worth saying that some researchers consider mass media “to negatively impact females’ body image” (Agliata ; Tantleff-Dunn 7) only.
6. Yourlastname 6 In view of many researchers, it becomes apparent that the construct of body comparison is likely to be a probable mediator of socio-cultural body dissatisfactions in both sexes. They advance an assertion that body comparison is firmly grounded on the social comparison interpretation, which focuses on the evaluative procedure that engages both searching for the message and making some critical decisions relative to other people. It is worth admitting that the social comparison theory proves body dissatisfaction to be caused by the way people usually interpret what is broadcasted; in addition, it is important to highlight the fact that media portrayal of the beauty image does not evoke equal effects among all the individuals. Conclusion Researchers managed to find an obvious link between exposure to the media’s promotion of the thin-ideal body and body dissatisfaction, which is increasing at a rapid rate. The results of widely-recognized studies make it clear that females’ body dissatisfaction has increased dramatically over the decades; it has been assumed that this trend may be caused by the media’s focus on promoting an exaggerated portrayal of unreal body image. Since the average women’s body-mass index demonstrates an increasing spiral, it has been hypothesized that there might be the acceptance of larger body shapes, termed “real bodies”. Despite the fact that women’s body satisfaction has significantly increased over the past decades, the males’ body satisfaction remained mostly the same. Looking into the details of the researchers’ contemplation upon such body-satisfaction divergences, it becomes evident that their suggestions are mainly based on distinguishing the distinctions within the area of body comparison.
7. Yourlastname 7 Works Cited Agliata, Daniel., and Stacey Tantleff-Dunn. The Impact of Media Exposure on Male’s Body Image. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23.1 (2004): 7-22. Print. Bell, Beth., and Helga Dittmar. Does Media Type Matter? The Role of Identification in Adolescent Girls’ Media Consumption and the Impact of Different Thin-Ideal Media on Body Image. Sex Roles, 65.7-8 (2011): 478-490. Print. Davis, Cindy., and Melanie Katzman. Culture and Eating Disorders. In R. Lemberg, (Ed.), Eating Disorder Reference Book. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999. Print. Farley, Shanon. Mass Media and Socio?Cultural Pressures on Body Image and Eating Disorders among Adolescent Women. Perspectives (University of New Hampshire) (2011): 100-107. Print. Grogan, Sarah. Body image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children. New York, NY: Routledge, 1999. Print. Pollack-Seid, Roberta. Never Too Thin. New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 1989. Print. Schwartz, Hillel. Never Satisfied: A Cultural History of Diets, Fantasies and Fat. New York: The Free Press, 1986. Print. Vancura, Diana. The Media Focus Too Much on Looks. Teen Decisions: Body Image. Ed. Auriana Ojeda. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003. Print.

1. Introduction.

AHF is stand for Aviation Human Factors is the courses of study about understanding human conduct and execution. At the point when connected to flight tasks, Human Factors information is utilized to upgrade the fit amongst individuals and the frameworks in which they work with a specific end goal to enhance wellbeing and execution. A man has a limit on doing something.
This is evidenced by the percentage in the study. 70% is caused by humans example Pilot, maintenance, air traffic controller and Airline Management.
At that point 30% is because of ecological variables and cases of broken hardware or gadgets, poor support, plan defective, climate condition, medicinal status and air terminal task.
The first factor is the sample decision made by the manufacturer. Unless you plan and build your own aircraft, it’s far from your control.

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However, other factors are examples of things you can control to a certain extent. This is all about the weak Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM), these intended to help you understand the psychological factors that affect ADM, and what you can do to improve your results.

2. Altitude and Hypoxia.

2.1 Altidude.

There are many type of altitude such as true altitude, indicated altitude, pressure altitude, absolute altitude and density altitude.
True altitude is your stature above “mean ocean level”, a generally discretionary reference point. By “signify” we signify “normal”, since ocean levels do differ with the tides, and the breeze causes waves, so mean ocean level midpoints out every one of these impacts to a solitary “signify” ocean level. You’re fundamentally intrigued by this since territory and snags are outlined with reference to MSL heights, and you need to ensure you’re well over these when flying over them. In the event that we were on the ground, we’d call this “height”. Lamentably, nothing in your plane is probably going to quantify this, an extremely precise GPS would come the nearest, so we rather depend on something that is a truly decent estimation.

Figure 2.1.1 Number of True Altitude.
Indicated altitude is nothing in your plane estimates genuine elevation, we utilize “indicated altitude” as the following best thing. This is the thing that your altimeter gives you when you have the present “altimeter setting” connected to. We utilize indicated altitude for 2 things, looking after landscape/impediment freedom and keeping up vertical detachment between planes that ignore each other. For landscape/deterrent leeway, we’re utilizing demonstrated altitude as a substitute for genuine elevation, which we’re typically not prepared to quantify in our plane. In case you’re close, both along the side and vertically, to the climate observing site from which you got your altimeter setting, at that point this is a quite decent estimation of genuine altitude, which is the thing that you truly need. An altimeter takes the weight estimated at an adjacent ground station (the altimeter setting), measures the weight it’s inclination noticeable all around the plane, takes the distinction, and by making a suspicion of about how rapidly pneumatic stress drops as you get higher, it makes a gauge of what your actual height may be. Be that as it may, the rate at which gaseous tension drops as you get higher is variable, and the higher you get from the climate station the more prominent this mistake can be, and the more regrettable your gauge gets. Likewise, as you increase parallel separation from the revealing station, the surrounding weight can change marginally, with the end goal that a closer announcing station would report an alternate number. Our leeway from landscape is most basic while doing instrument approaches, as should be obvious the territory in IMC to know in case we’re clear of it. Luckily, coming in low and near a climate revealing station gives us the most exact estimate of genuine elevation. A most pessimistic scenario case may fly around evening time over mountains. Our altimeter setting may be from a ground station both horizontally numerous miles away, yet additionally from a rise much lower than our elevation. This could prompt a huge altimeter mistake, and perhaps we’re nearer to the highest point of that tall tree on the highest point of that tall mountain than we might suspect we are. Beneath 18000 ft. we additionally utilize showed height to guarantee 2 planes flying over each other have “vertical detachment”; at the end of the day, two planes may head specifically towards each other, however as long as one is flying higher than the other, there’s no danger of crash. The planes might be a long way from the closest climate revealing station, and high above it, so we might get a poor estimate to genuine altitude, however for this situation all we think about is that the two planes are a specific vertical separation from each other. So while each might have an expansive mistake with respect to genuine elevation, they each fundamentally have a similar blunder, expecting they’re both utilizing a similar altimeter setting (as they ought to be), thus vertical partition can be guaranteed.
Pressure altitude is Consider the “vertical partition” contention above and keep running with it. Up over 18000 feet planes are flying quick and high, getting cutting-edge altimeter settings isn’t extremely handy, and the blunder with respect to genuine elevation is high because of the stature over the revealing stations. In any case, up here we don’t have landscape to battle (with just a couple of special cases), so we’re just keen on vertical partition, and not especially about flying a specific tallness over the ground. So up here we fly “weight heights”. Everyone places 29.92 into their altimeters, and flies whatever height ATC allocates. At the point when our altimeter peruses 34000, we know we’re most likely not especially near 34000 feet MSL, but rather we couldn’t care less, all we think about is that the other person coming the other way whose altimeter peruses 33000 is extremely around a 1000ft underneath us. A plane flying at FL180 is riding along whatever level in the air yields a specific barometrical weight, to be specific the weight that we hope to see at 18000MSL under states of standard temperature and weight. It will fly higher over the ground on a high pressure or high temperature of day, and closer to the ground on a low pressure or low temperature of day. On multi day with especially low pressure, it’s feasible for the genuine height related with FL180 to be low to the point that it can struggle with pilots flying a demonstrated elevation of 17500. At the point when this happens, ATC won’t dole out FL180.

Figure 2.1.2 Graph of Pressure Altitude.
Absolute altitude is outright elevation is your stature over the ground. On the off chance that you fly a steady height for each your altimeter, your supreme elevation could be shifting significantly. In the event that you fly over a major mountain, your tallness over the ground drops; on the off chance that you at that point fly over a major valley, your stature over the ground rises. You might fly a steady showed elevation, however since the stature of the ground differs quickly, your tallness over the ground changes also. You’re exceptionally intrigued by your stature over the ground when you’re flying low and risking really running into something down there. You’d get a kick out of the chance to know how clear you are of landscape and hindrances. While completing an instrument approach, you’d extremely get a kick out of the chance to know with exactness your tallness over the ground, in light of the fact that in IMC you can’t perceive what may ascend to destroy thee. A gadget to quantify total height is a radar altimeter. Note that your supreme elevation can vary drastically as the territory rises and falls, despite the fact that your “normal” barometric altimeter is shake enduring. Most little planes don’t have radar altimeters, and most non military personnel little planes just fly IMC along all around diagrammed ways, so supreme elevation doesn’t become possibly the most important factor much in minimal plane flying. Rather we utilize demonstrated elevation as a guess to genuine height, and reference our showed elevation against outlines that rundown MSL esteems.

Figure 2.1.3 The meaning of Absolute Altitude.
Last but not least is density altitude. Density altitude is a measuring stick by which we can reference the “thickness” of air. Air thickness is a proportion of the quantity of gas particles like nitrogen, oxygen, and so on., whatever we have in our environment, inside a given volume of room. We think about the density of air on the grounds that our wings and prop utilize these air atoms to produce lift and push, and in light of the fact that our motor needs oxygen for burning. As density diminishes (i.e. thickness height builds), our motors create less power since they have less oxygen to blend with fuel and consume, and our wings and prop produce less lift, so we quicken slower and have higher slow down paces. This implies longer departure and landing runs, and slower climbs. What we’re extremely keen on here is thickness, what number of air atoms there are in a fanciful box of any given size. The real elevation related with thickness height is pointless, it’s not something we fly, it doesn’t generally gauge the separation between the flying machine and anything valuable. Communicating air thickness as far as height just gives us a helpful reference, something more significant than some non specific science class measure like “moles per liter”, and since thickness elevation varies straightforwardly with elevation, it bodes well. An airplane terminal at a height of 5000 ft and seeing a surface temperature that is standard for 5000 MSL (“15 C adrift level, less 2 C for every thousand feet above ocean level, with the goal that’s 15-2*5 = 5 C at 5000 MSL”) will have a thickness elevation (today) of 5000 ft. In the event that it’s hotter than standard, at that point the present thickness height will be higher than the airplane terminal’s rise (case 6000 ft, 7000 ft), and if it’s colder than standard, at that point the present thickness height will be lower than the air terminal’s rise. Along these lines, for instance, an airplane terminal at a rise of 5000 ft on a hotter than standard day may have a thickness height of 7000 ft, and accordingly it has a similar air thickness as we’d see at an air terminal at a rise of 7000 ft on a standard temperature day. Note that while we express thickness height as, well, an elevation, utilizing units of ft, thickness elevation isn’t generally “utilized” as a height, you’d never fly a density altitude, for example.

Figure 2.1.4 Chart of Density Altitude.

2.2 Hypoxia.

Hypoxia, in medicine, condition of the body in which the tissues are hungry of oxygen. In its incredible shape, where oxygen is absolutely truant, the condition is called anoxia.

There are four sorts of hypoxia, the hypoxemic create, in which the oxygen weight in the blood embarking to the tissues is too low to submerge the hemoglobin, the delicate sort, in which the proportion of valuable hemoglobin is close to nothing, and therefore the point of confinement of the blood to pass on oxygen is too low, the stale kind, in which the blood is or may be regular anyway the flood of blood to the tissues is diminished or unevenly appropriated and the histotoxic form, in which the tissue cells are hurt and are in this way unfit to make real usage of oxygen. Ailments of the blood, the heart and course, and the lungs may all make some sort of hypoxia.

The hypoxemic sort of hypoxia is a result of one of two parts, a lessening in the proportion of breathable oxygen—consistently experienced in pilots, mountain climbers, and people living at high rises—in view of diminished barometric weight (see stature affliction) or cardiopulmonary disillusionment in which the lungs can’t capably trade oxygen from the alveoli to the blood.

Because of iron lacking hypoxia, either the total of hemoglobin is too little to supply the body’s oxygen needs, as in sickliness or after genuine passing on, or hemoglobin that is accessible is rendered nonfunctional. Instances of the last case are carbon monoxide hurting and secured methemoglobinemia, in both of which the hemoglobin is so balanced by harmful masters that it winds up difficult to reach for oxygen transport, and thusly of no respiratory regard.

Stale hypoxia, in which blood travel through the vessels is insufficient to supply the tissues, may be general or close-by. In case general, it may result from coronary disease that debilitates the stream, incapacity of veinous return of blood, or damage that prompts stagger. Adjacent stale hypoxia may be a direct result of any condition that declines or keeps the course of the blood in any domain of the body. Representations fuse Raynaud issue and Buerger illness, which bind course in the furthest focuses; the utilization of a tourniquet to control passing on; ergot hurting; prologue to cold; and overwhelming principal defilement with shock.

In histotoxic hypoxia the cells of the body can’t use the oxygen, regardless of the way that the whole in the blood may be common and under normal strain. Yet normally conveyed by cyanide, any administrator that decreases cell breath may cause it. A part of these experts are sedatives, alcohol, formaldehyde, CH3)2CO, and certain soothing administrators.

1. The prevalence of autism in the world is very high. The data varies, but on the whole it is possible to talk about 1 person per 1000 for true autism and six times more for autism spectrum disorders.

2. The number of diagnosed “autism”, for example, in the United States, has greatly increased in recent years (from 1996 to 2007 – 5 times). However, it is not a fact that this is due to the increase in morbidity, and not with the specification of the diagnostic criteria and the rules of the health care system.

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3. So far, scientists have not proposed a single picture of changes in the brain leading to autism. Among the hypotheses: an excess of neurons in some areas of the brain, an imbalance of excitation and inhibition in neural networks, a violation in neuromigration in the early stages of development, an incorrect formation of dendritic synapses and spines.

4. Autism certainly has genetic causes , but it is not associated with the mutation of a particular gene. The genetics of autism is complex and represents the interaction of a large number of genes.

5. The diagnosis of “autism” is not one symptom. In order for the psychiatrist to fully determine the verdict, he must see a pronounced “autistic triad” : a violation of mutual communication, a lack of socialization, limited interests and repetitive patterns of behavior.

6. For autism screening , the following principle applies: a child must be shown to a specialist if any of these conditions are met:

By the first year of life the child is not babbling yet .

By the first year of life, he does not gesticulate ( he does not point at the objects, does not wave his hand at parting, etc.).

By 16 months does not pronounce words .

For two years no utters spontaneously phrases of two words (excluding echolalia – repeating what he heard).

At any age, there is a loss of any part of the language or social skills.

7. Usually, the autistic is characterized by a very low IQ . On average, half of autistic IQs are less than 50, 70% have less than 70, and almost 100% have fewer than 100. However, there are also unique cases (see clause 10).

8. About autism is described in detail in one of the series of the famous series ” Doctor House .” Of course, the great Gregory House does not cure autism in the series “Lines in the Sand.” An autistic is his patient, a boy with some strange problem that he can not tell. Nevertheless, it was House who was able to establish contact with the baby and understand what he was trying to say: worms-ascarids settled in his eyes. Nevertheless, these are not all moments in the series related to autism: colleagues who are bored with House’s strange attitude towards themselves are trying to put a diagnosis of Asperger’s syndrome in their colleagues – an easy degree of autism.

9. The well-known term ” Asperger syndrome “, which is commonly treated as autism-light, was named after the Austrian psychiatrist Hans Asperger, who described him in 1944, although he himself preferred the term “autistic psychopathy”. Usually the line between autism and “asperger” is spent on the preservation of cognitive and speech skills, which remain more or less intact in the latter. However, it is possible that soon the Asperger syndrome will go away. At least from the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), adopted in the United States, the term disappeared, and autism spectrum disorders appeared instead.

10. Very rarely autistic “savant syndrome” is associated – outstanding abilities in some area of ??intellectual activity against the background of a common autistic disorder. Among them – the famous Kim Peak, a man with a phenomenal memory (about him the film “Rain Man” was shot) or an outstanding British calculator Daniel Tammet.

1. The word ‘bible’ is a Greek word which means ‘the books’.
2. The Bible was written roughly between 1200 and 100 AD.
3. There are 66 books in Protestants Christians Bible.
4. Ethiopian Orthodox Christians recognize 81 books in the Bible.
5. Greek Orthodox Bible has 75 books in the bible.
6. Most parts of Old Testament was written in Hebrew.
7. The New Testament is written in Greek.
8. The complete Bible is translated in around 670 different languages.
9. Bible is most famous and most published book in the world.
10. The New Testament is translated into 1521 languages.
11. Every year approximately 100 million copies of the Bible are sold.
12. Oldest man in the bible is Methuselah, he lived for 969 years.
13. The Bible has more than a single author, it was written by kings, fisherman, prophets, shepherds, poets, farmers, musicians, doctors and many others.
14. There are poetry, legal documents, songs, letters, eyewitness accounts, people stories, historical documents and advice material in Bible.
15. Most Catholics recognize 73 books in the Bible.
16. According to the stories in the bible, Satan killed only 10 people but God killed more than 2,400,000 people.
17. To read the entire Bible, it takes 49 hours, i.e. slightly more than 2 days.
18. Goliath was the tallest man in the Bible; he was 9 and half feet tall.
19. The first English translation of Bible was made in 1382 A.D., by John Wycliffe.
20. The shortest book in the New Testament is 2 John with 13 verses.
21. The longest book in the New Testament is Acts. It has 28 chapters.
22. Women, old people are the most maximum readers of the Bible.
23. The Bible contains around 774,000 words.
24. Noah built the ark to protect family and animals to survive the flood, and he was 600 years old when he made an ark.
25. According to Bible Jesus lived on the earth for forty days after his supernatural resurrection.
26. The longest Chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119.
27. The shortest Chapter in the Bible is Psalm 117.
28. The bible is the most shoplifted book.
29. The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9.
30. There are total 1189 numbers of Chapters in the Bible.
31. There are two men in the Bible who were taken up to heaven by God, without dying. They are Elijah and Enoch,
32. There is a description in Bible that after Crucifixion of Jesus, many saints rose from dead and were seen by people.
33. China is world’s largest producer of Bibles.
34. The words: “Do not be afraid” appear 365 times in the Bible.
35. Total number of Chapters in the Old Testament is929.
36. There are 260 Chapters in the New Testament.
37. The word “Christian” appears only 3 times in the Bible.
38. “Mahershalalhashbaz” is the longest word in the Bible.
39. “Amen” is the last word in the Bible.
40. Bible has 100 positive statements about the right hand.
41. There are no original texts of the bible.
42. The Old Testament was written in 1000 of years but New Testament was written in a period of 50-75 years.
43. There are many songs lyrics that are inspired by Bible.
44. As bible is offered for free in hotels and worship places it is the most commonly stolen book in the world.
45. After the death of Bob Marley, he was buried with his guitar, a Bible and stalk of marijuana.
46. There is no phrase in Bible like ‘God never gives you more than you can handle’ but the opposite is said in the bible.
47. Solomon was the wisest man in the Bible.
48. Jehovah’s Witnesses don’t celebrate holidays and birthdays.
49. Swearing on the Bible is forbidden by the Bible.
50. 7, 12 and 40 are the numbers the bible repeatedly repeats.
51. The most highlighted or read Kindle books are The Bible, Steve Jobs’ bio, and the Hunger Games.
52. Having Bibles, watching South Korean movies and distributing pornography in North Korea may be punished with death.
53. Dominican Republic flag has the bible on it.
54. In Bible, there is no physical description of Jesus.
55. In 1631, two London Bible printers accidentally left the word “not” out of the seventh commandment, which then read, “Thou shalt commit adultery.”
56. In the Bible, ‘666’ number is a sign of the beast.
57. There are plenty of puns, funny names, humorous imagery, sarcasm and irony in Bible.
58. In the bible, there is no mention of three wise men, just three gifts.
59. Bible states that the Earth is free floating in the space.
60. In the Bible, God sends 2 bears to murder 42 children because they had mocked the bald man.
61. The Old Testament has more than 60 passages; Christians believe its prophecies of Jesus.
62. There is mention of unicorns in Bible.
63. In Bible the greatest warrior was Gideon, he defeated 135,000 Midianites with the help of God.
64. According to Bible, Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines.
65. There is a description in Bible that earth is round.
66. There are around 2,500 prophecies in Bible.
67. “Jesus wept” is the shortest verse in the bible.
68. There are total 31,173 Verses in the Bible.
69. Most scholars believe that Jesus never viewed himself as creating a new religion per se, just reforming Judaism.
70. Jesus had several sisters and brothers, names of sisters are not named in the Bible.

1. Lead with the culture. Lou Gerstner, who as chief executive of IBM led one of the most successful business transformations in history, said the most important lesson he learned from the experience was that “culture is everything.” Businesspeople today understand this. In the Katzenbach Center survey, 84 percent said that the organization’s culture was critical to the success of change management, and 64 percent saw it as more critical than strategy or operating model. Yet change leaders often fail to address culture—in terms of either overcoming cultural resistance or making the most of cultural support. Among respondents whose companies were unable to sustain change over time, a startling 76 percent reported that executives failed to take account of the existing culture when designing the transformation effort.
Skilled change managers make the most of their company’s existing culture.

Why would this be true, given the widespread recognition of culture’s importance? Perhaps it’s because change management designers view their company’s culture as the legacy of a past from which they want to move on. Or they get so focused on structural details—reporting lines, decision rights, and formal processes—that they forget that human beings with strong emotional connections to the culture will be enacting these changes. Or they assume that culture, because it is “soft” and informal, will be malleable enough to adapt without requiring explicit attention.
Yet skilled change managers, conscious of organizational change management best practices, always make the most of their company’s existing culture. Instead of trying to change the culture itself, they draw emotional energy from it. They tap into the way people already think, behave, work, and feel to provide a boost to the change initiative. To use this emotional energy, leaders must look for the elements of the culture that are aligned to the change, bring them to the foreground, and attract the attention of the people who will be affected by the change.
In two healthcare companies undergoing a merger, culture led the post-deal integration. Using a culture-related diagnostic questionnaire, the change management team asked people to describe each company’s operating style—and mapped the responses from the two legacy companies to get a sense of their combined strengths and challenges. It quickly became clear that where one company had a culture attuned to bottom-line results, the other tended to focus on process. Optimally, the new company would need to skill fully use processes to deliver clear results. By first taking the time to recognize and acknowledge each company’s underlying culture, leaders of the merged firm harnessed deeply ingrained strengths to energize the change and avoided the incoherence that could have resulted from a less intentional and sensitive redesign.

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1. If you had to give Monroe one piece of advice as he sits down to draft his proposal to Jim, what would you say?
I would tell him that because Jim is setting the tone for him to negotiate a salary for both, he should choose a midpoint. Since Jim is willing to teach him skills that will help him for the rest of his life, and these opportunities are not they are so easily most companies require experience for their new hires.
2. If you were Monroe, what offer would you propose to Jim? Please specify the terms:
(1) Base Salary: $100,000 per year paid semi-monthly.
Since Whole Health Management is a mid-cap company and you want to pay for a competitive package at Harvard Business School, it is best to choose the average base salary of the health sector form Exhibit 6 of $ 100,000 per biweekly paid a year. Also, since the CEO, Jim Hummer is a willing mentor and offers many challenging opportunities to Munroe, he may not get anywhere else, so he would be willing to commit to the monetary benefits.
(2) Performance-based bonus: $30,000, based on agreed upon goals.
Since the median total additional compensation is given in Exhibit 6 is 30% of the median base salary. With a 30% decrease in Munroe’s salary, he could maintain his standard of living in Cleveland as it is a less expensive city as compared to Boston.
(3) Stock Options: Options to purchase 10,000 shares at $2.7 per share according to vesting schedule.
It is the standard equity plan for incoming executives. Also, Jim mentioned that the company might grow 3 folds by year end 2006. Therefore, Munroe would want to invest in the firm’s equity, and Jim also mentioned that the organic growth strategy may generate many opportunities for Munroe, being in a leadership role he would like to have more stake in the company.
(4) Other terms: continue education stipend 70% of tuition fees for farther educations if approved dues and licensures. Sponsor 100%the certifications and other dues and licensures in the future.

1. Climbing plants; calyx minute, annular or 10-15 toothed………21. Thunbergia
1. Prostrate or erect plants; calyx usually deeply divided:
2. Corlla segments imbricate in buds; fertile stamens 2 or 4:
3. Fertile stamens 2:
4. Seeds without retinacula………………………………12. Nelsonia
4. Seeds with retinacula:
5. Ovary cells 6-10 ovules…………………………………16. Phologacanthus
5. Ovary cells 2-ovules:
6. Corolla lobes sub equal, not distinctly 2-lipped………………6. Eranthemum
6. Corolla distinctly 2-lipped:
7. Flowers in lax cymes or panicles; anther cell without a basal spur:
8. Flowers purplish-lilac; bracts mucroante, clustered………….5. Dicliptera
8. Flowers pink-purple; bracts in opposite pairs, valvate,
not mucronate……………………………………………………14. Peristrophe
7. Flowers in dense spikes; anther cells with a basal spur at the base:
9. Bracts dimorphic………………………………………..……19. Rungia
9. Bracts not dimorphic:
10. Corolla white, more than 1.5 cm long………………………1. Adhatoda
10. Corolla pinkish-purple, less than 1 cm long…………………10. Justicia
3. Fertile stamens 4:
11. Calyx segments 5; anther cells basally spurred………………3. Asystasia
11. Calyx segments 4 or 5; anther cells not spurred:
12. Spikes not aggregated; 2 stamens exserted, 2 rudimentary……4. Barleria
12. Spikes aggregated in globose heads; stamens
all fertile, included……………………………………………..11. Lepidagathis
2. Corolla segments contracted in buds; fertile stamens 4:
13. Ovary cells 3-7 ovuled; cells of the capsules 3 or more seeded:
14. Corolla distinctly 2-lipped……………………………………9. Hygrophila
14. Corolla not distinctly 2-lipped, subequally 5-libed:
15. Flowers in capitates spikes……………………………………8. Hemigraphis
15. Flowers in clusters, combined into a panicle…………………2. Aechmanthera
13. Ovary cells 1-2 ovuled; cells of the capsules 1-2 seeded:
16. Anther cells basally spured……………………………………15. Petalidium
16. Anther cells not spured:
17. Leaves sessile with ampexicaule base; flowers in dense spikes…13. Perilepta
17. Leaves petioled not ampexicaule; flowers in capitates or elongated spikes:
18. Flowers in capitate spikes:
19. Bracts caducous, not leaf like…………………………..7. Goldfussia
19. Bracts persistent leaf like……………………………20. Strobilanthes
18. Flowers in elongated racemes:
20. Bracts persistent; corolla purplish……………………17. Pseudoaechmanthera
20. Bracts caducous; corolla blue-purple……………….. 18. Pteracanthus


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