1. Does the question deal with a topic or issue that interests me enough to spark my own thoughts and opinions?
This question sparks my interest as it allows me to understand and elaborate on the different ways that technology has improved the chances pf getting pregnant and the many ways to do so (natural and the unnatural way). And to talk about how certain regions disagree with one or the other and what most people prefer as in ICIS or IVF and the pros and cons of both.

2. Is the question easily and fully researchable?
The research on What are the different ways technology has improved the chances of getting pregnant? I got 453,000,000 results for every 53 seconds. If I type the different ways technology has improved to assist reproduction? I get About 238,000,000 results. On the first search I received many websites the first to appear was www.varta.org.au , On the second search I received a large variety of websites and articles the first one to appear is a very reliable website www.ivf.com.au/fertility-treatment/ivf-treatment.

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3. What type of information do I need to answer the research question?
I need information about the different communities and reglious perspectives and views as well as the statistics of the amount of people that would consider or disagree completely with using new technology to assist their pregnancy.
I will need to find information about the different technologies available for pregnancy assists, the processes of these technologies, what the risks of the procedure are and the information that can be identified from them as this will show why parents would decide to use technology. This would then allow me to identify how it may be helpful or harmful it is to the unborn baby. This information will be found in article websites books forums and news reports.
4. Is the scope of this information reasonable?
The scope of the information is reasonable as it is an ongoing argument as to if using technology to assist your pregnancy is good or bad. There are many sources on this topic, and if this technology could improve the chances of giving birth if your infertile

5. Given the type and scope of the information that I need, is my question too broad, too narrow, or o.k.?
This research question covers many topics of the technology used which will expand into other aspects of IVF or ICIS allowing me to access many documents and websites with reliable data I would say this research question is ok there are no issues regarding the information most sources are reliable and extremely useful.

6. What sources will have the type of information that I need to answer the research question (journals, books, websites, magazines, government documents, and people)?
• Online Resource: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com, gives many sources and documents to assist my research on the topic.
• Website: https://www.varta.org.au talks about the IVF and how its involved
• Website: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au
• Book/journal: Marcia C Inhorn, (2010) Religion and Reproductive Technologies, volume 46 issue 2, www.anthrosource.onlinelibrary.com
• Article: Arthur L. Grail, (1989 (when reproductive technology became big), the Religious Response to Reproductive Technology, www.religion-online.com
• Medical websites: IVF Australia, treatments, specialists, fees, clinic https://www.ivf.com.au updated

7. Can I access these sources? State where source is accessed!!
These sources can be access through: the school library the internet etc.
these sources can be accessed online or by renting them at the Albany Creek Library where there are many different sources to use and primary and secondary sources can be found as well as the religious perspectives and views can all be found at the Albany creek library.

8. Given my answers to the above questions, do I have a good quality research question that I will be able to answer by doing research?
Overall, I think this research question is a good one, although out of the 3 chosen, this one doesn’t come close to be the best. This is because it focuses on religious perspectives on assisted reproduction in its entirety as well as the different technology that would be used.

1.1 Explain what it means to have a duty of care in own work role? Duty of care means to provide high quality care and support for individuals or service users within the law, policies, procedures and agreed ways of working of an employer. This services should be provided safely and in a safe environment.

1.2 Explain how duty of care contributes to the safeguarding or protection of individuals? It is employees duty of care of safeguard individuals from harm by reporting any issue concerning any aspect of their work. This can range from potential abuse cases, poor equipments, situation of neglect, poor practice by other staff and so on. Concerns can be raised to supervisor, manager or local authorities.
2.1 Describe potential conflicts or dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and an individual’s rights? A conflict or dilemma may arise between duty of care and an individual’s right in situation of individual’s choices or making a decision. It is my responsibility to make sure that the individual is aware of the consequences of their choice and they full mental capacity to understand the risk that is involved in it. I can only give an advice, I cannot force them. I have to support the individual to make informed choices even if I disagree.
By avoiding the risk would limit the individual’s opportunities and choices. It is my duty of care to support them in making those decisions and to reduce the risks without compromising the individual’s rights. It is important to act in the individual’s best interest and keep them safe. Risk assessments can be carried out, if there is a serious risk of harm, it should be documented and discussed with a supervisor or manager.
2.2 Describe how to manage risks associated with conflicts or dilemmas between an individual’s rights and the duty of care? Risks can be managed by; recording the conflict or dilemma; risk assessment; reporting to a senior member of staff; making the individual or their family aware of the potential risks; allow the individual to acquire skills by learning how to cope with dangerous situation; allowing the individual to explore with support.
2.3 Explain where to get additional support and advice about conflicts and dilemmas? Additional support and advice about conflicts and dilemmas by talking to supervisor, line manager, health and social care team, mediation, advocacy services, CQC, internet and counseling services.
3.1 Describe how to respond to complaints? Complaints can be respond to by; listening to what the individuals; give the complainant time and respect; recording the information; report to a supervisor/line manager; ensuring the complainant knows what will happen next.
3.2 Explain the main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints? Complaint must be made within a short timescale, it should be made immediately or between 2-3 days. If it is a verbal complaint, it is good to respond immediately and if this does not solve it, matter can be referred to the supervisor or manager straight away.
?
206 The role of the health and social care worker
1.1 Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship? There is a professional duty of care to the individuals that one support which is different from the relationships one have with family and friends. There are certain boundaries that one cannot cross such as, asking individual personal questions like one would ask a family member or friends. One must work within the professional boundaries set up by the employer. As an health and social care worker, my major role is to give high quality care and support individuals, help them to make choices and live an independent as possible.

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1.2 Describe different working relationships in health and social care settings? In the role of the health and social care, there are many different working relationships, they include; colleagues, managers, and other professionals (doctors, nurses, therapists, social workers), the individuals cared for, and their family and friends.

For each of these relationships, you develop a different type of working relationship depending on how often you see each other or close. Some will be formal and in others, it will be less. In whatever it is, you must ensure that you maintain professional manner all the time.
2.1 Describe why it is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role? It is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role because what has been outlined (the where, when and how) to do and it is the best form of working. It gives the roles and responsibilities of what is expected from you.
3.1 Explain why it is important to work in partnership with others? In order to work effectively and deliver best quality service, health and social care worker is expected to work in team and partnership with other professionals and also work with individuals’ family members. This is for best result and because no organisation or person can deliver all the aspects involved alone.
3.3 Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts? In order to resolve conflicts as an health and social care workers, we must use different range of approaches and skills to help maintain conflict from becoming more intense. We can use good communication skills, listening skills, analyzing situations and also being diplomatic. We must show that we are open and ready to help resolve issues.

1.Explain the concept of rational expectations. How does this view on how expectation is formed differ from the assumption that workers formed expectations of current and future price levels based on past information about prices?
Rational expectations assume that people learn from past mistakes. Implications for economic policy. The impact of expansionary fiscal policy will be different if people change their behavior because they expect the policy to have a certain outcome. For example, if expansionary fiscal policy causes inflation last year, they will factor this into future expectations. Therefore, in the second year, if the government pursue more fiscal stimulus, unemployment may not fall at all, because people immediately adjust their inflation expectations in response to government policy.
The reason why expectation is formed from assumption is differ from formed expectations of current and future price levels based on past information about prices is because of historical data on the variable of interest has been found to be less logically satisfactory than alternative assumptions that have formed the basis of the competing hypothesis of rational expectations. Besides, value of the expectation/ coefficient may differ for various group of economic agents, individual and over time. In addition, expectation may lag actual when there change in trend. Changes in trend of a variable of interest may emanate from the behavior of related variable that affected by broader factors such as recent global financial crisis. Those, expected value not only depend on its own past values but also together with past, present and expected values of others related variable.
2. Compare the effect of expansionary monetary policy between the new Classical and Keynesian on output and employment.

KEYNESIAN
In Keynesian view, it is assuming that money wage is flexible, and labor supply (Ns) is assuming to depend on the expected real wage (W/Pe).

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Expansionary monetary policy such as increase in money supply shift AD curve to the right from (AD to AD1 and AD2). These cause output rise from (Y0 to Y1 to Y2) and rise in employment from (N0 to N1 to N2) as well as price level rise from (P0 to P1 to P2). As employment increase, the unemployment rate will reduce. This induce the increase in money wage from (W0 to W1 to W2)
As increase in Ad cause rise in price level then other variable remain equal, the fasters the growth in Ad cause higher rate in inflation. Keynesian model implies that their trade-off between inflation and unemployment.

As Philip curve explain that the more quickly AD growth, the large rightward shift in AD, and other variable being equal, the faster rate of growth in output and employment. For given labor force, unemployment rate will be lower the as the fasters rate of growth in AD.
Increase in the money supply leads to an increase in employment and output in the short- run, until labor supplier correctly perceives the increase in price level that result from expansionary monetary policy action. Keynesian view that expectation about price are backward-looking so increase in money supply will affect output and employment.
NEW CLASSICAL
In the new classical model, it is assuming that people are behave on rational expectation. Rational expectations imply that the workings of the economy are understood, and that fiscal and monetary policy will be anticipated rendering the policy ineffective. Where there is adequate information, people form beliefs about the economic future that are reasonably accurate. Based on their judgments, people adjust their economic behavior accordingly. As labor market were very competitive, new information is quickly absorbed. These variables expected include level on money supply, (Me), government spending (Ge), tax collection (Te), autonomous investment (Ie) and other possible variables.

Initially, assume aggregate demand (AD), aggregate supply (AS), labor demand (Nd) and labor supply (Ns) with actual and expected variable is zero with output (Y0), employment (N0), money wage (W0) and price level (P0).

When there is expansionary in monetary policy, there will be an increase in money supply and shift the AD to the right from AD(M0) to AD(M1). These changes also cause output rise from Y0 to Y’1 and rise in price level from P0 to P’1. With the rise in price, labor demand (Nd) would shift to the right from Nd(P0) to Nd(P’1). Increase in price also will increase money wage from W0 to W’1. New equilibrium moves from point A to B.

However, because the increase in money supply was anticipated, there would also increase in the expected money supply because of rational expectation. Labor supplier know that the inflationary effect occurs because of the increase in money supply. This instance cause labor supply (Ns) and AS shifting to the left to Ns (Me 1) and AS (Me1).
As decline in AS, it put further upward pressure on the price level and labor demand shift to Nd (P’1). The new equilibrium at point C where output and employment return to their initial level at Y0, N0 respectively with price level permanently higher at P1 and money wage W1.
New Classical believed that anticipated changes in the money supply do not affect real output and employment in the labor market because people assume have perfect information. With these information, people form rational expectation on upcoming events in the future so economic agents will adjust quickly to eliminate shortages and surpluses in the market.

When increase in the money supply is unanticipated due to monetary surprise, increase in money supply shift AD from Ad (M0) to AD(M1). As price level rises to P’1, labor demand also shifts to the right to Nd(P’1). As money supply is unanticipated, it does not affect the labor supplier’s expectation. Price level will take place in current period, so the labor supply does not shift. These cause changes in output and employment which output rise from Y0 to Y1 and employment will also rise from N0 to N1 and money wage rise to W’1. New equilibrium moves from A to B.

1.0 Introduction
Public policy learning is generally taken as a significant part of political discipline, (McConnell & Hart 2014). Politics is a process through which the public assist to figure out how to organize as well as control or govern themselves, (Cairney, 2012). Dye (2012) argues that public policy is political because it is positioned in public sphere and the public itself makes decisions to deal with issues that affect people in communities. The public domain can be an apartment complex, small community, a whole nation, or the global world, (Birkland, 2015). Policy is when people outline their socially accepted norms and practices to guarantee some form of predictability in the allocation of scarce resources where all the people can contribute towards a social effect, (Pal & Leslie, 2005). In addition policy mostly includes general statements about priorities, written regulations, or guidelines, procedures and or standards to be achieved, (Pal & Leslie, 2005).
This paper explores some ideas of public policy, the policy sequence, advantage and disadvantage of public policy.
2.0 Definition of Public Policy
There is no single universally accepted definition of Public policy because of its complexity and diversity, (Cochran & Malone, 2014). It is complex because it is understood and defined in different ways, (Anderson, 2005). Again public policy is a diversity because it involves many different types of people or groups having various interests such as government, civil society organizations, and the citizenry as well as Non-Governmental Organizations, (Birkland, 2015).
Lowi and Ginsburg (1996), define public policy as “an officially expressed intention backed by a sanction, which can be a reward or a punishment.” Public Policy is also defined as Action and Inaction, (McConnell & Hart 2014). This public policy may take the form of a law, a rule, a statute, an edict, a regulation or an order, (Lowi & Ginsburg 1996). Policy inaction is defined by McConnell & Hart (2014) as “government’s incapacity and/or unwillingness, whether explicit and observable or perceived to actively intervene in addressing a particular policy problem within its jurisdiction”. Sometimes undertaking nothing can mean doing something in the sense that inactivity can be purposeful, (Abbott 2014). For instance, Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott clearly declined to provide a debt guarantee for the iconic, monetarily troubled airline Qantas, on the grounds that it is best placed to compete and to flourish if it is unshackled and uncropped up by government, (Abbott 2014). Again policy inaction may be regarded as a much ambiguous phenomenon which hinges on differing perceptions, (McConnell & Hart 2014). For example in case of humanitarian crisis across the borders, media and political opponents may blame government of undertaking nothing to resolve the crisis and yet the government may say it is doing everything it credibly can. Inaction is also the subject game theoretic analysis (McCain, 2009) as well as cost benefit analysis (Weimer, 2008) aimed at studying decision making behaviour in the context of the potential benefits, risks of different forms of action and or inaction.
Public policy is also defined as the study of government decisions and actions designed to deal with a matter of public concern, (Cochran & Malone, 2014). This originates from organization theory and public administration, (Fischer et al 2007). As per rational model, any decision making has to be based on a full analysis of problems and objectives, followed by a comprehensive collection and analysis of information as well as hunt for the best alternative to achieve the goals, (Simon 1947). Decision making is clouded by values, or interests and needs large amount of money, making the policy process very complex, (McConnell, 2010).
Rose (1976) defines public policy as “government’s program of action to give effect to selected normative and empirical goals in order to address perceived problems and needs in society in a specific way, and therefore achieve desired changes in that society”. A good example is health policy in Malawi where the government provides free ARVs to HIV/AIDS patients in order to reduce the death of people caused by the pandemic.
Public Policy as Output. This originates from an institutional model with emphasis on policy as the output of government which is the final decision making authority, (Cochran & Malone, 2014). Output refers to what government actually delivers different from what it has promised or has authorized through legislation, (Hogwood & Gunn). For example the Malawi government promised people in 2014 that it would construct Mombera University in Mzimba District within 5 years but up to date the university has not been built. Sometimes it is difficult to decide what the final ‘output’ of government policy is in a particular area.
3.0 Public Policy Cycle
Public policies are sieved through a particular policy process, adopted, implemented through laws, controlling measures, courses of government action, funding priorities, as well as enforced by a public agency, (Cochran & Malone, 2014). The first policy cycle was introduced by Harold Lasswell in 1956 and had seven stages intelligence, promotion, prescription, invocation, application, termination, and appraisal, (Fischer, 2007). The modern policy cycle comprises of agenda setting, policy formulation, decision making, implementation, and evaluation leading to termination, (Brewer & deleon 1983).
4.0 Advantages and disadvantages of Public Policy
Public policies are mechanisms of conflict management binding and balancing rival values as well as interests within a nation, (Zhou & Hardlife, 2012). For example in Malawi, security policy is for protection of life and property and health policy is to deal with health problems like an outbreak of diseases. They also help in achieving different goals in relation to the growth and development of a nation and its citizens, (Cochran & Malone, 2014). On the other hand public policies may have negative effects for instance free primary and secondary education may lower the standards of education. Another example is that in capitalist states where there is free markets economies, can lead to the suffering of citizens due to high uncontrolled prices of goods.
Conclusion
Public policy is complex and diverse in nature hence there is no single universal agreed definition. Some scholars have defined Public policy as decisions by government, as action and inaction, and policy as an output. The lifecycle of public policy include problem definition, agenda setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and impact assessment. Public policies are important because they help in conflict management, binding and balancing rival values and interest and also they assist in achieving various goals for the growth and development of a nation and its citizens. On the other hand some policies may infringe the rights of minority groups. Some which are solely initiated by political elites may not be useful to the community but serve the elites interests.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Everyone can be a leader. But did we know to be a good leader not a simple as a word? Leader or leadership in general, we can say as someone in the higher position. But it also can be defined as someone who needs to lead in an organization or people and ability to do something. “Leadership refers to the ability of an individual (leader) to influence (through a set of behaviors) a group of individuals to achieve a common goal”, (Northouse, 2014). Meanwhile, being a leader is a process for someone to know themselves and can be inspiring for others.
However, to be a leader in business “path-goals theory suggests leaders motivate followers by making the path to goal accomplishment clear by removing obstacles that might impede the accomplishment of those goals”, (Ledbetter, 2016). A leader in a business way is the main thing for someone know their future like what they want for their organization and how the planning can success. “Leadership occurs when the organization builds a cadre of future leaders who have the capacity to shape an organization’s culture and create patterns of success”, (Ulrich and Smallwood, 2014).
Moreover, here are seven quality to be a good leader which is a leader should have strategic planning and clear vision, integrity with others, give the commitment in work, stay humble, have a good effective communicator, be confidences and good in teamwork so that people can inspire them as a leader.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2.0 QUALITY OF LEADERSHIP
 

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2.1 Strategic Planning and Clear Vision
Being a good leader for an organization should have a strategic planning and a clear vision. As a leader, they know what they want for the future to achieve the target. Besides, the only leader can decide what they want to be and what should they do for their organization. In a business organization, if we do not have a vision, it will make us easy to give up and we will not see how the organization be like in future. “Good business leaders create a vision, articulate the vision, passionately own the vision, and relentlessly drive it to completion”, (Jack Welch, 2018). It’s mean, even we not a success for the first trial or had been rejected, we should try again until dreams come true. For example like Jack Ma, where he had been rejected to enter Oxford thirty times, but it doesn’t mean he fails forever. He wakes up and creates new ideas for business e-commerce which is Alibaba.com. Even people said, the ideas not logically but he believes he can make it.
 
      2.2 Integrity
 
People always said be integrity in the organization. But that we truly understand about integrity? According to Zig Ziglar one of the motivational speaker, “With integrity, you have nothing to fear, since you have nothing to hide. With integrity, you will do the right thing, so you will have no guilt”. Integrity can be defined as do the right thing with the right way and being truthfulness in job given. A leader with full integrity is key for them to succeed in business. So, “Integrity is one of the fundamental values that employers seek in the employees that they hire. It is the hallmark of a person who demonstrates sound moral and ethical principles at work. Integrity is the foundation on which coworkers build relationships, trust and effectiveness interpersonal relationships”, (Susan, 2018). For example like when in a team have two leaders, then one of the leaders get the new project but he or she not share with another leader because he or she afraid other leaders can do more better rather than him. So, he or she takes advantage to tell their close group. This situation will give an impact for them, where workers will not respect or follow their rules because of no teamwork in their feel and he or she also didn’t have integrity work in the team.
 
      2.3 Commitment
 
As a leader, we not only focus on what the worker do for us, but a leader should give commitment with what they want for their organizations. If teams look up with what leader do, of course, they will inspire them to commit to the work.
One of the reason leaders should commitment with the work because it can make the teams motivated in what leader do where they should together with the leader to ensure the work can succeed in right time. I have watch Jack Ma video where they said, “Be a good leader never complained others, never complain about the work and always committed with the work besides always think positive”. As a business person, never complain and think positive from negative side is a key for someone committed with their work. This is because, from the clear vision, they know what they want. So as a leader, they will gain knowledge from a professional person who has more experiences in business and try to learn to make the worker easy to do the job and ensure the strategic success in a good way.   
 
2.4 Stay Humble
 
Stay humble even your position higher than them but work closely with them to hear the problems. Be a good leader not only the status that you get but stay humble and try close with them and give them space to do their job and try to share their ideas. It will make the organization become better with a variety of ideas when have worker think out of a box. Cooperate with staff and understand their responsibility and work together with them. This is because
they will work for you and as a result, twenty percent of your people contribute
80 percent of your result (Brian Tracy, 2013). According to Marissa Mayer CEO
of Yahoo, “Every employee you hire is an idea factory and more they understand what your startup does, the higher is the probability for them to come up with ground-breaking, disruptive ideas”.
 
2.5 Good Effective Communicator
 
In business organizations, be an effective communicator is the important thing where a leader should explain to the worker start from bottom level until top level,
each department and as well as via phone, email and social media. This is because communication through verbal and non-verbal can help each of them exchange the ideas and ensure parallel with their goals. Communication by words has the power to motivate people and make them do the unthinkable.
Communications in business are the way for someone come out the creative ideas, this is because we can see from them how the strategic planning that they can do to improve the organizations like do some advertising for business.
Moreover, a leader in business not only work alone but it full with the team such as an event where all staff need participated and if leader not communicates well with them or give instructions it can make miscommunication problem between leader and staff. Besides, as a good leader, they should admit their own mistakes without others say negative at the back. A leader also not a perfect person, and sometime they should lower the ego to give inspired for their staff where admit own mistakes. From that, we can learn how to improve it. “No
one ever became a great leader without first becoming a great communicator”,
(Dr. Travis Bradberry co-founder of TalentSmart).
 
 
2.6 Confidence
 
Be a leader, they should confidence in what they decide for their organizations. This is because being confident enough to ensure others follow your commands. To be a great leader, sometimes we need oozing with confidences, show some swagger and assertiveness to gain the respect of your subordinates. It doesn’t mean we should over confidences, but sometimes you should at least reflect the degree of confidences required to ensure that your followers trust you as a leader. If we, not confidence in what we want to do it will become a big trouble for organizations. This is because once your company has
good quality and people believe in your services, of course, your workers will stay and work hard to achieve more target based on your planning. If a leader not unsure with their own decisions, then your subordinates will never follow you.
For example like Dato’ Sri Aliff Syukri B. Kamarzaman, where he likes to do a gimmick and many people said it looks like annoying. But, his not doing this for the glamorous but to generate income. So, confidence is a weapon for businessman or women do something different with others and make it as the trademark.
 
      2.7 Good in Teamwork
 
Teamwork and inspired your worker can make your organizations becomes more strategic and the workers will feel the environments not only for work but it also fun to do the work with leaders. Sometimes a leader must go down with bottom level. If we do not go in lower level, we will not see their ideas where sometimes have people more creative rather than leaders. That is opportunities for the company to improve the problem or staff problems to ensure it will not happen again. For example like Vivvy Yusof founder of Fashion Vallet where she makes their company informal environment so she takes it all their staff as their friends. I have seen her as active businesswomen where every time to do a
meeting, she will do all their team and make it not informal. Moreover, they will ask others opinions to make it the project will success with a variety of ideas.
 
 
 
 
3.0 CONCLUSION
      
In conclusion, we know being a leader not a simple as a word but that is the process for someone learn and know themselves. Leadership would motivate and empower people as implementing a great vision requires inspiration and energy (Kotter, 2001; Higgs and Dulewicz, 2016). According to Brian Tracy (2018), “Leadership is more who you are than what you do”. “Leader has a huge role to play in the future success of any organization but we must learn to appreciate that one leader can do very well in one culture, but not so well in another, so it is vital that organizations have an effective assessment and development strategy in place to deliver their business agenda”, (Povah, L., 2012). Each organization can succeed if have a good leader with good quality and they will ensure dreams come true.

1. Introduction
Even before the 2007-2009 financial crisis started there has been a heated debate whether central banks should respond to asset price developments. However, this global financial crisis has stimulated various researches on the interdependence between monetary policy and assets prices worldwide, Chatziantoniou, Duffy and Filis (2013). Although there have been several studies on analyzing monetary policy and stock returns, especially in the developed world, there has been little empirical evidence on the interaction between monetary policy and fiscal policy on stock returns.
In a modern financial system, monetary policy is transmitted into the real economy through several channels, such as, the interest rate channel, credit channel, channel determining the asset prices in the economy and the exchange rate channel. If the value of the stocks owned by a household increases, this has a direct positive effect on the net worth of the households, so the household will consume more and vice versa. The extent of the wealth effect depends significantly on the share of household in the country that own stock. There should be a positive correlation between stock ownership in a country and the effect of stock prices on the household’s wealth. The higher the percentage of households that own stock, the greater the effect of stock prices on the household’s wealth. For example; Results from Boone, Giorno and Richardson (1998) indicated that a 10% fall in stock prices result in a minimum of 0.45% reduction in consumption in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada after a year. Stock prices also influence firm’s ability to finance investment projects, see Rigobon and Sack (2001). Moreover, High interest rates mean high cost of borrowing, so firms invest less. If firms are unable to invest it means that the present value of their future cash flows will also decline, and this has a direct negative impact on firms’ stock prices. With the credit channel, if government uses tight monetary policy, then there is less credit available and economic activity slows down. A fall in the money supply relative to money demand will lead to a fall in interest rates which inevitably will result in an increase in stock prices.
On the other hand, fiscal policy is quite effective in stimulating the economy. In the Keynesian manner, expansionary fiscal policy can lead to an increase in aggregate demand and employment. This translates into increased spending and consequently higher levels of consumer confidence, thereby boosting the economy and potentially driving stock prices higher. In contrast, classical economists focus on the crowding out effects of fiscal policy in the market for loanable funds and of the productive sectors of the economy. Thus, fiscal policy could possibly drive stock prices lower through the crowding out of private sector activity.

2. Problem statement
There is significant evidence from the Keynesian paradigm that monetary policy should not be examined in isolation from fiscal policy and vice versa as both their individual stance as well as their interaction play an important role in the economy. Given that over the years, especially after the financial crisis of 2007-2008, great emphasis has been placed on analyzing the effect of both fiscal and monetary policies on the economy.
An understanding of how policy actions affect the stock market is certainly pivotal to the formulation of economic policies aimed at enhancing stock market efficiency in resource mobilization. Resultantly, bank financing has become highly inaccessible to the private sector, leading to a growing emphasis on alternative sources of finance for long term investment. The Namibian stock exchange, being one such source, has consequently gained significant importance and focus as a source for the same. However, if the NSE is to play its allocative role properly, the implications of the factors affecting it, macroeconomic policies among them, must be well determined and appropriately addressed. Studies that have been done to inquire into the interactive relationship between these policies as it affects the stock market mainly focus on advanced economies with very little or none on emerging economies especially the Namibian economy.
For this purpose, the study owes to fill the gap in the empirical literature in Namibia by investigating the extent to which stock returns incorporate all publicly available information on fiscal and monetary policy actions and to answer questions appertaining to policy implications on stock market performance in Namibia.

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3. Objective:
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of fiscal and monetary policy on stock market returns in Namibia. The specific objectives are to:
• To investigate the impact of the interaction between the fiscal and monetary policy on the Namibian stock exchange.
• To examine the impact of the volatility of the interactions between fiscal and monetary policies on stock market behavior in Namibia.
• To draw policy implications from the findings.

4. Research questions
1. Does fiscal policy have a significant effect on the stock market?
2. Does monetary policy have a significant effect on the stock market
3. What is the combined effect of fiscal and monetary policy on the stock market?

5. Significance of the study
The interaction between fiscal and monetary policy plays a crucial role in the economy hence should not be examined in isolation. A stock return is regarded as one of the main considerations for making investment decision in the stock market. This is because investors expect a certain return consisting of capital gains and dividend payment which motivates their wealth maximization behavior. A clear understanding of the relationship between monetary policy and stock returns in the context of Namibia’s macroeconomic environment is significantly important to various agents in the economy and especially monetary authorities to inform on policy. Monetary authorities and policy makers would need to understand the effects of the interaction between fiscal and monetary policy on stock prices so that they can understand how policies influences the real economy through stock prices. This would help them understand whether they should target stock prices or use securities price volatility as indicators of the fiscal and monetary policy stance. This study also aims to contribute to the already existing knowledge regarding stock markets, fiscal and monetary policy in emerging capital markets such as Namibia and to provide new evidence regarding asset channel of monetary transmission in emerging economies. Further, the study findings would also provide a platform for quality discussion and debates amongst academicians, mainly economist, policy makers, professionals and corporate leaders and provide a basis for further research regarding stock markets in emerging markets. In addition, it would assist in terms of informing policy by making appropriate policy recommendations.

6. Literature Review
6.1. Theories of Monetary Policy and the Stock market
Researchers are divided on whether monetary policy has an impact on stock returns or not. Some researchers like Fama and French (1989), Jensen and Johnson (1995), Patelis (1997) as well as Ioannidis and Kontonikas (2006), believe that changes in monetary policy affects the stock market performance and in turn leads to changes in stock prices. Whereas others like Bordo and Jeanne (2000) and Fair (2002) believe that changes in monetary policy have little to no impact on stock market performances. Among those that believe that changes in monetary policy affects stock market performance, there are disparities as to which tool of monetary policy is more important and to what extant they affect stock returns.
Monetary policy can either be expansionary or contractionary. Expansionary monetary policy is used by monetary authorities to stimulate the economy. This can either be done by increasing money supply or lowering interest rates to encourage borrowing by companies, individuals and banks. A contractionary monetary policy on the other hand is used to fight inflation in an economy. Since inflation is a sign of an overheating economy, monetary authorities must slow growth by increasing interest rates to make lending more expensive. Authors such as Thorbecke (1997) and Conover, Jensen, Johnson and Mercer (1999) reported a strong positive relationship between an expansionary monetary policy and stock market returns. While Ehrmann and Fratzscher (2004), Rigobon and Sack (2001), and Sousa (2010) found evidence of a negative relationship between a contractionary monetary policy and stock returns.
Empirical studies that aimed at investigation the relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock returns in developed and developing economies have reported varying outcomes. In one of the most recent and related study, Yoshino, Taghizadeh-Hesary, Hassanzadeh and Prasetyo (2014), have studied the response of stock markets to monetary policy (An Asian Stock Market perspective) a case of Tehran stock market. They estimated the response of Asian stock market prices to exogenous monetary policy shocks employing the VECM. The results indicated that stock prices increase persistently in response to exogenous monetary policy easing. Further they conclude that there is an endogenous response of the stock prices to monetary policy as evidenced by variance deposition results. Bernanke and Kuttner (2005) examined the reaction of equity prices following a change in federal rate. Using Campbell and Ammer model to assess the relationship between behavior of stock prices in response to change of interest rate the results were a 0.25 percent reduction on interest rate increased securities price indices by 1 percent.
In terms of methodology, Sellin (2001) noted that most of the studies have relied on vector autoregressive model particularly in the last decades in studying the relationship between monetary policy and securities market. Patelis (1997) Using a simple two-equation system where one equation represented the monetary policy and the other equation representing the securities returns investigated whether observed changes in US securities returns could be ascribed to shifts in the monetary policy stance. The findings showed that monetary policy variables are significant predictors of future stock returns.

6.2. Theories of Fiscal Policy and the stock market
Although a significant number of past studies have concentrated their attention on the relationship between monetary policy and stock market performance, only few studies have focused on the effects of fiscal policy on stock markets, Afonso and Sousa (2011). The gap in the study of the impact of fiscal policy on stock returns remains despite the theoretical effects that have been set out since the 1960’s in papers by Tobin (1969), Blanchard (1981) and Shah (1984). Fiscal policy is a sister strategy to monetary policy whereby the government adjusts its spending levels and tax rates to influence the economy. Theoretically fiscal policy plays a significant role in determining asset prices. Increases in taxes, ceteris paribus, for instance, lowers expected asset returns as they discourage investors from investing further in the stock market. Also, increases in government borrowing raise the short-term interest rates which, in turn, lowers the discounted cash flow value from an asset and thus signals a reduction in stock market activity.

6.3. Fiscal and monetary policy interactions
Besides evaluating the effect of monetary policy and fiscal policy on stock market individually, many researchers also have empirical researches to determine how the combination of these policies has effects on stock market. According to this approach, researchers find out not only the changes in stock market connected with the changes in both macroeconomics policies but also the interaction between monetary policy and fiscal policy in explaining the activities of stock market.
The theoretical literature has focused on the strategic elements of the interaction using tools of game theory while the empirical analysis has focused on the complementarity and strategic substitutability of monetary and fiscal policy.

1. Introduction:
Bangladesh was one of the richest cultural developed countries all over the world. We were very proud for our Bengali mixed Cultural that came from Islamic & Hinduism Ideology, customs, manners. Ethnically all of the people belong to the homogeneity of their cultural history but as a result increasing of Globalization & Rapid Urbanization& Technological revolution, our socio-cultural has been changed rapidly since the late nineties. Now we are forgetting traditional cultural, we are busy with western mixed cultural as a result we have lost our social values, idea, moral & day after day the social problem is increasing. Bangladesh is a land of homogeneous culture which now is being transformed into hybridization that is confusing.

2. Socio-cultural Transformation:
A social cultural transformation is a transformed situation in which social, cultural, economical changes have obvious distinction. It describes how culture & society have changed over time. Cultural factors, consists of values, beliefs, attitudes, ideologies, ideas, morals and manners, customs and traditions etc play a vital role in influencing social change. People have to change or have the tendency to change by the transformation of time to maintain the new trends, achieve the goals, and follow the regulations. It is thought that culture is symbolically coded and can thus is taught from one person to another means that cultures, although bounded, can change.
Some characteristics of social cultural change may be-
1. Change into urban life from rural
2. From agricultural to industry economy
3. Introduction of economic pattern and their focus on individual freedom and initiative.
4. Keep competition for economic survival so that both parents are forced to work.
5. Increased participation of women activities outside the house etc.

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3. Effect of Colonialism and Post colonialism on socio-Culture activities:

? Socio culture in colonial era: Colonial period plays the most important role in changing socio-cultural trends of Bangladesh. Major changes were made in this time. Colonialism vastly affected the food, religion, language, art, painting, architecture, festival, theatre, political culture etc. from every field of living like education , literature, government footprint of colonial rule are wide seen. Several Anglo-Indian foods like curry, raj etc were introduced in colonial period. Also official table manner of British were introduced. In Indian subcontinent there were some native religions along with Muslims. But later on Christian’s community were grow up in colonial era. English were made an official language instead of Persian. And wide spread use of English was begun from colonial era. Pattern of art, and painting changed from mid-Asian to western. Architectural design has a significant transaction to modernization. Novels and historical books are vastly written instead of religious poetry. The most significant changes were made of in political sector on Bangladesh. From traditional system of kingdom this continent enormously started exercising democratic system of government in colonial period. Bureaucracy was introduced. Governor system was implemented instead of subadar. Lifestyle was being modernized during British era. But due to the mutation of British culture and Bangladeshi culture we lost our unique socio cultural identity during this time.

? Post colonial factors: In post colonial period of time the most important changes of socio-cultural area is growth of nationalism in Bangladeshi people. Bangla were becoming the most prominent language in every sectors of the country. Up to 20th century family tradition of Bangladesh were combined in nature. But with the advancement of technology and widespread economical growth of the country more advanced single family tradition is now taking place. Use of ICT is changing the core of our socio-cultural dimensions. Whether it is good or bad it’s a point of debate but because of this widespread use of ICT kinship is declining. And free access of information and adaptation of different cultural factor in our own culture added diversity in Bangladeshi culture but on the other side it has taken away the core values of our own traditional culture.

4. Socio-Cultural Transformation Indicators:
Indicator Before the 90′ s After the 90’s
1. Language ? Acceptance of dialects
? Practice of pure mother tongue ? Dialects are considered as funny
? Mixed Language (Bangla With English)
2. Dress
( Male) ? Panjabi, Pajamas, lungi, ? half pant, Tie, T-shirt
? Western dress
3. Dress
( Female) ? Salwar Kameez and Sharee ? Salwar Kameez and Sharee
? Western Dress
4. Food ? Indigenous Food
? Homemade food
? Boiled rice
? fish and meat of beef, mutton, chicken ? Junk & fast food
? Street Food
? Catering service
? kabab and various western ,sub continental food
5. Fashion ? Traditional fashion ? Western style fashion
6. Music ? Classical, Folk, Live Performance
? Rabindra Sangeet and Nazrul geeti ? Western, Remind Folk, Virtul
? Band & rock song
? Mixed Western song
7. Education
Quality ? Enrollment plus drop out
? Traditional curriculums & Formal exam ? Same but applied creative curriculum & teaching method.
8. Festivals and
celebrations ? Pohela Baishakh, Language Movement Day, Independence Day, National Mourning Day, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Muharram, and Durga puja. ? Same as 80’s
? Valentine day
? Friendship day
? 31st night day
? Others western day
9. Social Bondage/ Feelings/ Love ? Joint Family
? Cohesion of community high
? Collective approach ? Micro-family
? Cohesion of community lower.
? Individualistic
10. Means of Communication ? Writing formal ; informal letter through post office ? Social media such as Face book, Imo, Viber, Mail through E-based
11. Profession ? Agricultural based ? Service Based
12. Method of Marriage ? Family Arranged ? Mostly Love based marriage
13. Games ; Sports ? Football, cricket and Ha-du-du
? Local Games ? Football, Basket ball
? Cricket is a game which has a massive and passionate following in Bangladesh.
? Internet based Games

5. Factors that affecting on our socio-cultural transformation
? Educational Factor: Before the liberation war in 1961 literacy rate of East Pakistan was only 21.5%. In 1974 literacy rate was 32.4% and it rose into 45.3% in 2001. Now in 2017 the rate is 75.5% (Male 77.1% and female 71.5%). Increasing education rate increasing the knowledge which changes the socio-cultural values of people.
? Political factors: Politics is important factor. From 1971 to 2017 several political parties ruled the government. The rules and law was different in different times. With the politics the policy was changed. The changed policies, rules, laws, orders change the socio-cultural activities.
? Scientific and Technological Factor: It is the main factor increase of transformation. ICT make the world close to all. People can share their ideas, knowledge, views one to another all over the world which influence their thinking.
? Cultural Diffusion Factor: By the dint of globalization the world becomes a village. Sharing of culture from one nation to another nation is increasing. Young generation is the main customer who accepting the foreign culture. This diffusion transforms our culture and our culture is also adopted by others.

1. Introduction

1. In this report I will be Outlining the features of my two contrasting businesses that I have chosen (Tesco and Oxfam). In this report I will be discussing the different types of ownership and liability for my two businesses. The features that I am going to is the aims and objectives I will then access the reasons for the success of these two business. Finally, my report will look at how the relationship between the external and the internal stakeholders compare.

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2. Mission statements, vision statements and aim and objectives
2.1.
Tesco mission statement is ‘to be the champion for customers, helping them to enjoy a better quality of life and an easier way of living. This hasn’t changed. Customers want great products at great value which they can buy easily and it’s our job to deliver this in the right way for them’ this shows that Tesco are believe that they are the best business and believe that they can create better products and make better products unlike any other shop.

Also, another mission statement of Tesco is that they want to ‘create value for customers, to earn their lifetime loyalty’ this is important to Tesco as it give them goals to try to aim for which helps to keep them determined to achieve better. It also ensures that customers get the best service available from staff.

Tesco’s vision statement states that they want ‘to be the most highly valued business: by the costumers we serve we serve the communities in which we operate our loyal and committed colleagues and of course our stakeholders.’ This shows that they are trying to expand even further by gaining a larger community of customers that are loyal and regularly come back to the shop.

Tesco aims are to try and improve their carbon footprint. This means that it is trying to be more environmentally considerate which would make the business more marketable to consumers as it shows they care unlike some other countries. This would help to increase the amount of customers and therefore profit that they would gain. to be the creator of high quality brands

Tesco’s main objective is ‘to maximise sales’ by achieving this they will gain more profit meaning that they can expand. If Tesco increase their sales, it will help to achieve another one of their aims ‘to increase their profits’

Another objective is to close down stores that are not as environmentally friendly (especially international stores) or stores that aren’t making as much profit as it needs to be. This would help to reduce their carbon footprint which would help them to achieve their aims.

OXFAM
• Oxfam’s mission statement tells us that they want to ‘Help create lasting solutions to the injustice of poverty. We are part of a global movement for change, empowering people to create a future that is secure, just, and free from poverty. We work to end poverty locally and globally, making this central to public and political life in Wales’. This shows the goals they want to work towards and also what they want to do in the future.

While researching, I also found out that Oxfam ‘Use a combination of rights-based sustainable development programmes, campaigns, advocacy and influencing to challenge the structural causes of poverty.’ This shows that their goals they set for them self are being met to become a bigger company and to gain a greater audience.

Oxfam’s vision statement says that ‘Our vision is a just world without poverty. We want a world where people are valued and treated equally, enjoy their rights as full citizens, and can influence decisions affecting their lives’ this shows the people involved in the organisation want to change and to help the people that are looking for their hep the most.

Oxfam’s aims- One of their aims is to try to help ‘save lives, now and in the future’ This means that it is trying to help the people in need which means that people who are donating to them know that the money is being spent on something that is useful. This makes people more likely to want to donate if the money is going to a good cause.

An objective for Oxfam to help achieve this is to ‘provide clean water, food, sanitation and other fundamental needs.’ This will mean that fewer men, women and children will die or suffer from diseases and illness

Features of Tesco

Tesco has vast amount of different activities that they run. This includes things like Petrol Stations, superstores, Tesco extra and Tesco express. There is a different way that each store is run but each one is owned and looked over by supervisors to make sure they are all doing a they should. An example of this is how ‘Tesco superstores are large supermarkets that sell groceries’. Although their main focus is groceries they also sell a wide range of things like clothing and electronics. Tesco extra also sell mostly food and have a very basic range of non-food items. All of the stores are branded as ‘Tesco’, but a new store in Liverpool was the first to use the format brand ‘Tesco Superstore’ above the door’. Tesco try to increase their revenue in a wide range of ways including the addition of extra activities such as Tesco’s optician’s, Tesco’s bank, Tesco’s travel money, club card, car insurance and their own pharmacy in recent years.

This helps to increase their market share as they appeal to a wider range of people. Tesco’s bank is used to allow customers to exchange their money into different currencies so they can spend the money while in a different country. Their clubcards allows regular customers to collect points each time and get rewarded for being a loyal customer this helps them to gain more regular customers and therefore more profit. Tesco Car insurance will get you cheap and reliable car insurances for the whole family. Tesco’s own pharmacy gives the costumers and quick and reliable way to pick up their prescription near home which is useful for more elderly costumers who struggle to get around.

Oxfam

Oxfam has a wide range of activities such as the Oxfam shop which is used to sell many different items including clothing such as vintage clothing and men’s accessories. They also contribute to helping many different LEDC countries and help the less fortunate children develop and get an education and better hygiene this is done through volunteer/ charity work. An example of this is that more than 480,000 Rohingya people have crossed over to Bangladesh. Oxfam is providing key essentials like clean water and other essential supplies’. Also ‘Anita will never forget the day her house fell down – the day a massive earthquake devastated Nepal. It caused extensive damage and affected more than 3.5 million people. Anita was sowing potato seeds onto her family’s land when her home was damaged by the earthquake that hit Nepal in April 2015. 17 days later the second quake hit and her house was destroyed. Oxfam reached over 445,000 people with your support and Anita was just one of them, we distributed over 54,000 emergency and improved shelter kits. Oxfam is staying in the affected areas in order to continue the relief and recovery work and link it to longer term reconstruction and development’ this shows how Oxfam are changing people lives for the best and any donation they are receiving is going to a good deed.

Sectors scope and size of Tesco and Oxfam

Sectors of business

A Primary scope where businesses extract raw materials from the earth and the sea for example fish form the sea, coal which is extracted from the earth and oil, farming-fruit vegetables.

Tesco
A primary business is where business extract raw materials from the earth and the sea for example coal and oil. However, Tesco is not a primary sector but it does have links to trade and importing goods. If Tesco didn’t have the links to the primary sector business they would have to find a different primary sector and pay higher rates.

Oxfam

Oxfam is in all three sectors primary, secondary and tertiary, this is because they provide seeds and water (raw materials) for farmers in poverty stricken countries, they also make products to be sold in their shops like ‘merchandise’ products with Oxfam written on them) this could also relate to how Oxfam help other countries manufacture products or food. They also sell used products that people have donated in their shops like a supply chain and they were created to provide a service. Primary sector is the sector from which we directly get or drive something from nature. When we convert natural products into final goods it comes under secondary sector. when we provide service like selling the good it is tertiary sector.

Size of business

The different size of a business is 1-9 employees is Micro size business 10-49 employees are a Small business 50-249 employees is for a medium size business and 250+ employees this is a Large business.

Tesco
Tesco is a large company which employ over 460,000 people a year. The business is currently a public limited company selling shares on the stock exchange for about 286.00p per share. It is located in the FTSE 100, and employs around 195,000 people in the UK, 41,000 in the rest of Europe, and 24,000 in the rest of the world. The company operates on an international basis and sells everything from food, to clothing, electrical goods, and even financial services such as loans and insurance.

Oxfam
Oxfam is a large company with over 5,300 and over 22,000 volunteers. From small farming co-operatives to large multinationals, we work with a variety of organisations to help fight poverty around the world. they know from decades of experience that by working with others – and pooling our expertise and resources – we can achieve much more than we ever could on our own. That might mean working with small, grassroots organisations that have a better understanding of the local context, or joining with other international non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to reach greater numbers of people with our campaign messages.

Scope of business

The scope of a business is where the business is operated from. The types of scope of a business are local which are based in one generally smaller area, national which is how many store there are in the whole of the UK and finally, international which is if the business has many stores/ operates in multiple countries.

Tesco

Tesco is an international scope business. It has multiple stores all over the world including as the Malaysia, India, Poland, China and the UK. Tesco store are also national and local to UK region as they have over 6000 stores in the UK alone. The main reasons why the company decided to enter the international market was that the local UK market had reached saturation making it very difficult to grow without exploring oversea options. Saturation means “when the business provided in a market has been maximized in the current state of the marketplace.” This means if they had started to open even more stores in the UK it would be a waste of money as they may not make as much as they should. This would mean that it is their only plausible solution for Tesco to try to remain relevant for the economy in the future.

Oxfam

Oxfam is also an international scope company. Oxfam has over 700 stores throughout the UK in 2017. For UK residents Oxfam also is local as it has stores in many town centres which accepts donations and sell items such as clothing additionally it is also a national scope business. Oxfam is international because Oxfam works in an international group of around 20 organizations working together local communities in dozens of countries. On average one in every three people throughout the world live in poverty. All around the world, Oxfam find innovative and creative ways for people to improve their lives and thrive. They try to save as many lives as they can and campaign for people that have poor influence in the decisions that affect them.

Ownership type

The main different ownership types there are Sole traders, partnerships, private limited company’s (PLT) and public limited company’s (LTD). A sole trader runs the business independently and usually only have a small amount of staff. Some advantages of being a sole trader is that it is easier to set up. Also the small amount of employees means the wages payed will be lower than a private or public limited company be low. However, the disadvantages are that one person is responsible for the whole company and it will be hard to get time off when you become ill and want to go on holiday. Partnership is where the business is run by two or more people meaning the reasonability’s are split equally but also all debts are split between all of the partners. However, some disadvantages are that disagreements may occur when changes happen and some people dislike the idea. Also unlimited liability which means if the business fails and runs out of money your personal assets are at risk of being sized. A public limited company is generally a smaller business which has limited liability also makes it easier to gain finances through sales and shares. Some disadvantages are that is more expensive to set up and run. A public limited company is a larger well known business which usually have a chain of manufactures. Some advantages are that you have a better chance of gaining finance from the bank etc. but also the business created more of a prestigious profile. However, the disadvantages are they will have an external stakeholder once it had been listed on stock exchange.

Tesco

Tesco is a public limited company. Which means it a well-known company. One advantage this gives Tesco is more of a prestige profile meaning the costumer that go to Tesco have high standard of Tesco, which will make people with a higher status and have a better disposable income meaning they will spend more money in the shop on things like luxury goods for example clothing and technology or simple thing like comfort foods. However, the Tesco has an advantage due to many stakeholders wanting to buy the company but also they have many manufactures due to how large the company is meaning they will never be low on goods.

Oxfam

Oxfam is a private limited company guarantee. This means that they get funding from the government due to the type of business they run. Oxfam use the funding they receive of the government and use it to improve LEDC and children’s education and sanitation. Oxfam being a private limited company means we are not able to see the company information which means the people that donate to the business they are not one hundred per cent knowing where every penny is going however, because Oxfam is such a trusting business we are able to see what they put on their website that all money is changed things in the world and that they are not scamming.

Stakeholders for Tesco and Oxfam.

There are two types. There internal stakeholders which are people within the business who are interested in what the business doe. Then there is external stakeholder which are people or a group of people that are interested in the business.

Tesco

The Manager of Tesco will have an interest in the business because they can how much further the business can expand which could potentially mean they get more money. The manager will also be interested in the profits of business as it could make them more money. An example of this is when stock is broken it decreases their profit because they can sell the broken products. Also if the business has many owners just like Tesco they will have an interest in things like the prices that the shares are currently selling for. The share prices for the business increase or decrease due to external and internal factors such as Brexit. The workers at Tesco will be interested in becoming a stakeholder for Tesco as it gives them opportunities to try and get things like promotions and pay rises. Also things like minimum wage need to be paid to the employees so they are paid a fair and legal rate.

The Costumers of Tesco could potentially want to become a stakeholder for Tesco as it offers them more chances to give their feedback to Tesco on things they believe are good and other things that require improvements such as customer service. Another reason why they might do this is to gain a greater knowledge about their local supermarket like how the business functions on a day to day basis which includes things such as the opening times and they could give their feedback on how these times are either are useful or need to be adjusted to be more suitable for the customers and local community. Also as a customer who is looking for a potential job with Tesco it is an easier way to try and out the employees working conditions and how they are treated.

The Government will have an interest in things such as how much environmental pollution is being produced by the company. The pollution is produced in things like the warehouses and when the stock is being transported. Additionally, the service that they provide for their customers to have their shopping delivered to their house creates even more air pollution.
The Government will be interested in this as they need to insure the business isn’t exceeding the maximum limit for the amount of co2 they are allowed to create. The government might also be interested in things like if the business is being ethical and not selling illegal products but also to make sure that items that have age restrictions such as console games and alcohol are sold with ID.

The Local community will have an interest in being a stakeholder because of the increased amount of traffic in their area. Also if somebody in the local community wants to sell their house the value may have now decreased or increased due to the amount of traffic. Another reason that it could potentially decrease is due to the local supermarket potentially being within viewing distance which creates visual pollution. On the other hand, it could be a positive as the local community will now not have to travel as far to go shopping which could also increase the value of the house.

Oxfam

The local community might want to move house however the value of their current house has been reduced due to the area being made busier and traffic will increase around the area. Also the local community will have an interest as the government might build new roads make it easier for customers to access the shop which would create a lot of noise and more traffic. Also for people that are potentially looking for a job the working hours and the different job roles available would interest them.

The Employees of Oxfam will have an interest in becoming a stakeholder for Oxfam as the opportunities such as gaining a promotion which could mean that they get more freedom and responsibilities in their job. Additionally, they would want to be treated and paid fairly if they are in a paid position as they would expect to be paid at least the minimum wage.

The Government will have an interest in things such as how much environmental pollution they are producing in their warehouses and the transport of their products and goods etc. The government might be interested in these types of things to insure the business is not going over the amount of greenhouse gases and pollution they are producing. The government might also be interest in things like the business being ethical with the prices they pay and meaning if there selling illegal stuff but also to make sure that things alcohol and cigarettes are sold with ID.

A Financier will have an interest in Oxfam to try to get their return on their money that was put into the business. In this case it will expect to see an improvement in whatever the money is going towards. But also, if any loans were taken out they would also be expected to repay the loans by becoming a stakeholder.

Pressure groups will have an interest as they agree with what Oxfam are doing as a business and would like to help to try and help them grow and therefore help more people. Also, they could potentially want to get Involved with the business and help them.

Communication with stakeholders

Communication with stakeholders means how the company try to inform their stakeholders with messages that is relevant to them and will affect them. It generally means that some kind of change is happening for example it could be a special offer that is included in an advert etc.

Tesco

Suppliers
Tesco communicate with their stakeholders using a wide range of ways as they have a lot of stakeholders they need to try to communicate with and inform of any information that is happening. One way that Tesco communicates with its suppliers is through order forms. They do this because it is much easier than oral communication also because it is easier not to get the orders and supplies they need next day mixed up. An order form is two-way communication with external suppliers. They also could communicate through emails, phone calls and oral communication between them. An order for is written communication meaning the response would take longer meaning they delivery would take longer to be processes

Annual Report

Another way that Tesco try to communicate with their investors is that they have to submit their annual report to them because it provides information on the company’s fiscal year and it also helps to break down to the investors how the business has been preforming by including things such as the balance sheet, income statement, financial summary and cash flow statement. These show how much money has gone in and out and helps to show where things need to be changed and improved.

Letters

Another form of communication that Tesco use is in the form of letters. Letters are among the most common for Tesco to use as they are direct and can be easily adapted to the issue that is being addressed as they will have a basic template that will be changed accordingly. Letters are written one-way forms of communication because they will not get an instant reply. Tesco use letters for a large range of reasons which include things such as replying to letters of complaint and addressing, changes to an employee regarding personal subjects like wages and being superfluous to requirements. This is because it makes it as professional as possible and helps to create a good reputation of the business.

Oxfam
Local community
Some ways Oxfam are able to communicate with the local community is through letter billboard and leaflets through the post. Oxfam use leaflets that post through people door because it’s a quick and simple way to let people know what they do and try get more donations. A leaflet is a form of one-way communication meaning the response they get from the local community could be slow. It is a written form of communication making it look more sophisticated. The local community are external to the business meaning it is external communication.
Financier
Some ways Oxfam communicate with the financier is through a letter. Oxfam might use a letter use business use to make it look more sophisticated when they are asking for more donations. They could also possible communicate with a financier through email or a phone call. However, using a letter, it makes Oxfam look more professional as a company. A letter is written communication making it more direct to who it may concern. A financier isn’t within the company meaning it would be external communication which is one- way communication.

Government
Someway Oxfam could communicate with the government is through a phone call email or a meeting. Oxfam might have a meeting with the government simply to discuss what they are doing and how they are making a change but also so they can discuss the amount the government are giving to fund Oxfam. A meeting is two-way communication as they would get a response straight away as a meeting would use oral communication. The government are not within the company meaning the communication between Oxfam and the government would be external.
Pressure groups
there are many ways Oxfam can communicate with the pressure group for example a phone call, presentation meeting or a letter. Oxfam might write a letter to the pressure group to discuss any disagreements or issues they might. A letter is a formal way of direct communication between Oxfam and the pressure groups. A letter is two-way communication meaning the response will take a while because they need to receive the letter first. Pressure group are external meaning the communication is external and it is written communication.
Organisation structures
Tesco
Tesco is a tall (hierarchical) organisational structure. A tall structure contains many different levels of management this is because the span of control is narrow. Due to so many levels of management means there are many opportunities for promotion. Communication within the organisation would be poor simply because the line of communication is long. this means that because there are so much management they would have to go through many different departments just to get approval on changes to the business. Some advantages of a hierarchical structure are employees are able to see the different levels of leadership within the organisation and different levels of responsibility also employees become loyal to their department meaning that the department will be stable. However, some disadvantages are arguments between each different section of the company (departments) as they choose ideas that befits their department mainly. Salaries for multiple layers of management increase an organisations cost and the budget will exceed the limit. Tesco has around 476,000+ employees in 2017 alone. As it is shown in Figure 1 below, Tesco organisational structure is constructed with five committees reporting to Tesco PLC Board. 11 members in Tesco Executive Committee are led by Group Chief Executive Dave Lewis. Tesco organizational structure chart is highly hierarchical showing its wide business scope. The figure 2 shows is an organisational structure chart example at store level. It’s often questioned that four layers of management within a store can generate annoying bureaucracy with a bad effect on coordination and collaboration among managers. So it’s suggested that reducing layers of management must be done as soon as possible to create more flexibility and faster flow of information.

Oxfam

Oxfam has a flat organisation structure. A flat organisational structure has a few or no management levels between management and staff. For employees this means there’s not many opportunities for promotion however, there is and increased amount on involvement within decision making. The span of control for Oxfam is wide meaning there’s not many managers or higher job roles available. The lines of communication are short meaning communication between staff and the small amount of management will be strong. Some advantages of a flat organisation are Less management meaning less salaries to pay reducing the organisations budget costs. On the other hand, Oxfam has a flatter structure because they don’t need as many employees as Tesco does. Because they don’t have as many paid staff, their costs would be much lower. It would also mean that there would be a smaller number of managers, so they would have the responsibility of a large number of workers for the charity, which means that the staff wouldn’t be supervised as much because the manager has a much wider span of control. This could make the workers feel that they have much more responsibility too which could make them more productive. However, because Oxfam has a flat structure, they could possibly have more than one boss of an area. In figure 3 it shows the many different departments that Oxfam have however Oxfam mainly have volunteers. And how many employees or volunteers they have across worldwide which shows where the jobs are needed and which jobs are employees that are payed or voluntary work, also that there is only 2 layers of management.

Functional areas
Some of the main functional areas are marketing, customer services, HR (human resources), security department and sales. The role of marketing is to promote the business in ways such advertisements on billboards. Within in a business such as Tesco they would look at things like conducting research and analysing data to identify and define audience to see which way they can promote the business to attract the attention to their primary audience. Also Oxfam marketing would maintain their social medias to see if it is attracting people and if they are helping. Marketing would promote evens they are happening soon to gain a bigger audience within the organisation. Another functional area is finance. Within in finance they look at the taxes investor relations and Treasury, UK Finance. Within in Tesco the finance department would look at thing like the delivery’s and where they are losing money and would compare it to different months to see if they are able to save money. However, in Oxfam they would look at things like the increase or decrease within donations which would help marketing to see if and where they need to promote the organisation. Within the functional area of customer service, some of the responsibilities they have is dealing with customer’s questions and refunds if they need one. Tesco would use a customer service department as most of their communication is verbal. Whereas Oxfam only has small shop in places like a high street so they couldn’t have a set department as such the staff they work at the checkout would help the customers with what they need. A functional area such as HR (human resources) in an organisation such as Tesco they would organize event to keep staff motivated such as staff appreciation week. Some advantage of this is that

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