1.0 Executive summary
This assignment was commissioned to select a local Malaysian company in any industry which is operating in a host country. The company that was selected is Oldtown white Coffee which is operating in China. By using the Deeplist analysis, porter 5 forces and Hofstede cultural, this theoretical frameworks allows to analyze the business environment in China. The marketing strategies that Oldtown used in China was measured by using the 4p’s, segmentation and consumer behaviour and degree of adaptation. Recommendation was given on the ways that Oldtown could improve in terms of their marketing strategies in China.
2.0 Introduction
Beginning with the history of Oldtown white Coffee, it started in the year 1999. Oldtown aim is to deliver high quality of white coffee to the Malaysian household as well as the food service industry. Blend 3 in 1 instant coffee is formulated by Mr. Goh Ching Mun the co-founders and Mr. Tan Say Yap the executive directors. The growth of the Oldtown were helped by the co-founders with the provision of Mr. Lee Siew Heng who is holding the position of Managing director of the company. The role that he was responsible was implementing the company vision, development and strategy. Oldtown currently exports beverages to 17 markets globally. In this assignment, I had choose China as my host country. I will be doing research on analyzing the global marketing strategies that Oldtown adopted in China.
Instability in the economic and trade policy challenges China, where it is the second world’s largest economy as well fastest growing economies globally. When international companies enters into China, they must study the economic stability and prepare to face numerous risk because of the changes in monetary policies, the trade policies, fiscal policies and etc.
Yuan was more like a floating currency in 2017 which was unstable between 6 to 7 Yuan against 1 USD. Therefore, changes in the Yuan could give an impact to the profitability of the international businesses. Not only that the labor cost in China as also increased gradually the past five years plus the minimum wage level as also increased by the government. This will actually give an impact to the cost of operating in China which will affects local as well international companies who is operating in China.
As stated above, the average wages has increases in past years which leads to customer spending power increases. People in China looks for status of symbol by owning latest smartphones, designer clothing as well luxury cars in demonstrating their success. Increased in consumer spending is a great opportunity for domestic and also foreign companies.

The development of the internet environment as well the promotion in China has brought a huge opportunities into the e-commerce. Numerous e-commerce platforms has increased sharply lately this is because consumers in china prefers online shopping rather then going to shopping malls to get the products or services.
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Due to the differences in culture, Oldtown follows different standard technique marketing strategies in Malaysia but in China, it has adapted to the global localization which uses the polycentric orientation influenced by the local culture and also market conditions in gaining Chinese consumers confidence and trust. The product development is geared up to adapt to the products attributes in suiting up the local market conditions (Chee and Harris, 1998). For example, Oldtown has changed the product packaging in China with slightly modification in terms in language which is written in local language.
Oldtown also had adapted to the degree of standardization, in which the firm could enhance their customer’s preferences by standardization (Johny K. Johansson, 2009). For an instance, they offer Nasi Lemak Special, Wonton Soup, Toast and also Kaya and Peanut Toast in Malaysia and also China. Moreover, the interior design of the outlets in China is same as in Malaysia, wherever each dining table fits 4-6 people where consumers could have their meals with their family and friends (Appendix 2). This shows that Oldtown has localised their products in adapting to the local preferences with the standardization.
For product strategy, Oldtown in China has adapted to a certain level of degree in which China is recognised as a tea traditional country, so they have come up with a white milk tea product which will attract more consumers because consumers in China, individuals prefers tea more then coffee and it is expect to increases more in the coming years (Statista, 2018). Moreover, Oldtown had launched the mocha flavour in China in 2017 in aiming to target the young consumers and individuals that do not drinks coffee (minime insights, 2018). This is because the changes of the lifestyle of young consumers in China would actually upsurge their demand for coffees.
Moreover, in place strategy Oldtown have been present since 2014 in China’s leading platforms and reported to been doing very well on the key supermarket chains and also online retailers, for instance, jd.com and t-mall. (Oldtown Annual Report, 2017.) They are also presently supported well at almost 100 online major platforms in China. A website which uses the native language might increase the consumers’ confidence in purchasing their products. This will boost up the branding relationship between the user and also the brand (Smith ; Zook, 2011.)
In terms of pricing strategy, Oldtown uses polycentric pricing for their products. Naturally, the prices might differ significantly between the countries in the polycentric pricing which creates risks of the gray trade (Johansson, 2009). For an instance, Due to the differences in culture and demand among the customers, the price is set in order to suit the local conditions (Oldtown annual report, 2017). Oldtown also uses online pricing strategy occurs in a situation where certain wholesalers or retailers who purchases products from The Oldtown White Coffee in a large quantity and able get trade and also quantity discount.
For promotional strategy, Oldtown used “word of mouth” marketing strategy in promoting their product in China. They recently had a contest where customers could win prizes such as free two tickets to Malaysia and free one year Oldtown white coffee. In order to win those prizes, they have to take pictures and upload it on any social media and tag a friend and include hashtag of #ILOVEOLDTOWN and set the post as public.

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4.0 Conclusion and recommendation
After analysing the macro environment, micro environment, and the culture differences, there are few gaps that Oldtown is facing in China. In order to close the gaps, there are few recommendations that should be taken into consideration.
Firstly is social media. Oldtown could start to have a Wechat account as it is the number one social media platform at China with almost 768 million users daily. WeChat could be an important tool in bring up the Oldtown brand also products. WeChat performs as a good CRM tool because it allows a conversation which is personal between the brand and followers. Oldtown could deliver to the users the unique feeling which they could sole focus on the brand which will be a successful strategy in engaging with the users. Oldtown also could sell their products through Wechat store which will be very convenient as consumers in china prefers online shopping rather then purchasing at physical stores. Moreover, Wechat has different types of payment methods such as QR code payment, quick pay and in-app pay. Oldtown could exploit this opportunities in choosing one of the suitable types of payment for their products. The users just have to link up their payment to their bank cards and can start to enjoy the offers and benefits as well. Thus, this are the benefits that Oldtown could get with the Wechat application.
The second recommendation that should be taken in consideration is that, Oldtown should expand their business by operating at Shanghai and Beijing. This is because Shanghai and Beijing are the top two cities with high population as well high income level in China. Opening a physical store in those both cities, would actually bring in more revenue. Affluent consumers in the range of 23 to 28 in Shanghai who started to work and also accumulating additional disposable income has increased their spending power (CBNData, 2017). Since millennials and working adults who had a long day of class or work will seek a good place to have their meals to relax their mind. In that Oldtown could open their stores at shopping malls, street roads and corporate headquarter in Shanghai and Beijing.
Thirdly, Oldtown could use the joint venture strategy entering into China marketing other then the franchise entry mode. By using the joint venture strategy, Oldtown could boundary its risk and exposure into the political uncertainty (Keegan ; Green, 2011). This strategy could assist Oldtown in getting the knowledge of the host country in terms of the cultures, political and economy systems, the competitive conditions and business system from the local partners. This will help Oldtown to exploit their opportunity without any external barriers. Moreover, the cost and risks in opening business are shared in joint venture in which it will help in plummeting the unnecessary costs. Not only that, Oldtown is able to learn about the environment through the joint venture strategy. Join venture will allow their partners in achieving synergy with the combine of strength in different value chain (Keegan ; Green, 2011). This will really help Oldtown in improving the company image as well reputation.

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

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1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama; Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare ; Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama& Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare & Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama; Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare ; Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1. 300 years into the future, plastic surgery operations was a norm.
2. Once you turn 16 years old, you receive a “pretty” operation. It transforms you into a ‘normal’ citizen.
3. After the operation, you basically start a new life.
4. People who lived before this catastrophe are called “Rusties.”
5. Tally is 15.
6. Her best friend, Peris, has already had the operation and, Tally decides to sneaks across the river to New Pretty Town.
7. On her way, she meets Shay, another Ugly.
8. They become friends and Tally is taught how to ride a hoverboard from Shay.
9. Shay then brings up rebelling against the operation.
10. Tally, at first ignores her comment, but takes it seriously when Shay runs away.
11. On the day of Tally’s operation, she is taken to Special Circumstances.
12. She meets Dr. Cable, a woman who is described as “a cruel pretty”, is the head of Special Circumstances.
13. She gives Tally a choice to either help locate Shay and the Smoke, or never become a pretty.
14. Tally chooses and ends up cooperating with Dr. Cable.
15. Dr. Cable provides her with the materials/supplies needed for her to survive in the wild.
16. Tally is also given a heart locket that contains a tracker to track her moves.
17. The heart notifies Special Circumstances where Tally’s exact location is.
18. Tally finds Shay and David, including other runaways just like them.
19. Tally is reluctant based on her decisions, which assures David that he loves her.
20. David takes her to meet his parents, Maddy and Az, who are the original runaways from the city.
21. Tally and David explain how the operations really work and is.
22. It also causes lesions in the brain to make the people placid, or “pretty-minded.” Horrified, Tally decides to throw the locket away burning I the fire and keep the secret of the runaways.
23. However, the flames’ heat causes the tracker to activate, giving away the Smoke’s location.
24. The next day, Special Circumstances arrives at the camp and Tally tries to escape.
25. She wasn’t successful and gets caught, taken to a rabbit pen, where other caught Smokies are kept as well.
26. Eye scans are taken from the Smokies, identifying from which city they fled.
27. Tally is then taken to Dr. Cable, who explains how they found the Smoke. Dr. Cable thinks Tally activated the pendant on purpose.
28. After being ordered to give the pendant, Tally manages to escape on a hoverboard.
29. After a chase, she hides in a cave where tracking her heat signature doesn’t work.
30. There she finds David, hiding too, and they begin to work out a rescue plan.
31. Tally and David go back to his house, where they find out that Special Circumstances took Maddy and Az.
32. David leads Tally to a secret place where survival equipment is and the found everything they need, and load them onto the four hoverboards stashed there.
33. As Tally and David travel back to the city, they fall in love. Arriving at the Special Circumstances place, they find out that Shay has already been turned into a Pretty.
34. After meeting Dr. Cable, David knocks her out and takes her device.
35. Tally and David free all the Smokies that were captured and help in the complex. Maddy then tells David that Az is dead.
36. Once everyone is safe, Maddy begins working on a cure.
37. Since Tally feels responsible, she decides to become a Pretty and take the cure as a “willing subject.”
38. While David with Az’s death, Maddy suggests that Tally should go back with Shay before her mind changes, just in case.
39. When she gets there, Tally announces to a Middle Pretty, “I’m Tally Youngblood. Make me pretty.”

6. SYMBOLS
Heart Shaped Pendant
The heart shaped pendant is a tracker and which Tally was supposed to activate as soon as she got to the Smoke. This pendant is not just a symbol of Tally’s treachery, but also a symbol of her internal struggle.
White Tiger Orchids
The white tiger orchids symbolizes an excessive good that has turned evil because there is too much of it. The orchids can be compared to the Pretties.
Hoverboards
Hoverboards are a symbol of maturity, mostly for Tally.
Scarred Hands
Scarred hands symbolize friendship, mostly for Tally. The scar itself was created when Peris and she cut their palms and swore to be best friends forever.

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7. THEME
Power of Appearance
It is demonstrated that prettiness and ugliness are both relative terms. When Tally was an ugly, she waited for the surgery. However, when she learned that things are not the way they appear to be, she quickly coiled away. The ugly truth under all that prettiness is that undergoing the surgery would mean having brain lesions and part of her former identity erased; most Pretties are gorgeous but have flaws such as vainness. Also, in Tally’s society, appearances are emphasized. As Uglies, they are encouraged to be nicknamed by their imperfections. By comparison, in a world with perfect faces, average faces would be considered ugly. But among Pretties, because there is no comparison, they are constantly unsatisfied and often change their looks on a weekly basis by surgery. It thus implied that in a world where perfection is so easily attainable, people would still soon be unsatisfied and seek for more.

1.0 An Introduction
Communication is a method that people use to pass on and receive messages and information to people or groups of people. Communication is an essential part of our daily lives, maintaining our relationships, home and work environment. This unit looks at Health and Social Care support workers’ communication with individuals they work and care for, providing a review of our understanding and knowledge in all aspects of communication, which can be practiced allowing us to maintaine good working or personal relationships.

It is impossible to provide a care service without communicating and developing a positive relationship with individuals who receive the services. This including understanding using different ways of communication, meet communication; needs, wishes, and preferences, and various difficulties which some people may encounter during providing, receiving and recording information about individuals. In health and social care settings, individuals communicate; in different ways, for varied reasons, and with different communication abilities levels. This has put effective communication on demand in returns to provide standard and equal service to all individuals.

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1.1 The Different Reasons People Communicate
People communicate using verbal and non-verbal methods. Talking is the obvious verbal way. However, Communication also includes a variety of non-verbal communication such as touches facial expression, eye contacts, body posture, the tone of the voice, gestures and many others. When we are dealing with individuals; the way we communicate is necessary to bear all those differences in mind to be able to understand which method works best for the individuals’ preferred communication needs. wishes and preferences In Health and Social Care settings; communication involves people providing and receiving services. People of different ages and levels communicate due to varied reasons, such us;
Communicate their needs, whether they feel hungry or thirsty
Need to use the toilet, shower or change clothes or incontinence pad
Feel anxious or curious want to know things such as date, time, the day of the week
Expressing their emotions, happy, sad, stressed, worries, feeling lonely-isolated or ignored
Building relationships-telling stories, sense of humour.

Concerns regarding job roles, Ordering and giving medication
Breaking news, telling someone about the loss of close relative or friend, losing jobs, sending them home, giving them time out, explaining the complaints about people. Bad and good news should be presented in an acceptable manner avoiding a negative reaction.

Working as a support worker in Health and Social Care settings; It is important that individuals must be carefully listened to, to and get positive responses regarding their needs, and what is important to them. When talking to and working colleagues or management to be able to communicate effectively is important. Doing this minimizes dissatisfactions, also develops and maintains a good relationship with people you are serving and other individuals in work environments.

1.2 How Communication Affects Relationships
Communication is essential and a foundation of all relationships. The way we pass on, receive and respond to these messages is an important key, which can generate and make the difference between good and bad relationships. This means; communication has an effect in day to day relationship with people; in the job environment, family, community, one to one or group situations. Support worker’s role is about communicating with others, regardless of the nature of it whether it’s personal or professional. People involved in health and social care
setting, who may require communication with and develop good relationships, these include service users, colleagues, skilled workers and administrator’s teams. Others are Registered Nurses, Therapists, GPs, Doctors, Social workers, and Dieticians. However, effective communication should meet communication needs, develop and maintain confidence and build up good relationships among individuals, which in turns can make working environment become easier as people tend to cooperate and develop trust in a good relationship rather than conflicts.

2.1 The Skills/Factors to Consider When Promoting Effective Communication
When working in health and social care settings; you should bring yourself to understand how to deal with different people in the way that puts into consideration of their individuality and uniqueness to meet communication needs, their wishes and preference. Working as a support worker; I must put into individuals’ situation, check if I understand or people are able to understand me or if there is any misunderstanding which needs a clarification. Support worker I need to understand the importance and use of various skills/factors, which I believe can be effectively useful. These include:
Consider the individuals level of understanding and ability to communicate. Adapt your level of communication to meet the needs, views, and preferences; especially when people we are communicating with are unable to understand what we are saying
Concentrate, allow enough time, pause, silence without interrupting or finishing off individuals’ communication/words
Listen carefully and use appropriate –body language, eye contact, a method of listening that encourage individuals /key people to communicate. Show empathy e.g. nodding head, smile, answering yes, ok, ah, ooh, right; to show you are concentration and understanding
Answer all questions with appropriately response manners and concerns. Where necessary seek extra support: for answers of question you’re not familiar with or not confident to make sure you understand individual views, preferences, and wishes
Position yourself and check if you understand or people can understand you or if there is any misunderstanding which needs a clarification
Use open and closed questions to encourage or discourage the conversation, action, and reaction over situation or environment currently in place
In health and social care settings; recording and reporting are the important part and way of communicating with individuals and other health professionals
Develop and understand the relationship with people you work with, care for and their relationships with others
Understand and use a positive approach rather than negative. For example-convincing, encouraging, comforting language sounds better compared to dictating, discouraging or embarrassing ones.

Encourage individuality and avoid labelling and stereotyping people basing on age, sex, race, clothes, professions when communicating with service users or others
3.1 How People from Different Background may Use and/or Interpret Communication Methods in different Ways
Communication is important to all people; no matter of same or different upbringing. In health and social care settings, it’s very rare to find all individuals with the same background. When communicating with people of different cultures it’s vital to put into consideration your language use in making jokes, conversation, and storytelling. This is because some of these may sound rude, embarrassing or disrespectful due to different backgrounds nature. One example: young ones calling adults by their first names without using Mr/Mrs to people you know and mother/father, uncle/aunt/sister or brother for people you don’t know, which sound of disrespect in African culture whilst in western culture is normal.

When I am working with and supporting individuals of different background I communicate make joke/sense of humour, tell stories/chatting and call their names the way, which is respectful, agreed and acceptable to them.

3.2 Barriers to Effective Communication
In previous paragraphs explained that “when working in health and social care settings; you should bring yourself to understand how to deal with different people in the way that puts into consideration of their individuality and uniqueness”. By considering every person as an individual and unique when communicating with them can make it easy to realise and recognise the differences or difficulties they may have, which made communication less or impossible. These include:
Mental or physical disability: When an individual appears to have a part of brain or body damage may result in less or non-communication abilities. For example, people with;
Body disability caused by disease or accident have led into partially or temporarily or permanently unable to communicate verbally or difficult using hearing aid/sign language. Addition to this: certain of body disability may deform the body shape or posture, which can indelibility give the wrong impression into other people’s eyes.

Sensory deprivation causes the inability of individuals to receive or pass on messages because they have senses impairment or brain damage, most commonly a visual or a hearing disability
Illness, stress/distress, anxiety, hearing loss and visual impairment situations can interfere individual’s ability to communicate
Cultural differences: These include; languages people use, jargons, accents, and slangs. When people use different language from yours, it may cause is always causing a communication breakdown. Also, some people find it difficult to understand other people accents even if the spoken language was the same. In health and care settings; the service user may not understand when a service provider uses technical languages; for example, medical professionals e.g. doctors, nurses, therapists may use terminologies that can sound frightening or misunderstood to service users. It is important to find simple language to talk to people we are serving and responsibility of making sure they or we understand and not frustrated before we opt to seek extra support from others.

3.3 How to Access Extra Support or Services to Enable Individuals to Communicate
Communication is very important when dealing with people: extra support or service may be required to enable individuals to communicate. When making one to one or group communication and experience difficulties of passing or receiving the clear messages from them, then you may be unable to provide or receive the required information and services. However, this does not give a loophole to ignore the situation or a person. Someone should take the trouble to make sure the required information or service has been delivered as planned. The following can assist:
Learn and understand how people react to you and different ways of communicating with individuals
You seek extra information and advice about individuals’ specific communication and language needs and preferences. So that you can support them to use their preferred means of communication and language. This can involve other professionals or materials such as music therapy, speech therapy, physiotherapy, communication board or sign language
Understand and confirm with individuals their preferred method of communication, language and any changes on their care need so that you know where to get extra support when needed.

When required review and update your communication skill to ensure they are suitable to meet the needs and preferences of individuals
Use an appropriate and effective method of communications with service users and other people involved by being friends, related, or job roles
Working in Health and Social care setting; I understand the importance making arrangement to an individual’s communication needs, which is to allow and give their rights to contribute to their own care, well –being, wishes, preferences and decision making if capable. This must be done in a person’s best interest even in case of emergencies.

4.1 Be able to apply principles and practice relating confidentiality
The health and social care settings; confidentiality is about keeping in confidence the personal/details or information obtained by a service provider, which relates to and identifies individuals. This information may include names, date of birth, physical or mental health, social or family circumstances. Others are; financial, education, training and employment experience, religious and sexuality details. In some occasions; criminal convictions and immigration status, racial or ethnic origins are identified. Working as a support worker, I am aware that my employer is holding information, which is individually related to employees, service users, relatives, social workers and another outsider professional or personal contact. In a company setting; recording, reporting or holding personal’s information is part of our duties and important legal requirements when performing work roles. This means:
All activities or interventions you have undertaken during our services must appropriately be kept in writing or recorded on the forms (community access, incidence form), charts (intervention, fluids, and bowel), books (communication, handover, visitors) or computers. For example; at the workplace- I record individual food and fluids intakes, outputs/eliminations, personal care, mouth care, bowel care, medication was taken and much other personal information. This must be done in daily, weekly and monthly basis.

The individuals’ information is accessed and recorded according to the work policies, procedures, and confidentiality agreement of the organisation which is a legal requirement
All individual information must be kept in a confidential manner all the time. When it’s appropriate we seek consent from individuals to access or disclose their information
We record, report and share information about the individual’s communication within confidentiality boundaries and according to legal, organisation’s policies and procedures requirements
The SNCC company; through its code of conducts for staff/nurses, policies and procedures comply with Health and Safety at Work Act, health and social care act 2008, Data protection
act 1998 have made clear and aware the requirement of keeping securely and sensitively the information we hold with strict confidence. Individuals should be kept informed about how, why and when we use and disclose their confidential personal information. Also, individuals have been informed of the repercussions of exposing personal information to wrong people or public without a good course. Working as a support worker I always maintain this and explain to a new staff member to ensure that possible consideration and protection to people’s privacy, respect, and dignity are always kept in account. Also, I understand that in some occasions; as an individual or my employer may have to disclose confidential personal information that has been obtained when it is lawful to do so.

4.2 The potential tension between maintaining an individual confidentiality and disclosing concerns
Working as the support /Care worker I understand and have been made aware of my responsibility to protect and promote the rights of people we are looking after or supporting. This may encourage working, cooperating and sharing personal information with public and other professionals, both in and outside of company settings. The Health and Social Care Act 2008 recognises the significance of information sharing. This act and has made support workers aware of their duty to confidentiality, sharing information and necessity of discloser. Disclosing information can only be exercised; when it is required by law, the court order, to protect the welfare of any person (safeguarding) or required by another public body (police) to carry out its statutory functions or the investigation of a criminal offense or proceedings. According to the code of conduct concerning confidential information discloser; I understand the duty to protect the right, respect and dignity of service users, staff members and the requirement to seek consent to disclose information about living and deceased people in accordance with the same principles of respecting recorded wishes and preferences.

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