1. SWOT analysis of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and specific competitive property according to SWOT.
– Nova Scotia has 25 best attractive tourist sights. (Kejimkujik Park, Tidal bore rafting, Cape Breton highlands national parks, whale watching adventure, and so on.)
– It is the best place for music lovers as they organise musical fest with world-famous root music.
– Halifax has a famous pub with live light music.
– Nova Scotia is the best place for lobster lovers.
– Nova Scotia is covered with huge mountains, pastoral fields with many seaside trails so it is the best place for hiking.
– The travelling distance from Toronto to Nova Scotia by car is 17 hours and 29 minutes and by air, it will take 2 hours and 8 minutes which was pretty long time for youngsters.
– Nova Scotia is well-known for tourist attraction for its adventure place and beauty sights.
Threats- Nowadays, whole Canada becomes best and attractive place for tourist whether they are domestic from other provinces or from other countries, so this will reduce the percentile of tourist in Nova Scotia.
– Fox Harb’s Resort give a great opportunity to the tourist and give best-staying experience with, indoor pool, tennis court, golf court, spa and gym for fitness.
– Bicycle riders love this place as it is well maintained and designed for bicycling and there are many shops from there tourist buy cycle on a rental basis.
– The Island is surrounded by warm summer water and best for deep fishing.
– The travelling distance from Toronto to Nova Scotia by car is 16 hours and 08 minutes and by air, it will take 2 hours and 8 minutes which was pretty long time for youngsters.
– This the best place for sea or beach lovers as it is fully covered by ocean.
– Prince Edward Island is liked by every aged group tourist whether they are old or young.
– Tourist has to be a concern and serious about there families as the Island is covered by deep ocean.
– Nowadays, whole Canada becomes best and attractive place for tourist whether they are domestic from other provinces or from other countries, so this will reduce the percentage of tourist on this particular island.
– Delta Hotel by Marriott give a wonderful experience to the guest who come this island with free Wi-Fi, gym, free water bottle service and last but not the least a concept bar.
– Best place for landscapers.
– Great driving fun you have gained over there.
– For stay, a rural touch tourist has got.
– There are many varieties of English are usually spoken over Newfoundland, so it makes difference for the newcomers or travellers.
– They sell beer only in a gas station not even in the grocery store.
– As everybody knows Canadians take public holidays seriously and have fun to do fun that full and want to feel relax so in Newfoundland they have St. John’s George Street, where they celebrate St. Patrick’s Day with wearing green outfits.
– There are lots of pubs and strip clubs at Newfoundland and under 18 years old girls are working over there. So, it gives bad impact on small infant and a higher number of peoples don’t want to come back in this province, and it is a threat to Newfoundland.
– The Luxus Boutique Hotel, amenities and free breakfast is free for meeting room visitors, free Wi-Fi in public area, fitness centre and self-parking.
• Leisure tourist – leisure tourist is those who want to take a break from their daily life and go on vacations for leisure purposes. Examples of leisure activities include relaxing on the beach, visiting campgrounds and heritage places and experiencing local tourist attractions.

• Adventure tourist – Nova Scotia is heaven for skiers and snowmobilers. Adventures tourists usually seek for the unusual and exciting experience. These tourists usually take part in dangerous activities.
• Youth tourist – these types of tourist usually goes to Nova Scotia to enjoy events, such as music festivals, jazz and folk music festivals. These tourists are low on budget and travel independently. They usually travel to experience adventure.

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• Sport and recreation tourist – These tourists usually go to Nova Scotia to either watch or to participate in the sporting events. Some popular activities may include Whitewater rafting, kayaking, hiking and kayaking.
3. Identify high, low and shoulder seasons. What types of tours might you add to re- energise your business?
• High seasons – Tourists usually come to Nova Scotia in summers. Most tourists visit in June, July, and August. Temperature is between 20 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius. Days are quite long in these three months. June, July, and August is an appropriate time to visit beaches, enjoying the music festivals doing Whitewater rafting, skiing, hiking.
• Low seasons – there is a decline in the level of tourism in September and October. Autumn season come in these months. Valley turned into red, green and orange leaves. Days are usually bright in these two months and its valuable time to enjoy art festivals and music events.
• Shoulder seasons – In November and December, the level of tourism is shallow. Almost all tourists are closed until springtime. Temperature lies below freezing or near to freezing in morning and nights.
I would like to focus on Arts and culture events and indoor music festivals in November and December. In these months, level of tourism is quite low. So, these types of tours will boost the level of tourism particular in November and December.
– They have long-term management.
– Franchise use its own capital that the investment was less, so ROI will be higher.
– Franchises have a more chance to expand its business.
– The franchise formed with highly motivated personnel so they have the best skill workers with them.
– They always have a red eye on the quality control and they usually control best as compared with an individual unit.
5. Four Different Flags and Their Advantages and Disadvantage
Metropolitan Hotel Toronto Convert to Double Tree Hilton
The advantage of this reflagged is hotel location. It is perfect for a concert. Walking distance from union station, connecting Toronto to U.S. and rest of Canada.
Disadvantages for this convert is awful parking, small parking and no valet possibility.
Delta Meadowvale Reflagged as Hilton
This property is situated in the west of Toronto, near Niagara Falls. Having terrific position within Meadowvale park. Guest incoming for business can take benefit of the conference rooms.
As it was converted into Hilton brand. Many guest reviews about their expensive rates. Which can be pointed at a disadvantage.

King Edward Hotel Reflagged by Omni Hotels and Resorts
Historic hotel and 1st luxury hotel in Toronto, offering 301 luxury guest rooms and suites. Omni group of hotels got great benefit reflagged this property because the hotel is having its own attraction.
The disadvantage of taking over the property is that it is not having the pool.
Boca Raton hotel is reflagged by double tree by Hilton and opened by name of Waterstone Resort & Marina Boca Raton, curio collection by Hilton.
With its beautiful location, Boca is 139 rooms with balconies with panoramic view of Atlantic Ocean. Its a 9 stories hotel with sandy beach. The advantage of this reflagged names Hilton property to get their 1st hotel near the ocean with all the amenities. With making a lot of sales and attracting more tourist day by day.
The main disadvantage of the hotels is its price come to surrounding hotels.
6. Four Advantages of Joining a Consortium
in travelling and tourism, a consortium shows an organization made up of free travel operators and offices. They consolidate to support their acquiring power, payments and in addition offices, they can give clients. It used to describe a gathering of movement organizations that have consolidated to accomplish more upper hands, a superior offer in the market and an expansion in circulation.
it can describe as a group of travel agencies who together joined for competitive advantages for achievements. The direct benefits of agreements with these agencies are that, when it comes to booking hotel rooms for their business clients, their preferential searches will be for hotels that are integrated within the consortium, ahead of their competitors. In this way:
• Greater booking potential: travel operators first take a look at taking an interesting lodging while choosing the correct property for their customers
• High-yield business: travel specialists by and large influence higher normal every day to rate (ADR) appointments
• Increased book ability: more noteworthy presentation in the GDS by having the capacity to utilize the Consortia’s arranged rate code
• Increased permeability: extra presentation in organization showcasing insurances, databases, interchanges, and so on advancing the Consortia’s lodging programme
7. Best option for your business for future investors or purchases?
The best decision for increasing Maritime sales and company’s value is rebranding. As joining hands with Hilton hotel and Resorts will lead to productivity as a part of present and prospects.
As a part of business plan Maritime is looking for success and growth for a brief period. While joining hands with a consortium would be more time utilizing and hassle decision. As Hilton already has a well -renowned name in the hotel and resort industry. Which could be an essential tool for generating revenue, increasing sales and advertising to attract people to visit this property in Nova Scotia.
8. History of Hilton hotel and resorts?
Hilton is known as worldwide famous hotel and resort chain for providing full services hotels and rebranding as Hilton brand. Initially, the company was founded by Conard Hilton in 1919 named as Mobley Hotel in Cisco, Texas. Since then Hilton has played a dominant role in the hospitality industry. However, the very first hotel originally named as Hilton was open in Dallas, Texas with facilities like elevators, air shafts, and various non-customer facilities.
In 1994, Hilton launched rewards point as well as air miles to the customers. Hilton received a great response while entering social media market as in 2010 they become first hotel brand or company to strive 50,000 Facebook fans and in 2012 they launched their first official app.
The most recent achievement of Hilton was in 2016 when they entered the benchmark of 100 countries and territories all around the word.

1. Introduction
Ethiopia women policy which published in 1993 were prepared well considering different aspect of women including their society`s life. The policy included condition of Ethiopian women, objectives of the policy, and strategies for the implementation of the policy.
Although women’s contribution to their households, food production and national economies is immense, it has not been translated into better access to resources or decision-making powers. As a result, women remained to be the poorest of the poor constituting 70% of the global poor (National report, 2004).
When we consider status of women from national report on 2004 it indicates that women represent only 7.6% of the House of People Representative (Parliament) and 12.9% of
State (Regional) Council. Adult literacy for women is 32% and net female
primary enrolment ratio is 27%, and is about 42% for males. Violence and
discrimination against women still common in the country. The country’s economic and
social development is also being harmfully threatened by HIV/AIDS. It is valued that 1.9
million people are present with HIV/AIDS and out of this number 1.1 million are women.
Maternal mortality is also high in the country creating 871 deaths per 100, lives.
The policy aimed to improve the level of income of women and facilitate their labor; Improve health and nutrition of mother and children, upgrade their education, facilitate favorable conditions for the formation of women’s associations so that women can solve their problems and this result woman to participate in the national development efforts on equal terms with men.
1.1. Objectives of policy review
? To analyze policy gaps and give necessary recommendation
? To look practicability of the policy
? To suggest alternative action points

2. Review of Women Policy Content
The FDRE Constitution of Ethiopia ensures that all fundamental rights granted are to be
interpreted in conformity with the principles of the signed conventions and declarations. The policy reflects the fact that women are both producers and procreators, as well as active participants in the social, political and cultural activities of their communities has enabled them to play an all-round role and their proportion in labor force in various economic sectors indicates that economic development is unthinkable without the participation of women.
Women’s share of the division of labor differs from place to place and from culture to culture, their average working day is believed to vary between 13 and 17 hours per In rural area women involved in farming activities tend to even work longer hours. Urban women engaged in labor-intensive activities that require little or no skill spend no less time. Women make a major contribution to the welfare of society, they are in a better position to promote and/or eliminate harmful traditional customs and practices of their localities.
We observed the policy content that Ethiopian Women policy had been formulated to focus on what the Government ought to do for women, and what women must do for themselves through their own free associations, as well as to show the relationship between the two.
Ethiopian Government has expressed its commitment to gender equity and equality by issuing a national Policy on Ethiopian Women. The policy, which was issued in 1993, has the following objectives:
? Facilitating conditions conductive to the speeding of equality between men and women so that women can participate in political, social and economic life of their country on equal terms with men and ensuring that their right to own property as well as their other human rights are respected and that they are not excluded from the enjoyment of their fruits of their labor or from performing public functions and being decision makers;
? Facilitating the necessary conditions whereby rural women can have access to basic social services and to ways and means of lightening their work load; and
? Eliminating step by step, prejudices as well as customary and other practices that are based on the idea of male supremacy and enabling women to hold public office and to participate in the decision making process at all levels.
The content of Ethiopian National policy of women supposed to ensure the full development and advancement of women and guaranteeing them the enjoyment of their democratic and human rights so that they can participate in the economic, social and political life of their country on equal basis with men, modifying or abolishing existing laws, regulations, customs and practices which aggravates discrimination against women and facilitating conditions conductive to their participation in the decision- making process at all levels.
In addition the policy intends to create a situation whereby society’s discriminatory attitude toward women and women’s complacence about it are eliminated through an elevated awareness by making sure that women participate in the formulation of government policies, laws, regulation programmers, plans and projects that directly or indirectly benefits and concern women.
The policy also propose strategy to encourage research work on ways and means of lightening the work- load of women as well as increasing their income and compiling the results and coordinating all government programmers that concern women and following up their implementation to make sure that they are free from duplication and that they do not involve unnecessary costs.
The policy approaches to incorporate women’s affairs into the government structure and entrusting a government body with it as well as establishing branches in all ministries and governmental organization and making sure that government policies, laws, regulations, plans and other activities are based on the following objectives;
• Ensuring that distinction on the basis sex is not made that a special attention is given to rural women in view of the fact that they face particular problems and shoulder a heavier burden;
• Ensuring that women are involved in the elaboration, implementation and decision-making process;
• Making sure that women participate in the fields of development activity and enjoy the benefits there of on an equal basis with men and guaranteeing them legal protection of the rights.

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3. Action plan of the policy
Action plan of the policy includes certain strategies and useful tools used for implementation of the policy that can facilitate intended result which related to women development which includes:-
? All appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure
– The democratic and human rights of women are respected.
– women are made beneficiaries on an equal basis with men of equal pay for equal work and of promotions, of appointments, of desirable transfers or termination of employment and of training;
– The right of women to work in the Civil service in any capacity they prove to be competent for,
– The right of women to the same retirement age and benefits as those of men and their right to an equal protection of the law and to a fair trial in a court of law.
? The Government shall facilitate conditions conductive to the participation of women in both the elaboration and decision-making process as regards to community developments, social welfare, division of land property, education and basic social services;
? The Government, with cooperation from the peoples of Ethiopia, shall facilitate conditions conductive to the informing and educating of concerned communities about such harmful practices as circumscion and the marriage of young girls before they reach puberty;
? The Government shall ensure to women the right to have easy access to basic health care facilities, information about traditional and modern family planning method.
? Maximum effort shall be made to eliminate, step by step, prejudices and customary practices based on the idea that women are inferior to men and to repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women;
? The necessary conditions where by women can have effective legal protection of their rights shall be facilitated;
? Women who have particular problems as a result of natural and man- made disasters shall be given special aid promptly;
? There shall, in all ministries and governmental organizations, be a Department of Women’s Affairs entrusted with the responsibility of organizing women and promoting their interests;
? Research shall be done on some ways and means of lightening the work- load of women, especially of those who live out in the rural areas; income generating projects, programmers’ or other schemes shall be streamlined to them and they shall, through vocational training be made to increase their technical proficiency and thus develop self-confidence;
? The necessary conditions where by women can obtain training and education shall be facilitated, for the development of their potentialities cannot be achieved only through the existence of structures and organization responsible for promoting their interests;
? Appropriate support shall be extended to all women’s associations formed with their initiative and full consent and those that will be formed in the future;
? The Government shall ensure that women are the beneficiaries of the aid that donor countries and international non-governmental organizations send to them and that the activities of donors are not duplicated as a result of the newly- found democracy and the freedom guaranteed in the New Economic policy but are instead coordinated;
? Conditions conductive to the mobilization of all manpower, technical and material resources of the country to the implementation of the policy shall be facilitated;
3.1. Policy implementation plan based on different institution
To implement women policy mentioned above; using different institution planned as follows.
Government Institutions Different tasks expected to be implemented
Bureau of Education ? Formulate education system which encourage female
? Introduce Gender class
? Make the Education Curriculum and System more gender sensitive
? Ensure Gender balance in the community training center
Bureau of Health ? Enhance maternal services
? Enhance family planning
? Promote more outreach services
? Train traditional birth attendants and community health against
? Promote health education
? • Gender balance in training for junior health workers
Bureau of Information, Culture and Tourism • Make a cultural policy
• Make a marriage law, and promote IEC regarding family law
• Create awareness against HTP
• Formulate anti-harmful Culture
• Facilitate gender information thorough newspapers, and other media.
Bureau of Labor and social Affairs – Safeguard the job security of women
– Ensure equal pay for equal job and promotion
– Train employees about gender issue
– Provide supports for the elderly by formulating programs, policies and projects
– Make research about prostitution and design strategy to overcome it
– Train the unemployed
– Have gender dis-aggregated information
– • Mediate resource to help and train prostitutes
Bureau of Agriculture Introduce extension service in activities which are closely related to women such as Vegetable, milk production, polluter etc.)
Encourage women head families to participate in every program
Assist women in getting credit and inputs and extension services
Bureau of Trade and Industry • Gender balanced Training services
• Organize informal sector participants in group and ensure credit
Civil Service Commission • Ensure equal pay for equal job
• Encourage women professionals to take high government positions
• Safeguard job security for women
• Design a promotion strategy (Salary, education)
Investment • Design an incentive scheme for women investors
• Give special incentives for projects which promote female employment and services
Commission for Disaster Prevention and Preparedness ? Work program’s through which Female victims (with no land and means of Production) can have a sustainable support
? Give priority to women and children
? Create a gender sensitive appraisal system for NGO projects
Plan and Economy • Establish a system where by reporting and planning is dis-aggregated on gender basis
• Use Gender equality as a basis for program and project selection.
Police Fight violence against women such as rape
Safe guard prostitutes from men violence by training, counseling etc.
Encourage more Female members in the police
Department of Prosecution • Defend women and ensure their rights
• Follow-up the implementations of the legal and Political rights of women
• Create legal consciousness among the community
Justice office • Clear women cases very quickly
• Study on most frequent women cases and conduct training on solving them
• Train traditional courts
Women’s Bureau ? Be a center for regional coordination
? Design a gender training manuals
? Coordinate gender activities
? Conduct extensive gender awareness seminars
? Assist organized women
? Look for funds to assist rural land less and urban poor women.
? • Conduct surveys and different researches on women’s projects
Kebele Administration ? Encourage women participation in decision making and benefits from dev’t work
? Create awareness about gender equality in all occasions
? Encourage involvement of women in various development committees
? Organize grass root level women organization
? Support women association by providing offices, land etc.
Technology and research Centers • Generate and strengthen appropriate technology that reduce the work load of women
Water Energy and Mining bureau • Encourage the participation of the women in water committee
• Facilitate water provision
• Introduce and encourage the utilization of energy saving technology
4. Review of the practicality of the policy plan
National Women Policy of Ethiopia formulated in 1993, the right time that Ethiopian women have been in rough situation and need much more empowerment and promotion. The policy had been working for more than twenty years. Since that time, surely it made a big progress and change Ethiopian women life as well as their attitude.
Practicality of the policy or implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, quality and or policy. The policy is then put into practice and implemented with the aim of achieving specific and agreed outcomes.
This policy focused on what government ought to do for women and what women must do for themselves through their own associations. The women right and choice to compete also in some extent they got equal opportunity with men, but still there is much effort to ensure gender equality. Although the policy went though many different situations, there has been a lot of achievements and progress that it made.
When we observe at over all national women policy implementation with respect to health, education and poverty alleviation the following achievement identified
? Increased health coverage from 48% in 1998 to 60% in 2002 which has an effect on
increasing women’s access to health services in general and to maternal health in particular, since maternal and child health are integrated at each level of health delivery points;
? Girls marriage age has increased to 18 years and other harmful traditional
practices are being punishable by law;
? Infant/child immunization coverage has increased from 42% in 1998 to 51% in 2002 Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased for 9.8% in 1998 to 17% in 2002
Antenatal coverage has increased form 30% in 1998 to 34% in 2002 (Health ; Health
Related Indictors/MOH 2002)
? National reproductive health advocacy tool has been prepared followed by a national
advocacy conference in 2003 with the aim of increasing resources and engaging policy
? Infant mortality rate has decreased from 108/1000 live births in 1998 to 97/1000 in 2002
? Postnatal coverage has increased form 4% in 1998 to 7% in 2002 (Health ; Health Related
Indictors/MOH 2002)
? Assisted delivery by trained personnel increased from 4% in 1998 to 9% in 2002 (Health ;
Health Related Indictors/ MOH 2002)
? National Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMCT) guideline has been developed
and intervention has started in four project areas and ways of scaling up the project to all regional states is underway;
? Base line survey on harmful traditional practices in Ethiopia has been carried out by the
National Committee on Traditional Practices and has been distributed to all stakeholders;
? Fertility rate has decreased from 6.7 in 1998 to 5.6 per woman of reproductive age in 2002
(EDHS 2002)
? 34 HIV/AIDS sentinel surveillance centers for pregnant women are established and equipped and staffed all over the country;
? When we consider technical vocational educational training enrolment trend (TVETs) female enrollment remains almost equal to men’s. In 2012/13, at 51.2%, female enrollment was slightly more than men’s.
4.1.1. Case of progress practicality in TVET Enrollment Trends

Male 165,910 196,937 199,799 173,148 116,457
Female 142,591 158,483 171,548 157,261 122,427
Total 308,501 353,420 371,347 314,159 238,884
Source: Federal Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Education, “Education Statistics Annual Abstract 2012/13,” p.54

We can see that there is progress in female’s proportion.
As the policy pointed there is many different dimensions that women are improved and this policy employed (Health, education, business and associations etc) for instant the policy says “Women should not be restricted to any one association; instead, they should be free to form associations of their choice in accordance with their specific needs or professions. To this concern women are given freedom and opportunity to choice their participation of groups in accordance with their specific needs.
4.1.2. EPRDF Members Representations in the Fourth House of Peoples’ Representatives
Number Name of Parties Dispersion of Seats in the HPR
F M Total Seats Total
% Women
EPRDF Members
Tigray People Seats in the HPRR 13 25 38 34.2
Amhara National Democratic Movement 46 92 138 33.3
Oromo People’s Democratic Organization 47 131 178 26.4
South Ethiopian Peoples Democratic Movement 36 87 122 29.5
5 Addis Ababa 7 15 22 31.8
6 Dire Dawa – 2 2 0
Seats of EPRDF 149 351 500 29.8
Source: Compiled from National Electoral Board of Ethiopia data
You can see that % of women is less than male from the above table.

There is number of stakeholders and interest groups who has been involving implementing this policy. These partners take an active role for women empowerment and at the same time building their capacity. The Regional Women’s Affairs sector Office, Women’s Affair in the Prime Minister Office and Women’s Department in Ministries Public Organizations are among the stakeholders. Each of these stakeholder play significance role through duties and responsibilities that is assigned.
Women’s Affair in the Prime Minister Office, created appropriate atmosphere for the implementation of women’s affairs. In each ministry of government there is an officer employ for women affairs, and that is government effort to empower and build women capacity. This opportunity enhanced women courage and aspiration when they found themselves in new condition of respect and careful.
Also this office, improved financial aspects of the women, when drought and poverty arise women are among most effected part of the population, so the policy give attention economic satisfaction of the women through financial support.
? Agriculture is one of the largest sources of employment for Ethiopians, and women make up a large percentage of the agricultural labor force. The following table shows that women’s participation in the agricultural sector has been growing over the last several years, peaking at 45% in 2014.
4.1.3. Women Participation in Agricultural sector
Share of Females in Agriculture Labor Force Share (%) 2014
Labor force in agriculture (% of total labor force) 75.1
Females (% of labor force in agriculture) 45.0
Source: FAOSTAT. “Ethiopia. Economic Indicators.”

5. Recommendation of Alternative Policy Action points
The government of Ethiopia has been working a central and focal points to empower woman since 1993 to increase progress towards gender equality in the country as a high priority agenda. To speed up and to foster the socio-economic and political participation of women, a practical alternative action needs to be designed and implemented. As part of the alternative policy action this study is recommending the following possible alternative policy issues as follow.
? Adopt a multi-disciplinary approach to women’s access to economic development, access to administrative privileges.
? Encouraging women’s economic empowerment and income generation, protection from violence and food security. Empowerment strategies need to be harmonized with efforts to address unfair laws and obstacles to the use of the formal legal sector.
? Enhancing women’s voice in decision-making, leadership and peace-building, economic diplomacy and aid program
? Educating, improving professional development and empowering woman through continuous learning. This can able to create women’s independence is women’s empowerment. Independence enables confidence in their workplace, the market place and in their community.
? Facilitating gender equality in all sectors of the economy. This would see a significant reduction in violence against women. Aggression is a result and sign of the status of women in society. If we had a radical reduction in violence, it would send a message that women’s rights will be achieved.
? Particular attention need to be given to women and health. Ensure that the medical community supports the family planning strategy The medical community should help ensure that service providers are capable of providing accurate and unbiased information on a range of woman’s health issues
? Prevention of early marriage and provision of information and the tools they need to make responsible choices regarding their sexual lives.
? Expand the social safety net so that it can provide security in old age. Adopting measures that give preferential treatment to girls and women in terms of scholarships, gender-based quotas for employment or financial incentives aimed at improving their economic situation could also be considered.
? Develop a culturally responsive comprehensive family planning policy and implement it developing an inclusive strategy to expand family planning that includes community outreach, the mobilization of support from community leaders, the training of service providers and a communication program aimed at changing norms and empowering people by providing reliable.
? Encouraging and formulating an institutional mechanism for the advancement of women in all sphere of development including leadership.
? Support and provide necessary and sufficient resources to identify and design effective, context-specific strategies to promote gender equality.
? Promulgating a law, which can be necessary tool for advancing women’s rights and equality on the base of a strong and effective legal system based on the rule of law.

5.1. Importance of the policy
I. It helps women to become equal partners in decision-making and development.
II. It strengthening the rule of law in the country, holistic economic empowerment and create social citizenship.
III. It helps to enhance women’s access to social services, accumulation of wealth, reliable justice in miscellaneous activities.
IV. It improves women’s access to demonstrate their participation justice in both formal and informal systems.
These, woman empowerment strategies are most effective where implemented in conjunction with ‘top-down’ and bottom up measures and through local partners. Moreover, legal issues relating to woman need to be created an interface of informal and formal justice settings.
5.2. Precondition required implementing this alternative.
For socio-economic and legal empowerment to work, cultural attitudes, economic dependency and discrimination must also be taken into consideration and properly tackled.

The human problem our thesis work will solve is to reduce backlash in induction motor. Backlash been described as a mechanical form of dead band that can lead to error on hole location, if the motion required to machine the holes causes a reversal in axis direction it also causes loses of motion between reducer input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate positioning in equipment such as instruments, machines tools etc. The main problem electrically are vibrations from motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.
An induction motor is a kind of an AC machine in which alternating current is supplied to the stator directly and to the rotor by induction from the stator. Induction motor can appear in a single phase or a poly phase. (Toufouti, et al, 2013).
In construction, the induction motor has a stator which is the stationary portion consisting of a frame that houses the magnetically active angular cylindrical structure called the stator lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with a three phase winding sets embedded in evenly spaced internal slots.
The rotor which is the rotatory parts of an induction motor is made up of a shaft and cylindrical structure called the rotor lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with evenly spaced slots located around the periphery to accept the conductors of the rotor winding (Ndubisi, 2006).
The rotor can be a wound type or squirrel cage type.
in a poly phase induction motor, the three phase windings are displaced from each other by 120 electrical degrees in space around the air-gap circumference when excited from a balanced poly phase source, those windings (stator winding) will produce a magnetic field in the air-gap rotating at synchronous speed as determine by the number of stator poles and the applied stator frequency (Bimal, 2011).
In the controlling of electrical motor; the introduction of micro-controllers and high switching frequency semiconductor devices, variable speed actuators where dominated by DC motors.
Today, using modern high switching frequency power converters controlled by micro-controllers, the frequency phase and magnitude of the input to an AC motor can be changed and hence the motor’s speed and torque can be controlled. AC motors combined with their drives have replaced DC motors in industrial applications because they are cheaper, better reliability, less in weight, and lower maintenance requirement. Squirrel cage induction motors are most generally used than all the rest of the electric motors as they have all the advantages of AC motors and they are easy to build.
The main advantage is that induction motors do not require an electrical connection between stationary and rotating portion of the motor. Therefore, they do not need any mechanical commutators to the fact that they are maintenance free motors. Induction motors also have lesser weight and inertia, high efficiency and high over load capability. Therefore, they are cheaper and more robust, and less proves to any failure at high speeds.
Furthermore, the motor can be used to work in explosive environments because no sparks are produced.
Taking into account all the advantages outlined above, induction motors must be considered as the perfect electrical to mechanical energy converter. However, mechanical energy is more than often required at variable speeds, where the speed control system is not a trivial matter. The effective way of producing an infinitely variable induction motor speed drive is to supply the induction motor with three phase voltage of variable amplitude.
A variable frequency is required because the rotor speed depends on the speed of the rotating magnetic field provided by the stator. A variable voltage is required because the motor impedance reduces at low frequencies and the current has to be limited by means of reducing the supply voltage. (Schauder, 2013).
Before the days of power electronics, a limited speed control of induction motors was achieved by switching the three stator windings from delta connection to star connection, allowing the voltage at the motor windings to be reduced. Induction motors also available with more than three stator windings to allow a change of the number of pole pairs.
However, a motor with several windings is very costly because more than three connections to the motor are needed and only certain discrete speeds are available. Another method of speed control can be realized by means of a wound rotor induction motor, where the rotor winding ends are brought out to slip rings (Malik, 2013). However, this method obviously removes themain aim of induction motors and it also introduces additional losses by connecting resistor or reactance in series with the stator windings of the induction motors, poor performance is achieved.
With the enormous advances in converters technology and the development of complex and robust control algorithms, considerable research effort is devoted for developing optimal techniques of speed control for induction machines. Induction motor control has traditionally been achieved using field oriented control (FOC). This method involves the transformation of stator currents in a synchronous manner that is in line with one of the stator fluxes. The torque and flux producing components of the stator currents are decoupled, such that the component of the stator current controlling the rotor flux magnitude and the component controls the output torquewill differ (Kazmier and Giuseppe, 2013).
The implementation of this system however is complicated. The FOC is also well known to be highly sensitive to parameter variations. It also based on accurate parameter identification to obtain the needed performance.
Another induction motor control techniques is the sensor less vector control. This control method is only for both high and low speed range. Using the method, the stator terminal voltages and currents estimate the rotor angular speed, slip angular speed and the rotor flux. In this case, around zero speed, the slip angular velocity estimation becomes very difficult.
In the mid 1980’s, Takahashi and Noguchi introduced another induction motor control technique called direct torque control (DTC) for low and medium power application (Lamchichi, 2014). In this method, stator voltage vector is selected according to the differences between the reference and actual torque and stator flux linkage. DTC has a relatively simple control structure but gives maximum result as well as the field oriented control (FOC), technique. It is also known that DTC drives is low sensitive to parameters variations and gives a high dynamic performances like fastest response of torque and flux than classical vector control. This method allows a decoupledcontrol of flux and torque without using speed or position sensors, co-ordinate transformation, pulse width modulation (PWM) technique and current regulators. This type of command involves non-linear controller type of hysteresis, for both stator flux magnitude and electromagnetic torque.
But due to the principle of operation of these controllers which is based on the Boolean logic, none of the inverter switching vectors produced is able to generate the desired changes in torque and flux. However, torque and flux ripples composed a real problem in direct torque control induction motor drive (Faliha and Rachid, 2015).

Motivation for the work
When we were on training in machine in our office, we are told gave us a drawing to produce a machine shaft. During the process, when we feed in a cut of 10mm to the machine, it would cut 9.5mm and when we wanted to drill a hole at the center of the job, it would drilled it off centered, we called on our supervisor after we have wasted much time, power and materials. Surprisingly, after his supervision, he told us that backlash in the machine is responsible for that and he instructed us to use another machine which we did and got what we need immediately. Therefore, that ugly experience motivated us to research on how to reduce high ripple torque in induction motor which is the main causes of vibrations that lead to the backlash in the industrial machine.
• The statement of the human problem our research work will solve is to reduce backlash in industrial machine.
• Explanation of the problem

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Backlash can be defined as the maximum distance or angle through which any part of a mechanical system may be moved in one direction without applying appreciable force or motion to the next part in mechanical sequence and is a mechanical form of dead band. More so, it is any non-movement that occurs during axis reversals. For instance, when x – axis is commanded to move one inch in the positive direction, immediately, after this x – axis movement, these x-axis is also commanded to move one inch in the negative direction if any backlash exists in the x-axis, then it will not immediately start moving in the negative direction and the motion departure will not be precisely one inch.
So, it can cause positioning error on holes location, if the motion required to drill the holes causes a reversal in axis direction, it also causes loses ofmotion between reducer input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate positioning in equipment such as machines tools etc.
The main cause of this problem electrically is vibrations from electric motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.

• Benefits of solving the problem
1. High quality products will be produce.
2. Productivity will increase because adjustment and readjustment of machine feeding handle or feeding screw to eliminate backlash have been reduced.
3. Operational cost will reduced.
4. Greater efficiency will be guaranteed.
5. Greater accuracy and precision of product will be guaranteed.
6. Wasting of materials will behighly reduced.
1. To develop a model that will control the error to achieve stability using DTC and fuzzy logic with duty ratio.
2. To determine the error in the torque of the machine that causes vibration which lead to backlash that result in production of less standard products.
3. To determine the position of the stator flux linkage space vector in the poles of the induction motor.
4. To determine the stator linkage flux error in the induction motor that also causes vibration.
5. To simulate the model above in the Simulink environment and validate the result.

This project work is limited to the use of fuzzy logic controller with duty ratio to replace the torque and stator flux hysteresis controllers in the conventional DTC techniques. The controllers have three variable inputs, the stator flux error, electromagnetic torque error and position of stator flux linkage vector. The inference method used was the Mamdam fuzzy logic inference system. The deffuzzification method adopted in this work is the maximum criteria method.
The importance of this work in industry where induction motor drives are mainly in application cannot be over emphasis.
As earlier noted, induction motors because of their ruggedness simple mechanical structure and easy maintenance; electrical drives in industries are mostly based on them.
Also, a wide range of induction motor applications require variable speed, therefore induction motor speed, if not accurately estimated will affect the efficiency of the overall industrial processes. Equally, the harmonic losses if not put in check will shorten the life span and efficiency of the motor inverter.
Based on the above, it is aimed at reducing the principle causes of the inefficiency in the DTC induction motor and improves the performance of the system.
The work is organized into five chapters. Various control techniques were discussed in chapter two, in chapter three, we discusses the methodology, design and implementation of the direct torque control of induction motor using fuzzy logic with duty ratio controller.
Chapter four discusses data collection, analysis and the simulated results showing the system using conventional method of control and the proposed fuzzy logic with duty ratio method of control under applied load torque conditions.
Conclusion, recommendations and suggestion for further work are mentioned in chapter five.


The uncorrected refractive error is a major public health concern and is the biggest cause of visual impairment in the world. Refractive errors can be easily corrected with spectacles. Lack of knowledge, erroneous attitude and practices, contribute significantly to the magnitude of uncorrected refractive errors
The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and type of hyperopia
in urban public primary school students as well as their performance psycho-social development.

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Hyperopia results when the eye has insufficient refractive power for its axial length. The term hypermetropia comes from hyper, meaning “in excess”; met, meaning “measure”; and opia, meaning “of the eye.”
This refractive error may be the result of an eye having a relatively short axial length or reduced dioptric power of one or more of the refractive element.
Hyperopia in children has been associated with poor reading ability, low intelligence test scores, learning difficulties, and delay in visual perceptual skills development.However, the reason for these associations is unclear.
Borish” listed a number of systems for classifying hyperopia:
• Anatomical features • Degree of hyperopia • Physiological and pathological hyperopias • Action of accommodation
The prevalence of hyperopia in children appears to decrease during younger school-age years and then stabilize during adolescence.


The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and type of hyperopia in public primary school pupils and gender variation as well as the effects on their performance and psycho-social development. The study will be carried out in Kakamega Primary School located near Kakamega town, Lurambi constituency in Kakamega County.
The study will be carried out to find out the prevalence of hyperopia among the students. The methods that will be used include crossectional study with a mixed method approach.


What is the extent of hyperopia in school going, children


Does hyperopia affect performance

Does hyperopia affect the psycho-social development of children

Does gender influence hyperopia prevalence

5.0 AIM

To determine the prevalence of hyperopia in pupils of Kakamega primary in relation to quality of performance


To evaluate behavioural patterns of children with hyperopia
To study the effects of hyperopia on class performance

To determine the prevalence of hyperopia in students of Kakamega primary school


The global prevalence of refractive errors has been estimated from 800 million to 2.3 billion 1. In Kenya, the prevalence of refractive errors among primary school children (12-15years) in urban and rural areas has been found to be 11% 2 and 5.2% 3 respectively. In urban Kenya, myopia was found to be the most prevalent refractive error, with a prevalence of 10.2%, followed by hypermetropia at 0.3% and lastly astigmatism at 0.5% 2.
On the contrary, hypermetropia was the most prevalent refractive error at 3.2% then myopia at 1.7% and astigmatism at 0.3% 3. A survey of the prevalence of refractive errors among children aged 6-9 years in Kampala, Uganda by Kawuma et al found the prevalence of refractive error to be 11.6 percent 3.
These studies give as the prevalence of refractive error in two different age groups that is 6-9years and 12-15 years. The studies were done over ten years ago and literature is lacking in our set up on recent studies. In East Africa, data are also lacking in children who are seventeen years and above, in which case emmetropisation has occurred 4 and this study was able to address these some of these discrepancies in data.
‘In the African population, a recent study conducted in northwest Ethiopia aimed to determine the prevalence of refractive error among 420 students aged 7 to 15 in the Debre Markos District, since the rates of refractive errors had not been previously examined in this region.
Snellen charts were used to identify the student’s visual acuity or auto refraction in those subjects whose visual acuity was worse than 6/12. Hyperopia was present in 1.4% of cases, although the magnitude of the error was not specified. Female sex was significantly associated with refractive error.
In Ghana, a cross sectional study was carried out to determine the rates of hyperopia in public basic schools in Kumasi. A total of 1,756 subjects were randomly selected from 11 public schools. The hyperopia prevalence rate was determined to be 33.4%. Of those subjects diagnosed with being hyperopic, 64.7% had a magnitude with aspherical equivalent lower than +1.50D, 29.2% between +1.00D and + 1.50D and the remaining 6.1% had a magnitude greater than +1.50D. Among all hyperopes, 45.9% were males and 54.1% females.
A different study in Ghana, in which 2454 children from 53 private schools were enrolled, reported that hyperopia SER >2.00D in at least one eye as measured by retinoscopy and autorefraction was found in o.3% of children.
In South Africa, a sample of 4,890 children aged 5 to 15 in Durban area was examined by means of retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegia. Hyperopia SER> +2.00D in at least one eye was present in 1.8% of children when measured with retinoscopy, slightly increasing to 2.6% when the method used was autorefraction under cycloplegia.6′

The study will be carried out to find out the prevalence of hyperopia among the students.The general effects on performance in both boys and girls and variation.the expected study should last for 3 weeks.


Study Design and Study Population: Cross-sectional school-based study with a qualitative component in at least 400 public primary school pupils of Kakamega County, Kenya.

Data collection Procedure: The pupils should be selected by multistage random sampling and those included in each class category should be based on the proportion of students in each stratification. All class 1 and 7 pupils selected should participate in the study. These classes represent an age group of 5 to 15 years.
First, a semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to the pupils followed by an eye examination that consists of visual acuity using a Log MAR chart. The cut off for defining significant refractive error is VA less than 6/12 in the better eye. For those whose vision will be less than 6/12 in the better eye, a dry objective refraction will be performed followed by subjective refraction. Pupils with spectacles are to be tested for uncorrected and corrected VA.

The power of spectacles is read using the lensometer. For those wearing spectacles and VA worse than 6/12 in the better eye with correction, objective then subjection refraction is to be done. If VA does not improve by at least two lines in all pupils anterior and posterior examination is to be performed to determine the cause. The pupils will then participate in Focus Group Discussion of 8-12 students and in-depth interviews with key informants (class or head teacher). The information gathered is to be recorded in a questionnaire or a tape recorder.

Data Analysis
Graphs, tables and charts will be used to analyse means and proportions. Chi-square test is to be used to compare means and proportions.

All class 1 and 7 pupils that will be selected will be included in the study.

1. Two Retinoscopes- for refraction.
2. Two Ophthalmoscopes (direct and indirect) – For anterior and posterior segment
3. Two 20 Diopter loupe- For anterior and posterior segment examination.
4. Torches with batteries and spare bulbs- for anterior segment examination
5. 3 LogMAR charts – for visual acuity assessment
6. Refraction set and trial frames – for refraction
7. Lensometer – measuring the power of spectacles
8. Blinders( curtains)
9. Data collection forms – Questionnaires
10. Stationary- referral papers, data collection forms, pencils, pens, staplers etc.
11. The vehicle for hire and fuel
12. Tape recorder
13. Photograph


1.Permission from the head teacher of school is to be obtained
2. Assent from the students is to be sort and obtained.
3. Confidentially of students records is to be observed.
4.Spectacle correction and follow up is recommended for all the students found to have a refractive error.
5. Students with other ocular diseases will be referred to local eye hospitals.


a)We hope that by the end of the study we will be able to know if the presence of hyperopia affects the pupils’ academics and their psycho-social behaviour.
b)We hope to provide more detailed data to Public Health Institutions in Kenya
c)We hope to find out the prevalence of hyperopia
d)We hope to raise awareness of hyperopia

1. The character of General Zaroff is portrayed through both direct and indirect characterization. The author uses direct characterization when describing his personality and appearance through Rainsford’s eyes. He uses indirect characterization when describing Zaroff through the conversation between the general and Rainsford. Throughout the dialogue, the author gives hints and evidence pointing to certain personality traits displayed by General Zaroff. The evidence that Zaroff believes he is superior to all animals, including humans, can be found in his conversation with Rainsford where he states that he has conquered all massive beasts, animals are no longer a match for him, and he is stronger than the others. The general constantly boasts about his success in hunting and his skill set.
2. The hunter has a major advantage in the game being played. First, the hunter is one his own territory. Therefore, he is more knowledgeable of the land he is hunting on. Second, the hunter has more advanced weapons. While the prey is only armed with a hunting knife, the hunter has a pistol. The pistol is more effective than the knife when killing. Third, the hunter not only relies on himself and his skills, but also has dogs and an accomplice, Ivan, to help him catch his prey when he is not successful on his own. Fourth, the hunter has been playing this wicked game for much longer and is an avid hunter. Therefore, his skill set is much more varied and advanced than that of a sailor that crashes on the island.
3. As the story progresses, Rainsford’s ideas of hunting change. At the beginning, he is very invested in the sport and believes there is nothing wrong with what he is doing. He simply feels lucky to be the hunter and not the prey. As the stakes get higher and he is faced with a different challenge, he begins to realize that hunting, as enjoyable as it might be for him, is not exactly a good experience for his prey. When he is put in the situation of being Zaroff’s prey, he begins to understand the suffering and worry the animals he kills feel. Rainsford then feels some more sympathy and changes his view on hunting.
4. In these conversations, Rainsford is more like Zaroff because they look at the world in a very similar way. They both believe the strongest will prevail and they feel no sympathy for their prey. They simply hunt for their own entertainment without ever considering how they would feel is the roles were reversed. He differs from Zaroff because he is not as cold blooded and eager to find danger. He thinks the murder of another man is outrageous and completely wrong. At the end of the story, Rainsford becomes a little more like Whitney in the way that he now understands the suffering and pain these animals undergo and he is more considerate.
5. I would consider “The Most Dangerous Game” to be commercial fiction because the plot moves along very quickly and there are many dangerous, risky situations. Although it does contain some characterization, it is more focused on the conflict at hand and the events occurring through the story. The plot is much more intense and the theme is quite complex.
6. General Zaroff might be putting a value on Rainsford during dinner because he is going to become his prey soon. He wants to know what he is going up against and if he wins, how great his success is.
7. The location plays a huge role in the theme of this story. The island is alone in the middle of the ocean adding to the theme of suspense and solitude. There is a constant dark theme of being alone and in danger.
8. The irony of the statement “Who cares what a jaguar feels?” is that when Rainsford is put in the same position, he wants his feelings to be taken into consideration. At the end of the story, Rainsford might feel differently because he suffered what those animals have undergone and he understands and is considerate.
9. The figurative literary devices used in the beginning of the story set the ominous and frightening mood. They also foreshadow danger and events that are yet to come. These devices also point to an underlying issue discussed in this story, animal cruelty.
10. Rainsford’s past experiences helped him elude Zaroff because he had a very advanced knowledge and skill set due to his years of hunting. He was able to create a complicated trail

that would be difficult to follow. He also created successful and efficient traps.

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