1. SWOT analysis of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and specific competitive property according to SWOT.
NOVA SCOTIA
Strength
– Nova Scotia has 25 best attractive tourist sights. (Kejimkujik Park, Tidal bore rafting, Cape Breton highlands national parks, whale watching adventure, and so on.)
– It is the best place for music lovers as they organise musical fest with world-famous root music.
– Halifax has a famous pub with live light music.
– Nova Scotia is the best place for lobster lovers.
– Nova Scotia is covered with huge mountains, pastoral fields with many seaside trails so it is the best place for hiking.
Weakness
– The travelling distance from Toronto to Nova Scotia by car is 17 hours and 29 minutes and by air, it will take 2 hours and 8 minutes which was pretty long time for youngsters.
Opportunities
– Nova Scotia is well-known for tourist attraction for its adventure place and beauty sights.
Threats- Nowadays, whole Canada becomes best and attractive place for tourist whether they are domestic from other provinces or from other countries, so this will reduce the percentile of tourist in Nova Scotia.
COMPETITIVE PROPERTY
– Fox Harb’s Resort give a great opportunity to the tourist and give best-staying experience with, indoor pool, tennis court, golf court, spa and gym for fitness.
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
Strength
– Bicycle riders love this place as it is well maintained and designed for bicycling and there are many shops from there tourist buy cycle on a rental basis.
– The Island is surrounded by warm summer water and best for deep fishing.
Weakness
– The travelling distance from Toronto to Nova Scotia by car is 16 hours and 08 minutes and by air, it will take 2 hours and 8 minutes which was pretty long time for youngsters.
Opportunities
– This the best place for sea or beach lovers as it is fully covered by ocean.
– Prince Edward Island is liked by every aged group tourist whether they are old or young.
Threats
– Tourist has to be a concern and serious about there families as the Island is covered by deep ocean.
– Nowadays, whole Canada becomes best and attractive place for tourist whether they are domestic from other provinces or from other countries, so this will reduce the percentage of tourist on this particular island.
COMPETITIVE PROPERTY
– Delta Hotel by Marriott give a wonderful experience to the guest who come this island with free Wi-Fi, gym, free water bottle service and last but not the least a concept bar.
NEWFOUNDLAND
Strength
– Best place for landscapers.
– Great driving fun you have gained over there.
– For stay, a rural touch tourist has got.
Weakness
– There are many varieties of English are usually spoken over Newfoundland, so it makes difference for the newcomers or travellers.
– They sell beer only in a gas station not even in the grocery store.
Opportunities
– As everybody knows Canadians take public holidays seriously and have fun to do fun that full and want to feel relax so in Newfoundland they have St. John’s George Street, where they celebrate St. Patrick’s Day with wearing green outfits.
Threats
– There are lots of pubs and strip clubs at Newfoundland and under 18 years old girls are working over there. So, it gives bad impact on small infant and a higher number of peoples don’t want to come back in this province, and it is a threat to Newfoundland.
COMPETITIVE PROPERTY
– The Luxus Boutique Hotel, amenities and free breakfast is free for meeting room visitors, free Wi-Fi in public area, fitness centre and self-parking.
2. TYPES OF TOURISTS
• Leisure tourist – leisure tourist is those who want to take a break from their daily life and go on vacations for leisure purposes. Examples of leisure activities include relaxing on the beach, visiting campgrounds and heritage places and experiencing local tourist attractions.

• Adventure tourist – Nova Scotia is heaven for skiers and snowmobilers. Adventures tourists usually seek for the unusual and exciting experience. These tourists usually take part in dangerous activities.
• Youth tourist – these types of tourist usually goes to Nova Scotia to enjoy events, such as music festivals, jazz and folk music festivals. These tourists are low on budget and travel independently. They usually travel to experience adventure.

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• Sport and recreation tourist – These tourists usually go to Nova Scotia to either watch or to participate in the sporting events. Some popular activities may include Whitewater rafting, kayaking, hiking and kayaking.
3. Identify high, low and shoulder seasons. What types of tours might you add to re- energise your business?
• High seasons – Tourists usually come to Nova Scotia in summers. Most tourists visit in June, July, and August. Temperature is between 20 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius. Days are quite long in these three months. June, July, and August is an appropriate time to visit beaches, enjoying the music festivals doing Whitewater rafting, skiing, hiking.
• Low seasons – there is a decline in the level of tourism in September and October. Autumn season come in these months. Valley turned into red, green and orange leaves. Days are usually bright in these two months and its valuable time to enjoy art festivals and music events.
• Shoulder seasons – In November and December, the level of tourism is shallow. Almost all tourists are closed until springtime. Temperature lies below freezing or near to freezing in morning and nights.
I would like to focus on Arts and culture events and indoor music festivals in November and December. In these months, level of tourism is quite low. So, these types of tours will boost the level of tourism particular in November and December.
4.ADVANTAGES TO RE-FLAGGING AS A FRANCHISE
– They have long-term management.
– Franchise use its own capital that the investment was less, so ROI will be higher.
– Franchises have a more chance to expand its business.
– The franchise formed with highly motivated personnel so they have the best skill workers with them.
– They always have a red eye on the quality control and they usually control best as compared with an individual unit.
5. Four Different Flags and Their Advantages and Disadvantage
Metropolitan Hotel Toronto Convert to Double Tree Hilton
Advantage
The advantage of this reflagged is hotel location. It is perfect for a concert. Walking distance from union station, connecting Toronto to U.S. and rest of Canada.
Disadvantage
Disadvantages for this convert is awful parking, small parking and no valet possibility.
Delta Meadowvale Reflagged as Hilton
Advantage
This property is situated in the west of Toronto, near Niagara Falls. Having terrific position within Meadowvale park. Guest incoming for business can take benefit of the conference rooms.
Disadvantage
As it was converted into Hilton brand. Many guest reviews about their expensive rates. Which can be pointed at a disadvantage.

King Edward Hotel Reflagged by Omni Hotels and Resorts
Advantage
Historic hotel and 1st luxury hotel in Toronto, offering 301 luxury guest rooms and suites. Omni group of hotels got great benefit reflagged this property because the hotel is having its own attraction.
Disadvantage
The disadvantage of taking over the property is that it is not having the pool.
Boca Raton hotel is reflagged by double tree by Hilton and opened by name of Waterstone Resort & Marina Boca Raton, curio collection by Hilton.
Advantage
With its beautiful location, Boca is 139 rooms with balconies with panoramic view of Atlantic Ocean. Its a 9 stories hotel with sandy beach. The advantage of this reflagged names Hilton property to get their 1st hotel near the ocean with all the amenities. With making a lot of sales and attracting more tourist day by day.
Disadvantage
The main disadvantage of the hotels is its price come to surrounding hotels.
6. Four Advantages of Joining a Consortium
in travelling and tourism, a consortium shows an organization made up of free travel operators and offices. They consolidate to support their acquiring power, payments and in addition offices, they can give clients. It used to describe a gathering of movement organizations that have consolidated to accomplish more upper hands, a superior offer in the market and an expansion in circulation.
it can describe as a group of travel agencies who together joined for competitive advantages for achievements. The direct benefits of agreements with these agencies are that, when it comes to booking hotel rooms for their business clients, their preferential searches will be for hotels that are integrated within the consortium, ahead of their competitors. In this way:
• Greater booking potential: travel operators first take a look at taking an interesting lodging while choosing the correct property for their customers
• High-yield business: travel specialists by and large influence higher normal every day to rate (ADR) appointments
• Increased book ability: more noteworthy presentation in the GDS by having the capacity to utilize the Consortia’s arranged rate code
• Increased permeability: extra presentation in organization showcasing insurances, databases, interchanges, and so on advancing the Consortia’s lodging programme
7. Best option for your business for future investors or purchases?
The best decision for increasing Maritime sales and company’s value is rebranding. As joining hands with Hilton hotel and Resorts will lead to productivity as a part of present and prospects.
As a part of business plan Maritime is looking for success and growth for a brief period. While joining hands with a consortium would be more time utilizing and hassle decision. As Hilton already has a well -renowned name in the hotel and resort industry. Which could be an essential tool for generating revenue, increasing sales and advertising to attract people to visit this property in Nova Scotia.
8. History of Hilton hotel and resorts?
Hilton is known as worldwide famous hotel and resort chain for providing full services hotels and rebranding as Hilton brand. Initially, the company was founded by Conard Hilton in 1919 named as Mobley Hotel in Cisco, Texas. Since then Hilton has played a dominant role in the hospitality industry. However, the very first hotel originally named as Hilton was open in Dallas, Texas with facilities like elevators, air shafts, and various non-customer facilities.
In 1994, Hilton launched rewards point as well as air miles to the customers. Hilton received a great response while entering social media market as in 2010 they become first hotel brand or company to strive 50,000 Facebook fans and in 2012 they launched their first official app.
The most recent achievement of Hilton was in 2016 when they entered the benchmark of 100 countries and territories all around the word.

1. Introduction
Ethiopia women policy which published in 1993 were prepared well considering different aspect of women including their society`s life. The policy included condition of Ethiopian women, objectives of the policy, and strategies for the implementation of the policy.
Although women’s contribution to their households, food production and national economies is immense, it has not been translated into better access to resources or decision-making powers. As a result, women remained to be the poorest of the poor constituting 70% of the global poor (National report, 2004).
When we consider status of women from national report on 2004 it indicates that women represent only 7.6% of the House of People Representative (Parliament) and 12.9% of
State (Regional) Council. Adult literacy for women is 32% and net female
primary enrolment ratio is 27%, and is about 42% for males. Violence and
discrimination against women still common in the country. The country’s economic and
social development is also being harmfully threatened by HIV/AIDS. It is valued that 1.9
million people are present with HIV/AIDS and out of this number 1.1 million are women.
Maternal mortality is also high in the country creating 871 deaths per 100, lives.
The policy aimed to improve the level of income of women and facilitate their labor; Improve health and nutrition of mother and children, upgrade their education, facilitate favorable conditions for the formation of women’s associations so that women can solve their problems and this result woman to participate in the national development efforts on equal terms with men.
1.1. Objectives of policy review
? To analyze policy gaps and give necessary recommendation
? To look practicability of the policy
? To suggest alternative action points

2. Review of Women Policy Content
The FDRE Constitution of Ethiopia ensures that all fundamental rights granted are to be
interpreted in conformity with the principles of the signed conventions and declarations. The policy reflects the fact that women are both producers and procreators, as well as active participants in the social, political and cultural activities of their communities has enabled them to play an all-round role and their proportion in labor force in various economic sectors indicates that economic development is unthinkable without the participation of women.
Women’s share of the division of labor differs from place to place and from culture to culture, their average working day is believed to vary between 13 and 17 hours per In rural area women involved in farming activities tend to even work longer hours. Urban women engaged in labor-intensive activities that require little or no skill spend no less time. Women make a major contribution to the welfare of society, they are in a better position to promote and/or eliminate harmful traditional customs and practices of their localities.
We observed the policy content that Ethiopian Women policy had been formulated to focus on what the Government ought to do for women, and what women must do for themselves through their own free associations, as well as to show the relationship between the two.
Ethiopian Government has expressed its commitment to gender equity and equality by issuing a national Policy on Ethiopian Women. The policy, which was issued in 1993, has the following objectives:
? Facilitating conditions conductive to the speeding of equality between men and women so that women can participate in political, social and economic life of their country on equal terms with men and ensuring that their right to own property as well as their other human rights are respected and that they are not excluded from the enjoyment of their fruits of their labor or from performing public functions and being decision makers;
? Facilitating the necessary conditions whereby rural women can have access to basic social services and to ways and means of lightening their work load; and
? Eliminating step by step, prejudices as well as customary and other practices that are based on the idea of male supremacy and enabling women to hold public office and to participate in the decision making process at all levels.
The content of Ethiopian National policy of women supposed to ensure the full development and advancement of women and guaranteeing them the enjoyment of their democratic and human rights so that they can participate in the economic, social and political life of their country on equal basis with men, modifying or abolishing existing laws, regulations, customs and practices which aggravates discrimination against women and facilitating conditions conductive to their participation in the decision- making process at all levels.
In addition the policy intends to create a situation whereby society’s discriminatory attitude toward women and women’s complacence about it are eliminated through an elevated awareness by making sure that women participate in the formulation of government policies, laws, regulation programmers, plans and projects that directly or indirectly benefits and concern women.
The policy also propose strategy to encourage research work on ways and means of lightening the work- load of women as well as increasing their income and compiling the results and coordinating all government programmers that concern women and following up their implementation to make sure that they are free from duplication and that they do not involve unnecessary costs.
The policy approaches to incorporate women’s affairs into the government structure and entrusting a government body with it as well as establishing branches in all ministries and governmental organization and making sure that government policies, laws, regulations, plans and other activities are based on the following objectives;
• Ensuring that distinction on the basis sex is not made that a special attention is given to rural women in view of the fact that they face particular problems and shoulder a heavier burden;
• Ensuring that women are involved in the elaboration, implementation and decision-making process;
• Making sure that women participate in the fields of development activity and enjoy the benefits there of on an equal basis with men and guaranteeing them legal protection of the rights.

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3. Action plan of the policy
Action plan of the policy includes certain strategies and useful tools used for implementation of the policy that can facilitate intended result which related to women development which includes:-
? All appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure
– The democratic and human rights of women are respected.
– women are made beneficiaries on an equal basis with men of equal pay for equal work and of promotions, of appointments, of desirable transfers or termination of employment and of training;
– The right of women to work in the Civil service in any capacity they prove to be competent for,
– The right of women to the same retirement age and benefits as those of men and their right to an equal protection of the law and to a fair trial in a court of law.
? The Government shall facilitate conditions conductive to the participation of women in both the elaboration and decision-making process as regards to community developments, social welfare, division of land property, education and basic social services;
? The Government, with cooperation from the peoples of Ethiopia, shall facilitate conditions conductive to the informing and educating of concerned communities about such harmful practices as circumscion and the marriage of young girls before they reach puberty;
? The Government shall ensure to women the right to have easy access to basic health care facilities, information about traditional and modern family planning method.
? Maximum effort shall be made to eliminate, step by step, prejudices and customary practices based on the idea that women are inferior to men and to repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women;
? The necessary conditions where by women can have effective legal protection of their rights shall be facilitated;
? Women who have particular problems as a result of natural and man- made disasters shall be given special aid promptly;
? There shall, in all ministries and governmental organizations, be a Department of Women’s Affairs entrusted with the responsibility of organizing women and promoting their interests;
? Research shall be done on some ways and means of lightening the work- load of women, especially of those who live out in the rural areas; income generating projects, programmers’ or other schemes shall be streamlined to them and they shall, through vocational training be made to increase their technical proficiency and thus develop self-confidence;
? The necessary conditions where by women can obtain training and education shall be facilitated, for the development of their potentialities cannot be achieved only through the existence of structures and organization responsible for promoting their interests;
? Appropriate support shall be extended to all women’s associations formed with their initiative and full consent and those that will be formed in the future;
? The Government shall ensure that women are the beneficiaries of the aid that donor countries and international non-governmental organizations send to them and that the activities of donors are not duplicated as a result of the newly- found democracy and the freedom guaranteed in the New Economic policy but are instead coordinated;
? Conditions conductive to the mobilization of all manpower, technical and material resources of the country to the implementation of the policy shall be facilitated;
3.1. Policy implementation plan based on different institution
To implement women policy mentioned above; using different institution planned as follows.
Government Institutions Different tasks expected to be implemented
Bureau of Education ? Formulate education system which encourage female
? Introduce Gender class
? Make the Education Curriculum and System more gender sensitive
? Ensure Gender balance in the community training center
Bureau of Health ? Enhance maternal services
? Enhance family planning
? Promote more outreach services
? Train traditional birth attendants and community health against
? Promote health education
? • Gender balance in training for junior health workers
Bureau of Information, Culture and Tourism • Make a cultural policy
• Make a marriage law, and promote IEC regarding family law
• Create awareness against HTP
• Formulate anti-harmful Culture
• Facilitate gender information thorough newspapers, and other media.
Bureau of Labor and social Affairs – Safeguard the job security of women
– Ensure equal pay for equal job and promotion
– Train employees about gender issue
– Provide supports for the elderly by formulating programs, policies and projects
– Make research about prostitution and design strategy to overcome it
– Train the unemployed
– Have gender dis-aggregated information
– • Mediate resource to help and train prostitutes
Bureau of Agriculture Introduce extension service in activities which are closely related to women such as Vegetable, milk production, polluter etc.)
Encourage women head families to participate in every program
Assist women in getting credit and inputs and extension services
Bureau of Trade and Industry • Gender balanced Training services
• Organize informal sector participants in group and ensure credit
Civil Service Commission • Ensure equal pay for equal job
• Encourage women professionals to take high government positions
• Safeguard job security for women
• Design a promotion strategy (Salary, education)
Investment • Design an incentive scheme for women investors
• Give special incentives for projects which promote female employment and services
Commission for Disaster Prevention and Preparedness ? Work program’s through which Female victims (with no land and means of Production) can have a sustainable support
? Give priority to women and children
? Create a gender sensitive appraisal system for NGO projects
Plan and Economy • Establish a system where by reporting and planning is dis-aggregated on gender basis
• Use Gender equality as a basis for program and project selection.
Police Fight violence against women such as rape
Safe guard prostitutes from men violence by training, counseling etc.
Encourage more Female members in the police
Department of Prosecution • Defend women and ensure their rights
• Follow-up the implementations of the legal and Political rights of women
• Create legal consciousness among the community
Justice office • Clear women cases very quickly
• Study on most frequent women cases and conduct training on solving them
• Train traditional courts
Women’s Bureau ? Be a center for regional coordination
? Design a gender training manuals
? Coordinate gender activities
? Conduct extensive gender awareness seminars
? Assist organized women
? Look for funds to assist rural land less and urban poor women.
? • Conduct surveys and different researches on women’s projects
Kebele Administration ? Encourage women participation in decision making and benefits from dev’t work
? Create awareness about gender equality in all occasions
? Encourage involvement of women in various development committees
? Organize grass root level women organization
? Support women association by providing offices, land etc.
Technology and research Centers • Generate and strengthen appropriate technology that reduce the work load of women
Water Energy and Mining bureau • Encourage the participation of the women in water committee
• Facilitate water provision
• Introduce and encourage the utilization of energy saving technology
4. Review of the practicality of the policy plan
National Women Policy of Ethiopia formulated in 1993, the right time that Ethiopian women have been in rough situation and need much more empowerment and promotion. The policy had been working for more than twenty years. Since that time, surely it made a big progress and change Ethiopian women life as well as their attitude.
Practicality of the policy or implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, quality and or policy. The policy is then put into practice and implemented with the aim of achieving specific and agreed outcomes.
This policy focused on what government ought to do for women and what women must do for themselves through their own associations. The women right and choice to compete also in some extent they got equal opportunity with men, but still there is much effort to ensure gender equality. Although the policy went though many different situations, there has been a lot of achievements and progress that it made.
When we observe at over all national women policy implementation with respect to health, education and poverty alleviation the following achievement identified
? Increased health coverage from 48% in 1998 to 60% in 2002 which has an effect on
increasing women’s access to health services in general and to maternal health in particular, since maternal and child health are integrated at each level of health delivery points;
? Girls marriage age has increased to 18 years and other harmful traditional
practices are being punishable by law;
? Infant/child immunization coverage has increased from 42% in 1998 to 51% in 2002 Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased for 9.8% in 1998 to 17% in 2002
Antenatal coverage has increased form 30% in 1998 to 34% in 2002 (Health ; Health
Related Indictors/MOH 2002)
? National reproductive health advocacy tool has been prepared followed by a national
advocacy conference in 2003 with the aim of increasing resources and engaging policy
makers
? Infant mortality rate has decreased from 108/1000 live births in 1998 to 97/1000 in 2002
? Postnatal coverage has increased form 4% in 1998 to 7% in 2002 (Health ; Health Related
Indictors/MOH 2002)
? Assisted delivery by trained personnel increased from 4% in 1998 to 9% in 2002 (Health ;
Health Related Indictors/ MOH 2002)
? National Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMCT) guideline has been developed
and intervention has started in four project areas and ways of scaling up the project to all regional states is underway;
? Base line survey on harmful traditional practices in Ethiopia has been carried out by the
National Committee on Traditional Practices and has been distributed to all stakeholders;
? Fertility rate has decreased from 6.7 in 1998 to 5.6 per woman of reproductive age in 2002
(EDHS 2002)
? 34 HIV/AIDS sentinel surveillance centers for pregnant women are established and equipped and staffed all over the country;
? When we consider technical vocational educational training enrolment trend (TVETs) female enrollment remains almost equal to men’s. In 2012/13, at 51.2%, female enrollment was slightly more than men’s.
4.1.1. Case of progress practicality in TVET Enrollment Trends

Sex
2008/09
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
Male 165,910 196,937 199,799 173,148 116,457
Female 142,591 158,483 171,548 157,261 122,427
Total 308,501 353,420 371,347 314,159 238,884
%
Female
50.3
43.9
48.0
46.2
51.2
Source: Federal Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Education, “Education Statistics Annual Abstract 2012/13,” p.54

We can see that there is progress in female’s proportion.
As the policy pointed there is many different dimensions that women are improved and this policy employed (Health, education, business and associations etc) for instant the policy says “Women should not be restricted to any one association; instead, they should be free to form associations of their choice in accordance with their specific needs or professions. To this concern women are given freedom and opportunity to choice their participation of groups in accordance with their specific needs.
4.1.2. EPRDF Members Representations in the Fourth House of Peoples’ Representatives
Number Name of Parties Dispersion of Seats in the HPR
F M Total Seats Total
% Women
EPRDF Members
1 TPLF-EPRDF
Tigray People Seats in the HPRR 13 25 38 34.2
2 ANDM
Amhara National Democratic Movement 46 92 138 33.3
3 OPDO
Oromo People’s Democratic Organization 47 131 178 26.4
4 SEPDM
South Ethiopian Peoples Democratic Movement 36 87 122 29.5
5 Addis Ababa 7 15 22 31.8
6 Dire Dawa – 2 2 0
Seats of EPRDF 149 351 500 29.8
Source: Compiled from National Electoral Board of Ethiopia data
You can see that % of women is less than male from the above table.

There is number of stakeholders and interest groups who has been involving implementing this policy. These partners take an active role for women empowerment and at the same time building their capacity. The Regional Women’s Affairs sector Office, Women’s Affair in the Prime Minister Office and Women’s Department in Ministries Public Organizations are among the stakeholders. Each of these stakeholder play significance role through duties and responsibilities that is assigned.
Women’s Affair in the Prime Minister Office, created appropriate atmosphere for the implementation of women’s affairs. In each ministry of government there is an officer employ for women affairs, and that is government effort to empower and build women capacity. This opportunity enhanced women courage and aspiration when they found themselves in new condition of respect and careful.
Also this office, improved financial aspects of the women, when drought and poverty arise women are among most effected part of the population, so the policy give attention economic satisfaction of the women through financial support.
? Agriculture is one of the largest sources of employment for Ethiopians, and women make up a large percentage of the agricultural labor force. The following table shows that women’s participation in the agricultural sector has been growing over the last several years, peaking at 45% in 2014.
4.1.3. Women Participation in Agricultural sector
Share of Females in Agriculture Labor Force Share (%) 2014
Labor force in agriculture (% of total labor force) 75.1
Females (% of labor force in agriculture) 45.0
Source: FAOSTAT. “Ethiopia. Economic Indicators.”

5. Recommendation of Alternative Policy Action points
The government of Ethiopia has been working a central and focal points to empower woman since 1993 to increase progress towards gender equality in the country as a high priority agenda. To speed up and to foster the socio-economic and political participation of women, a practical alternative action needs to be designed and implemented. As part of the alternative policy action this study is recommending the following possible alternative policy issues as follow.
? Adopt a multi-disciplinary approach to women’s access to economic development, access to administrative privileges.
? Encouraging women’s economic empowerment and income generation, protection from violence and food security. Empowerment strategies need to be harmonized with efforts to address unfair laws and obstacles to the use of the formal legal sector.
? Enhancing women’s voice in decision-making, leadership and peace-building, economic diplomacy and aid program
? Educating, improving professional development and empowering woman through continuous learning. This can able to create women’s independence is women’s empowerment. Independence enables confidence in their workplace, the market place and in their community.
? Facilitating gender equality in all sectors of the economy. This would see a significant reduction in violence against women. Aggression is a result and sign of the status of women in society. If we had a radical reduction in violence, it would send a message that women’s rights will be achieved.
? Particular attention need to be given to women and health. Ensure that the medical community supports the family planning strategy The medical community should help ensure that service providers are capable of providing accurate and unbiased information on a range of woman’s health issues
? Prevention of early marriage and provision of information and the tools they need to make responsible choices regarding their sexual lives.
? Expand the social safety net so that it can provide security in old age. Adopting measures that give preferential treatment to girls and women in terms of scholarships, gender-based quotas for employment or financial incentives aimed at improving their economic situation could also be considered.
? Develop a culturally responsive comprehensive family planning policy and implement it developing an inclusive strategy to expand family planning that includes community outreach, the mobilization of support from community leaders, the training of service providers and a communication program aimed at changing norms and empowering people by providing reliable.
? Encouraging and formulating an institutional mechanism for the advancement of women in all sphere of development including leadership.
? Support and provide necessary and sufficient resources to identify and design effective, context-specific strategies to promote gender equality.
? Promulgating a law, which can be necessary tool for advancing women’s rights and equality on the base of a strong and effective legal system based on the rule of law.

5.1. Importance of the policy
I. It helps women to become equal partners in decision-making and development.
II. It strengthening the rule of law in the country, holistic economic empowerment and create social citizenship.
III. It helps to enhance women’s access to social services, accumulation of wealth, reliable justice in miscellaneous activities.
IV. It improves women’s access to demonstrate their participation justice in both formal and informal systems.
These, woman empowerment strategies are most effective where implemented in conjunction with ‘top-down’ and bottom up measures and through local partners. Moreover, legal issues relating to woman need to be created an interface of informal and formal justice settings.
5.2. Precondition required implementing this alternative.
For socio-economic and legal empowerment to work, cultural attitudes, economic dependency and discrimination must also be taken into consideration and properly tackled.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The human problem our thesis work will solve is to reduce backlash in induction motor. Backlash been described as a mechanical form of dead band that can lead to error on hole location, if the motion required to machine the holes causes a reversal in axis direction it also causes loses of motion between reducer input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate positioning in equipment such as instruments, machines tools etc. The main problem electrically are vibrations from motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.
An induction motor is a kind of an AC machine in which alternating current is supplied to the stator directly and to the rotor by induction from the stator. Induction motor can appear in a single phase or a poly phase. (Toufouti, et al, 2013).
In construction, the induction motor has a stator which is the stationary portion consisting of a frame that houses the magnetically active angular cylindrical structure called the stator lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with a three phase winding sets embedded in evenly spaced internal slots.
The rotor which is the rotatory parts of an induction motor is made up of a shaft and cylindrical structure called the rotor lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with evenly spaced slots located around the periphery to accept the conductors of the rotor winding (Ndubisi, 2006).
The rotor can be a wound type or squirrel cage type.
in a poly phase induction motor, the three phase windings are displaced from each other by 120 electrical degrees in space around the air-gap circumference when excited from a balanced poly phase source, those windings (stator winding) will produce a magnetic field in the air-gap rotating at synchronous speed as determine by the number of stator poles and the applied stator frequency (Bimal, 2011).
In the controlling of electrical motor; the introduction of micro-controllers and high switching frequency semiconductor devices, variable speed actuators where dominated by DC motors.
Today, using modern high switching frequency power converters controlled by micro-controllers, the frequency phase and magnitude of the input to an AC motor can be changed and hence the motor’s speed and torque can be controlled. AC motors combined with their drives have replaced DC motors in industrial applications because they are cheaper, better reliability, less in weight, and lower maintenance requirement. Squirrel cage induction motors are most generally used than all the rest of the electric motors as they have all the advantages of AC motors and they are easy to build.
The main advantage is that induction motors do not require an electrical connection between stationary and rotating portion of the motor. Therefore, they do not need any mechanical commutators to the fact that they are maintenance free motors. Induction motors also have lesser weight and inertia, high efficiency and high over load capability. Therefore, they are cheaper and more robust, and less proves to any failure at high speeds.
Furthermore, the motor can be used to work in explosive environments because no sparks are produced.
Taking into account all the advantages outlined above, induction motors must be considered as the perfect electrical to mechanical energy converter. However, mechanical energy is more than often required at variable speeds, where the speed control system is not a trivial matter. The effective way of producing an infinitely variable induction motor speed drive is to supply the induction motor with three phase voltage of variable amplitude.
A variable frequency is required because the rotor speed depends on the speed of the rotating magnetic field provided by the stator. A variable voltage is required because the motor impedance reduces at low frequencies and the current has to be limited by means of reducing the supply voltage. (Schauder, 2013).
Before the days of power electronics, a limited speed control of induction motors was achieved by switching the three stator windings from delta connection to star connection, allowing the voltage at the motor windings to be reduced. Induction motors also available with more than three stator windings to allow a change of the number of pole pairs.
However, a motor with several windings is very costly because more than three connections to the motor are needed and only certain discrete speeds are available. Another method of speed control can be realized by means of a wound rotor induction motor, where the rotor winding ends are brought out to slip rings (Malik, 2013). However, this method obviously removes themain aim of induction motors and it also introduces additional losses by connecting resistor or reactance in series with the stator windings of the induction motors, poor performance is achieved.
With the enormous advances in converters technology and the development of complex and robust control algorithms, considerable research effort is devoted for developing optimal techniques of speed control for induction machines. Induction motor control has traditionally been achieved using field oriented control (FOC). This method involves the transformation of stator currents in a synchronous manner that is in line with one of the stator fluxes. The torque and flux producing components of the stator currents are decoupled, such that the component of the stator current controlling the rotor flux magnitude and the component controls the output torquewill differ (Kazmier and Giuseppe, 2013).
The implementation of this system however is complicated. The FOC is also well known to be highly sensitive to parameter variations. It also based on accurate parameter identification to obtain the needed performance.
Another induction motor control techniques is the sensor less vector control. This control method is only for both high and low speed range. Using the method, the stator terminal voltages and currents estimate the rotor angular speed, slip angular speed and the rotor flux. In this case, around zero speed, the slip angular velocity estimation becomes very difficult.
In the mid 1980’s, Takahashi and Noguchi introduced another induction motor control technique called direct torque control (DTC) for low and medium power application (Lamchichi, 2014). In this method, stator voltage vector is selected according to the differences between the reference and actual torque and stator flux linkage. DTC has a relatively simple control structure but gives maximum result as well as the field oriented control (FOC), technique. It is also known that DTC drives is low sensitive to parameters variations and gives a high dynamic performances like fastest response of torque and flux than classical vector control. This method allows a decoupledcontrol of flux and torque without using speed or position sensors, co-ordinate transformation, pulse width modulation (PWM) technique and current regulators. This type of command involves non-linear controller type of hysteresis, for both stator flux magnitude and electromagnetic torque.
But due to the principle of operation of these controllers which is based on the Boolean logic, none of the inverter switching vectors produced is able to generate the desired changes in torque and flux. However, torque and flux ripples composed a real problem in direct torque control induction motor drive (Faliha and Rachid, 2015).

Motivation for the work
When we were on training in machine in our office, we are told gave us a drawing to produce a machine shaft. During the process, when we feed in a cut of 10mm to the machine, it would cut 9.5mm and when we wanted to drill a hole at the center of the job, it would drilled it off centered, we called on our supervisor after we have wasted much time, power and materials. Surprisingly, after his supervision, he told us that backlash in the machine is responsible for that and he instructed us to use another machine which we did and got what we need immediately. Therefore, that ugly experience motivated us to research on how to reduce high ripple torque in induction motor which is the main causes of vibrations that lead to the backlash in the industrial machine.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
• The statement of the human problem our research work will solve is to reduce backlash in industrial machine.
• Explanation of the problem

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BACKLASH
Backlash can be defined as the maximum distance or angle through which any part of a mechanical system may be moved in one direction without applying appreciable force or motion to the next part in mechanical sequence and is a mechanical form of dead band. More so, it is any non-movement that occurs during axis reversals. For instance, when x – axis is commanded to move one inch in the positive direction, immediately, after this x – axis movement, these x-axis is also commanded to move one inch in the negative direction if any backlash exists in the x-axis, then it will not immediately start moving in the negative direction and the motion departure will not be precisely one inch.
So, it can cause positioning error on holes location, if the motion required to drill the holes causes a reversal in axis direction, it also causes loses ofmotion between reducer input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate positioning in equipment such as machines tools etc.
The main cause of this problem electrically is vibrations from electric motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.

• Benefits of solving the problem
1. High quality products will be produce.
2. Productivity will increase because adjustment and readjustment of machine feeding handle or feeding screw to eliminate backlash have been reduced.
3. Operational cost will reduced.
4. Greater efficiency will be guaranteed.
5. Greater accuracy and precision of product will be guaranteed.
6. Wasting of materials will behighly reduced.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1. To develop a model that will control the error to achieve stability using DTC and fuzzy logic with duty ratio.
2. To determine the error in the torque of the machine that causes vibration which lead to backlash that result in production of less standard products.
3. To determine the position of the stator flux linkage space vector in the poles of the induction motor.
4. To determine the stator linkage flux error in the induction motor that also causes vibration.
5. To simulate the model above in the Simulink environment and validate the result.

1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE WORK
This project work is limited to the use of fuzzy logic controller with duty ratio to replace the torque and stator flux hysteresis controllers in the conventional DTC techniques. The controllers have three variable inputs, the stator flux error, electromagnetic torque error and position of stator flux linkage vector. The inference method used was the Mamdam fuzzy logic inference system. The deffuzzification method adopted in this work is the maximum criteria method.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORK
The importance of this work in industry where induction motor drives are mainly in application cannot be over emphasis.
As earlier noted, induction motors because of their ruggedness simple mechanical structure and easy maintenance; electrical drives in industries are mostly based on them.
Also, a wide range of induction motor applications require variable speed, therefore induction motor speed, if not accurately estimated will affect the efficiency of the overall industrial processes. Equally, the harmonic losses if not put in check will shorten the life span and efficiency of the motor inverter.
Based on the above, it is aimed at reducing the principle causes of the inefficiency in the DTC induction motor and improves the performance of the system.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK
The work is organized into five chapters. Various control techniques were discussed in chapter two, in chapter three, we discusses the methodology, design and implementation of the direct torque control of induction motor using fuzzy logic with duty ratio controller.
Chapter four discusses data collection, analysis and the simulated results showing the system using conventional method of control and the proposed fuzzy logic with duty ratio method of control under applied load torque conditions.
Conclusion, recommendations and suggestion for further work are mentioned in chapter five.

1.0 ABSTRACT

The uncorrected refractive error is a major public health concern and is the biggest cause of visual impairment in the world. Refractive errors can be easily corrected with spectacles. Lack of knowledge, erroneous attitude and practices, contribute significantly to the magnitude of uncorrected refractive errors
The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and type of hyperopia
in urban public primary school students as well as their performance psycho-social development.

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1.1.0 INTRODUCTION

Hyperopia results when the eye has insufficient refractive power for its axial length. The term hypermetropia comes from hyper, meaning “in excess”; met, meaning “measure”; and opia, meaning “of the eye.”
This refractive error may be the result of an eye having a relatively short axial length or reduced dioptric power of one or more of the refractive element.
Hyperopia in children has been associated with poor reading ability, low intelligence test scores, learning difficulties, and delay in visual perceptual skills development.However, the reason for these associations is unclear.
Borish” listed a number of systems for classifying hyperopia:
• Anatomical features • Degree of hyperopia • Physiological and pathological hyperopias • Action of accommodation
The prevalence of hyperopia in children appears to decrease during younger school-age years and then stabilize during adolescence.

2.0 SCOPE OF RESEARCH

The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and type of hyperopia in public primary school pupils and gender variation as well as the effects on their performance and psycho-social development. The study will be carried out in Kakamega Primary School located near Kakamega town, Lurambi constituency in Kakamega County.
The study will be carried out to find out the prevalence of hyperopia among the students. The methods that will be used include crossectional study with a mixed method approach.

3.0 RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT

What is the extent of hyperopia in school going, children

4.0 KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Does hyperopia affect performance

Does hyperopia affect the psycho-social development of children

Does gender influence hyperopia prevalence

5.0 AIM

To determine the prevalence of hyperopia in pupils of Kakamega primary in relation to quality of performance

6.0 OBJECTIVES

BROAD
To evaluate behavioural patterns of children with hyperopia
To study the effects of hyperopia on class performance

SPECIFIC
To determine the prevalence of hyperopia in students of Kakamega primary school

7.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The global prevalence of refractive errors has been estimated from 800 million to 2.3 billion 1. In Kenya, the prevalence of refractive errors among primary school children (12-15years) in urban and rural areas has been found to be 11% 2 and 5.2% 3 respectively. In urban Kenya, myopia was found to be the most prevalent refractive error, with a prevalence of 10.2%, followed by hypermetropia at 0.3% and lastly astigmatism at 0.5% 2.
On the contrary, hypermetropia was the most prevalent refractive error at 3.2% then myopia at 1.7% and astigmatism at 0.3% 3. A survey of the prevalence of refractive errors among children aged 6-9 years in Kampala, Uganda by Kawuma et al found the prevalence of refractive error to be 11.6 percent 3.
These studies give as the prevalence of refractive error in two different age groups that is 6-9years and 12-15 years. The studies were done over ten years ago and literature is lacking in our set up on recent studies. In East Africa, data are also lacking in children who are seventeen years and above, in which case emmetropisation has occurred 4 and this study was able to address these some of these discrepancies in data.
‘In the African population, a recent study conducted in northwest Ethiopia aimed to determine the prevalence of refractive error among 420 students aged 7 to 15 in the Debre Markos District, since the rates of refractive errors had not been previously examined in this region.
Snellen charts were used to identify the student’s visual acuity or auto refraction in those subjects whose visual acuity was worse than 6/12. Hyperopia was present in 1.4% of cases, although the magnitude of the error was not specified. Female sex was significantly associated with refractive error.
In Ghana, a cross sectional study was carried out to determine the rates of hyperopia in public basic schools in Kumasi. A total of 1,756 subjects were randomly selected from 11 public schools. The hyperopia prevalence rate was determined to be 33.4%. Of those subjects diagnosed with being hyperopic, 64.7% had a magnitude with aspherical equivalent lower than +1.50D, 29.2% between +1.00D and + 1.50D and the remaining 6.1% had a magnitude greater than +1.50D. Among all hyperopes, 45.9% were males and 54.1% females.
A different study in Ghana, in which 2454 children from 53 private schools were enrolled, reported that hyperopia SER >2.00D in at least one eye as measured by retinoscopy and autorefraction was found in o.3% of children.
In South Africa, a sample of 4,890 children aged 5 to 15 in Durban area was examined by means of retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegia. Hyperopia SER> +2.00D in at least one eye was present in 1.8% of children when measured with retinoscopy, slightly increasing to 2.6% when the method used was autorefraction under cycloplegia.6′

8.0 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The study will be carried out to find out the prevalence of hyperopia among the students.The general effects on performance in both boys and girls and variation.the expected study should last for 3 weeks.

9.0 RESEARCH METHODS AND MATERIALS

Study Design and Study Population: Cross-sectional school-based study with a qualitative component in at least 400 public primary school pupils of Kakamega County, Kenya.

Data collection Procedure: The pupils should be selected by multistage random sampling and those included in each class category should be based on the proportion of students in each stratification. All class 1 and 7 pupils selected should participate in the study. These classes represent an age group of 5 to 15 years.
First, a semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to the pupils followed by an eye examination that consists of visual acuity using a Log MAR chart. The cut off for defining significant refractive error is VA less than 6/12 in the better eye. For those whose vision will be less than 6/12 in the better eye, a dry objective refraction will be performed followed by subjective refraction. Pupils with spectacles are to be tested for uncorrected and corrected VA.

The power of spectacles is read using the lensometer. For those wearing spectacles and VA worse than 6/12 in the better eye with correction, objective then subjection refraction is to be done. If VA does not improve by at least two lines in all pupils anterior and posterior examination is to be performed to determine the cause. The pupils will then participate in Focus Group Discussion of 8-12 students and in-depth interviews with key informants (class or head teacher). The information gathered is to be recorded in a questionnaire or a tape recorder.

Data Analysis
Graphs, tables and charts will be used to analyse means and proportions. Chi-square test is to be used to compare means and proportions.

9.1.STUDY INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA
All class 1 and 7 pupils that will be selected will be included in the study.

9.1.1.MATERIALS REQUIRED
1. Two Retinoscopes- for refraction.
2. Two Ophthalmoscopes (direct and indirect) – For anterior and posterior segment
examination.
3. Two 20 Diopter loupe- For anterior and posterior segment examination.
4. Torches with batteries and spare bulbs- for anterior segment examination
5. 3 LogMAR charts – for visual acuity assessment
6. Refraction set and trial frames – for refraction
7. Lensometer – measuring the power of spectacles
8. Blinders( curtains)
9. Data collection forms – Questionnaires
10. Stationary- referral papers, data collection forms, pencils, pens, staplers etc.
11. The vehicle for hire and fuel
12. Tape recorder
13. Photograph

9.2.0ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

1.Permission from the head teacher of school is to be obtained
2. Assent from the students is to be sort and obtained.
3. Confidentially of students records is to be observed.
4.Spectacle correction and follow up is recommended for all the students found to have a refractive error.
5. Students with other ocular diseases will be referred to local eye hospitals.

10.0.EXPECTED RELEVANCE

a)We hope that by the end of the study we will be able to know if the presence of hyperopia affects the pupils’ academics and their psycho-social behaviour.
b)We hope to provide more detailed data to Public Health Institutions in Kenya
c)We hope to find out the prevalence of hyperopia
d)We hope to raise awareness of hyperopia

1. The character of General Zaroff is portrayed through both direct and indirect characterization. The author uses direct characterization when describing his personality and appearance through Rainsford’s eyes. He uses indirect characterization when describing Zaroff through the conversation between the general and Rainsford. Throughout the dialogue, the author gives hints and evidence pointing to certain personality traits displayed by General Zaroff. The evidence that Zaroff believes he is superior to all animals, including humans, can be found in his conversation with Rainsford where he states that he has conquered all massive beasts, animals are no longer a match for him, and he is stronger than the others. The general constantly boasts about his success in hunting and his skill set.
2. The hunter has a major advantage in the game being played. First, the hunter is one his own territory. Therefore, he is more knowledgeable of the land he is hunting on. Second, the hunter has more advanced weapons. While the prey is only armed with a hunting knife, the hunter has a pistol. The pistol is more effective than the knife when killing. Third, the hunter not only relies on himself and his skills, but also has dogs and an accomplice, Ivan, to help him catch his prey when he is not successful on his own. Fourth, the hunter has been playing this wicked game for much longer and is an avid hunter. Therefore, his skill set is much more varied and advanced than that of a sailor that crashes on the island.
3. As the story progresses, Rainsford’s ideas of hunting change. At the beginning, he is very invested in the sport and believes there is nothing wrong with what he is doing. He simply feels lucky to be the hunter and not the prey. As the stakes get higher and he is faced with a different challenge, he begins to realize that hunting, as enjoyable as it might be for him, is not exactly a good experience for his prey. When he is put in the situation of being Zaroff’s prey, he begins to understand the suffering and worry the animals he kills feel. Rainsford then feels some more sympathy and changes his view on hunting.
4. In these conversations, Rainsford is more like Zaroff because they look at the world in a very similar way. They both believe the strongest will prevail and they feel no sympathy for their prey. They simply hunt for their own entertainment without ever considering how they would feel is the roles were reversed. He differs from Zaroff because he is not as cold blooded and eager to find danger. He thinks the murder of another man is outrageous and completely wrong. At the end of the story, Rainsford becomes a little more like Whitney in the way that he now understands the suffering and pain these animals undergo and he is more considerate.
5. I would consider “The Most Dangerous Game” to be commercial fiction because the plot moves along very quickly and there are many dangerous, risky situations. Although it does contain some characterization, it is more focused on the conflict at hand and the events occurring through the story. The plot is much more intense and the theme is quite complex.
6. General Zaroff might be putting a value on Rainsford during dinner because he is going to become his prey soon. He wants to know what he is going up against and if he wins, how great his success is.
7. The location plays a huge role in the theme of this story. The island is alone in the middle of the ocean adding to the theme of suspense and solitude. There is a constant dark theme of being alone and in danger.
8. The irony of the statement “Who cares what a jaguar feels?” is that when Rainsford is put in the same position, he wants his feelings to be taken into consideration. At the end of the story, Rainsford might feel differently because he suffered what those animals have undergone and he understands and is considerate.
9. The figurative literary devices used in the beginning of the story set the ominous and frightening mood. They also foreshadow danger and events that are yet to come. These devices also point to an underlying issue discussed in this story, animal cruelty.
10. Rainsford’s past experiences helped him elude Zaroff because he had a very advanced knowledge and skill set due to his years of hunting. He was able to create a complicated trail

that would be difficult to follow. He also created successful and efficient traps.

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1 . Introduction of spectrum analyzer?
Spectrum analyzer is a measuring instrument which is use to displays an electrical signal according to its frequency .
Each frequency component contained in the input signal is displayed in the analyzer as a signal level corresponding to that frequency.
If you are designing, product, or doing field service/repair of electrical devices or systems, we want a tool that will help us to analyze the electrical signals that are passing through or being transmitted by your system or device. By analyzing the characteristics of the signal once its gone through the whole device/system, you can find the performance, find problems, troubleshoot, etc.
How do we measure these electrical signals in order to see what happens to them as they pass through our device/system and therefore verify the performance? We need a passive receiver, meaning it doesn’t do anything to the signal -it just displays it in a way that makes it easy to analyze the signal. This is called a spectrum analyzer. Spectrum analyzers usually display raw, unprocessed signal information such as voltage, power, period, wave shape, sidebands, and frequency. They can provide you with a clear and precise window into the frequency spectrum. 1
Depending upon the application, a signal could have several different characteristics. For example, in communications, in order to send information such as your voice or data, it must be modulated onto a higher frequency carrier. A modulated signal will have specific characteristics depending on the type of modulation used. When testing non-linear devices such as amplifiers or mixers, it is important to understand how these create distortion products and what these distortion products look like. Understanding the characteristics of noise and how a noise signal looks compared to other types of signals can also help you in analyzing your device/system.
Understanding the important aspects of a spectrum analyzer for measuring all of these types of signals will help you make more accurate measurements and give you confidence that you are interpreting the results correctly.
The electronics industry uses spectrum analyzers to examine the frequency spectrum of radio frequency (RF) and audio signals. These devices display the individual elements of these signals, as well as the performance of the circuits producing them. Through the use of spectrum analyzers, organizations can determine what modifications may be needed to reduce interference and thus improve the performance of Wi-Fi systems and wireless routers.
Today, as spectrum analysis software and digital or spectrum analyzer app offerings have become more common, more analyzers are able to do analogy -to-digital conversion and sample a significant input signal and frequency range. A modern spectrum analyzer may be able to show displayed average noise level, calculating the average noise level detected by the device. These detectors are typically capable of sample detection, peak detection or average detection. 3

?
2.Types of Tests Made

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Modulation, distortion, and noise are the most common spectrum analyzer measurements
It’s important to make sure your system is working properly confirms by Measuring the quality of the modulation and that the information is being transmitted properly. Understanding the spectral content is important, especially there is very limited bandwidth in the communication. The amount of power being transmitted (for example, to overcome the channel impairments in wireless systems) is another key measurement in communications. The example of common modulation measurements are Tests such as modulation degree, sideband amplitude, modulation quality, occupied bandwidth. 1
In communications, both the receiver and transmitter are critical in the measuring distortion. Excessive harmonic distortion at the output of a transmitter can interfere with other communication bands. The pre-amplification stages in a receiver must be free of inter modulation distortion to prevent signal crosstalk. An example is the inter modulation of cable TV carriers that moves down the trunk of the distribution system and distorts other channels on the same cable. Inter modulation, harmonics, and spurious emissions are including in the common distortions measurements.
The signal you want to measure the noise often. Any active circuit or device/system will generate noise. Tests such as noise figure and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are important for characterizing the performance of a device and its contribution to overall system noise.
If we want to understand the operation of the spectrum analyzer and the spectrum analyzer performance required for your specific measurement and test specifications it is important for all of these spectrum analyser measurements. This will help you choose the right analyzer for your application as well as get the most out of it.2
?
3. Measurement Categories

Traditionally, when you want to look at an electrical signal, you use an oscilloscope to see how the signal varies with time. This is very important information; however, it doesn’t give you the full picture. To fully understand the performance of your device/system, you will also want to analyze the signal(s) in the frequency-domain. This is a graphical representation of the signal’s amplitude as a function of frequency The spectrum analyzer is to the frequency domain as the oscilloscope is to the time domain. (It is important to note that spectrum analyzers can also be used in the fixed-tune mode (zero span) to provide time-domain measurement capability much like that of an oscilloscope.)
The figure shows a signal in both the time and the frequency domains. In the time domain, all frequency components of the signal are summed together and displayed. In the frequency domain, complex signals (that is, signals composed of more than one frequency) are separated into their frequency components, and the level at each frequency is displayed.2
Frequency domain measurements have several distinct advantages. For example, let’s say you’re looking at a signal on an oscilloscope that appears to be a pure sine wave. A pure sine wave has no harmonic distortion. If you look at the signal on a spectrum analyzer, you may find that your signal is actually made up of several frequencies. What was not discernible on the oscilloscope becomes very apparent on the spectrum analyzer.
Some structures are inherently frequency area orientated. For example, many telecommunications systems use what is referred to as Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM). In these structures, one of a kind users are assigned extraordinary frequencies for transmitting and receiving, together with with a cellular smartphone. Radio stations also use FDM, with every station in a given geographical location occupying a specific frequency band. These forms of systems ought to be analyzed within the frequency domain so as to make certain that no person is meddling with users/radio stations on neigh uninteresting frequencies. How measuring with a frequency domain analyzer can greatly lessen the amount of noise present within the dimension because of its capacity to slim the size bandwidth . 3
From this view of the spectrum, measurements of frequency, power, harmonic content, modulation, spurs, and noise can easily be made. Given the capability to measure these quantities, if we use the spectrum analyzer we can determine the total harmonic distortion, occupied bandwidth, signal stability, output power, inter modulation distortion, power bandwidth, carrier-to-noise ratio, and a host of other measurements.
The different between Oscilloscope waveforms and Spectrum analyzer waveforms
Oscilloscope waveforms vs Oscilloscope waveforms wave forms

4.Principals of a Spectrum Analyzer

The important components in a spectrum analyzer are the ATT, mixer, IF (Intermediate Frequency) gain, IF filter, detector, video filter, local oscillator, sweep generator, and CPU. Let’s we can understand about these components in the spectrum analyzer clearly. 4

5. Characteristics

5. 1. Suitable Input Level
When the signal and local oscillator are connected with the mixer input, the suitable input level is the distortion level specification that doesn’t influence the measurement. The level in connection between the input signal and the distortion is specified at the mixer input level, not at the input connector. Therefore, the RF attenuator attenuates the input signal to a suitable mixer input level. 1

5. 2.Maximum Input Level
The maximum input level prevents damage to the input circuit. It is depend on the input levels to the Attenuator and Mixer. A mixer is a three-port device the mixer can converts a signal from one frequency to another frequency (sometimes called a frequency translation device).
We can apply the input signal to one input port, and the Local Oscillator signal to the other port. According to the definition, mixer is a non-linear device, which means that there will be frequencies at the output that were not present at the input. 4

The original input signals are output frequencies that will be produced by the mixer, plus the sum and difference frequencies of these two signals. It is the difference frequency that is of interest in the spectrum analyzer, which we will see briefly.
We call this signal the IF signal, IF signal mean Intermediate Frequency signal. The input is usually connected to the primary mixer with only the input attenuator control, often labelled RF level, between them. Accordingly RF can be applied directly to the mixer with no protection.

It is therefore very important to ensure that the input is not overloaded and damaged. One major and expensive cause of damage on spectrum analysers is the input mixer being blown when the analyser is measuring high power circuits. 3

5.3 Measurement Frequency Range
The measurement frequency range is determined by the centre frequency of the IF filter and the local oscillator frequency range. The IF filter is a band pass filter which is used as the “window” for detecting signals . Its bandwidth is also called the resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the analyzer and can be changed via the front panel of the analyzer.
By giving you a broad range of variable resolution bandwidth settings, the instrument can be optimized for the sweep and signal conditions, letting you trade-off frequency selectivity (the ability to resolve signals), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and measurement speed.
We can see from the slide that as RBW is narrowed, selectivity is improved (we are able to resolve the two input signals). This will also often improve SNR. The sweep speed and trace update rate, however, will degrade with narrower RBWs. The optimum RBW setting depends heavily on the characteristics of the signals of interest
Input Signal Freq = Local Signal Freq. – IF Freq.
The mixer uses to mixer the input signal and the local signal. IF filter use to filter the mixer output with centre frequency fc and displayed on the screen.
The IF filter, sometimes labelled as the resolution bandwidth adjusts the resolution of the spectrum analyzer in terms of the frequency. Using a narrow filter is the same as using a narrow resolution bandwidth on a radio receiver.
Choosing a narrow filter bandwidth or resolution on the spectrum analyzer will enable signals to be seen that are close together. Which will also reduce the noise level and enable smaller signals to be seen.2

5.3 Sideband Noise
It appears in the base of the spectrum because of noise in the internal local signal source. Sideband noise shows the signal purity, and the performance of nearby signal analysis is determined by this characteristic. It is specified by how many dB down from the center at an offset of 10kHz (or 100kHz) when the resolution bandwidth (RBW) is narrow enough, and a high purity signal is input .

For the local signal source, the dotted line spectrum is the ideal. However, it actually has sideband noise like the solid line. Masking occurs by the sideband noise when there is a nearby A or B signal and it is not possible to detect it.
5.4 Resolution bandwidth for frequency (RBW)
Two input signals can be seen as two spectrum waveforms only if they exceed the 3dB bandwidth of the IF filter.The 3dB bandwidth of this IF filter is called the resolution bandwidth RBW. Resolution is an important specification when you are trying to measure signals that are close together and want to be able to distinguish them from each other. We saw that the IF filter bandwidth is also known as the resolution bandwidth (RBW). This is because it is the IF filter bandwidth and shape that determines the resolvability between signals.
In addition to filter bandwidth, the selectivity, filter type, residual FM, and noise sidebands are factors to consider in determining useful resolution. We shall examine each of these in turn. 1

Selectivity=(60dB Bandwidth )/(3dB Bandwidth)

e.g. The specification of MS8609A: Selectivity

1. About the Author. The book is written by Gen Stanley McChrystal, a retired United States Army General, best acknowledged for his role as the leader of Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). He has written two other books on leadership, ‘Leaders: myth and reality’ (2018) and ‘My share of the task’ (2012). His last assignment before retiring was to lead the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and the U.S. Forces in Afghanistan. The death of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, has been attributed to the focused and innovative efforts of the General. The author is known to be bold and is recognised for highlighting what other military leaders were afraid to bring out. This was one of the prime reasons why he was chosen to lead all forces in Afghanistan. Former US Defence Secretary Robert Gates described the author as, “Perhaps the finest warrior and leader of men in combat I ever met”. The author’s wealth of experience from his military career and his research, from sources as diverse as hospital emergency rooms to NASA’s space program, suitably qualifies him to cover the subject in detail.

2. About the Book. Team of Teams gives a perception of the contemporary application of leadership and management in today’s intricate world. The book is not a study of past military events, but alternatively, a brief and exceptional compendium of intuitive thoughts. It puts forward delightful narratives varying from locations like industries to hospital emergency rooms. The book is recommended for leaders from all organisations. It brings out the pressing requirements to shatter the result of siloed teams or a strict hierarchical structure. The author suggests ideas to overcome limitations that leave decision making unproductive in the modern domain.

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3. The discussions in the book are primarily on organisational management theory and leadership methods. The book does not suggest a particular way or a secret to becoming a great leader. In fact, it focuses on becoming a unique individual, who has the ability to guide each member of his team to evolve into exceptional leaders at their level. An alternate title may have been ‘Empowered execution through trust and purpose’.

Synopsis

4. The book is written in a very simple and lucid manner. Even though a retired military general has written the book, its application is not limited to the military. The author has suggested that even business executives could effectively apply wartime lessons to their boardrooms. The author has covered a vast canvass in the book and has touched upon various issues relevant to modern leadership. Using simple logic he draws parallels to show, how the challenges faced by the US Special Forces in Iraq can be relevant for any leader.

5. The Strong Points. The author believes that the world is now so complex (vice complicated as explained in the book) that the old models of command and control are extinct. The Task Force’s journey towards shared consciousness and smart autonomy start in 2003, with the stunning realisation that the result of the war was tilting in Al Qaeda’s favour. The author then interlaces interesting examples and case studies of organisational models, leadership techniques, and technological advances from a variety of areas. These examples are extremely helpful in understanding the associated situation. The examples include big data, basketball, airline customer service, aircraft crew, NASA, plastic surgeons, SEAL training, the enduring effects of Ritz Carlton and many more.

6. The discussions found in the various chapters of the book are wide-ranging but relevant to directing all organisations in this modern world. The following facts highlighted in the book may be of interest to today’s leaders:-

(a) The difference between complicated and complex environments.

(b) The understanding that having more information available does not improve prediction nor lead to smarter decisions.

(c) The value of using your best people as ‘liaison officers’ or ’embeds’.

(d) How resilient people make organisations stronger because they can adapt to changing environments.

(e) To learn from your adversary is extremely important, the adversary might have a better organisational model not necessarily better people.

(f) How to delegate authority?

(g) How to build a shared awareness of the big picture – ‘eyes on, hands off’ leadership?

7. The book highlights the point that by changing their culture, structure, and habits the Task Force became as agile and capable as its individual commandos. The details of the successful operations that the Task Force undertook after the shift have been described well. The Task Force invested in trust, transparency and authorised decision making at all levels. The success of this theory was evident in the example of a follow-on-target operation given in the book. The Task Force took risks and their leaders supported them. The force learned from the enemy and finally beat Al-Qaeda Intelligence at its own game.

8. The author states that success comes from giving freedom to subordinates, increasing the speed of action and achieving self-synchronisation – in a nutshell by a decentralised command. The concept is about realising that in order for organisations to take advantage of fleeting opportunities teams must be empowered at the lowest levels to take action. This includes allowing everyone in the organisation to have a say about the direction of the ship and encourage every member to alert others of impending icebergs. General McChrystal also echoes the need to repeatedly broadcast the goals and strategy of the organisation, so that everyone knows and is always on the same page.

9. The author has at the end of every chapter given a block ‘Recap’ of all relevant topics. A summary of the chapter and a revision of what the author wanted to convey. This helps the reader collate his thoughts and link them once again to the relevant examples covered in the chapter. Even when the reader refers to the book in the future, a quick glance at the summary should be quite effective in recapitulating the essence of each chapter. Thus the subsequent reads of the book will be much simpler and brisk.

10. The Only Shortfall. The book lacks an in-depth deliberation on the importance of planning, strategic thinking and details of a specific master plan. The book’s thought process allows organisations to be adaptable and resilient, but there is a definite and irreplaceable role for forethought and strategy which is missing. Maybe it is as straightforward as the old saying ‘the plan is nothing but planning is everything’. One simple reason for this may be the author’s deliberate effort to avoid any classified discussions or data to be included, as this would all be made available on the open source.

11. Conclusion. The book is only 252 pages long but it is full of simple time-tested ideas that can be put into action with little cost implications. General Stan McChrystal describes that the difficult part of shared consciousness is getting your team to realise that they have been empowered to make decisions. He iterates that this task mostly falls on the senior leaders of an organisation. The author also accepts that this method can be exhausting and requires disciplined leadership at all levels, but states that the rewards are unmatched. The book has key lessons for any organisation to be successful in a complex environment and effectively illustrates that whether in war or in business, the ability to react quickly and adapt is critical. This becomes even more relevant as technology and disruptive forces increase the pace of change. The focus on new ways to communicate within an organisation and to work together is imperative. All major challenges can be resolved by operational adaptability and by establishing a team of teams.

12. This book shows the reader how to adapt to the complex world we find ourselves in. Team of teams documents how the most professional and deadly special operations force found itself humbled by an enemy that was better adapted to the 21st century way of war. More importantly, it’s about how leaders at all levels need to be unassertive enough to realise when to change their old ways and trust their people to make rapid yet informed decisions. The focus on harnessing and sharing the experiences of many teams is to adapt quickly to changing events at the lowest level. This also delivers innovative solutions that may not be achieved by a top-down approach. The book has shown not just how a military team will make a transition to decentralised control, but also how similar shifts are possible in corporate organisations, large companies, startups and also in governments. The author has overall presented a compelling and effective solution.

1.8 Research Questions
? The research questions (RQ) for this study are:
? Objective 1. What is the amount of economic order of the Aref Contracting Company ?
? Objective 2. Does the company buy in the amount of the economic order?
? Objective 3. What basic inventory models are most common for contractor companies and manufacturing companies?
? Objective 4. What should be the size of the inventory?
? 5. Is there a link between inventory levels and profitability?
1.9 Scope of Research
Inventory management is really a very broad area, but this study is limited to contractor companies, with special reference to the Aref Contractor Company in Jeddah Saudi Arabia.
the Investigations in this project is to what extent the inventory managment have affected the profitability, efficiency e.t.c. Also, attempts are made to analyses
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any cost savings . Efforts are also made to relate the level of inventory to the level of production and sales. Finally, inventory costs are related to the levels of profit with the aid of basic statistical tools .
1.10 Significant of the Study
It is important to consider the social and economic commitment to the growth of the country . So that all the ways that will improve the company’s growth ,it must be exploited, so the researcher’s hope is that this study is useful for owner of Aref Contractor Company and others.
This research project would help the management of Aref Contractor Company, to identify the most influential risk of inventory management and production. Furthermore, the study will also help the management of the company, to guide against losses .
1.11 Report Organization
In this course, three chapters will be covered that comprises introduction, literature review, and methodology.
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CHAPTER 2
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction
Of course, no one thought of an issue in the same way, but the profit of the companies depends on the good management , an issue that seems to be unanimous among the leaders of the company. This is what happened here, when we try to examine and examine the past and present work that deals with inventory management and the development of an economic quantity model suitable for contractor companies. The subject of inventory management has sparked much debate in public debates, workshops and symposia, at the local, national and international levels, between public institutions and policy makers, organizations and academics. Various efforts have been made through the management of new businesses through projects, incentives, etc. For the organization of workshops in the same field. A study of most scripts in inventory management has some common and interesting features. Many of these writings deal with most of the problems associated with inventory management; others still focus on the best inventory management model.
This literature review was largely based on journals, some ,owner interview and expert opinions on issues relevant to the objectives of this study. It is divided into the following items:
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? Historical sketch of inventory problems
? Specification of an inventory system
? Problem of inventory management
? Inventory Management Techniques
? Re-Order Level
? Economic Order Quantity
? Just-In-Time.
? Vendor Managed Inventory
? Activity Based Costing ( ABC )
? The balanced scorecard
2.2 Inventory management
Inventory management could be a bargains with administration of settled and current resources. Moreover, it involves the management of day by day operational supplies and in our case. Stock is additionally a basic resource in any organization in
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spite of the fact that agreeing to Barnes (2008) stock is looked at as a risk beneath the just-in-time (JIT) control framework. He agrees with the way accountants treat stock as an resource to the organization. Within the explanation of money related position, stock shows up beneath the current resources of the organization in any case whether it’s for benefit or not for benefit organization. Stock plays a major role and its administration goes a long way in making a difference a firm to develop because it relates to its external customers as well as the inner clients (Gibson, 2013). Therefore, stock is basic within the operation of Aref Contractor Company since they may hold stock as finished products, work in progress or raw materials for advance preparing (Fellows and Rottger (2005) and Shapiro (2009)). Shapiro, (2009) also advises that stock plays a crucial part when it comes to demand 15 planning and as a result, the organization needs to be flexible in its management of its stock when it comes to occasional or regular inventories.
Directors cannot avoid inventory management since it shapes the basis of their in general performance through disposal of uncertainties in their management. For the boards and management of Aref Contractor Company to find out that they are performing over standards, inventory management metric measures should be over board so that they may keep up the management’s certainty (Shapiro, 2009). Subsequently, Just-in-time concept has been found to have a few outlandish hidden cost that increment the cost of doing business in a few cases such as little suppliers to expansive companies .
In any case, the management of stock is important because the firm will be keen to guarantee that its resources and stock are well managed and request estimating is improved to avoid spontaneous acquirement. Stock can double up as stock and resources respectively. Therefore, when an organization improves request estimating, it enables the minimization of operational costs as well as client satisfaction (Hines and Bruce, 2007). When this is often done, it enables an organization plan for the longer term consequently applying different factors that an organization can use for its objective achievement to be specific: request and supply, taken a toll and staff requirements.
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2.3 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF INVENTORY PROBLEMS: Although inventory problems are as old as history itself, it has only been since the turn of the century that any attempts has been made to employ analytical techniques in studying these problems. The initial impetus for the use of mathematical methods in inventory analysisseems to have been supplied by the concurrent growth of the contractor company and the various branches of engineering, – especially industrial engineering. The real need for analysis was first recognized in industries that had a combination of production scheduling problems and inventory problems i.e. in situations in which items were produced in lots – the cost of set up being fairly high – and then stored at a factory warehouse (Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R. and Ray, S., 2003).
2.4 SPECIFICATION OF AN INVENTORY SYSTEM:
The inventory system is basically an input-output system. In order to arrive at the best inventory policy i.e. the best decision rules for when and how much to order, it is necessary to have a clear picture of the inventory system.
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Figure 1 An input-Output representation of an Inventory System.
2.5 PROBLEM OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:
The problem of inventory involves the formulation of decision rules that answer two important questions:
1. When to place an order (or configure it for production) to restoreinventory?
2. How much should you ask for (or produce) for each supply? the decision-making rules should aim to meet the expected demand at a minimum or maximum cost of benefits. (Puche, J., Ponte, B., Costas, J., Pino, R. and De la Fuente, D., 2016).
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In many situations, our assumptions about known quatity and zero or constant delay are not valid. Demand and delay are often variable quantities, so we know best only their probability distribution. If we assume that the question and the delay are random variables, the analysis of the inventory management problem will become very complex. It has been found, however, that reasonably good situations can be obtained for many practical inventory management problems by assuming that the delay is a known constant.
2.6 Inventory management techniques
Inventory management techniques are extremely critical for business operations because their success and cost decrease of the firm’s use require improved supply chain performance and information to the workers (Lambert, 2008). These procedures are basic and information in them is profoundly desirable in this way, managers and obtainment staff need to be able to apply the procedures for the advantage of the organization (Fellows and Rottger, 2005).
Wild (2002) suggests, proper warehousing of stock so that when products items are requested, they are kept at the warehouse for the least time possible minimizing holding cost of stock. Consequently, other operational costs may increase inventory management costs. The way an organization is able to maintain its costs at low levels the way better it is for the year end profits (Palevich, (2012), Wisner, Tan and Leong (2011)). Organizations purchase and sell their stock; there continuously arises balance at the end of the year which have to be be carried over to the next year. Once an organization realizes this, it can create online stock management tool to monitor its stock information by breaking it down into groups by
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connecting the categories with its clients. Since organizations works differently in numerous fields, the stock can be classifies by either seasons or financial year conclusion of your most critical clients thus, request forecasting got to be employed to have an proficient supply chain (Poiger, 2010).
2.6.1 Re-Order Level
As organization endeavor to achieve effectiveness, they should be able to understand their ReOrder Levels (ROL) which empowers them know when to order and when not to order. This may be accomplished through the use of quantitative strategies which require proper inventory management (Apte, 2010). Re-Order level is critical for Aref Contractor Company to attain optimal efficiency and be successful leading to high supply chain performance and client satisfaction, at that point they need to have two reorder levels one that’s normal whereas the other is an emergency one in case of disaster (Beamon and Kotleba, 2006).
2.6.2 Economic Order Quantity
Bachetti, Plebani, Saccani and Syntetos (2010) contends that inventory management got to be organized in a consistent way so that the organization can be able to know when to order and how much to order. This will only be accomplished through the Economic Order Amount (EOQ) computation. Economic order amount enables organization to plan their stock replenishment on a timely basis such as month to month, quarterly, half yearly or yearly basis. By so doing, it empowers firms to have minimal storage costs or zero within their warehouses since stock is coming in and going out instantly. In this way, this tends towards the just in time concept of supply chain management received by Toyota motor Organization in Japan which helps in having zero holding costs, (Schonberger, 2008). In this way, as
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organizations try to progress on the stock management, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Re-order Point (ROP) are critical tools that organizations can use to guarantee that stock supply does not hit a stock out as explained by Gonzalez and Gonzalez (2010). Over time, organizations have been keeping up their stock in a haphazard way which has required a change within the way firms conduct their business. Stock outs have been experienced adversely leading to client dissatisfaction hence; firms are changing their approach to be able to stay important by employing Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Re-order Point (ROP) for client satisfaction.
The derivation of the basic EOQ model (Quantity of economic order) is quite simple in a situation
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Figure 2 EQO Equivalents
To determine the economic order quantity given the fixed demand assumption, we can
evaluate the following model:
D = Total annual demand in unit
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Q = Economic order quantity in unit
D/Q = Number of orders placed and received during the year
Q/2 = Average inventory
Co = Cost of placing an order
Cc = Carrying cost per unit of inventory during the year
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Total inventory cost is defined as the whole of ordering cost and carrying cost. To define total inventory cost in terms of the controllable variable order amount (Q), we must express both types of cost in terms of amount. Total ordering cost can be gotten by multiplying the number of orders D/Q by the cost of placing an order (Co), consequently:
Annual ordering cost = D/Q Co
So also, annual carrying cost can be found by multiplying the carrying cost per unit of inventory (Cc) by the average number of units in stock (Q/2). This expression for average inventory accept a steady rate of demand all through the year.
Annual carrying cost = D/2 Cc
Combining the two components, we get total inventory cost for the period:
TC = D/Q Co + Q/2 Cc
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Review that this variable can be controlled by management to yield the least cost for inventory amid a particular time period. From Fig. 2.5.2 we know that optimum solution is that quantity (Q*) that can therefore be gotten by setting the equation for ordering cost equals to the equation for carrying cost and solving for Q: thus:
Annual carrying cost = annual carrying cost
Cc Q/2 = DCo/Q
Cc Q2 = 2DCo
Q2 = 2DCo/Cc
Equation 1
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The ideal solution is also obtained by separating the total cost function to get an equation that expresses the rate of change in total cost with respect to changes in quantity. When the first derivative of the total cost function is set equal to zero, the economic order quantity is obtained by solving for Q.
The operation is as follows in three steps:
1. Take the first derivatives of total cost function:
TC = D/Q Co + Q/2 CC
d(TC)/dQ = -DCo/Q2 + Cc/2
2. Set the first derivative equal to zero, and solve for Q:
-DCo/Q2 + Cc/2 = 0
Equation 2
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3. Test to determine the solution is a minimum.
d2(TC)/dQ2 = 2DCo/Q3 0
Given the assumption of fixed demand, the equation can be utilized in finding the economic order quantity (Q*), which is equal to the square root of 2 times demand (D) times ordering cost (Co) divided by carrying cost (Cc) For example; assume the following example:
D = 3000 units per annum
Co = N30
CC = N2 per unit per year
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To obtain the Economic order quantity, we evaluate the basic equation using the values for demand, ordering cost and carrying cost.
Q = ?(2 × 300 × 30 ÷ 2)
?(900)
Q = 300 units
The optimum order quantity is 300 units. Observe that a total of ten order will be placed.
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D = 3000 = 10
Q* = 300
For a total cost due to ordering of 300. Average inventory will be 150 units.
Q*/2 = 300/2 = 150
an inventory carrying cost will equal N300. Therefore, total inventory cost will be equal to N600.
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2.6.3 Just-in-time
Just-in-time (JIT) is a positive performance to the company . Inventory should be managed by using JIM to reduce loses and customer`s satisfaction. Invontory management in organizations that kept too much stock in their warehouse were an wasteful supply chain, whereas those that kept very few stock in their warehouse were exceptionally productive (Lai and Cheng, 2009). Thus, it was found out that keeping direct stock is nice and it empowers an organization work minimal costs of holding costs as well as keep setup cost at bare minimum, increase unwanted lead time and produce goods as per clients order. Eventually, this empowers an organization accomplish total quality control (TQC) as efficient and successful supply chain management are employed inside a firm’s value chain (Datta, 2007).
Figure 3 Source: manufacturingtomorrow.com
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2.6.4 Activity Based Costing Analysis
Fellows and Rottger (2005) agree that having stock in your store has an advantage for the organization since clients will be satisfied immediately . With stock in your warehouse, an organization has the advantage of timely delivery . Thus, Aref Contractor Company got to guarantee that they have adequate stock for their operations . One way they can accomplish this is thorough the “Pareto Analysis” also known as Activity Based Costing (ABC) analysis. ABC analysis is where stocks are classified into three categories to be specific : A – stock items that are of high value and material to the organization but low volume such as building and engine vehicles; B – stock items which are of medium volume; C – stock items baring minimal value but are of big volume .
2.6.5 Vendor Managed Inventory
Management of inventory decides the way an organization will pushed itself to tall performance efficiency. A few organizations have resulted to vendor managed inventory (VMI) systems which help the provider to monitor customer’s stock usage. Through this VMI system, clients will avoid stock outs since the suppliers will have already recharged their inventory. The key viewpoint here is communication which should be planned well from the starting of business relations between the supplier and the customer (Frahm, 2003). Vendor managed inventory saves an organization immense finance and time since the supplier will be able to monitor its customer’s stock levels and make a point of replenishing them. As the client and supplier connected, the communication channel has to be clear and quick so that they may avoid instances of stock outs. Where the client expects having an irregular order levels, they should notify the supplier so that they can adjust their production to cater
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for the demand. Moreover, we presently have Joint Managed Inventory (JMI) which is an progress level of vendor managed inventory (VMI). It looks for to integrate the supplier more firmly into the customer’s organization by using the point of sale (POS) which permits the supplier to see the real time data of its customer’s stock (Frahm, 2003).
2.6.6 The balanced scorecard
The balanced scorecard has been used to evaluate the quality of inventory management performance measure and its improvement. In any case, the balance scorecard complements financial measures of past performance with measures of drivers of future performance. The objectives and measures for organizational inventory management performance come from four perspectives; financial, client, internal process and learning and development (BPP, 2008). Consequently, Aref Contractor Company Balance scorecard in relation to transport management has been molded to upgrade its transport and requirements owing to the fact that it has multi-discipline functionalities in its operations. The performance management of Aref Contractor Company has been improved and progressed to foster smooth running of the institution over Jeddah ,Saudi Arabia by guaranteeing that clients are treated well (Sutherland, David and Alistair, 2002).
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2.7 Theoretical Recommendation
It is expected that the application of Economic Order Amount, Marginal Analysis, and Just-in-Time, will improve Aref Contractor Company performance. As the staff gets it the strengths of having these strategies, at that point the unnecessary costs caused will be avoided. Therefore, the strategies will progress performance within the following ways:
No Inventory Management Techniques How Performance Improvement will be achieved 1 Economic Order Amount Ability to know how much and when to replenish stock 2 Activity Based Costing Analysis The organization is able to account for each inventory according to its classification and this can be achieved through the Pareto analysis . 3 Just-in-Time Requesting stock when they are required thus reducing storage/holding costs
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Vendor Managed Inventory Improving on inventory management systems by engaging outsourced suppliers to management inventory observing and replenishment.
Table 1 Theoretical Recommendation.
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CHAPTER 3
3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
It would have been best to conduct this research in all the manufacturing companies and contractors companies in Saudi Arabia in arrange to seek after excellence and at the same time achieve the most excellent possible result. However, such a huge amount of companies will pose a few issues. As a result of the attendant monetary, time and other limitations, the research has limited this investigation to only one contractor company in Saudi Arabia: Aref Contractor Company.
3.2 Method for Information collection and analysis
The information used for this investigation were collected from primary and secondary sources of information.
3.2.1 PRIMARY SOURCES
The information were collected from the works accountant, production manager, marketing manager, sale official and other people from the chosen company. It was facilitated through questions, perception and oral interview. These
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instruments and other means of information collection were found convenient for this study because they helped to induce the view of the literate members of the company . Secondly, in a investigate work of this nature, where information collected will be totally analyzed, the researcher considered it very shrewd to use more of questions in order to avoid gathering of information that will have very small or no pertinence to the subject matter beneath study. Also, considering the kind of respondent being tended to, it was found most attractive because it does not require expound reply. Most of the questions are basic “yes” or “no” type. However others are such that require the respondent to rate a statement into choices; such as “strongly agreed”, “undecided”, “disagree” etc. The survey, generally utilizes a printed format that efficiently indicates all the questions as well as the arrangement to which they are to be presented. All these steps were made for easier investigation of information and result.
3.2.2 SECONDARY SOURCES
The result of existing literatures on stock management helped in~measurablyi n directing the researcher during the study. Other secondary sources of information include:
1.Newspapers
2.Magazines and Periodicals
3.Reference books and Dictionaries
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4.Course reading materials
5.Secondary information also exists within the company
6.Examination of the company’s yearly reports and journals.
3.3 Pilot survey
A pilot overview was carried out to eliminate all ambiguous questions from the study instrument used. The pilot study was similarly carried out since the level of understanding contrasts among the respondents. The sample for this pre-testing was drawn from the company reviewed. The pilot study empowered the researcher to test the respondents’ attitudes to the questions and terms used.
3.4 Sample techniques
For easier collection of information, only Aref Contractor Company was used as a case study, since all others might not be covered as a result of time and financial constraints. The observations and results got from the company were used to generalize and predict what is obtainable in all other contractor companies, particularly within the areas of their stock management.
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3.5 PROCEDURE AND TECHNIQUES FOR DATA ANALYSIS:
Majority of the questions within the survey have relevance to the speculation and investigate questions raised earlier. Information from the different questions were categorized concurring to their pertinence to the confirmation of the theory of this research project and realization of the stated goals. The information were analyzed utilizing basic statistical (eg mean, chi-square, regression and correlation co-efficient) and mathematical methods. The economic order quantity of the company was calculated after estimating a few figures, as a few of the required figures were not in existence within the company’s books.
However, from the available information, relationship between certain variables were determined and analyzed. The relationship that existed between variables have been tested within the speculation for validity and reliability. Information for writing survey were obtained from relevant books. Most quantitative information were drawn from the accounts office of the Aref Contractor Company.
3.6 Summary
This study sort to answer the questions what is the inventory management techniques application, how to determine the affect and challenges of inventory management techniques and how to determine the challenges of inventory
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management techniques in Aref Contractor Company .It was established that Aref Contractor Company has worked for more than ten years meaning they have been developing . However, the Aref Contractor Company should embrace inventory management techniques so that they can gain more profits and they extend all across of Saudi Arabia

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The first chapter deals about the nature of industry, conceptual and theoretical findings observed in L&T Construction under Human Resources department. The profile of the industry and company is also included.
1.2 CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF TRAINING NEED ANAYLSIS
Training needs analysis (TNA) is a process in which needs are identified and broken into their component parts to determine the solutions of the problem. It determines the gap between ‘what is’ and ‘what should be’ situations. It is the process used to identify the training and development needs of your employees (all trades, professions, employees and contractors), so that they can carry out their job effectively, safely and efficiently, and develop their careers (sucession planning). The TNA considers the skills, knowledge and attributes (behaviours) that your people need and how to identify and develop them effectively. The outcome of your TNA should be a robust learning and development plan, based on identified requirements and linked to organisational, team and individual objectives. When carried out effectively, a TNA will have many positive effects for your organisation, teams and individuals, as the training which follows as a result of the TNA should be relevant and meet their development needs.
1.1.1 THE TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS (TNA) PROCESS
The TNA process is about gathering information to identify gaps between job knowledge and skills required now or for future employment needs and the current knowledge and skills of an employee or group of employees. Training and management development activity has to be properly planned and the first priority for anyone designing training programs is to figure out how the proposed training enhances an organizations ability to deliver quality and thereby stay in business. According to Richard D. Miller (1969) assessment of training needs, objectives setting, design implementation and evaluation are various phases in the process of training.
A training need may be described as existing any time an actual condition differs from a desired condition in the human, or “people” aspect of organization performance or, more specifically, when a change in present human knowledge’s, skills, or attitudes can bring about the desired performance (James H. Morrison, ASTD Hand book, 1976). There are three ways to get at training needs:
1. Assuming a performance problem has been identified with a particular group, survey that group for whom training may be needed, their supervisors, the receivers of the product or services provided by that 65 group, and their subordinates, if any. Here the focus is on the group responses which, when analyzed properly, can lead to the preparation of training for individuals, usually in groups.
2. Conduct organizational audits that review production financial, personnel, and other operational data from records and reports to uncover problem areas susceptible to correction through training and/or development. A full functional audit of an area may need to be conducted to get a thorough analysis of the situation. Here the focus is on “results” of activities, and work backward to the causes to identify training needs.
3. Assess an individual’s achievement levels, knowledge’s, potentials, behaviors, skills, and performance; prepare a needs analysis; and plan development and training specifically for that individual. Similar techniques may be used with groups of individuals, but the focus is on the individual, and the outcome should include individual development plans.
1.1.2 TRAINING DESIGN
The design stage of the training follows the TNA stage. During this stage, it is very important that training methods selected must match the training needs, and the training strategy and planning must be appropriate to the training objective and circumstances. The key parties that must be involved in the training design should include the organisation’s representative, the line management, the training manager and/or the training officer and the trainee. The application of the training procedures must be in the hands of personnel who are able to apply a variety of competences in flexible ways to mesh with the organisation’s operational considerations. The decision to determine the appropriate training strategy should be based on the training compatibility with the objectives, estimated likelihood of transfer of learning to the work situation, available resources and trainee related factors. From this, the training can be designed to be on-thejob, planned organisational experience, in-house programs, planned experience outside the organization, external courses, self-managed learning, or a combination of these approaches. In contrast to traditional training, the design of competence-based trainings must be based on explicit and measurable performance because it needs to reflect the actual expectations and performance in the work role.
1.1.3 TRAINING IMPLEMENTATION
Training implementation is putting the training design into practice. The mechanistic “traditional” training approach has now greatly changed, replaced with the modern approach that emphasise more of coaching and facilitating. The training spectrum may vary from highly directive to free-learning, guided-learning, lecture/discussion, presentation, instruction and conditioning for individuals or as a group. The training needs to be different for different people but concurrent with the different kinds of tasks they undertake. In most situations, formal training entails deliberate and structured presentation of experiences and must be related to its purpose. The training policy and plan must be the key reference for implementing training. Task force exercise, case discussion, simulation and games; role-play exercise, group discussion, individual exercise, presentation/lectures and behavior modelling are the common training methods, and may be carried out through external or internal providers. The trainer must be committed and equipped with wide-ranging toolkit of ideas, techniques, methods and approaches which can be adopted as and when most appropriate. On-the-job training is often very effective, flexible and relatively low-cost, but can be ineffective if it is too detached from the actual job-environment or, if it does not follow guidelines of standard training programs. Competence-based training often have modular outlines. It must take into account occupational constraints such as availability of target groups, training premises, possible need for several programs and the atmosphere at the job location. The training activity must be realistic to the preferred learning styles of the target group. The delivery of training or learning needs to be clearly focused on what happens at the job place and not just what happens during the learning/training events
1.1.4 TRAINING EVALUATION
Training evaluation is the assessment of the total value of a training system, which considers the training course or program in technical, social as well as financial terms. It attempt to measure the overall cost benefit of the course. It must encompass a systematic collection of data relevant to the selection, adoption or modification of training and developmental activities, and must be an on-going process from which continuous corrective action can be introduced to ensure an ever-improving training. There are differing views as to who should be evaluating the training, but most views tend to agree that senior managers, line managers, training managers, trainers and learners must be included. It is imperative that evaluations must be impartial. Evaluation should be done before training starts. A baseline data must be established to measure the training program response, on-the-job action, business-focus results and the organisational impact of the training. Post-training evaluation is very important as the training itself is wasted if employees cannot transfer what they have learned. Training effectiveness is the sub-set of evaluation and is the desired outcome of the training evaluation. The explicit and implicit goals of training should be laid down in the cost and benefits analysis. The criteria for determining the extent of indirect and social cost or benefit are very subjective. Training effectiveness is a value judgment, which is contingent upon the context of training; the baseline criteria set as the explicit and implicit training goals; and the accomplishment of these goals. The professional way to determine training effectiveness is often to validate training holistically by taking into account outcomes from both the organisation and the individual
1.2 CONCEPTS USED AND THEIR DEFINITIONS IN THE STUDY
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance.
Methods of Training:
There are different methods of training for operating personnel (factory workers). Training these workers becomes important because they handle equipment worth crores of rupees.
• On the job training method
Here the employees were divided into groups and one superior is allotted to every group. This superior or supervisor first demonstrates how the equipment must be handled, and then the worker is asked to repeat whatever he has observed in the presence of the supervisor. This method makes it easy for the employee to learn the details about specific equipment. Once the worker studies the first equipment thoroughly the supervisor moves on to the next equipment and so on.

• Apprenticeship training
Here both theory and practical session are conducted. The theory sessions give theoretical information about the plant layout, the different machines, their parts and safety measures etc. The practical sessions give practical training in handling the equipment. The apprentice may or may not be continued on the job after training.
• Job rotation
Here the employees transferred from one equipment to the other for a fixed amount of time until he is comfortable with all the equipments. At the end of the training the employee becomes comfortable with all the equipment. He is then assigned a specific task.
JOB ANALYSIS
Job analysis is the process of determining how work should be organized and performed. It includes activities such as determining the optimal organizational structure, management reporting relationships, division of labour, job roles and responsibilities, job descriptions, required knowledge, skills and attitudes, compensation and rewards. Job analysis may be conducted at many levels and with many purposes in mind. Swanson (1994) has identified three basic types of job performance analysis: Present performance problems, Performance improvement opportunities, and Future performance requirements.
LEARNER ANALYSIS
Learner analysis is the investigation of the current and future audience for training. It is conducted to understand the prerequisite knowledge; skill and experience of the training audience to better target the intended training. It also includes examining the culture, learning styles, background, values and beliefs of the learners so as to match the training design and methodology to the learners.
CONTEXT ANALYSIS
Context analysis examines the environment in which the trainee learns. It includes training environment on the job. It also helps to identify barriers that prevent learning and ways to mitigate these problems.
SKILL-GAP ANALYSIS
Skill-gap analysis is a specialized form of need assessment that examines and documents the gap between employees’ current skill and the skills needed to perform the job successfully. Significant gap between the current performance of employees and the desired or required performance helps the training designers to demonstrate a need for training depending on the skill areas the gaps point at. These skill gaps also help in formulation of objectives and content of training.
1.3 IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Training has existed from the inception of human being in different forms in the society. It is a medium to pass different skills from one generation to another. But with change in time, the magnitude of training has undergone sea change. Growth and development in technology has developed variety of methods and techniques in the way of training. These changes have added new dimensions to training and influenced the requirement of training. Training of human resource is carried out at macro and micro level. At macro level training is necessary for generating awareness among people on social issues, educating people and spreading literacy in society for giving people an opportunity to live a better life. Training activities at micro level are oriented towards development of people working in the organization to perform better in their job and develop their competency on the job for growth of the organization. Thus every one takes training in some or other form for survival and sustenance on this planet.
1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
• Since most of the data are kept confidential, its hard to get clarified.
• Time constraints
• Since the sample size is 300 the result may not applicable for all employees.
1.6 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY
The construction industry is traditionally divided into three sub-sectors. They are
the construction of buildings , road, highway, and other “infrastructure” construction and specialty trades. It thus encompasses all the businesses that build either houses and office buildings or highways and bridges, as well as those who do the specialized work of electricians, plumbers and masons, who are typically involved in the construction of all kinds of structures. The construction industry is a significant part of our economy, employing over 8 percent of all wage earners.

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ROAD AHEAD
Construction sector, which is the second largest employment generator after agriculture, comprising roads, ports, airports, bridges and real estate, has the multiplier potential to create benefits at least double the size of direct inputs, highlighted the study titled Construction industry. In the midst of doom and gloom in the global economy with consequential impact on India, highly job-oriented construction industry can give quite positive results in terms of stepping up economic growth, more employment and raising tax revenue for the government. The output multiplier demonstrates how an increase in demand of Indian construction sector can lead to an increase in overall output of the economy by 2.4 times thereby showcasing strong backward linkages of the sector with ancillary and complementary industries such as cement, steel, iron, bricks, sand, chemicals, heavy machines and equipment, sanitary ware, wood, electrical and other fixtures, paints and others, noted the study. It is an acknowledged fact that construction has the potential to drive and revive manufacturing in any economy. The construction sectors’ contribution to GDP in India has stayed fairly constant at around 7-8% for the last five years. Indian construction industries highly fragmented. There are mostly unorganized players in the industry which work on the sub contracting basis. As the construction activity being labour intensive, construction companies have been mainly focusing on the mechanization over past few years. The Indian construction industry forms an integral part of the economy and a conduit for a substantial part of the development investment, is poised for the growth of industrialization, urbanization, economic development and people’s rising expectation for the improved quality of living. Construction constitutes 40% to 50% of india’s capital expenditure on projects in various sector such as highways, roads, railways, energy, airports, irrigation etc and is the second largest industry in india. The construction industry is a major contributor towards India’s GDP, both directly and indirectly. It employs 33 million people, and any improvements in the construction sector affect a number of associated industries such as cement, steel, technology, skill-enhancement, etc. Construction usually is done or coordinated by general contracts, who specialize in one type of construction such as residential or commercial building. Cost structure of the construction industry is dominated by raw material cost which is the major cost account for30 – 50% of the cost and subcontracting cost accounts for 20-40%. Today Indian sub continent is the second fastest growing economy in the world. The Indian construction industry has been playing a vital role in overall economic development of the country, growing at over 20% compound annual growth rate over past 5 years and contributing 8% to GDP.
1.7 PROFILE OF THE COMPANY
Larsen ; Toubro is a US$14.3 billion technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing and financial services conglomerate. It addresses critical needs in key sectors including infrastructure, construction, hydrocarbon, power, defence and aerospace. Its footprint extends across seven countries in addition to India. A strong, customer-focused approach, conformance to global HSE standards and the constant quest for top-class quality have enabled the Company to sustain leadership in its major lines of business for over 75 years. L;T was rated 58th Most Innovative Company by Forbes International and 4th in the global list of ‘green companies’ in the industrial sector by Newsweek. It was voted among the most admired companies in the country by Fortune India, and rated 8th Most Powerful Brand in India by Brand Finance. It won The Economic Times Corporate Citizen of the Year Award – 2013, instituted by one of the world’s most widely sold business newspapers – The Economic Times. A survey by a leading HR consultancy affirmed its reputation as a people-focused company, leading to the award for the ‘Most Attractive Employer’ in the industrial sector.
HISTORY
The evolution of L&T into a major engineering and construction organisation is among the more remarkable success stories in Indian industry. It was founded in Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1938 by two Danish engineers, Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro. Beginning with the import of machinery from Europe, L&T took on engineering and construction assignments of increasing sophistication. Today, the company sets engineering benchmarks in terms of scale and complexity.
1.8 CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY
L&T was the first company in India in the engineering & construction space to publicly disclose its sustainability performance. The Company’s annual Sustainability Reports highlight achievements and objectives across the traditional three ‘Ps’ of Planet, People and Profits. All our Reports are rated A+ by Global Reporting Initiatives, indicating the highest level of disclosure. The recognition that the Company has secured from forums around the world affirm public perception of L;T as an organization that contributes significantly to the wellbeing of people.
RECORD OF ACHIEVEMENTS
• Technological support in the launch and tracking systems for Mangalyaan – India’s Mars Mission, and the only mission to successfully enter Martian orbit in its maiden attempt. Earlier L&T had also contributed to India’s lunar mission.
• Metro projects being executed in Riyadh and Qatar as part of international consortiums.
• Engaged in building major new airports in Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and int5880ernationally, in Sharjah, Oman.
• Building major infrastructure projects including ports, specialised bridges and highway projects.
• Design ; manufacture of a wide range of switchgear products and systems exported to over 30 countries.
1.8.1 L;T HYDROCARBON ENGINEERING
L;T Hydrocarbon Engineering delivers ‘design to build’ engineering and construction solutions on a turnkey basis in the oil ; gas, petroleum refining, chemicals ; petrochemicals and fertilizer sectors. In-house expertise, experience, and strategic partnerships enable it to deliver a single point solution for all projects – from front-end design through engineering, fabrication, project management, construction and installation and commissioning. Modular fabrication facilities at Hazira (India, west coast), Kattupalli (India, east coast) and Sohar (Oman) give L;T all-weather delivery capability. The Company’s operations are characterized by an overriding emphasis on safety, ontime delivery, cost competitiveness, high quality standards with focus on best in class IT security practices. Integrated strengths coupled with an experienced and highly skilled work force, are key enablers in delivering critical and complex projects.
1.8.2 TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
L&T is engaged in the turnkey construction of major infrastructure projects – expressways, bridges, runways and railway projects. The Company has been a leading player in rail infrastructure development for more than three decades, and has brought in new technologies and mechanised construction. L&T is the only private organisation in India qualified to undertake integrated rail construction projects of the Indian Railways.
1.8.3 HEAVY CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE
The Company undertakes heavy civil construction – underground metro rail corridors docks, container terminals, wharves and berths, jetties, breakwater and shore protection, and caissons. It has the expertise to design special launching and erection techniques, including special systems formwork for concrete deck on top of steel and concrete structures. Comprehensive engineering, procurement and construction services are offered for hydropower projects. L&T has also played a critical role in the development of technology for India’s nuclear power sector.
1.8.4 BUILDING ; FACTORIES
L;T occupies leadership position in the construction of major airports, IT parks, turnkey hospitals and residential buildings. Building ; Factories Business undertakes projects on a ‘concept to commissioning’ basis. Its technological capabilities encompass tall towers and eco-friendly ‘green’ buildings. Its track record includes landmark structures such as the Baha’i temple in New Delhi.
1.8.5 POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
The focus is on sub-stations, industrial electrification, transmission line projects and railway construction on the domestic front, and power transmission and distribution projects. L&T has an extensive track record in the Middle East, and is recognised as a major player in the region.
1.8.6 WATER PROJECTS & SOLAR ENERGY
L&T’s Water ; Solar business caters to the entire value chain of water and solar EPC. The water and effluent treatment business covers water intake, transmission, treatment and distribution including industrial waste water treatment ; disposal and ordinary waste water treatment ; reuse segments. The water technology business uses advanced water treatment technologies for complex treatment projects – largely in the Middle East. L;T’s Solar EPC business comprises solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP).

1.8.7 METALLURGICAL & MATERIAL HANDLING
This Company undertakes turnkey construction contracts for projects in minerals & metals sector, and bulk material handling projects. It is a leader in all its areas of operations. It has a structural steel fabrication unit at Kanchipuram to meet the customised needs of its wide client base.
1.8.8 POWER
L&T offers turnkey solutions for the power sector with a wide capability spectrum covering supercritical coal and gas based projects. The supercritical technology that L&T propagates is ‘greener’ than conventional techniques and represents a major advantage for industry. L&T’s integrated capabilities and in-house expertise encompass virtually every aspect of design, engineering, manufacture, construction and project management. The Company’s integrated manufacturing facility at Hazira near Surat is among the most advanced in the world for manufacturing state-of-the-art equipment for power plants – boilers, steam turbines, pulverizers, pressure piping, coaxial fans, air-pre-heaters and electrostatic precipitators. The complex also includes a modern casting and foundry shop.
1.8.9 HEAVY ENGINEERING
L&T is acknowledged as one of the top five manufacturing companies in the world in the heavy engineering space. Operating at the higher end of the technological spectrum, L&T’s offerings straddle the segments of process plants and the strategic sectors of defence, nuclear and aerospace. New processes, products and materials have been introduced in manufacturing. The Company also has the logistics capabilities of fabricating and supplying over-dimensional equipment to tight delivery schedules. Globally-benchmarked workshops are located at Powai in Mumbai, Hazira and Baroda in Gujarat, Talegaon in Maharashtra, and Sohar in Oman.
1.8.10 SHIPBUILDING
Two modern shipyards – one on the west coast of India at Hazira, and the other on the east coast at Kattupalli near Chennai establish L;T as a major shipbuilder. A state-of- the-art Marine Design Centre is located at Chennai. L;T Shipbuilding focuses on four major business segments: Building warships, submarines and auxiliary vessels; Building specialized commercial ships; Repairs and re-fits of submarines as well as naval and commercial ships; Ship conversions. The Hazira Shipyard has the capability to build sophisticated mid-sized ships up to 20,000 t deadweight capacity, of 10 metres in length. The mega shipyard at Kattupalli also includes a container port and an offshore modular fabrication yard. It has a waterfront of 2.2 km, depth of 10m at berths and channel depths of 16 m.
1.8.11 ELECTRICAL ; AUTOMATION
L;T is a major international manufacturer of a wide range of electrical and electronic products and systems. In the electrical segment, the Company holds leadership position in low tension switchgear in India, and is rapidly establishing itself in international markets. The product range also includes custom-engineered LV and MV switchboards for industrial sectors like power, refineries, petrochemical, cement. In the electronic segment are a wide range of meters and complete control and automation systems for industries.
1.8.12 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Larsen ; Toubro Infotech, a 100% subsidiary of L;T, offers comprehensive, end-to-end software solutions and services with a focus on Manufacturing, BFSI and Communications ; Embedded Systems. It provides a cost cutting partnership in the realm of offshore outsourcing, application integration and package implementation. Leveraging the heritage and domain expertise of the parent company, its services encompass a broad technology spectrum, catering to leading international companies across the globe.
1.8.13 TECHNOLOGY SERVICES
L;T Technology Services provides leading-edge engineering solutions to multiple industry sectors like automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics, consumer packaged goods, marine, medical devices, off-highway equipment, railways, pharmaceuticals, oil ; gas, utilities, infrastructure and industrial products. With its global headquarters at Vadodara, the Company operates through dedicated engineering centres in tandem with onsite teams worldwide. Its client base includes several Fortune 500 companies.
1.8.14 MACHINERY ; INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
The Company manufactures, markets and provides service support for industrial products, industrial machinery as well as construction and mining machinery. This includes a wide range of industrial valves for critical applications, rubber processing machinery, surface miners, hydraulic excavators, aggregate crushers and application engineered welding alloys and cutting tools.
1.8.15 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
L;T Infrastructure Development Projects Limited, a subsidiary, leverages domain expertise in construction and financial services, and is a major player in Public-PrivateProjects in India. L;T IDPL develops projects in various models – Build Own Transfer, Build Own Operate Transfer, Build Own Operate Share Transfer, and other variants including the annuity model. Major projects being executed by the Company include Hyderabad Metro Rail – the largest public-private rail project in the world, and ports at Dhamra and Kattupalli. Multiple highway projects around the country have established L;T IDPL as the leader in the space.
1.8.16 FINANCIAL SERVICES
L;T Financial Services – a publicly listed subsidiary – is a key player in India’s financial services sector. Its subsidiaries include L&T Finance Limited, L&T Infrastructure Finance Company Limited and L&T Asset Management Company Limited. The Company also provides Insurance related services through L&T General Insurance Company Limited.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The first chapter deals about the nature of industry, conceptual and theoretical findings observed in L&T Construction under Human Resources department. The profile of the industry and company is also included.
1.2 CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF TRAINING NEED ANAYLSIS
Training needs analysis (TNA) is a process in which needs are identified and broken into their component parts to determine the solutions of the problem. It determines the gap between ‘what is’ and ‘what should be’ situations. It is the process used to identify the training and development needs of your employees (all trades, professions, employees and contractors), so that they can carry out their job effectively, safely and efficiently, and develop their careers (sucession planning). The TNA considers the skills, knowledge and attributes (behaviours) that your people need and how to identify and develop them effectively. The outcome of your TNA should be a robust learning and development plan, based on identified requirements and linked to organisational, team and individual objectives. When carried out effectively, a TNA will have many positive effects for your organisation, teams and individuals, as the training which follows as a result of the TNA should be relevant and meet their development needs.
1.1.1 THE TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS (TNA) PROCESS
The TNA process is about gathering information to identify gaps between job knowledge and skills required now or for future employment needs and the current knowledge and skills of an employee or group of employees. Training and management development activity has to be properly planned and the first priority for anyone designing training programs is to figure out how the proposed training enhances an organizations ability to deliver quality and thereby stay in business. According to Richard D. Miller (1969) assessment of training needs, objectives setting, design implementation and evaluation are various phases in the process of training.
A training need may be described as existing any time an actual condition differs from a desired condition in the human, or “people” aspect of organization performance or, more specifically, when a change in present human knowledge’s, skills, or attitudes can bring about the desired performance (James H. Morrison, ASTD Hand book, 1976). There are three ways to get at training needs:
1. Assuming a performance problem has been identified with a particular group, survey that group for whom training may be needed, their supervisors, the receivers of the product or services provided by that 65 group, and their subordinates, if any. Here the focus is on the group responses which, when analyzed properly, can lead to the preparation of training for individuals, usually in groups.
2. Conduct organizational audits that review production financial, personnel, and other operational data from records and reports to uncover problem areas susceptible to correction through training and/or development. A full functional audit of an area may need to be conducted to get a thorough analysis of the situation. Here the focus is on “results” of activities, and work backward to the causes to identify training needs.
3. Assess an individual’s achievement levels, knowledge’s, potentials, behaviors, skills, and performance; prepare a needs analysis; and plan development and training specifically for that individual. Similar techniques may be used with groups of individuals, but the focus is on the individual, and the outcome should include individual development plans.
1.1.2 TRAINING DESIGN
The design stage of the training follows the TNA stage. During this stage, it is very important that training methods selected must match the training needs, and the training strategy and planning must be appropriate to the training objective and circumstances. The key parties that must be involved in the training design should include the organisation’s representative, the line management, the training manager and/or the training officer and the trainee. The application of the training procedures must be in the hands of personnel who are able to apply a variety of competences in flexible ways to mesh with the organisation’s operational considerations. The decision to determine the appropriate training strategy should be based on the training compatibility with the objectives, estimated likelihood of transfer of learning to the work situation, available resources and trainee related factors. From this, the training can be designed to be on-thejob, planned organisational experience, in-house programs, planned experience outside the organization, external courses, self-managed learning, or a combination of these approaches. In contrast to traditional training, the design of competence-based trainings must be based on explicit and measurable performance because it needs to reflect the actual expectations and performance in the work role.
1.1.3 TRAINING IMPLEMENTATION
Training implementation is putting the training design into practice. The mechanistic “traditional” training approach has now greatly changed, replaced with the modern approach that emphasise more of coaching and facilitating. The training spectrum may vary from highly directive to free-learning, guided-learning, lecture/discussion, presentation, instruction and conditioning for individuals or as a group. The training needs to be different for different people but concurrent with the different kinds of tasks they undertake. In most situations, formal training entails deliberate and structured presentation of experiences and must be related to its purpose. The training policy and plan must be the key reference for implementing training. Task force exercise, case discussion, simulation and games; role-play exercise, group discussion, individual exercise, presentation/lectures and behavior modelling are the common training methods, and may be carried out through external or internal providers. The trainer must be committed and equipped with wide-ranging toolkit of ideas, techniques, methods and approaches which can be adopted as and when most appropriate. On-the-job training is often very effective, flexible and relatively low-cost, but can be ineffective if it is too detached from the actual job-environment or, if it does not follow guidelines of standard training programs. Competence-based training often have modular outlines. It must take into account occupational constraints such as availability of target groups, training premises, possible need for several programs and the atmosphere at the job location. The training activity must be realistic to the preferred learning styles of the target group. The delivery of training or learning needs to be clearly focused on what happens at the job place and not just what happens during the learning/training events
1.1.4 TRAINING EVALUATION
Training evaluation is the assessment of the total value of a training system, which considers the training course or program in technical, social as well as financial terms. It attempt to measure the overall cost benefit of the course. It must encompass a systematic collection of data relevant to the selection, adoption or modification of training and developmental activities, and must be an on-going process from which continuous corrective action can be introduced to ensure an ever-improving training. There are differing views as to who should be evaluating the training, but most views tend to agree that senior managers, line managers, training managers, trainers and learners must be included. It is imperative that evaluations must be impartial. Evaluation should be done before training starts. A baseline data must be established to measure the training program response, on-the-job action, business-focus results and the organisational impact of the training. Post-training evaluation is very important as the training itself is wasted if employees cannot transfer what they have learned. Training effectiveness is the sub-set of evaluation and is the desired outcome of the training evaluation. The explicit and implicit goals of training should be laid down in the cost and benefits analysis. The criteria for determining the extent of indirect and social cost or benefit are very subjective. Training effectiveness is a value judgment, which is contingent upon the context of training; the baseline criteria set as the explicit and implicit training goals; and the accomplishment of these goals. The professional way to determine training effectiveness is often to validate training holistically by taking into account outcomes from both the organisation and the individual
1.2 CONCEPTS USED AND THEIR DEFINITIONS IN THE STUDY
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance.
Methods of Training:
There are different methods of training for operating personnel (factory workers). Training these workers becomes important because they handle equipment worth crores of rupees.
• On the job training method
Here the employees were divided into groups and one superior is allotted to every group. This superior or supervisor first demonstrates how the equipment must be handled, and then the worker is asked to repeat whatever he has observed in the presence of the supervisor. This method makes it easy for the employee to learn the details about specific equipment. Once the worker studies the first equipment thoroughly the supervisor moves on to the next equipment and so on.

• Apprenticeship training
Here both theory and practical session are conducted. The theory sessions give theoretical information about the plant layout, the different machines, their parts and safety measures etc. The practical sessions give practical training in handling the equipment. The apprentice may or may not be continued on the job after training.
• Job rotation
Here the employees transferred from one equipment to the other for a fixed amount of time until he is comfortable with all the equipments. At the end of the training the employee becomes comfortable with all the equipment. He is then assigned a specific task.
JOB ANALYSIS
Job analysis is the process of determining how work should be organized and performed. It includes activities such as determining the optimal organizational structure, management reporting relationships, division of labour, job roles and responsibilities, job descriptions, required knowledge, skills and attitudes, compensation and rewards. Job analysis may be conducted at many levels and with many purposes in mind. Swanson (1994) has identified three basic types of job performance analysis: Present performance problems, Performance improvement opportunities, and Future performance requirements.
LEARNER ANALYSIS
Learner analysis is the investigation of the current and future audience for training. It is conducted to understand the prerequisite knowledge; skill and experience of the training audience to better target the intended training. It also includes examining the culture, learning styles, background, values and beliefs of the learners so as to match the training design and methodology to the learners.
CONTEXT ANALYSIS
Context analysis examines the environment in which the trainee learns. It includes training environment on the job. It also helps to identify barriers that prevent learning and ways to mitigate these problems.
SKILL-GAP ANALYSIS
Skill-gap analysis is a specialized form of need assessment that examines and documents the gap between employees’ current skill and the skills needed to perform the job successfully. Significant gap between the current performance of employees and the desired or required performance helps the training designers to demonstrate a need for training depending on the skill areas the gaps point at. These skill gaps also help in formulation of objectives and content of training.
1.3 IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Training has existed from the inception of human being in different forms in the society. It is a medium to pass different skills from one generation to another. But with change in time, the magnitude of training has undergone sea change. Growth and development in technology has developed variety of methods and techniques in the way of training. These changes have added new dimensions to training and influenced the requirement of training. Training of human resource is carried out at macro and micro level. At macro level training is necessary for generating awareness among people on social issues, educating people and spreading literacy in society for giving people an opportunity to live a better life. Training activities at micro level are oriented towards development of people working in the organization to perform better in their job and develop their competency on the job for growth of the organization. Thus every one takes training in some or other form for survival and sustenance on this planet.
1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
• Since most of the data are kept confidential, its hard to get clarified.
• Time constraints
• Since the sample size is 300 the result may not applicable for all employees.
1.6 PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY
The construction industry is traditionally divided into three sub-sectors. They are
the construction of buildings , road, highway, and other “infrastructure” construction and specialty trades. It thus encompasses all the businesses that build either houses and office buildings or highways and bridges, as well as those who do the specialized work of electricians, plumbers and masons, who are typically involved in the construction of all kinds of structures. The construction industry is a significant part of our economy, employing over 8 percent of all wage earners.

ROAD AHEAD
Construction sector, which is the second largest employment generator after agriculture, comprising roads, ports, airports, bridges and real estate, has the multiplier potential to create benefits at least double the size of direct inputs, highlighted the study titled Construction industry. In the midst of doom and gloom in the global economy with consequential impact on India, highly job-oriented construction industry can give quite positive results in terms of stepping up economic growth, more employment and raising tax revenue for the government. The output multiplier demonstrates how an increase in demand of Indian construction sector can lead to an increase in overall output of the economy by 2.4 times thereby showcasing strong backward linkages of the sector with ancillary and complementary industries such as cement, steel, iron, bricks, sand, chemicals, heavy machines and equipment, sanitary ware, wood, electrical and other fixtures, paints and others, noted the study. It is an acknowledged fact that construction has the potential to drive and revive manufacturing in any economy. The construction sectors’ contribution to GDP in India has stayed fairly constant at around 7-8% for the last five years. Indian construction industries highly fragmented. There are mostly unorganized players in the industry which work on the sub contracting basis. As the construction activity being labour intensive, construction companies have been mainly focusing on the mechanization over past few years. The Indian construction industry forms an integral part of the economy and a conduit for a substantial part of the development investment, is poised for the growth of industrialization, urbanization, economic development and people’s rising expectation for the improved quality of living. Construction constitutes 40% to 50% of india’s capital expenditure on projects in various sector such as highways, roads, railways, energy, airports, irrigation etc and is the second largest industry in india. The construction industry is a major contributor towards India’s GDP, both directly and indirectly. It employs 33 million people, and any improvements in the construction sector affect a number of associated industries such as cement, steel, technology, skill-enhancement, etc. Construction usually is done or coordinated by general contracts, who specialize in one type of construction such as residential or commercial building. Cost structure of the construction industry is dominated by raw material cost which is the major cost account for30 – 50% of the cost and subcontracting cost accounts for 20-40%. Today Indian sub continent is the second fastest growing economy in the world. The Indian construction industry has been playing a vital role in overall economic development of the country, growing at over 20% compound annual growth rate over past 5 years and contributing 8% to GDP.
1.7 PROFILE OF THE COMPANY
Larsen ; Toubro is a US$14.3 billion technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing and financial services conglomerate. It addresses critical needs in key sectors including infrastructure, construction, hydrocarbon, power, defence and aerospace. Its footprint extends across seven countries in addition to India. A strong, customer-focused approach, conformance to global HSE standards and the constant quest for top-class quality have enabled the Company to sustain leadership in its major lines of business for over 75 years. L;T was rated 58th Most Innovative Company by Forbes International and 4th in the global list of ‘green companies’ in the industrial sector by Newsweek. It was voted among the most admired companies in the country by Fortune India, and rated 8th Most Powerful Brand in India by Brand Finance. It won The Economic Times Corporate Citizen of the Year Award – 2013, instituted by one of the world’s most widely sold business newspapers – The Economic Times. A survey by a leading HR consultancy affirmed its reputation as a people-focused company, leading to the award for the ‘Most Attractive Employer’ in the industrial sector.
HISTORY
The evolution of L&T into a major engineering and construction organisation is among the more remarkable success stories in Indian industry. It was founded in Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1938 by two Danish engineers, Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro. Beginning with the import of machinery from Europe, L&T took on engineering and construction assignments of increasing sophistication. Today, the company sets engineering benchmarks in terms of scale and complexity.
1.8 CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY
L&T was the first company in India in the engineering & construction space to publicly disclose its sustainability performance. The Company’s annual Sustainability Reports highlight achievements and objectives across the traditional three ‘Ps’ of Planet, People and Profits. All our Reports are rated A+ by Global Reporting Initiatives, indicating the highest level of disclosure. The recognition that the Company has secured from forums around the world affirm public perception of L;T as an organization that contributes significantly to the wellbeing of people.
RECORD OF ACHIEVEMENTS
• Technological support in the launch and tracking systems for Mangalyaan – India’s Mars Mission, and the only mission to successfully enter Martian orbit in its maiden attempt. Earlier L&T had also contributed to India’s lunar mission.
• Metro projects being executed in Riyadh and Qatar as part of international consortiums.
• Engaged in building major new airports in Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and int5880ernationally, in Sharjah, Oman.
• Building major infrastructure projects including ports, specialised bridges and highway projects.
• Design ; manufacture of a wide range of switchgear products and systems exported to over 30 countries.
1.8.1 L;T HYDROCARBON ENGINEERING
L;T Hydrocarbon Engineering delivers ‘design to build’ engineering and construction solutions on a turnkey basis in the oil ; gas, petroleum refining, chemicals ; petrochemicals and fertilizer sectors. In-house expertise, experience, and strategic partnerships enable it to deliver a single point solution for all projects – from front-end design through engineering, fabrication, project management, construction and installation and commissioning. Modular fabrication facilities at Hazira (India, west coast), Kattupalli (India, east coast) and Sohar (Oman) give L;T all-weather delivery capability. The Company’s operations are characterized by an overriding emphasis on safety, ontime delivery, cost competitiveness, high quality standards with focus on best in class IT security practices. Integrated strengths coupled with an experienced and highly skilled work force, are key enablers in delivering critical and complex projects.
1.8.2 TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
L&T is engaged in the turnkey construction of major infrastructure projects – expressways, bridges, runways and railway projects. The Company has been a leading player in rail infrastructure development for more than three decades, and has brought in new technologies and mechanised construction. L&T is the only private organisation in India qualified to undertake integrated rail construction projects of the Indian Railways.
1.8.3 HEAVY CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE
The Company undertakes heavy civil construction – underground metro rail corridors docks, container terminals, wharves and berths, jetties, breakwater and shore protection, and caissons. It has the expertise to design special launching and erection techniques, including special systems formwork for concrete deck on top of steel and concrete structures. Comprehensive engineering, procurement and construction services are offered for hydropower projects. L&T has also played a critical role in the development of technology for India’s nuclear power sector.
1.8.4 BUILDING ; FACTORIES
L;T occupies leadership position in the construction of major airports, IT parks, turnkey hospitals and residential buildings. Building ; Factories Business undertakes projects on a ‘concept to commissioning’ basis. Its technological capabilities encompass tall towers and eco-friendly ‘green’ buildings. Its track record includes landmark structures such as the Baha’i temple in New Delhi.
1.8.5 POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
The focus is on sub-stations, industrial electrification, transmission line projects and railway construction on the domestic front, and power transmission and distribution projects. L&T has an extensive track record in the Middle East, and is recognised as a major player in the region.
1.8.6 WATER PROJECTS & SOLAR ENERGY
L&T’s Water ; Solar business caters to the entire value chain of water and solar EPC. The water and effluent treatment business covers water intake, transmission, treatment and distribution including industrial waste water treatment ; disposal and ordinary waste water treatment ; reuse segments. The water technology business uses advanced water treatment technologies for complex treatment projects – largely in the Middle East. L;T’s Solar EPC business comprises solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP).

1.8.7 METALLURGICAL & MATERIAL HANDLING
This Company undertakes turnkey construction contracts for projects in minerals & metals sector, and bulk material handling projects. It is a leader in all its areas of operations. It has a structural steel fabrication unit at Kanchipuram to meet the customised needs of its wide client base.
1.8.8 POWER
L&T offers turnkey solutions for the power sector with a wide capability spectrum covering supercritical coal and gas based projects. The supercritical technology that L&T propagates is ‘greener’ than conventional techniques and represents a major advantage for industry. L&T’s integrated capabilities and in-house expertise encompass virtually every aspect of design, engineering, manufacture, construction and project management. The Company’s integrated manufacturing facility at Hazira near Surat is among the most advanced in the world for manufacturing state-of-the-art equipment for power plants – boilers, steam turbines, pulverizers, pressure piping, coaxial fans, air-pre-heaters and electrostatic precipitators. The complex also includes a modern casting and foundry shop.
1.8.9 HEAVY ENGINEERING
L&T is acknowledged as one of the top five manufacturing companies in the world in the heavy engineering space. Operating at the higher end of the technological spectrum, L&T’s offerings straddle the segments of process plants and the strategic sectors of defence, nuclear and aerospace. New processes, products and materials have been introduced in manufacturing. The Company also has the logistics capabilities of fabricating and supplying over-dimensional equipment to tight delivery schedules. Globally-benchmarked workshops are located at Powai in Mumbai, Hazira and Baroda in Gujarat, Talegaon in Maharashtra, and Sohar in Oman.
1.8.10 SHIPBUILDING
Two modern shipyards – one on the west coast of India at Hazira, and the other on the east coast at Kattupalli near Chennai establish L;T as a major shipbuilder. A state-of- the-art Marine Design Centre is located at Chennai. L;T Shipbuilding focuses on four major business segments: Building warships, submarines and auxiliary vessels; Building specialized commercial ships; Repairs and re-fits of submarines as well as naval and commercial ships; Ship conversions. The Hazira Shipyard has the capability to build sophisticated mid-sized ships up to 20,000 t deadweight capacity, of 10 metres in length. The mega shipyard at Kattupalli also includes a container port and an offshore modular fabrication yard. It has a waterfront of 2.2 km, depth of 10m at berths and channel depths of 16 m.
1.8.11 ELECTRICAL ; AUTOMATION
L;T is a major international manufacturer of a wide range of electrical and electronic products and systems. In the electrical segment, the Company holds leadership position in low tension switchgear in India, and is rapidly establishing itself in international markets. The product range also includes custom-engineered LV and MV switchboards for industrial sectors like power, refineries, petrochemical, cement. In the electronic segment are a wide range of meters and complete control and automation systems for industries.
1.8.12 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Larsen ; Toubro Infotech, a 100% subsidiary of L;T, offers comprehensive, end-to-end software solutions and services with a focus on Manufacturing, BFSI and Communications ; Embedded Systems. It provides a cost cutting partnership in the realm of offshore outsourcing, application integration and package implementation. Leveraging the heritage and domain expertise of the parent company, its services encompass a broad technology spectrum, catering to leading international companies across the globe.
1.8.13 TECHNOLOGY SERVICES
L;T Technology Services provides leading-edge engineering solutions to multiple industry sectors like automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics, consumer packaged goods, marine, medical devices, off-highway equipment, railways, pharmaceuticals, oil ; gas, utilities, infrastructure and industrial products. With its global headquarters at Vadodara, the Company operates through dedicated engineering centres in tandem with onsite teams worldwide. Its client base includes several Fortune 500 companies.
1.8.14 MACHINERY ; INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
The Company manufactures, markets and provides service support for industrial products, industrial machinery as well as construction and mining machinery. This includes a wide range of industrial valves for critical applications, rubber processing machinery, surface miners, hydraulic excavators, aggregate crushers and application engineered welding alloys and cutting tools.
1.8.15 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
L;T Infrastructure Development Projects Limited, a subsidiary, leverages domain expertise in construction and financial services, and is a major player in Public-PrivateProjects in India. L;T IDPL develops projects in various models – Build Own Transfer, Build Own Operate Transfer, Build Own Operate Share Transfer, and other variants including the annuity model. Major projects being executed by the Company include Hyderabad Metro Rail – the largest public-private rail project in the world, and ports at Dhamra and Kattupalli. Multiple highway projects around the country have established L;T IDPL as the leader in the space.
1.8.16 FINANCIAL SERVICES
L;T Financial Services – a publicly listed subsidiary – is a key player in India’s financial services sector. Its subsidiaries include L&T Finance Limited, L&T Infrastructure Finance Company Limited and L&T Asset Management Company Limited. The Company also provides Insurance related services through L&T General Insurance Company Limited.

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