Throughout human history, groups rather than individuals have always undertaken some activities simply because this was a better and more economical way of doing things(Parnell, 1999) History tells us that man cannot successfully live by himself and for himself alone. The interdependent and mutual help among human beings have been the essentials of social life, spirit of association are important to human progress. Through the history of human life, cooperation cannot be seen separately. There is practically nothing, which a man by himself alone can achieve but much acting together with others (Kulandaiswamy and Krishnaswamy, 2000). In every human social, economic and cultural activity, cooperation plays the major role. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving their objective, (Cropp, 1980)
The historical development of cooperative cannot be observed detached from economic forces and social upheaval (Christensen, etal.1936). The cooperative enterprise created in a place where and time that economic stress and social crisis existed to solve the problems.
In most African countries, modern cooperatives were the result of colonialism. The colonial powers specially British and France introduce cooperatives in Africa countries through their direct and indirect rules (Schwettmann, 2014). Farmer cooperatives introduced in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for promoting production of cash crops by peasant farmers. After independence (after colonization rules), many countries government as well as donors promoted cooperatives to intensify the participations of people at grass root level and also to supply agricultural credit, input and commodity markets(Shimelis, 2010). The newly independent governments of many African countries were used cooperative as a tool to implement African socialism(Jurgen, 2014). These organizations obtained various support both financially and technically. Moreover, they had given marketing and supply monopolies for agriculture commodities and supply inputs. However, in most African countries members or farmers have been forced to be the member of the organizations and cooperatives becomes a mass organization of the ruling party and carried out government functions.
The cooperative movement in Ethiopia, the spirit of self-help and cooperation, has a long history as part of the farming community. Various traditional self-help co-operatives still exist. They are institutions with an organizational base that are indigenous at local level, such as Debo, Iddir, and Iqub. These traditional informal cooperatives could be a base for the development of the formal cooperatives(Tekeste, 2014).

Collective efforts through cooperative organization have been chosen by many of the disadvantaged groups to increase their benefits from the opened market system. Cooperatives in Ethiopia are mainly economic entities performing economic functions, contributing a lot to economic development of the country (V.Natarajan, 2014). Cooperatives especially Agricultural multipurpose cooperative unions serves as a bridge between the government and the lower level community as well as their members organization to achieve government strategies by supplying agricultural technology, consumer goods, value additions and involving input and out marketing. In short, they have mandate to improve the life standard of their members by providing them quality products and services. They are essential people organizations that operate business in rural areas where Government and Non-government organization hardly participate.
The Federal Government of Ethiopia declared proclamation number 147/98 and amendment number 402/2004 by the Council of Ministers for the establishment of cooperative societies to bring all types of cooperative societies under one umbrella(Federal Negarit Gazeta, 1998).This is an important instrumental documents in the cooperative movement of the country. Moreover, in Amhara region the first proclamation No.134/2006 later a revised proclamation No.220/2014 was issued. Within the document, Cooperative Federation is consists of a group of unions, Union is composed of more than one primary cooperatives society that have similar objectives; and primary cooperative is an association of people with similar objectives (FNG, 2012). Specially, the Multi-purpose Cooperatives Unions and primary multi-purpose cooperative are organized in the rural area owned by farmers to support various activities. Thus, their major functions are supplying farm inputs like fertilizers, selected seeds, pesticides, farm equipment’s, and new technologies on cash as well as credit bases. Moreover, searching for market outlets to members and Agro processed part of farmer’s product. Besides, they deliver basic consumer goods and house furniture at reasonable price to owners and the community as a whole to meet their need and stable the market. (Tekeste, 2014). Similarly, in Amhara region cooperatives play a vital role in realizing members Scio-economic issue and attaining the Millennium Development Goals. In it, 68 unions and 12938 various forms of primary cooperatives are found, of which 3,647 primary cooperatives were the members of 68 unions, (Amahara Cooperative Promotion AgencyBureau, 2017). In addition to this, in North Shoe Zone 9 unions and 1200 different primary cooperatives are found. Among the 9 unions 4 are multi-purpose cooperatives, having 208 primary cooperatives members and 86,297,550 capitals.
Cooperatives particularly multi-purpose cooperative has been conducting verities of activities. In order to run the operation properly finance is the vital resources. Finance is the lifeblood of a business. Circulation of blood is necessary for maintaining life in human body(Ramachandran.R and Srinivasan, 2010).Finance may bedefined as the provision of adequate amount of money when it is required. As a management function, it has a wider meaning. Finance function is concerned with the procurements of funds and their effective utilization. Finance is necessary to run the business, purchase fixed asset, raw material, produce goods and services and make to sale them. Totally, finance is the central issue in the business and without finance, the operation of the business will close. Moreover, without finance the target objective of the business will never achieved.(C.Paramasivan, 2014). Hence, conducting a study on financial performance of multi-purpose cooperative unions is very important in North Shewa Zone to identify the efficiency problem and to take corrective action, to know the financial position and solvency of the unions. Moreover, to sustain the service provided to the members as well as contribution to the national economy through a strong enough profit.

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Since agriculture is the bases for Ethiopian economy and overall growth of the country, all aspects of the economy are highly associated with agricultural sectors. According to the annual report by National Bank of Ethiopia(NBE, 2014) the Ethiopian economy continued to register a notable growth. In 2014/2015, the real GDP growth was 10.2 percent. Accordingly, the agricultural sector holds 6.4% of the county gross domestic product (GDP). As agriculture continues to be an important sector to the Ethiopia economy, the cooperative sub-sectors providing vital support and play a crucial role for the transformation of agricultural sectors. In Ethiopia where farm holdings are small, application of modern technology is very low and production is mainly of subsistence nature with low marketable surplus, cooperatives play a central role in providing smallholders with access to inputs (fertilizer, selected seed, and chemicals), marketing member’s grain, supplying consumer’s goods and agro processing member’s product. Cooperatives are promoted by Ethiopian government as a means to bring the highest development in the society by collecting and mobilizing the scattered finance, material and manpower resources. Moreover, they play the maximum role in the process of implementing of different developmental policies and strategies issued by the government, submit the needed input and industry product at reasonable price to members and to have their product as well as services better price in domestic and foreign market, to play the appropriate role in the free market economic system. (The Federal Democratic republic of Ethiopia Cooperative proclamation 1998) and The Amhara National Regional State Revised Cooperative Societies Establishment Proclamation,NO.2014). Hence, as result of proclamation support and the real existing situation forced cooperatives to bring a dramatic growth in number, membership size, capital and operational diversity at a country, regional as well as Zonal level.

Cooperatives viewed by the government as a means of strong tools to lift poor from poverty and it is expected to contribute the growth and transformation plan. In general, cooperatives need to be continuously serving their members and contribute to the country national economy. (Tekeste, 2014). In order to overcome the responsibilities of cooperatives especially cooperative union used high financial resources from various source (members contribution, government loan, donation). So that, evaluating and knowing the financial performance of these multipurpose cooperative unions in North showa zone helps to sustain the service provided by them and the contribution to the national economy. Moreover, it is to know the efficiency, liquidity, solvency, profitability of the unions and overall financial performance trends. Unless the financial performance of these unions health, terminate the service provided to their members and failed the contribution to the development of national economy
A number of researches have been conducted by various researcher indifferent times regarding financial performance of multi-purpose cooperative unions. For instance,in Tigray region on Eight multi- purpose cooperative unions by(Tekeste, 2014), inOromiay region LumeAdama multi propose cooperative union by(V.Natarajan, 2014), inTigrai region Werie multi-purpose cooperative union by(Yemane, 2010), in OromiaBecho district at Worda level etc)(Dejeni, 2014). No attempt is so far made to examine the financial performance of multipurpose cooperative unions in Amhara Region North Showa Zone. Thus, the researcher motivated to undertake this research study on the financial performance of multipurpose cooperative unions to examine and realize the real gap, in North Shewa Zone. Therefore, examining the financial performance of multi-purpose cooperative enables to seek possible strategies to alleviate problems that have been found to be solid to date. Accordingly, with respect to the issue of financial performance of multi-purpose cooperative unions, the study attempts to seek answers to the following basic research questions.
Are these multi-purpose cooperatives unions efficiently utilized the asset?
Do these unions can finance their loans?
Is the profitability of these unions enabling to sustain as organization?
Which factors are significantly influences on the financial performance of the unions?
Are the union’s financial positions enables to meet its current obligation?
What are the trends of various elements of the financial statements of these multi-purpose cooperative unions?
The General Objective of the study is to examine and analyze the financial performance of multipurpose cooperative unions in North Shoe Zone.
The specific objectives of the study are to:
Examine and compare the operating efficiency of the unions.
Find out and compare the overall profitability of each union.
Identify the significant influencingfactors on financial performance.
Assess and compare the solvency position of each union.
Analyze and compare the liquidity position of each union.
Investigate the past financial performance trend and prospect the future financial operations.
The study will particularly expected to have the following importance,
It enables cooperative officials, workers, union’s board, and management to understand the problems and suggest way to improve the financial performance of each union.
It enables to take corrective action based on the study.
It might be serves as a springboard for cooperative experts to carry out further study on similar issues.
It might as a knowledge base for policy makers.
There are nine different cooperative unions in North Shewa Zone, of which the study conducted only in four multi-purpose cooperatives unions (namely Wodera, Menze, Kessem and Yifat). This is because, the unions have similar natures and possible to analyze their performance by different measurements and possible to compare each other. Moreover, the researcher is restricted to these unions due to having close information, geographical proximity and easy access to get data. The study delimited to financial performance analysis based on comparative analysis, ratio analysis, and common size analysis. Regression model also employed to identify variables that have significant influence on financial performance of the unions to measure the ten years (from 2007 – 2016) financial performance of the unions. However, Cash flow, trend analysis and Cost-volume-profit analysis and other variables were not in focus to measure the performance of the unions. Moreover, the study left further detail for other researchers.
Cooperative: refers to an autonomous association of persons united voluntary to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise(ICA, 1995)
Finance: refers to the art and science of managing money. It includes financial service and financial instruments. Finance also referred as the provision of money at the time when needed. Finance function is the procurement of funds and their effective utilization in business concerns.
Financial performance: refers to the act of performing financial activity to which financial objectives being or has been accomplished. It is the process of measuring the results of a firm’s policies and operations in monetary terms.
Unions: refers to Farmer’s cooperative unions are formed by two or more primary societies who have similar activities to undertake those activities, which are beyond the capacity of primary societies.
Iqub: refers to an association of people having common objectives of mobilizing resources, especially finance, and distributing it to members on rotating basis.
Edir:refers to an association of people that have the objective of providing social and economic insurance for the members in the events of death, accident, damages to property, among others.
1.7. Organization of the Study
This study organized into five chapters. The first chapter presents introductions of the Study. The second chapter presents literature review. Chapter three presents the methodology and research design, chapter four presents presentation and data analysis. Finally, Chapter five presents Conclusion and recommendation of the study.

A number of businesses organized in the forms of cooperative. The diversity of cooperatives and their variability creates absence of universally accepted definition of a cooperative (Ivan Emelian off, 1942). Mostly, two definitions are commonly used.
According to international cooperative alliance, (ICA) (1995) cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntary to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.
Another definition of cooperative is adopted by the United States department of Agriculture (USDA) (1987) state that cooperative is a user – owned, user controlled business that distributes benefits based on use. The definition captures user owner ship, user control and proportional distribution of benefits.
A cooperative enterprise is a unique form of business. It is different from traditional shareholder owned enterprise or investor owned firm, and the conventional not for profit or non – profit entity(Mazzarol, 2009)
Cooperatives are member-controlled association for producing goods and services in which the participating members share the risk and profits of a jointly established and owned economic enterprise (Koopmans, 2006).
According to Birchall (2004), the co-operatives enterprise are association that are voluntary and members are free to enter or leave, democratic in nature with all members having one vote, independent of government ownership and are owned solely by its membership. Moreover, they are associations of individual persons who can be both real people and “legal persons” that might be other organizations and work for the benefit of members. It cannot be used for a purpose other than the benefit of its members without ceasing to be a co-operative. In short cooperatives are organized to serve members needs and are focused generating members benefits rather than return to investors. These members driven orientation differ from other business. More over the basic principles and values makes different cooperative from other business(Cropp, 1980).Different scholars provide different definition regarding cooperatives. However, for this research paper and as an institution the researcher took the ICA definition of cooperative.
2.1. Cooperative Principles
The principles are means by which co-ops can apply the co-operative values.There are seven ICA principles, and co-ops are free to change them as needed. The ICA adjusted cooperative principles in 1937, 1966 and 1995 (Hoyt, 1996). In 1995, the ICA released a Statement of Co-operative thatcan be identity and defined the characteristics, values and the principles. These principles and values are central to the cooperatives.Moving away from these principles brings into question a co-operative’s meaning and legality and diminishes co-operative character over time (Cote, 2000). These principles and values are key to differentiate cooperatives from other forms of businesses.
2.1.1. Cooperative Principles Principle of Voluntary and Open Membership
The first ICA principle states co-operatives are voluntary organizations; open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political, or religious discrimination. Principle of Democratic Member Control
The second ICA principle, co-operatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights (one member, one vote), and co-operatives at other levels are organized in a democratic manner. Principle of Member Economic Participation
The third ICA principle is member’s economic participation. Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, one capital contributed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; supporting other activities approved by the membership. Principle of Autonomy and Independence
The fourth ICA principle states that co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members. If they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, or raise capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their co-operative autonomy. Principle of Education, Training and Information
According to the fifth ICA principle, co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives. They inform the general public– particularly young people and leaders – about the nature and benefits of co-operation. Principle of Co-operation among Co-operatives
The sixth ICA principles suggests: co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures. Principle of Concern for Community
The seventh ICA principle presents: co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members.
2.2. Theoretical and Empirical Studies of Cooperatives
2.2.1. Theoretical Review
Organizational structure of cooperative and their activities

The organization of cooperatives in Ethiopia can be established into five levels. At the grass root,voluntary members establish the primary cooperative societies. The primary cooperatives have also joined-up to established farmers’ cooperative unions. At regional level cooperative federations are found, which offer specialized services. Ethiopian cooperative league is also expected to be the apex body for the cooperative movement(FCA, 2013).
Primary Cooperative Societies: Individual farmers are organizing primary cooperative societies on voluntary basis. Farmers who live and work in the same working area with the same occupation can form a primary cooperative society. They are controlled and managed by the general meeting and represented management committee. According to their mission provide service to their members. Multi-purpose cooperative mostly provide services like marketing of agricultural products of their members for better price, supply of agricultural inputs, provision of financial credit service, and supply of different consumer goods to their members(FCA, 2013).
Unions: Farmer’s cooperative unions are formed by two or more primary cooperatives that have similar mission and carried out similar activities, which are beyond the capacity of primary cooperatives societies. They have their own geographical boundary. Farmer’s cooperative unions managed by general assembly whose members came from the member primary cooperative societies. Unions are managed and controlled by democratically elected board and internal control committee. The day-to-day activities of the union run and managed by haired general manager and employees. They provide service, which is beyond the capacity of primary cooperatives like input output marketing in bulk, storage service agro-processing, agro-mechanization, and supplying consumer goods. (Amahara cooperative promotion agency, 2014).
Federations: Two or more unions, which have similar activities, form farmers’ cooperative federations. The primary cooperative societies can also be members, if they are engaged with similar and interrelated activities. It is formed at regional as well as at national level to undertake specific activities, which might not be cost effective at union and primary level like import and export activities. The supreme body here is also the general assembly whose members are elected from member unions and primary societies, as the case may be. Managers and other staff undertake the day-today activities of the federation with frequent follow-up of the board of directors and general assembly. Federations at national level have not yet formed in Ethiopia (FCA, 2013).
Cooperative League:The highest organizational body of cooperatives known as cooperative league. It does not directly involve in production and service giving activities. It will serve as a mouthpiece of cooperatives in the country. It facilitates the horizontal and vertical relationship of cooperatives at national level. It represents the cooperative movement in the country at the International forum. The members of the cooperative league can be primary co-operatives, and unions and federations. It has not yet been formed in our country.(FCA, 2013).
Cooperative Structure
Organizational structurerefers to how the work of individuals and teams within an organization are coordinated. In order to achieve organizational goals and objectives, individual work needs to be coordinated and managed. Structure is a valuable tool in achieving coordination, as it specifies reporting relationships (who reports to whom), describes formal communication channels, and describes how separate actions of individuals are linked together. Hence, in order to coordinate the work of individual and team with in cooperative organization the following structure positioned.

Figure 1: Organizational Structure of Cooperatives
Financial performance:Performance measurement is defined as the process of measuring efficiency and effectiveness. Effectiveness is compliance with customer requirements, and efficiency is how the organization’s resources are used to achieve customers’ satisfaction levels(Tekeste, 2014). It refers to the act of performing financial activity to which financial objectives being or has been accomplished. It is the process of measuring the results of a firm’s policies and operations in monetary terms. It is used to measure firm’s overall financial health over a given period and can be used to compare similar firms across the same industry or to compare industries or sectors in aggregation (MillerAlan, 2001)
Any business organization can be defined in terms of three basic interests: ownership, control and beneficiary. Only in the cooperative are all three interests vested directly in the hands of the user i.e. the cooperative owned by the people who use it, it is controlled by the people who use it and the benefits generated by the cooperative argue to its users on the basis of their use. These interests are commonly referred to as the contemporary cooperative principle, which makes the performance of cooperative better than the other business organization (Folsom, 2002).
Multipurpose cooperatives: It refers to multipurpose cooperatives unlike single purpose cooperative undertake diversified activities. Multipurpose cooperatives, which functions on the basis of a fully integrated framework of activities, planned according to members requirements identified at the grass root level, taking the socioeconomic life of the farmer members in its totality (Chukwu, 1990).
Financial performance identifies the financial strengths and weaknesses of the cooperatives by properly establishing financial statement (Meigs, 178)).Financial statements provide information about cooperative assets; liabilities; equity, income and expenses, cash flows, including gains and losses that are useful to a wide range in making economic decisions(IAS, 2011). Most of the time basic financial statements employed to measure financial performance are balance sheet and income statement. Financial Statements Analysis
Financial statements are the summary of the accounting process, which provides useful information to both internal and external parties. John N. Nyer also defines it “Financial statements provide a summary of the accounting of a business enterprise, the balance-sheet reflecting the assets, liabilities and capital as of a certain data and the income statement showing the results of operations for a range of time. Financial statements generally consist of two important statements .i.e. the income statement or profit and loss account and balance sheet or the position statement.Financial statement analysis involves the examination of both the relationships among financial statement numbers and the trends in those numbers over time. One purpose of financial statement analysis is to use the past performance of a company to predict how it will do in the future. Another purpose is to evaluate the performance of a company with an eye toward identifying problem areas. In sum, financial statement analysis is both diagnoses— identifying where a firm has problems—and prognosis—predicting how a firm will perform in the future(W.W.W.Swlearning.com).
Financial statement analysis issued to predict a company’s future profitability and cash flows from its past performance and to evaluate the performance of a company with an eye toward identifying problem areas ((Alberch9e-co5-202-253-low.pdf) Balance Sheet
Position statement is also called as balance sheet, which reflects the financial position of the firm at the end of the financial year. Or, the balance sheet is a summary statement of what a company owns (or is owed) and what a company owes (or what others own) at a specific point in time. Position statement helps to ascertain and understand the total assets, liabilities and capital of the firm. One can understand the strength and weakness of the concern with the help of the position statement. This statement is very important to measure the financial position of cooperative unions in this research(WWW2.gsu.ed.) Income statement
The income statement, also called an earnings statement or a profit and loss statement, is an accounting statement that matches a company’s revenues with its expenses over a period of time, usually a quarter or a year. Income statement reflects the operational position of the firm during a particular period. Normally it consists of one accounting year. It determines the entire operational performance of the concern like total revenue generated and expenses incurred for earning that revenue. Income statement helps to ascertain the gross profit and net profit of the concern. This statement also will use to measure the financial performance of the unions (WWW2.gsu.ed.).
Analysis of Financial Statement is also necessary to understand the financial positions during a particular period.Analysis of financial statement may be broadly classified into two important types based on material used and methods of operations. Based on the material used, it is also classified in two, .i.e. external and internal. The external analysis made by the outsiders of the business based on the published statement. Whereas internal analysis made by the businesses within the department. The other analysis method is based on method operation. In this method,financial statement analysis may be classified into two major types such as horizontal analysis and vertical analysis. The horizontal analysis financial statements are compared with several years and based on that, a firm may take decisions. Normally, the current year’s figures are compared with the base year (base year is consider as 100) and how the financial information are changed from one year to another. The second analysis is vertical analysis. Under the vertical analysis, financial statements measure the quantities relationship of the various items in the financial statement on a particular period(WWW2.gsu.ed.) TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS
Financial statements give complete information about assets, liabilities, equity, reserves, expenses and profit and loss of an enterprise. Financial statement analysis interpreted mainly to determine the financial and operational performance of the business concern. A number of methods or techniques are used to analyze the financial statement of the business concern. The following are the common methods or techniques, which are widely used by the business concern(Shodhganga.inflibent.ac.in) Comparative statement analysis:is an analysis of financial statement at different period. This statement helps to understand the comparative position of financial and operational performance at different period. The analysis used in this study to compare the performance of each union at different period.
It usually applies to the two important financial statements, namely, balance sheet and statement of profit and loss prepared in a comparative form. The financial data will be comparative only when the same accounting principles used in preparing these statements. Comparative figures indicate the trend and direction of financial position and operating results. This analysis is also known as ‘horizontal analyses(W.W.W.ncert.nic.in,/ncerts/1/eac.204.pdf). Common Size Analysis: Other important financial statement analysis techniques are common size analysis inwhich figures reported converted into percentage to some common base. In the balancesheet the total assets figures is assumed to be 100 and all figures are expressed as a percentageof this total. In the income statement total sales figures is assumed to be 100 and all figures are expressed as a percentage on this total. It reflectsthe relationship of each item with the base value of 100%.In this analysis financial statement themselves cannot be compared across an industry or across time because of measurement differences (Shodhganga.inflibent.ac.in). Ratio Analysis: Ratio analysis is a commonly used tool of financial statement analysis. Ratio is a mathematicalrelationship between one numbers to another number. Ratio is used as an index forevaluating the financial performance of the business concern. An accounting ratio showsthe mathematical relationship between two figures, which have meaningful relation witheach other. Ratio can be classified into various types. Classification from the point of viewof financial management is Liquidity Ratio, Activity Ratio, Solvency Ratio, and Profitability Ratio. This ratio plays a great role in the analysis of financial performance of this unions and will use redundantly in this study(WWW.Pearson canada). Liquidity Ratio:It is also called as short-term ratio. This ratio helps to understand the liquidity in a business, which is the potential ability to meet current obligations. It measures the ability of business paying current liability and part of long-term debts as it matures. Current asset should always greater than twice-current liability(Gittinger, 1982)).In this study, the liquidity ratio will use to measure the ability of the union paying current liability through current asset (W.W.W.Swlearning.com). Activity Ratios
Measures the degree of efficiency with which the company utilizes its resources or it is also called asset turnover ratio. This ratio measures the efficiency of the current assets and liabilities in the business concern during a particular period.This ratio is helpful to understand the performance of the business concern. The greater the turn over the more effectively the company is at producing benefit from investment. This analysis will see in this study.
Inventory turn over
In accounting, the Inventory turnover is a measure of the number of times inventory is sold or used in a time period such as a year. It is calculated to see if a business has an excessive inventory in comparison to its sales level(WWW.accounting for management.org/inventory turn over ratio).Measure the number of times per year the company sells its inventory.
Total asset turn over
The asset turnover ratio is an efficiency ratio that measures a company’s ability to generate sales from its assets by comparing net sales with average total assets. In other words, this ratio shows how efficiently a company can use its assets to generate sales
( WWW.Myaccountingcourse.com).Measure the relation between a birr of sales and a birr of asset on the yearly basses. It measures the overall activity of the company.This ratio measures how efficiently a firm uses its assets to generate sales, so a higher ratio is always more favorable. Higher turnover ratios mean the company is using its assets more efficiently. Lower ratios mean that the company is not using its assets efficiently and most likely have management or production problems.The total asset turnover ratio is a general efficiency ratio that measures how efficiently a company uses all of its assets. This gives investors and creditors an idea of how a company is managed and uses its assets to produce products and sales. Financial leverageRatio

The relationship between cooperative assets and debt position can be evaluated with leverage ratios. Whenever a cooperative finances a portion of asset with any type of financing such as debts, the cooperative is said to be using financial leverage. Financial leverage management ratio measures the degree to which a cooperative is employing financial leverage and recommends the debt ratio to evaluate financial performance.(Gitter, 1982).

Debit ratio
It measures the amount of total debt firm used to finance its total assets. It is an indicator of financial strength of the unions. It provides information about the solvency and the ability of the firm to obtain additional financing for potentially attractive investment opportunities. Higher DTAR means the unions have financed most of its assets through debt as compared to the equity financing. Moreover, higher DTAR indicates that the unions areinvolved in more risky business.
It compares total cooperatives debt obligations owed against the value of total assets. This ratio expresses what amount of total cooperatives assets is owed to creditors. In other words, it is the creditors? claims against the assets of a business. This ratio is one way to express the risk exposure of the cooperatives business. It measures the extent to which the total asset of the unions has been financed using borrowed fund(Abdi, 2010)

Debt to equity ratio
Debt-to-equity ratio is the key financial ratio and is used as a standard for judging a company’s financial standing. It is also a measure of a company’s ability to repay its obligations. When examining the health of a company, it is critical to pay attention to the debt/equity ratio. If the ratio is increasing, the company is being financed by creditors rather than from its own financial sources which may be a dangerous trend. Lenders and investors usually prefer low debt-to-equity ratios because their interests are better protected in the event of a business decline. Thus, companies with high debt-to-equity ratios may not be able to attract additional lending capital. Measure the relative proportion of entity’s equity and debt to finance the union’s activity(Chunilal, 2014). Profitability Ratio
It is the net result of a number of polices and operations of the businesses.Profitability Provide the overall evaluation of performance of the company and its management. This ratio used to measure the overall profitability of a firm on the extent of operating efficiency it enjoys. This ratio establishes the relationship between profitability on sales and the profitability on investment turnover. Although there is other profitability ratio, the most important ratio for this research paper is the net profit margin ratio, return on investment, return on equity, gross profit margin ratio,. In the study, the analysis will serve to measure the profitability of the unions (e.book.narotama.ac.id).
A.Net profit margin ratio
The net profit margin is the ratio of after-tax profits to net sales. It reveals the remaining profit after all costs of production, administration, andfinancing have been deducted from sales, and income taxes recognized. As such, it is one of the best measures of the overall results of unions. The measure is commonly reported on a trend line, to judge performance over time. It is also used to compare the results of unionswith its competitors(Chunilal, 2014). Measure the profitability of the unions on a per birr basis of net sales.

Return on investment
Return on assets indicates the profitability on the assets of the firm after all expenses and taxes (Van Horne, 2005). It is a common measure of managerial performance (Westerfield, 2009). It measures how much the firm is earning after tax for eachdollar invested in the assets of the firm.
This ratio measures the company’s profitability per birr of investment in the total assets.
Return on capital
It measures how much the union is earning after tax for eachdollar invested in the firm. In other words, ROE is net earnings per dollar equity capital (Samad, 2000).
Measures how the efficiently the union generate profit from invested capital.Return on equity indicates the profitability to member’s primary cooperatives after all expense andtaxes (Van Horne, 2005). It is also an indicator of measuring managerial efficiency (Ross, 2005). Largely, higher ROE means better managerial performance;

Gross Profit Ratio
Gross margins reveal how much a company earns taking into consideration the costs that it incurs for producing its productsor services. Gross margin is a good indication of how profitable a company is at the most fundamental level, how efficiently a company uses its resources, materials, and labour. It is usually expressed as a percentage, and indicates the profitability of a business before overhead costs; it is a measure of how well a company controls its costs.GrossProfit Ratio shows the relationship between gross profit and net sales. This ratio calculated as by dividing the Gross Profit to net Sales(Chunilal, 2014). Advantage and Limitation of Ratio analysis Advantage

Ratio analysis is widely used as a powerful tool of financial statement analysis. It establishes the numerical or quantitative relationship between two figures of a financial statement to ascertain strengths and weaknesses of a firm as well as its current financial position and historical performance. It helps various interested parties to make an evaluation of certain aspect of a firm’s performance.
The following are the principal advantages of ratio analysis:
1. Forecasting and Planning:
The trend in costs, sales, profits and other facts can be known by computing ratios of relevant accounting figures of last few years. This trend analysis with the help of ratios may be useful for forecasting and planning future business activities.

2. Budgeting:
Budget is an estimate of future activities based onpast experience. Accounting ratios help to estimate budgeted figures. For example, sales budget may be prepared with the help of analysis of past sales.
3. Measurement of Operating Efficiency:
Ratio analysis indicates the degree of efficiency in the management and utilization of its assets. Different activity ratios indicate the operational efficiency. In fact, solvency of a firm depends upon the sales revenues generated by utilizing its assets.
4. Communication:
Ratios are effective means of communication and play a vital role in informing the position of and progress made by the business concern to the owners or other parties.
5. Inter-firm Comparison:
Comparison of performance of two or more firms reveals efficient and inefficient firms, thereby enabling the inefficient firms to adopt suitable measures for improving their efficiency. The best way of inter-firm comparison is to compare the relevant ratios of the organization with the average ratios of the industry.
6. Signal of Corporate Sickness:
A company is sick when it fails to generate profit on a continuous basis and suffers a severe liquidity crisis. Proper ratio analysis can give signal of corporate sickness in advance so that timely measures can be taken to prevent the occurrence of such sickness.
7. Simplification of Financial Statements:
Ratio analysis makes it easy to grasp the relationship between various items and helps in understanding the financial statements. The limitation of Ratio analysis
1. Different Accounting policy
The application different accounting policy or change in accounting policy may violet the comparison among unions and address to a wrong conclusion .Example some company may use historical cost model of depreciation, and others may use revaluation cost model depreciation method. Dueto the application of different revaluation method the profit or the financial performance of the two or more companies may differ.
2. Ratios is not the exact measure
Ratio analysis provide clue about the financial performance of the firm,but not the exact measure of the performance and difficult to say exactly to say high, low or satisfactory. Hence, it needs carful interpretation.
3. Ratio analysis based on summarized information
Financial statement is the summary of accounting records. During summarization of the accounting records,some important fact or data may be left and as aresult, the ratio analysis may base on some limited financial statement information .Hence the result of the ratio analysis may not be genuine result.
4. Interpretation of the ratio
It is difficult to say perfectly and conclude that the result of the ratio analysis is high,low and satisfactory.It depends on the interpretation of the researchers. The high debt to total asset ratio may be good in avoiding deficiency of working capital problem, but on the other perspective high debt to total asset ratiois risky for creditors as well as debtors.
5. Technology change
When comparing performance over time with in the same industry. Change in technology and its application makes difference in the financial performance among firms .Example, the firm that update its self with the changing technology financially can perform better than not update itself with the changing technology.

6. Historical information
Financial statements provide historical information. In order to use ratio analysis for various measurement, mostly the data are more than one year and have historical nature. Hence, it does not provide the current condition and may not important to measure.
2.2.2 Empirical Studies of Cooperatives
The research conducted on financial performance of multi-purpose cooperative unions. The study carried on eight multipurpose cooperative unions. The researcher collected data from three successive audit report period. The researcher used a quantitative data and used different financial ratio analysis tools. The researcher conclude that the unions satisfactory level of financial position. The liquidity ratio of the union was not sound enough under the studied period, the borrowing power of the unions and profitability of the union were lower than the average. The asset utilization of the union is not satisfactory and the unions have to sale additional share capital and unproductive fixed asset to increase own fund(Tekeste, 2014).
Hardesty and Salgia (2002) ”made extensive studies of the comparative financial performance of agricultural cooperatives and investor-owned firms including 5 cooperatives from the dairy sector, 14 cooperatives from the farm supply sector, 11 cooperatives from the fruit and18 vegetable sector and 11 cooperatives from the grain sector totally 41 cooperatives in California. Financial performances were evaluated through profitability, leverage, liquidity and asset efficiency for 1991 to 2002. Return on Equity (ROE), Return on Assets (ROA), Debt-Equity Ratio (DER), Current Assets (CA), Current Liabilities (CL), Operating Margin (OM) and Asset Turnover Ratio (ATR) were used. They indicated that cooperatives in all four sectors were less leveraged, while results regarding the relative profitability and liquidity of cooperatives were not decisive”(Dejeni, 2014).

The researcher collects secondary data from audit report.Based on the data drawn from balance sheet, income statement, cash flow and fund flow statement over the period 2009 – 2013 indicate that the union was goods in the growth of share capital under the studied period and in the period the union did not pay the dividend properly to members during the studied period. Besides, the union liquidity position under the studied period was not good. It means that the union unable to cover its current obligation by the current assets. (Low quick ratio). In addition to this, the union solvency was unsatisfactory(V.Natarajan, 2014).

A study conducted on six primary multipurpose cooperatives in 143 respondents. In the study,using descriptive statistic, OLS econometrics model employed and various financial ratio methods used in the studies. The study revealed that most of the cooperatives current ratio less than the standard and the cooperatives liquidity financed by borrowing funds. The cooperatives maintain good management efficiency with regard to utilization of asset to generate profit.(Dejeni, 2014)

The study conducted on ”performance of rural cooperatives on agricultural inputs and outputs marketing, the results of this study revealed that the liquidity ratio (current ratio) of the cooperatives in the study area was below the desirable rate. The cooperatives’ current asset base is their members i.e. cooperatives should make the members contribute certain amount of money as additional share capital. And this money, which is contributed as additional share capital, will improve the cooperatives liquidity position. In the meantime, the contribution also improves the operating working capital of the cooperatives rather than depending on external sources. It wasfound that the debt ratio shows the financial risk i.e. as debt becomes an increasing percentage of the cooperatives’ financing source, the cooperatives face inability to meet debt obligations. This ratio showed that the cooperatives have shortage of their own capital to meet their objective of rural development, so the government should be the source of capital until they become strong and this is common in most developing countries as the government is the major initiator of cooperatives. The profitability ratio measures how effectively the cooperatives’ management is generating profits on sales, total assets, money they borrowed and members’ investment (share capital). The cooperatives in the study area performed below the desirable rate i.e. even their profitability ratio could not reach bank interest rate with which they borrowed money from financial institution. Increasing the qualified manpower in the field, upgrading the management capacity of the cooperatives’ management body (board of directors and other employed workers) through education and trainings, improving the financial capacity of the cooperatives and the participation of the farmers in the cooperative are among the possible solutions”(Gashaw, 2017)
The researcher used secondary data from 55samples. Thesample were selected purposively. The researcher used a regression model and classical assumption test to analysis the relation between dependent and independent variable. The study was conducted from the period 2008 to 2012.The researcher conclude that Return on asset,Return on equity and Net profit margin has a positive significant effect on income growth, whereas Debt to equity ratio and current ratio has a significant negative effect on income growth. The researcher also recommend that, in order to increase profitability, reducing cost, managing debt, regulate the source of external fund in the expansion firms operation and increase profitability.(Mohd Heikal, 2014)
The researchers conduct a study on factor affecting financial performance and used secondary data from the period 2007-2012 and concluded thatleverage ratio and firm age have significant effect on financial performance,whereas liquidity firm size and managerial ownershiphas no significant effect on financial performance.(Deitiana, 2015)
The research conducted with a title factors influencing the company profitability and used secondary data from the financial statement that covers from the period 1999-2009and used regression model to test the connection betweenprofitability of the studied firm through return on asset and management of available resources. The researcher concluded that, there was a strong dependent relation between company performance and management of the availableresource. Inventories,debtlevel,financial leverage and efficiency of capitals has a positive impact on financial performance ,whereas fixed asset ratio has a negative impact and leads to lower return(Burjia, 2010).
The study conducted on influencing factors on financial performance of Firm.The researcherexamined the influence of capital structure, firmsizeand working capital in on financial performance and used a descriptive survey research design. The researcher concluded thatcapital structure of firm largely influenced the success of the firm. Further, it was inferred that firms used both equity and debt financing but with an inclination on debt financing. Equity capital though not heavily relied on, resulted to an enhanced financial performance of the firms. Therefore, concluded that firms’ capital structure is important for the financial performance of the firms but firms should blend equity with debt with an inclination on debt financing.(M.N.Kamu, 2015)
The study conducted on the assessment of the performance and challenges of multipurpose cooperative union in its course of development.The researcher collected data from members primarycooperative .The researcher used financial statements from audited reports as a source of secondary data. The study covered from establishment to 2004, By doing so the study revealed that theunion should direct its assets and liabilities in an effective manner. It should keep optimal level of assets and liabilities. If it is unable to do so, it may become less liquid able to meet its current obligations and thus it exposeto bankruptcy. Maintaining optimal level of assets and liabilities canbe achieved through employing professionals and byproviding continuous training to the management bodies of the union(Yemane, 2010)
The study conducted on factors affecting financial performance offirms during the financial cries period.The researcher used market to book ratio (market value of equity to book value of equity) as a dependent variable and eleven-ratio analysis have been taken as independent variables. i.e., (current ratio,acidity ratio, inventory turnover ratio, account receivable ratio, total asset turnover ratio, Debt to equity,Debt to total asset,net profit margin,operating profit margin,return on asset, return on equity ratio). A multiple regression model also applied.The researcher concludes that liquidity position of a firm has a positive impact or positively affects financial performance.However high debt to total asset ratio has a negatively affect financial performance.(Anwar, 2014)
Financial performance deals with measuring the results of the firm’s policies and operations in monetary terms (Tekeste, 2014).Business entities, in this paper cooperative union, activities and operation measured in monetary terms that expressed in the union’s balance sheet and income statement. The union’s balance sheet holds the list of current asset and non- current asset. On the other hand, the liabilities parts also include the current and the non-current liabilities. Moreover, the capital balance holds reserve, contributed capital and unappropriated capital. These balance sheet and income statement items monetary balances are the result of the unions operation and polices. The items of the statements balance measured by comparative, Common size and ratio analysis to determine the financial performance of the unions whether it is high or satisfactory or low. Moreover, regression model used to identify the variables that significantly influence the financial performance of the unions.Hence, the balance sheet and income statement lines items are relevant to measure the performance in various techniques. There for, from the above empirical analysis and different research observed the balance sheet and income statement line items ratio used as an independent variable to measure the financial performance (dependent variable).

Figure 2Conceptual framework

3.1. Description of the Study Area
3.1.1. An Overview of Amhara National Regional State
The Amhara National Regional State is one of the regional states in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia found in the Northwestern part of the country. It is located roughly between 13° 45′ North latitude and 35°20′ to 40°P 25′ East longitude. Theborders of the region are adjacent to Tigray region in the North, Oromia region in the South, Afar regionin the East, BenishangulGumuz region in the Southwest, and Sudan in the Northwest. The statedivided into 10 administrative zones. The administrative zones areEast Gojam, West Gojam,Awi, North Gonder, South Gonder, Wag Himra, North Wollo, South Wollo, North Showa, andOromia(Bureau of Finance and Economic Development, 2013).It also embraced 133 woredas (119 rural and 14urban).Based on the traditional agro-ecological zones, the region has four climatic zones, namely, wurch (4 %), Dega (25%), Woina-Dega (44%) and Kolla (27%). The region has an average annual rainfall of 200 to 1600 millimeter and has a mean annual temperature of 10 to 25°c (Bureau of Finance and Economic Development, 2013) 2006).In 2013, the population of the region expected to be 19.62 million (9.83 million male and 9.79 million female), 89.7% of the population exists in rural areas (CSA, 2013). In the region, there are 12938primary and 68 secondary level cooperatives of different types with a combined capital of birr 1876779.44 million & 847823337 million respectively in 2016(Amhara Region CPA 2016). The majority of cooperatives are multi-purpose agricultural cooperatives. Table 1 shows the type of cooperatives, number of members and the amount of capital of primary and secondary cooperatives.(Amahara Regioncooperative Promotion Office, 2016)

Table 1Types number, membership, and capital of primary cooperative in Amhara region of December 2016
No. Type of Cooperatives No.unions No. cooperatives members Number of Members Capital

Female Total
1 Multipurpose 1332 1386032 258612 1644644 744379551
2 Irrigation 34 8443 1297 9740 3497105
3 Horticulture 65 4934 1257 6191 252706
4 Seed birding 29 5252 941 6193 1249016
5 Dairy farming 25 1202 260 1462 7042207
6 Been Farming 13 7374 2508 9882 4845651
7 Truism 23 3498 346 3844 2497026
8 Consumer 76 20565 15026 35591 8723053
10 Coffee producer 21 1248 107 1355 630000
11 saving and credit 2139 1313657 450398 1764055 73755881
Total 3757 2752205 730752 3482957 847823337

3.1.2. An Overview of North Showa Zone
North Showa Zone is one of the 10th administrative zones, established under the Amhara nationalregional state. It covers a total area of about 15,954.92sqare km, which accounts 10.6% of the total area of the region. The administrative zone is circumscribed in the North by South WolloZone, in the East by Afar region, in the South and South west by Oromiaregion and North East and East by OromiaZone. Its geographical location falls between 8°,43?,16?-10°,44?,11? latitude and between 38°,39?,40?-40°,5?,32?longitudes. The administrative zone divided in to 22 rural and 5 town AdministrationWoredas. The Zone has 438kebeles, out of which 52 are urban and 386 are rural. Based on the traditional agro-climatic classification, North Showa Zone has four climatic divisions, namely, Dega,Wurch, Woina-Degaand Kola. In most parts of the Zone, the annual rainfall amount varies between 721.1 to1012mm, which is in most cases sufficient for a variety of crops to grow.The total population of the Zone in 2017 was 1,143,267 males and 1,083,418 females totally 2,226,585 peoples are found. Most of the populations found in regular area and involved in mixed farming.(North Showa Zone Planning Department, 2017).

The major economic activity of the Zone isagriculture. In order to intensify and support the agricultural activities of the zone verities of cooperatives are organized.In the zone there are 1,112 agricultural cooperatives and 435 non-agricultural totally 1547 cooperatives are established. In order to perform the task beyond the primary cooperatives,nine different cooperatives unionsestablished.Among the nine unionsfour are multipurpose, 1milk, 1seed birding, and 3saving and credit association. The four multipurpose cooperatives found in different areas of the Zone. Kessem multipurpose cooperative union is located in Arertitown and serves two woredas,Yifat located inShewarobit town and serves 5 woredas, Menze located in Mehalmieda town serves 5 woredas and Wodera located in DebireBirehan town serves 12 woredas. These unions totally held 338 primary cooperatives with151,292 male 39,089 female totally 190381members with74,220,004.21 birr capitals.
Table 2Types,membership, and capital of unions in North Showa zone as of December,2017

No. Type of Cooperatives No.unions Number of member cooperatives No. cooperatives members Capital

Male Female Total
1 Multipurpose 4 203 105420 22880 128300 70579305.73
2 Milk union 1 5 304 112 416 382619.66
3 Selected birder 1 8 505 78 583 325000
4 Saving and credit 3 122 45063 16019 61062 2933078.82
Total 9 338 151292 39089 190381 74220004.21

Figure 3Administrative boundaries of Amhara, Region, North Showa Zone and location of unions in the Zone

1. Based on the content of the article, what type of claim is the researcher trying to make (frequency, association, or causal)? Explain your answer. What did they write that makes you think so?
Associational: In the study attachment theory was used to understand the influence of past relationships and self-efficacy, to understand individual cognition about romantic relationships, and relational anxiety.It was used to understand individual emotional responsivity and how these relational antecedents associate with well-being.

2. Was the research method correlational or experimental? Explain your choice. (8 points)
It is correlational because the well-being of the said individual correlates to their take on the relationship.

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3. What hypothesis or hypotheses did the study attempt to test? Hint: only consider the variables that we listed at the top of this instruction sheet.

low levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, as well as low levels of dating anxiety and fear of being single, and high levels of self-efficacy in romantic relationships, will predict well-being across the three measures of the study.

4. What was/were the primary conceptual independent variable(s) of the study? How was/were the primary IV(s) operationalized? (8 points: 4 points for concept, 4 points for operationalization)

The independent variable of the study is to investigate which aspects of relationship or abilities in terms of attachment, relational anxiety, and self-efficacy which will predict the individual’s wellbeing well-being.

5. What was/were the primary conceptual dependent variable(s)? How was/were the DV(s) operationalized? (8 points: 4 points for concept, 4 points for operationalization)
The Dependent Variable predicted the likelihood of the individuals being less attracted and anxious within a relationship would portray happiness in for their wellbeing. Attachment style was measured by the Experiences in the relationship Scale-short form’s, while subjective happiness was measured by “Lymbormirky’s ; Lepper’s measure of subjective happiness.

6. Describe the participants. If available, provide the total number of participants, their sex, age, ethnicity, and other defining features. How were they recruited? How many were in each group in the end? Hint: This information can be found in the methods section. (8 points)

According to the study, One hundred forty-five undergraduate, heterosexual, unmarried students (117 women, 28 men) completed an online questionnaire. Participants were aged 18 to 25 (M ¼ 21.10, SD ¼ 1.75), and the ethnic composition was 5.5% Asian American, 8.3% African American, 37% Latino, 39% White, and 11% Mixed/ Other. Forty-six percent were single, 16% were in a relationship of less than 1 year, and 38% were in a relationship of 1 year or more.

7. What did the participants do in the study do? For example, did they fill out a survey, receive an intervention, perform a task, or something else? Did all of the participants do the same thing or did they do different things? Hint: This information can often be found in the procedure section. Try to be as specific as possible. (8 points)
The Undergraduates filled out an online survey, which upon finishing the students were required to invite other Undergraduate Human Development students in order to pass on the survey.

8. Describe the main results; i.e., those bearing on the hypotheses tested. Was each hypothesis supported or not? What did the author(s) conclude? Hint: Re-write each of the hypotheses being tested and summarize the findings for each. (8 points)
In the Authors hypothesis, low attachment anxiety will predict the Happiness and well-being of an individual. Participants with low anxiety in relationships as well as other social situations supports the authors hypothesis. The author also hypothesized that having low levels of attachment avoidance will also predict happiness and Well-being. This resulted in the individuals showing low levels of attachment within the relationship also supported the hypothesis.

9. Was reliability mentioned in the research (e.g., test-retest, interrater, or internal)? What data were provided for the tests or measures used in the research (if no data were provided, please explain what would be appropriate)? (8 points)
Interrater Reliability was used in the research. Glickman and La Greca’s 21-item Dating Anxiety Scale was used in the first portion of the study, it measured participants’ anxiety on dating and romantic relationships. Cronbach’s alpha was also used for measurement, it reported avoidance subscale(a=0.74), anxiety subscale (a=0.69) and lastly subjective happiness (a=0.86).

10. Considering the operational definitions of the variables (IVs as well as DV) and the subjective ways to assess construct validity (Hint: Ch. 5 ; 6), do you think the research has strong or weak construct validity? Explain your answers. (8 points)
This research article has strong construct validity, because they focus on the two measures of Attachment style and Happiness. The measurements are taken by self -study, where they are asked a series of questions based off attachment and happiness then recruit other undergraduate students to take the same questionnaire and continue the cycle of snowball sampling.

11. Do you think the research has strong or weak external validity? Explain your answer. (8 points)

The research has weak external validity; the study is only geared towards the individuals whom are undergraduates in Human Development and only recruit other undergraduates in the human Development classes. This is an example of snowball sampling. It should also be noted that due to the small group of interest the sample size is too small.

12. Does the study establish covariance? If so, explain why you reach that conclusion. If not, why not? (8 points)
Yes this is covariance, the two variables form a relationship. It is established with the study for anxiety and avoidance there is attachment and happiness.

13. Does the study establish temporal precedence? If so, explain why you reach that conclusion. If not, why not? (8 points)

Yes, temporal precedence is established since low levels of anxiety and avoidance lead to higher levels of happiness while high levels of anxiety and happiness could lead to lower levels of happiness.

14. Does the study have a third-variable problem? If so, explain why you think so and provide one possible third-variable. If not, why not? (8 points)

Since the study lacked experimentation, there is a third variable, the individual’s personal life beyond dating could be a factor as well. Stress form work, parents, School; Life itself can be the extra variable to the study. It can alter the effects of the questionnaire.

15. Do the conclusions by the author(s) match the research method? Why or why not (we are asking for reasons related to the materials covered in the course rather than your personal opinion)? (8 points)
Yes, the conclusions matched the research method. In this study we found that the “abilities” in romantic relationships that predicted well-being varied by the aspect of well-being. The best predictors of subjective happiness were low attachment anxiety, low dating anxiety in group situations, and high self-efficacy in romantic relationships. Findings indicate that individuals who do not feel anxious in their relationships or when in group, social situations and generally feel more in control of managing situations in romantic relationships report more happiness.

16. Considering your answers to the above questions, discuss two things that you would change to improve this research, or include in future research. How would your proposal resolve these issues? (8 points)
I would get rid of the snowball sampling’ having only Human Development students take the questionnaire does not do well for the demographics of the study. There are less females in the study because of the bias sampling. By expanding to external resources such as voluntary participants in the college versus only one class, it produces a larger sample size with more useful data.

17. Using your ability to search for information, what evidence (empirical) supports the claims made in the assigned research article (e.g., What have other authors found that would support or refute the main claim by the authors?)? Find three relevant sources. All three must be peer-reviewed empirical research articles. Summarize the salient points from each, whether they would support the claim made in the assigned research article, and explain how credible they are and why (based on credibility as explained by the textbook). You should be able to accomplish this in two paragraphs (one for summaries and one for credibility). Include in-text citations and a reference list at the end of your paper (APA format). FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT, YOU MUST USE ONLY PEER-REVIEWED EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ARTICLES. (12 pts – 4 pts for each source)
Source 1.)” ( Rostamian, Negar) Attachment theory is one of the most important aspects of the psychology. In this study Medical science students were tested at random taking the Hazan and Shaver’s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA) and statistical analysis was performed via t test, Chi square test, and multiple regression tests His conclusion was”. ” ( Rostamian, Negar) the most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.”
Validity: This journal empirical because it is peer reviewed.

Source 2.)
(Wilson, L., Catalano, D., Sung, C., Phillips, B., Chou, C., Chan, J. Y. C., ; Chan, F. (2013).”
This journal focused on attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. The design is quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. There were approximately 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries were used in the study. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. This resulted in functional disability and psychosocial correlates including coping, attachment styles, and social support were found to be associated with happiness scores. Functional disability was found to have a large negative effect on happiness and the effect was significantly reduced after taking into consideration the effect of positive psychology factors.
“(Wilson, L., Catalano, D., Sung, C., Phillips, B., Chou, C., Chan, J. Y. C., ; Chan, F. (2013) Positive psychology variables are important for happiness and subjective well-being, and happiness in turn is related to better quality of life. The negative relationship between functional disability and happiness can be mediated by attachment, social support, and coping. Rehabilitation professionals should deemphasize negative characteristics related to poor psychological adjustment and focus on positive human traits and positive psychology interventions for people with disabilities”.
It is empirical because it is peer reviewed and it supports the current study for its use in physically injured patients in place of College students in or lacking relationships.

Source 3.)'(Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Source three focused on the investigation of happiness and willingness to communicate in three attachment styles on college students. using cluster sampling method, 400 students were selected as sample. Hazan and Shaver’s Adult attachment styles scale, Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness (MUNSCH) and willingness to communicate scale were used for collecting of data.
(Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) “Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc multiple comparison were performed. the results showed that there are significant difference among attachment styles on happiness”.
This article is empirical because it is a scholarly source and is peer reviewed.

1. A banana palm is a herb, not a tree.
2. The stem of a banana can reach 10 meters in height and almost half a meter in circumference.
3. One big banana plant can give three hundred kilograms of bananas per season.
4. There are thousand types of banana known. But only 5 varieties of bananas are considered suitable for human consumption.
5. For the first time in botany, the banana was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
6. One banana contains up to 300 mg of potassium, which helps to fight with increased blood pressure and strengthens the heart muscle.
7. There are different colors of banana, yellow, red, golden, green and even black.
8. Most of the bananas grow in India and Brazil.
9. Bananas are 1.5 times more nutritious than potatoes, rich in vegetable protein and at the same time – no saturated fats.
10. In the 1930s, in Nazi Germany, bananas were declared “unpatriotic” fruit.
11. Banana is berries not a fruit.
12. Banana grows from bulbs not from seeds.
13. In Philippines, fruit sauce is made from banana.
14. In Uganda, where local people eat almost bananas, each person eats, on average, 220 kilograms of bananas a year.
15. Banana has 74% of water.
16. About 100billions of banana are consumed every year in the world.
17. Bananas contains an amazing amino acid – tryptophan, from which the human body synthesizes serotonin – a hormone of joy.
18. Banana is the fourth most popular and consumed agricultural product.
19. Two bananas may well replace dinner or breakfast for calorie and nutritional value.
20. Banana grows upside down, towards the sun that’s why banana is curved.
21. Banana fibers can be used to make ropes and tea bags.
22. Bananas can be used to make wine and beer, in some part of Africa people make it.
23. Due to potassium, banana is slightly radioactive but causes no harm.
24. Banana peels can be eaten if it is cooked.
25. Banana floats on water.
26. The unripe or green banana is cooked as vegetable.
27. Peel of banana can be used to whiten the teeth.
28. In India, once a man ate 81 bananas in just half hour.
29. In 1960, people tried to get high by smoking banana peels.
30. Human and banana have about 50%of identical genes.
31. The scientific name for banana is musa sapientum which means’ fruit of wise men”.
32. Bananas are very helpful for people who suffer from constipation problems.
33. Rubbing banana peel on the insect bite provides relief from itching.
34. Banana has property of lowering the high body temperature.
35. The most popular variety of bananas is Cavendish.
36. In India, the flower of a banana is sacred and symbolizes purity.
37. In California there is a Banana Club Museum. They have 17,000 different items made up of banana.
38. Bananas are used in cosmetology and not only at home, but also as ingredients of cosmetics.
39. Banana helps in weight loss.
40. Banana peel is used in making soap.
41. China had banned pictures and video of using banana in seductive way.
42. 51% of bananas are eaten in breakfast.
43. Mait Lepik from Estonia won in the world’s first banana eating competition for speed. He managed to eat 10 bananas in 3 minutes
44. Dried bananas contain 5 times more calories than fresh bananas.
45. Once the most popular varieties of bananas were virtually extinct in the 20th century due to the spread of diseases that affect these plants.
46. The compositions of bananas include antioxidants and amino acids, and they are known to protect the body and improve immunity.
47. Bananas inhibit calcium in the body; it is not excreted with urine, but remains in the body and is used to strengthen bones.
48. Rubbing banana peel during headache reduces the pain.
49. Banana is the only fruit that even in infants does not give an allergic reaction.
50. When weaning from nicotine addiction, we recommend eating bananas – a large number of vitamins, potassium, magnesium help to remove the remnants of nicotine from the body and adapt to life without cigarettes.

“Immuno-modulatory compound from fresh water sponge Spongilla helps fishes to fight against bacterial and fungal infections”


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Development of new antimicrobial drugs is vital, as current finding suggests that resistance producing against microbial drugs is inevitable. As synthetic drugs produces high health and environment risks, natural compound containing immune-modulatory activity isolated from different organisms gaining popularity as they are ecofriendly. Sponges produces variety of bioactive compounds, most among other organisms. However majority of the study focus compounds isolated from marine sponges, freshwater sponges mainly ignore as far. This study screens, extracts bioactive compound isolated from freshwater sponge Spongilla spp. and purify it by help of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) respectively forming crude compound.
Antimicrobial activity of crude compound against 3 bacterial fish pathogen strains Aeromonas. salmonicida, Flavobacterium. branchiophilum, Pseudomonas spp. or Vibrio spp. and 3fungal fish pathogen stains Exophiala. spp., Aphanomyces. Invadans and Saprolegnia spp. and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compound is evaluate. Its finding may help in designing new antimicrobial drugs against common fish pathogens in aquaculture.

Keywords: Freshwater sponge; Antimicrobial activity; High performance liquid chromatography; Thin layer chromatography; Minimum inhibitory concentration; Aquaculture.


? Bioactive compounds from fresh water sponges and its antimicrobial activities.

• Extraction of bioactive compound from fresh water sponge.
• Purification of bioactive compound and forming crude compound.
• Isolation of bacterial pathogens from infected fishes.
• Isolation of fungal pathogens from fungal infected fishes.
• Antibacterial activity of crude compound against fish pathogens.
• Antifungal activity of crude compound against fish pathogens.
• Minimum inhibitor concentration of crude compound against fish pathogens.



Resistance against disease increasing day by day which lead to increase the necessity of new drugs discoveries. New researches suggests that new drugs isolates from natural sources are so much important for green heath management and to minimizing the toxicological as well as environmental risks produces by synthetic antimicrobial drugs (Prabha Devi, 2013).

Sponges produces many forms of biological active compounds which possess antimicrobial activities. Researchers isolated many compounds from marine sponges as imuno-modulatory compound but identification from freshwater sponge are still lacking.

Extraction of immune-modulatory compound from natural sources i.e. from fresh water sponge and testing its biological activity against fish pathogens may help in discovery of new drug tip its significance in field of biotechnology. Isolation from natural sources may leads lowering the contamination, environment risks and may also lead in reduction of food insecurity as the drug for aquaculture minimize the ratio of fishes to get infected and die. World’s large population is depending on fishes as their food, either develop country like Japan or poor African countries.


• Replacement of exciting antibacterial and antifungal drugs with more effective and natural ones has become main question to address.
• Is fresh water sponges help freshwater fishes to increases its immunity to fight against different bacterial and fungal infections?


Marine sponges contains variety of bioactive compounds which having immunomodulatory activities. Fresh water sponges may also contain these type of bioactive compounds having antibacterial and antifungal activities which may help fresh water fishes to fight against infections and aid them in increasing their immunity.
Aims to find antibacterial and antifungal activities from fresh water sponges.


• From where we can isolate bioactive compound?
From fresh water sponge Spongilla. Spp
(Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillidae a common variety of freshwater sponge).

• Why fresh water sponges?
Marine sponges are known to produces many metabolites processing various bioactive activities, some are also went for clinical trials. Whereas fresh sponges is less studied group having relatively limited information.

• Will fresh Sponges help more than marine sponges?
Technical problems associated with cultivation and harvesting large amounts of marine sponges. Whereas Fresh water sponges are easy to cultivate and grow and harvest artificially as we can grow them in aquariums.

• What type of bacteria infect fishes? And what disease they cause?
1) Aeromonas. salmonicida causes Furunculosis forms boil-like lesions or may also appear dark in coloration at the base of their fins.
2) Flavobacterium. Branchiophilum causes gill disease, leading to gill proliferation in fishes.
3) Pseudomonas.spp and vibrio.spp can cause frayed fins with hemorrhaging at the base of the fin, sores, lethargy, and swelling of the belly.

• What type of fungus infect fishes? And what disease they cause?
1) Exophiala. spp are ubiquitous yeast and are distinct olive to black-brown color lesions on fishes.
2) Saprolegnia.spp freshwater specie of fungi which causes cottony/woolly, white growth on the skin, or gills, or on fish eggs.
3) Aphanomyces. Invadans causes deep ulcerative orange to red lesions on skin scrapes.

Considering the importance of green health management in aquaculture and concern about the contamination, toxicological and environmental risks posed by synthetic drugs has led to an increase in the popularity of developing natural products as a source of ecofriendly compounds possessing antimicrobial activities.
In addition, the evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics is becoming major issue not only for humans but also for aquaculture. This threat is increasing day by day causing immense economic losses resulting in food insecurity. Hence, replacement of existing antibiotics with more operational and safer ones has become an important subject to discuss.

Sponges are animals which consider one of the most primitive animal on earth, existing from millions of years by surviving major mass extinct. They are belonging to phylum porifera containing pores although their body. They produces variety of bioactive compound as they cannot move lacking physical defenses, highly susceptible predators such as fishes. Thus, it is not surprising that sponges have developed a wide suite of defensive chemicals to deter predators (Anjum, 2016), biofouling, microbial infections, and overgrowth by other sessile organisms (M. F. Mehbub, 2018).

Previously natural products have traditionally been harvested from terrestrial sources, while from sponges and their associates produces approximately 5,300 different natural known compounds (Bibi, 2016). A major contributing factor to this development is the fact that modern technology has made it easier to gain access to the great biodiversity of life found in the oceans (Margey Tadessea, 2008).

Oceans are most primitive, important and unique form of life on the earth. It provides a huge diversity of living organisms inhabiting diverse micro flora. The marine resources are widely studied nowadays because of numerous reasons. One of the reason is, the oceans cover more than 70% of planet surface and among 36 living phyla known yet, 34 of them are found in marine environments with more than 300000 known species of fauna and flora (Bibi, 2016).

Compounds isolated from sponges contains anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, anticoagulant (Roberta J. Melander, 2016), antitumour (Margey Tadessea, 2008), antifungal (Prabha Devi, 2013), cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antileukemic, anti- tuberculosis, (G. Annie Selva Sonia, 2008) and immunomodulatory activities (Soumalya Mukherjee, 2016). Considering their scope of antibiotic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria, marine sponge extracts are prime candidates as sources of bioactive metabolites (G. Annie Selva Sonia, 2008)

The discovery of penicillin in the mid-twentieth century revolutionized the treatment of infectious disease. Since then, antimicrobial agents have saved the lives and eased the suffering of millions of people. Multi-resistant bacteria threaten to cause new epidemics (Bibi, 2016).

Evidence suggest that development of resistance to any new antimicrobial agents is inevitable (Prabha Devi, 2013). So the evolving resistance has made necessary a search for new antibiotics for human as well as aqua cultural purposes. In the aquatic environment, competition for space and nutrients leads to evolution of antimicrobial defense strategies. This, along with possibly adverse effects on the ecosystem and human health problems, has resulted in restrictions on the use of commercial antibiotics and chemicals in the aquatic environment (G. Annie Selva Sonia, 2008).

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) caused by fungi are increasingly recognized as presenting a worldwide threat to food security. This is not a new problem and fungi have long been known to constitute a widespread threat to plant species. However, pathogenic fungi (mycoses) have not been widely recognized as posing major threats to animal health. This perception is changing rapidly owing to the recent occurrence of several high-profile declines in wildlife caused by the emergence of previously unknown fungi (Matthew C. Fisher, 2012). For more than two decades worldwide and fungal infections are amongst the common diseases in hatchery and aquaculture systems leading to the demise of fish population resulting in great economic loss (Prabha Devi, 2013).

Many structurally diverse marine sponge secondary metabolites have been shown to exhibit antibiotic activities against several Gram-positive bacteria including Streptomyces. pyogenes, Staphylococcus.aureus and Bacillus. subtilis. However many of these natural products are in active against Gram-negative bacteria (Roberta J. Melander, 2016).
In most cases development and production of sponge derived drugs is hindered by environmental concerns and technical problems associated with harvesting large amounts of sponges. But now presence of sustainable source of sponge-derived drug candidates could be generated by establishing a symbiont culture or by transferring its biosynthetic genes into culturable bacteria (Anjum, 2016). There are a few examples of marine derived compounds which have successfully reached the market as therapeutic drugs (Margey Tadessea, 2008).

Multi drug resistant Staphylococcus. aureus (MRSA) formerly particularly problematic in places such as hospitals and nursing homes, is now found in commonly-used places. Scientists have isolated an extract from a sponge found in Antarctica, tested it on MRSA biofilm and found that it eliminate more than 98 percent of MRSA cells. The highly-resistant MRSA infection (USF, 2016). Several strains were identified for their potent antifungal activity, and for both antifungal and antibacterial activities (University, 2018).

Benthic marine invertebrates (Sponges) were found to be a promising source of novel bioactive compounds against human and fish pathogenic bacteria and fungi (Margey Tadessea, 2008). Freshwater poriferans are relatively a less studied group with limited scientific information (Soumalya Mukherjee, 2016). Spongilla. Spp (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillidae a common variety of freshwater sponge) is distributed in seasonal ponds and lakes.


Collection and Laboratory Acclimation of Spongilla. Spp:
Protocol is design according to (Margey Tadessea, 2008) and (Prabha Devi, 2013) Spongilla. Spp shallow water sponge will manually collect from the water bodies. Sponges will carefully remove from jetty pylons with a scraper, kept wrap in plastic bags, and will immediately transport to the laboratory. Associated macro organisms (mainly algae and polychaetes) will remove from the biological material before lyophilisation. Samples of Spongilla. Spp will then identify by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pool, lyophilize and separately frozen at -20 o C.

Extraction of Bioactive Compound from Sponge:
Extraction protocol as describe by (Margey Tadessea, 2008), (Prabha Devi, 2013) and (G. Annie Selva Sonia, 2008) frozen sponge sample will thaw and extract exhaustively with acetone (Prabha Devi, 2013) or extract thrice with distilled methanol and the pooled organic solution made from each species will filter by suction through a Buchner funnel line with Whatman No. 1 filter paper. (G. Annie Selva Sonia, 2008). Solvent will remove by rotary evaporator. The free aqueous extract thus obtain will transferred into a separating flask and fractionate sequentially using Diethyl Ether (DE) follow by Butanol (Bu) to obtain the DE-fraction and the Bu fractions respectively (Margey Tadessea, 2008). The crude extracts will now screen for antibacterial and antifungal activity.

Pathogens Collection:
Pathogen collection as describe by (Prabha Devi, 2013) Fish pathogens will isolate from infected fish. Isolation will carry out using standard techniques. Briefly, one gram wet weight of the fish sample from the infected region will rinse thrice in sterile fresh water and homogenize it by using a sterile mortar and pestle in 5ml sterile freshwater.

For Bacterial Pathogens:
Serial dilutions (up to 4 dilutions) will make and spread plated on Luria agar (M. F. Mehbub, 2018) as standardize growth media due to the simplicity and accessibility of its formulation. Plates will incubate at 26°C for 2-3 days. The isolates will repeatedly sub-cultured until pure bacterial isolates will obtain and then store on Luria broth until use.

For Fungal Pathogens:
Serial dilutions (up to 4 dilutions) will make and spread plated on Sabourauds dextrose agar (SDA, Hi Media) containing 50 mgml-1 of antibiotic chloramphenicol to inhibit bacterial growth. Plates will incubate at 26°C for 2-3 days. The isolates will repeatedly sub-cultured until pure fungal isolates will obtain and then store on SDA slants until use. (Prabha Devi, 2013)

Metabolite Purification High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC):
Protocol is set as per (M. F. Mehbub, 2018) and (Prabha Devi, 2013) to assess sponge metabolite profiles, and HPLC analyses will perform as per protocol defined by (M. F. Mehbub, 2018). At constant flow rate, 100 mg of freeze-dried sponge tissue was extracted three times, powdered sponge tissue was transferred to a new tube and dissolved with 1 ml methanol in an ultrasonic tank for 5 min with high energy setting, centrifuged and the pellet retained after transferring the supernatant.
The pellet was extracted twice and the combined crude extracts and finally dissolved with 1 ml methanol. This crude extract was filtered through a 13 mm 0.2 µm Syringe Filter and added to a 2ml tube with glass insert. Then, 50 µl of this filtered solution was injected into the HPLC system described above. The peaks will observe at 200 to 800nm wavelength range.

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC):
This step is design according to protocol design by (M. F. Mehbub, 2018) and (Prabha Devi, 2013) to further elaborate the nature of the metabolites produced, we used TLC. A slurry of the Diethyl Ether (DE) fraction in silica gel was prepared by dissolving the crude extract in minimum quantity of DE and dried under nitrogen. This dry slurry was loaded onto a silica gel glass column and initially eluted with hexane followed by increasing concentration of diethyl ether in hexane. Next elution was performed using chloroform followed by increasing concentration of methanol in chloroform and finally eluted with methanol. Like fractions were combined on the basis of TLC and the combined fractions were subjected to bioassay screening against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Separation on TLC may be detected under a UV lamp at 254 or 366 nm wavelength range.

Biological Activity:
Antimicrobial activities for the crude fractions and the pure compound against fish pathogens will determine by agar disc diffusion method. Briefly, paper discs of 6mm diameter will impregnate with 25 µg of the crude extract and 10 µg of the pure compound dissolve in diethyl ether. The zone will then measure in millimeter and scored as (– no activity; + mild activity; ++ moderate activity; +++ Significant activity; and ++++ strong activity). Positive and negative control will also use.
For bacterial pathogens discs will place on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) plates possessing a lawn of the different strains to be test. The cultures will incubate for 24 hours at 37°C and for fungal pathogens discs will place on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plates possessing a lawn of the different strains to be test. The cultures will incubate for 48 hours at 27°C to obtain maximum growth in the culture media so as to visualize the clear zone of growth inhibition around each discs. Experiment repeat thrice to know the reproducibility of results

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC):
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) is defined as the lowest concentration of the pure compound that inhibits visible growth of the microorganism around the disc. MIC values of crude compound against test pathogens will determine according to the Kirby and Bauer disc diffusion method. The discs load with the compound will prepare in the same way as described above. Each of the pathogen will inoculated in different plate.
For antibacterial MIC inoculum of 250µl solution will spread over each MHA agar plate surface and incubate it for 24h for 37°C and for antifungal MIC inoculum of 250µl solution of each fungi pathogen spread over the surface on potato dextrose agar and plates will incubate for 48-72 h at 28°C. An array of the discs containing different concentrations (µg/ ml) of the compound will place on the plates to determine the MIC values of the compound. Dried discs will use as negative control discs and standard drug will use as positive control. MIC will determine in triplicate.


• Collection and laboratory acclimation of Spongilla. spp and its identification through PCR can take up to 3 months according to availability of reagents.

• Bacterial and fungal fish pathogens collection can be start along with Spongilla collection. As we have to collect three Bacterial and tree fungal pathogens, it can be done within 3 months after Spongilla identification.

• After identification of Spongilla, we have to wait until pathogens collection. After collection we will thaw and then extract bioactive immune-modulatory compound. Extraction of bioactive compound from sponge can be done within two week.

• Metabolite Purification by HPLC and TLC both can be done within 3 months, forming pure crude compound.

• Antibacterial and antifungal biological activity of crude compound done in systematic repeat manner in order to get authentic results. This step can be done in 3 month.

• To find out minimum inhibitory concentration of crude compound only for those against which it give antimicrobial activity, will be done in a month.

• Thesis writing can be done within 3 month after complete whole research work.

On the search of new NLO materials with better mechanical properties, many researchers have focused on the small organic molecules having a large dipole moment and a chiral structure. These molecules are usually linked through the hydrogen bond 1-2. Nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystals establish a variety of applications to perform functions like electro-optic switching, optical memory storage, frequency conversion, second harmonic generation and high energy lasers for inertial con?nement fusion research 3–7. Because of the large nonlinearities and optical threshold of organic materials, a wide range of such materials has been found by many researchers 8-10. In general, most of the organic molecules designed for nonlinear optical applications are the derivatives of an aromatic system substituted with donor and acceptor substituent 11-13. In recent years there have been extensive researches in the investigation of nonlinear optical crystals because of their potential applications in fabrication of optoelectronic devices 11–14.
The organic crystals have large nonlinearity, but they have poor mechanical and thermal stability and are susceptible to damage during processing. Moreover, the growth of large size single crystal is difficult to grow for the fabrication of devices. Inorganic crystals have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, but possess relatively modest optical nonlinearity because of the lack of extended pi-electron delocalization. Due to the above reasons, investigations have been made with semi-organic crystals which have combined properties of both organic and inorganic crystals and it is more suitable for device fabrication 15-19.
Sulphanilic acid (SAA) is a very interesting compound due to a number of medical, biological, NLO, irradiation and radiation dosimeter properties. SAA is virtually tissue equivalent, which enables its use in radiation therapy. EPR signal intensity shows noticeable stability of transfer dosimeter 20-24. SAA containing two functional groups like sulfonic acid (-So3H) and amine groups, thereby it acts as a base which makes a compound through nitrogen (amino) atom. In recent times, the growth and NLO properties of sulphanilic acid derivatives have been reported.
In this research article, the growth of transition metal incorporated novel SAA crystal grown from an aqueous solution involving electron transfer from donor to acceptor followed by hydrogen bond formed from the acceptor is presented. Also the characterization studies, like FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR, X-ray diffraction, NMR, thermal, hardness, etching, EDAX analysis, nonlinear optical and dielectric properties were carried out and the obtained results are reported in the present work and discussed. These results are not yet reported in the literature to our knowledge.
2.1 Materials and spectral measurements
The compound Sulpanilic acid and Zirconium oxychloride are purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and Merck Chemicals Company. These chemicals were used without purification. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal X- ray diffraction studies using an ENRAF NONIUS CAD4 diffractometer with MoK? radiation (?=0.71073 A?) to determine the unit cell dimensions with space group. The powder samples have been analyzed by using BRUCKER, Germany (model D8 Advance) X-ray diffractometer with CuK (wavelength=1.5405A0) radiation. The powder sample was scanned over the range 10– 80oC at a scan rate of 1oC/ min. Infrared spectrum was recorded using the Alpha Bruker ATR technique with a resolution of 2 cm-1 at room temperature. 1H & 13C NMR spectra of the crystals were run on a Bruker FT-NMR spectrophotometer operated at 400 MHz at room temperature using dimethyl methoxide (DMSO) as a solvent and tetra methylsilane (TMS) as an internal reference. The optical transmission spectrum was recorded using DOUBLE BEAM UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer (Model:2202) in the region 200-1200nm. Thermal stability of the crystals was done by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method using Dupont 951 thermogravimertic analyzers. The work was performed from 30 to 800°C at the heating rate of 200C min-1 in a nitrogen atmosphere with a gas flow rate of 100ml min-1. The Vicker’s hardness test was carried out on the grown crystal using SHIMADZU HMV microhardness tester fitted with a diamond pyramidal indenture. The surface morphology and particle sizes of the samples were determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; Hitachi S4800; Japan).
2.2 Synthesis of SAOZR crystals
The SAOZR has been synthesized by taking the chemicals in equimolar ratio and dissolved in aqueous solution. The solution was stirred well using a magnetically stirred at room temperature. The solution was kept in undisturbed condition and after 45 days transparent crystals of SAOZR in pyramidal shape were collected. These crystals are in yellow-reddish color with an average size of 8x7x15 mm3. The purity of the synthesized crystal was improved by successive re-crystallization process. The synthesis route is shown in figure 1.
2.3 Crystal Growth of SAOZR
The bulk growth of SAOZR single crystal was carried out from slow evaporation solution growth method and good quality single crystals were obtained. Figure 2 shows photographs of the as grown crystal. The optimized growth conditions of SAOZR single crystal are given in table 1. All the crystals have good compositional stability. Samples were stored at room temperature and at 90% relative humidity showed no degradation after several months. Fig. 2. The photograph of the as grown crystal of SAOZR.

3.1. Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction (SXRD) Analysis
The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of pure SAA and SAOZR crystal revealed that both pure and SAOZR single crystal crystallize in the orthorhombic system with space group belong to P212121. The lattice parameters are a= 7.31 Å, b = 7.51 Å, c = 13.92Å and volume =765 Å3 and slight variations in these values were observed in SAZOR crystal when compared with pure SAA. This type of variations may be recognized to the incorporation of zirconium oxychloride in the SAA crystal lattices. This result is presented in table 2.
3.2. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis
In powder XRD pattern, a well defined Bragg’s peak is obtained at specific 2? angles for SAOZR crystal. The crystallinity of SAOZR was confirmed by PXRD analysis and diffraction sharp peaks are indexed from crystal structure parameters shown in figure 3. This reveals that the grown crystal has good quality and possesses high crystalline nature. The variations of intensity of peaks compare with pure SAA crystal 24. It is clearly indicated that the doping (zirconium oxychloride) could be incorporated into the pure SAA crystal lattice.
3.3. FT-IR Spectral Analysis
The FT-IR spectral analysis of as grown crystal SAOZR was carried out between 4000 and 500 cm-1. The observed spectrum is shown in figure 4. The peak at 2648 cm-1 is assigned to hydrogen bonded N-H—O vibration of amine with zirconium oxychloride. The asymmetric bending vibration of NH3 of sulphanilic acid occurs at 1631 cm-1. The benzene ring resonance vibration produces peaks at 1598, 1549, 1578 and 1423 cm-1. The corresponding asymmetric vibration of SO3- vibration gives the peaks at 1318, 1246, 1158 and 1162 cm-1. The peak at 564 cm-1 is due to torsional oscillation of NH3+. The broad and intense peak due to C-H stretching, vibration appeared as a strong absorption band in the region 2881 and 3065 cm-1. The -NH2+ bending at 1598 cm-1 is shifted to a higher frequency region as 1631 cm-1 due to the presence of resonance structure (–NH3+ and -NH2+). The peak observed at 1318 cm-1 reveals C=S bend. Symmetric C=S stretching vibrations at 831 cm-1 is shifted to the low frequency region at 685 cm-1.
3.4. 1H and `13C NMR Spectra
Figures 5a and 5b represent the proton NMR and carbon NMR spectrum of SAOZR respectively. The presence of NH3+ protons in the synthesized SAOZR crystal appears at ?=4.3ppm in the 1H NMR spectrum. The aromatic protons are appearing around 6.8 and 7.1 ppm. The synthesized crystal SAOZR contains only aromatic carbon atom which appears in 13C NMR at ?=127ppm. Fig.5. 1H and `13C NMR spectrum of SAOZR crystal
3.5. Optical transmission studies
The optical transmission spectrum of SAOZR crystal is shown in Figure 6. The transmission is maximum in the entire visible region and infrared region. In the grown SAOZR crystal, the UV transparency cutoff wavelength lies at 247nm and the percentage of transmission is high in the entire visible region from 247nm to 1200nm. The absence of absorption in the entire visible region makes the SAOZR crystal as a potential candidate for second harmonic generation and optical applications
3.6. SHG efficiency studies
The Powder SHG test offers the possibility of assessing the non-linearity of new materials. Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements were carried out using a spectrum-physics Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with the first harmonic input at 1064nm and a pulse width of 10ns at a repetition rate of 10Hz. This SHG efficiency diagram was shown in figure 7. The second harmonic signal generated by the compound was confirmed by emission of green radiation and the powder SHG efficiency of SAOZR was found to be comparable to that of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP). The SHG behavior was confirmed from the emission of bright green radiation (532nm). So it is a good NLO material for several applications.
3.7. Photoluminescence study of SAOZR crystal
The PL study finds wide applications in the field of medical, biochemical and chemical research for analyzing compounds. Photoluminescence in solids is the phenomenon in which electronic states of solids are excited by light of particular energy and the excitation energy is released as light. The photon energies reflect the variety of energy states that are present in the material. Figure 8 shows a PL emission spectrum recorded in the range of 300–800nm with an excitation wavelength of 341nm. The highest emission peaks in the spectrum were observed at 341nm and 667nm which indicates the emission of blue and red light. Other observed peaks are due to anionic and cationic nature of the sample.
3.8. Thermal analysis of SAOZR crystal
The thermogram and differential thermogravimetric traces are shown in Figure 9. It is observed from DTA curve, the material exhibits single sharp weight loss at 366.5 °C. It is observed that there is no weight loss from ambient temperature to 366.5 °C which indicates the grown SAOZR crystal is totally devoid of any inclusion of solvent and also indicating that the SAOZR crystal is stable up to 383.9 °C. At this decomposition stage, 86.8 % weight loss was observed from the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis.
3.9. Mechanical study of SAOZR crystal
The fastest and simplest type of mechanical testing is the Vickers microhardness measurement. Among the different testing methods, the Vicker’s hardness test method is more commonly used. Microhardness measurements were done on SAOZR for the applied load (p) varying from 25 to 100g for a constant indentation time 10s.Several indentations were made for each load and the diagonal length (d) of the indentation was measured.

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The Vickers hardness number was determined using the formula H? = 1.8544 P/d2 (Kg/mm2). A graph was plotted between H? and load (p) shown in Figure 10. For an indentation load of 100 g, crack was initiated on the crystal surface, around the indented. This is due to the release of internal stress locally initiated by indentation. The work hardening coefficient (n) has been calculated from the slope of a straight line between log p and log d from Figure 11 and it is found to be 2.9 which indicates moderately soft nature of material (25-27).
3.10. Dielectric Studies of SAOZR crystal
The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the SAOZR sample were measured using HIOKI 3532-50 LCR HITESTER. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the sample has been measured for different frequencies (100 Hz to 5 MHz) at different temperatures (308 to 368 K). Figures 12 and 13 shows the variations of dielectric constant and dielectric loss, respectively, as a function of frequency at different temperatures. It is observed from Figure 12 that the dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency from 50 Hz to 5 MHz and then attains almost constant. The same trend is observed for other temperatures too. It is also observed that the value of dielectric constant increases with temperature. Such variations in higher temperature may be attributed to the blocking of charge carriers at the electrodes. The decrease of dielectric constant at low frequency region may be due to space charge polarization. Figure 13 indicates that as the frequency increases, the dielectric loss decreases exponentially and then attains constant. The low value of dielectric loss confirms that the sample possesses lesser defects.
3.11. Etching Analysis of SAOZR crystal
The etching study was demonstrated for 5 s and 10 s, and the observed etch patterns of as grown SAOZR crystals are shown in Figure 14a and 14b. From the Figure 14a, it is observed that there is a smooth surface and rectangular shape etch pits observed on the surface of the sample when the etch pattern was taken within 5s. In the etch pattern recorded for 10s, in addition to rectangle shape etch pits, the dark spot is also observed. These etch pits are due to the chemical impurities and crystal undergoes selective dissolution during growth.
3.12. EDAX Analysis of SAOZR crystal
The elemental analysis was done using the Oxford INCA Energy Dispersive Atomic X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (EDAX). From the analysis, it is noticed that the equal mole percentage of Zirconium Oxychloride sulphanillic acid has been incorporated into the as grown crystal of SAOZR. The element chloride was traced in EDAX analysis and shown in the figure 15. The chemical composition is also calculated theoretically as C, 25.79; H, 2.16; N, 5.01; O, 22.90; S, 11.48; Zr, 32.65 and these values agree with EDAX analysis.
1.13. FESEM
The surface morphology and the particle size of the crystal were evaluated through FESEM analysis and the results are displayed in Figure 16. From the figure, it is interpreted as Zirconium particle agglomerated on the surface of the crystal (17, 28).
Well developed good quality transparent crystal of (((4-sulfonatophenyl)ammonio)oxy)zirconium (SAOZR) was grown successfully by slow evaporation technique. A single crystal XRD study has been carried out to identify the lattice parameters and the grown crystal belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system. Powder XRD shows good crystallinity of the grown crystal. The UV cutoff wavelength of SAOZR crystal is found to be around 247nm, which reveals grown crystal is a potential candidate for NLO applications. TGA and DTA analysis were carried out to characterize the melting behavior and stability crystal. The emission of intense green light from SAOZR crystal confirms the nonlinear optical properties. Photoluminescence study shows in wide blue color light emission. The dielectric behavior of the sample has been analyzed with various frequencies at different temperatures. The mechanical strength of growing crystal was analyzed by the Vickers micro hardness tester. The elemental analysis was done by EDAX. The dielectric response of the these crystals was studied in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5MHz at various temperatures and the results are discussed. Finally, it is concluded that SAOZR crystal is suitable for industrial applications as it possesses good thermal stability, moderate SHG efficiency and soft nature.

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Aim

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The aim is to conduct an in in-depth analyzes of the Role of Human Resources in Organizational Performance while analyzing case studies of the Global Significance of Human Resources in Health Care Sector

1.2 Research Objective

• Identify the significant roles of HRM within an organizations
• Recommend applicable HR strategies to manage workforce
• Evaluate the impact of HR strategies within an organization
• Identify issues in employee management which HR faces
1.3 Research Questions

• Has HR changes the way people are seen in the Health sector globally
• Are the issues raised still present in the health sector
• Has the roles of HR changed over the years
• To what extent can HRM improve the performance of the health sector
1.4 Rationale

• To identify and analyse how major trends in health care sector influence the nature of HRM
• To explain the importance of aligning an organization’s HRM and business strategy
• To evaluate the importance of HRM strategies
• To apply HRM models and theories
1.5 Overview

There is a changing trend in the impact of HRM where employees are now seen are an integral part of the organization. There is an effective strategy in HRM created to align with the organizational strategy. HRM strategy about creating long-term goal, objective and mission that is suitable for the organization. In HRM there are several books that define the concept differently
Torrington, Derek and Hall Laura (2014) define “HRM is concerned with all aspect of how people are employed and managed in organization”. It important organizations are employs the right staff and these staffs are treated well through effective management strategy which can lead to organization growth.
HRM performance provides a platform for organization to grow financially, enhances their skills, and motivate staff. This is where organization retains the right staff by recruiting staff that fit the organization culture and strategy. Most organizations have a skill based system normally called talent management. Organizations have to deploy a job for staff that meets the strategy requirement of that role. In cases where this is not meet there should be training in place to improve productivity and increase staff retention.
There are different functions/roles that deploy in HRM according to the Torrington Derek and Hall Laura (2014) that includes: strategic HRM, human capital management, knowledge, organization development, resourcing, performance management, learning and management, reward management, employee relations and employee well-being”.
There are different roles that HRM plays as discussed previously, this will now be discussed in details briefly and then reviewed later in the chapter, firstly we need to define and describe each HRM function are:
1. Strategic HRM: Torrington, Derek and Hall Laura (2014) “This is an approach that defines how the organization’s goals will be achieved through people by means of Hr strategies and integrated HR policies and practices”. Strategic HRM is about continues planning, better values, committed and motivation that can lead to a competitive edge.
2. Human capital management: Torrington, Derek and Hall Laura (2014)”is concerned with obtaining analyzing and reporting on data which informs the director of value-adding people management strategic investment and operational decisions at corporate level and at the level of Front-line management”. Organization can be informed on where the assets are and how it can lead to a competitive edge. The asset can be social, organization and intellectual.
3. Knowledge management: Torrington, Derek and Hall Laura(2014) “is any process or practice of creating, acquiring, sharing and using knowledge, wherever it resides, to enhance learning and performance in organization”. It about making sure that information flows effectively and efficiently for the right personnel.
4. Resourcing(Human planning recruitment and selection and talent management):
Focus on improving employee recruitment, retention, performance, and potential. It’s all about making sure that employees are committed.
5. Performance management:
It’s the communication about management and employee with regards to ensuring that the organization’s goals set are met by the employee.
6. learning and management:
It about ensuring that skill and knowledge is improved within the organization through the use of the term called procurement, which involves training and cost-effective approach.
7. Reward management:
It an approach that focuses on rewards strategy and practice which results in acknowledge of an employee for the exceptional performance through pay increase and fair treatment.
8. Employee relations and employee well-being:
The focus is to create a positive relationship between the employee and employer through advice and knowledge sharing within the relationship which can lead to employee commitment and engagement
1.6 Identify issues in employee management which HR faces

The issues will be discussed in the literature review in more details, as for now, the facts have to describe. There are different issues in Hr employee management globally that include the following below:
• Recruiting new staff: It is important that the right employees are recruited and trained to adapt to the roles quickly. It is not just about one aspect when recruiting.
• Retention: Staff can be retained by providing them with different HR schemes such as a reward system and effective training.
• Training: It is important that staffs are trained well so they can increase the productivity of the organization. If staff are not well trained this cause slow down in productivity.
• Health and safety: Staff must be kept informed about the health and safety in the organization. It is an important aspect of the staff commitment.
• Work diversity: There must be rules in place to ensure that staff are not treated badly and are respected.
• Globalization: It is where organization are set up multi-nationally and should operate to deal with different issues such as laws and tradition
• Advancement in technology: Organization needs to keep up with the changing trend in technology such as the HRM system and payroll system.
• Management of information: information need to updated, reliable and should be useful for the particular purpose within the organization.
The chapter below that we will be covered includes the following-
1. Literature Review
2. Methodology
3. Results / Findings / Discussion
4. Conclusions and Recommendations?
2.0 Literature review

After reviewing a few literatures this is the points that were made. Firstly all of the literature that was read said and made the point about motivation, which is useful in employee retention.
Motivation as an enabler
In the past motivation was not well appreciated in hr within the health sector according to human resources and the success of health sector written by Tim Martineau. He adds that the health sector did not understand how HR would improve productivity and therefore HR was ignored as resources by the management. Human resources management in Healthcare sector a conceptual study written by K.Naga Sundari, Prof. V. Narasimha Rao argue further that there is a problem with staff engagement and top management support in HR planning. Human resources in the health sector: an international perspective Javier Martínez ; Tim Martineau argues that planning and managing staff resources are an important tool to effective HR in the health sector globally. Poor motivation is seen as the cause of the problem faced by management not taking the process seriously. Motivation can be achieved where the management roles can be changed or adjusted to fit into the hr roles that can be useful while dealing with HR queries from staffs. It should be reflected in the job description. Javier Martínez ; Tim Martineau in the Human resources in the health sector: an international perspective adds that the job description should show skills and competencies that include proper training and effective Hr development in the health sector.
Also, technology will play a part in the management of staff by the manager in the health sector where hr software are integrated to assess the need of staff and assess how they can be enabled to do better at their roles. It is important that management motivate their staff which can lead to job satisfaction which in turn ensures there is high staff retention in the health sector. Most of the Literature that was reviewed covered the motivation and they argue that a health sector without highly motivated staff will end with poor quality of work which would lead to performance issues. It talked about ways of overcoming performance issues such as creating performance appraisal, better pay rate and increase in the recruitment of quality staffs that are willing to stay. Although they talked about motivation in the literature reviewed it did not go into detail about what motivation was and the impact on the health sector. Based on the review it has not changed the way staff are treated in the health sector, it is still a problem, for example looking at NHS, we can see that it struggle to recruit staffs that are right for the roles and even staff that are recruited struggle to cope or stay in the health sector. Motivation will always be a problem in the health sector as seen in the literature reviewed covered. HRM is an important way of managing staffs and the future is bright if this resource is well integrated into the health sector.
Poor investment in HR
There was poor investment in HR due to the complexity of the health sector and hr combined together. Both hr is a complex on its own and health sector is same; combing both makes it difficult to see the impact of HR in the health sector. Some of the literature covered saw this as a problem with HR and health sector. None of the literature said that hr professional (expert) can sort these problems out. It was a problem with the literature that was covered. One thing that was mentioned in the literature was that hr investment is the future. There is not enough said about investment in HR and how this can change hr in the literature in the health sector that was covered this is loophole in this sector. Human resource management in the sector a conceptual study written by K.Naga Sundari1 , Prof. V. Narasimha Rao2 and Javier Martínez ; Tim Martineau in the Human resources in the health sector: an international perspective also says that lack of time and resources is a major issue in HR as management. This is due to the fact that management finds the process complex as mentioned earlier in the review and they feel that they can be doing other management roles rather than HR Duties. The importance of human resources management in health care: a global context Stefane M Kabene and Carole Orchard, John M Howard, Mark A Soriano, and Raymond Leduc further adds it is a complex relationship between HR and health sector. It further argues that the cost of hr is due to the complexity of area and the combination of the health sector and hr together. Staff performance issue was mentioned in most of the literature covered during the review. In review the literatures the conclusion is that staffs don’t perform well because there is not enough investment in the hr in terms of training the staff, performance review and recruitment of the right staffs that can do the job effectively and efficiently. Low Pay by health sector is seen by Javier Martínez & Tim Martineau in the Human resources in the health sector: an international perspective as the main investment issues that health sector need to address and overcome to retain and attract the right type of staff. Staffs are more likely to move away from their existing job in one health sector for a better job as covered by Javier Martínez & Tim Martineau in the Human resources in the health sector: an international perspective. There are loop-hole in the literature review covered this includes the lack of discussion of the Strategic HRM. It is due to the fact that this alone is a complex issue and aligning the Strategic HRM with the organizational strategy is a very complex activity and takes time and effort. When we look at the literature review, there is a lot of discussion on the issues of investment, but it did not take it in depth. It lacks discussion on technology and how it can improve the HRM with the health sector. From the review of the textbook covered it mentioned technology as an enabler of change in the organization. When it compares to the literature review, there is a problem because all the literature reviewed. It did not mention the rewards system and better training facilities. Investment in the HRM is a slow process and it will take time to take off, it just requires encouraging and gaining the support management to embrace the impact that technology in the health sector. As investment in hr increases so does that the performance existing staff and recruitment of the right staff in the health sector. When reviewing the literature there is evidence that there are clear changes taking in term of investment, more need to be done to facilitate this change. Health sector needs to recognize the impact of HRM and what investment can do in this sector. There need to be more literature written on this area and how investment can help. Technology and staff should be at the heart of everything the health sector do. If this can be achieved than the health sector will do better at staff retention.
Knowledge staff
Human resources management in Healthcare sector a conceptual study written by K.Naga Sundari , Prof. V. Narasimha Rao argue that knowledge staff, skilled staff are key to the organizational or growth. If you recruit the right stuff that is well trained and knowledge is likely to improve the performance of the health sector according to this literature review covered. This literature was the only one that covered the concept of flexibility in the hr and how important is the health sector. It mentioned that staff flexibility can lead to high staff retention. Human resources management in Healthcare sector a conceptual study written by K.Naga Sundari , Prof. V. Narasimha Rao also argues that valuable works force and manageable workforce is key to HR success in the health sector within the global sector. Most the literature reviewed talked about the keeping staff to who can be trained and also retrain other staff. It is a challenge as this is why we need HR as a tool to deal with this issue. Globally finding the right staff is an issue as demonstrated in the case study which covered NHS, health sector in African and another part of the world according to case study covered in the literature. There are issues of size, health care distribution, training, migration and Demographic which focus on ages as a major reason according to the importance of human resources management in health care: a global context Stefane M Kabene and Carole Orchard, John M Howard2, Mark A Soriano and Raymond Leduc. Most of the literature discussed the issue of recruiting the right staff that is knowledgeable and well trained to do the job within the health sector. HRM plays an important role in the health sector which can lead to better results in the performance of staff in their roles. One thing that was mentioned was the importance of knowledge management and transfer of this knowledge from across the board. Most of the literature reviewed talked about the power of knowledge in the health sector. With an effective knowledge, we can find the right staff and have HRM strategy that can be useful in the health sector. It is not always easy to find the right staff according to the literature reviewed and something we need the expert to deliver this approach and so doing integrate this with the HRM strategy. Not much has changed in the use of knowledge management in the health sector according the literature reviewed. Management does not have time to assimilate knowledge, they would prefer spending their time doing other management roles.
But there was a point made in human resources issues and implications for health sector issue which argue that having the right no of staff may not lead to success right away. It said that the key is commitment and right staff quality and that skill and commitment was an important asset to the health sector. The literature continues with the point that lack of training, care worker to do the job and behaviours of staff was a drawn back to the commitment of staff in the health sector. It could lead to staff lose and low staff morale. This point is further strengthened in the literature entitled “Human resources in the health sector: an international perspective Javier & Tim Martineau” add that It is the staff behaviour which includes staff not turn up for work on time, increased workload which is as result of lack of staff and finally bad attitude which resides from staff not able to deal with the job. Therefore commitment is a key aspect of staff retention. It was the only literature covered, that add that committed model organizational involvement, emotional identity, staff considering leaving cost and staff staying benefit was key to high staff retention and staff commitment to the health sector when hr is integrated. One of the areas it covered finally was the HRM practice was includes socialization among staff that has a personality trait that match and can works well together, It also mentioned performance management as a key asset that will allow staff work well together and final point was the job staff practice. Reward system and performance appraisal can keep the best staff and improve underperforming staff. It mentioned that staff can stay if there is promotion and effective training. This leads to commitment from staffs. Human resources management in Healthcare sector a conceptual study written by K.Naga Sundari , Prof. V. Narasimha Rao, and Argue that there should be a HR strategy that is clear and defined this means that the facts need to be laid out effectively. It also talks about the issues of having HR department that staffs can queries for hr effectively and efficiently. Furthermore human resources in the health sector: an international perspective Javier Martínez & Tim Martineau talks of the main problems with hr in the health sector is the delivery of services and care planning issue. The importance of human resources management in health care: a global context Stefane M Kabene and Carole Orchard, John M Howard, Mark A Soriano and Raymond Leduc further adds that knowledge, skills and motivation are key to staff delivery of service. Having reviewed different literatures the assumption is that the only way that the issues can be controlled to find the committed staffs who believe HR has a role to play in the health sector. Human resources in the health sector: an international perspective Javier Martínez & Tim Martineau that an effective staff objective that is well defined and well-organised lead to an increased staff performance. Most of the literature reviewed talked about commitment as an enabler of change and it argue that that with committed staff, the health sector can have high staff retention. It would need the support of committed management who know how to motivate staffs. The main loophole with the literature review covered is it did not look in depth at motivation. This is still a problem with the management and staff as a whole. This is because staff morale is down and staffs do not stay on in the health sector due to poor management. NHS is one case study reviewed and the findings are clear, it has low staff retention. The roles of management have changed over the year in the health sector, It is not clear from the literature reviewed how it has changed but in the textbook, covered there were changes that need to be made by the health sector. The following includes the changes that need to be made: It needs a reward system to encourage staff to stay, performance review, better trained staffs that are committed and are willing to stay the course. Commitment would always a problem for staff and management. There is no quick fix to the problem and it takes time to implement the process.
Review of case study
There were case studies explored by the literature, preferred human resources and the success of health sector written by Tim Martineau because it looks in details at how HR is deployed in the health sector in that particular organization. The first point in the case study was the issues of retraining staff, adjusting the staff roles to suit the need of the health sector was also mentioned and finally the fact quality staffs needs to be recruited. The second case study made the point that structure changes need to be made to suit the health sector, staff also need to be re-profiled and a database be to be created to suit this process and would cost a lot in integrating this changes. Finally, case study about NHS said that staff performance needs to be addressed, new pay structure need to review and integrated into the organization and the final point was the fact that skilled staff needs to deployed correctly to bring about increased performance.

3.0 Research Methodology

3.1 Why Research Methodology

The Methodology allows the collection, analyses, and presentation of data using a particular research method. This is of great importance during the research process. It allows the researcher to look at the data that is on display by using a target audience to create the finding which will be discussed later in the finding chapter.
3.2 Research purpose

The goal of the research is to assess the roles of human resources in organizational performance using a different research approach. It would involve using case study, and other resources to assess the global significance of human resource in healthcare sector.
3.3 Outline of intended research activities

In the research methodology there are activities that would be covered as we carry out the research and this includes the following:
• Data Collection
• Research approach
• Research justification methodology
• Sample approach
• Analytical tools
• Difficult faced in research design
• Ethical issues faced
• Ethical issues overcome
3.4 Data collection

There has to be a way that we can collect data from the relevant sources, it important that we consider the target audience for this particular research. The target audience for this research is mainly health care personnel and their performance. Due to the complexity of the subject area, we need to keep the target audience easy to assess.
There are two ways of collecting data that includes primary and secondary data collection. Primary data collection uses research resources such as interview and questionnaire while secondary data collection includes case study, e-book, books, journal, project, and other sources. For the purpose of this research, the focus will be on the secondary data collection not primary data collection and this is due to limited resources to carry out this research. Interpreting the data will require detailed analysis of different sources to ensure that it matches, can be used generate new ideas, relevant, useful, and timely and it is consistent in during the research process.
There is an issue of accessing the data this is due to the fact that gathering health sector data within the hr is not an easy task. It is a very specific and complex area to find data and write about. The Validity of data may not always be accurate as the data may change over time and it may mean adopting a new research to find that data that is required. It may mean doing more research and making sure the data matches and this is less inconsistent. The Generalizability of finding should focus on the making sure that the data found is clear, useful and can be integrated into another set in a different organization in the health sector. It must focus on the areas in question and embedded into a new or existing environment.
3.5 Limitation of research design

Time restriction: Due to the complexity of area it takes time to find the data that is required to present the finding. It is important that we find data through the use of secondary data collection in this context. Having the correct research strategy is key to finding the right data. It is important that we reduce and be more specific in the research area we are investigating as time is of the essence.
Deadline restriction: As the deadline is short, it requires particular attention to the right type of information. As mentioned earlier information collected must be up to date and relevant. This will allow the researcher to gather information easily and present it with ease.
Data analysis: This could be a problem with finding the right data to analysis requires a lot of checklists to make the right decision. It requires the use of data that are relevant, useful and allow you to make a conclusion. Sometimes researchers do not always find the right data and make end up finding the wrong data and analyzing this data, it may be because the research design is not fit for the purpose.
Sources of information: In this research, there will need to collect and analyze data using the secondary sources of data. The primary sources may not be used due to the time restriction and complexity of data. The major problem with using data collection that involves primary approach is that its time consuming, expensive and need permission to collect the data. In the complexity, the best option would be secondary data collection. This is due to the fact that it’s cost effective and does not require permission to access data.
Analytical tool: In the research design for the purpose, there will be no tool use to analyses the data, due to the type of research in question. This limits the process of finding data as the focus would be only collecting and analyzing data without using analytical tools. Instead, the use of data collection would involve using different research tools such as Google, e-book and e-journal.
There are a few difficult faced while designing the research process as this affects, this includes the following:
• It is hard to make sure that topic aligns with the research design as it takes time to do this.
• It takes time to conduct an effective research process and this requires patience and the right data.
• It hard to use choose which research group areas it requires continues the effort to gather this information from the group.

3.6 Sample Approach

The motivation for choosing the target sample or population mentioned earlier is due to the fact that health sector personnel is simple to research, find information. If the focus was general and was more on all the sectors, it could take a while to find the information as it a complex area. It being specific makes it better to find data. Most health sectors keep their information securely and safely. This is why data is hard to find online and it cost money to find this data. The sampling approach depends on the time and access to the resources.
3.7 Ethical issues faced

There are different ethical issues faced while researching for information, which will affect the outcome of the research. It is important that these ethical issues are dealt with and placed under control to avoid further issues from taking place. The following are issues that may arise which include:
• The dissertation and university guidelines must be following to the right requirements are met while writing the dissertation. It is important that the process is effectively and efficiently carried out so the research guidelines are met.
• Getting a signature for writing the dissertation and carry out the primary data collection was a problem as the time restriction was a problem.
• Some data may be difficult to get using secondary data collection, this data due to the effect on the other research. This is because the data collection may conflict with the other research view.
• Because data is not carried using primary data collection it does not affect the privacy of the data.
• There was an issue with making sure that data is right and relevant. It is problem as this takes time and need for a proper investigation. ?
3.8 Ethical issues overcome

• Overcome the ethical issues are not straightforward, as it ensuring that the guidelines set by the university are met fully. It includes ensuring that data is properly presented in the correct way.
• Planning must be implemented effectively and efficiently as this allows the ethical issues to be dealt with.
• Permission must be taken to ensure that data collected is carried out the correct way
3.9 Summary

The Methodology is an important aspect of writing a dissertation. It all about saving time and making the process easy for the decision-making process. It involves a different process from the Data Collection to the presentation of data to create relevant information. To gather more information, there is a need to use a different method such as primary and secondary information. Ethical issues need to be considered while writing the dissertation as it allows the research to follow the guideline.
4.0 Results / Findings / Discussion

In the finding, there will be a look at the following areas:
• Findings and Result is includes experiment, outcome and case study summary
• The discussion looks at an overview of what happening in the developed country and why there is a requirement for experienced staff from the developed country.
• Summary tries align the HRM finding to the literature review and draws its conclusion based on that.
4.1 Finding 1

In the finding written by Philipos Petros Gile, Martina Buljac-Samardzic and Joris Van De Klundert(2018), conducted a research on HRM practice and concluded the following about this practice:
Training and education: There were ten studies carried out by the researcher on the relationship between training and outcome. The following the discovery of the studies:
• Six considered employee outcome
• Two considered job satisfaction and retention
• Four considered negative relationships between training and employee outcome.
There were indications from two studies that improved team performance was as a result of effective training within the team and the evidence was discounted and considered weak. Three of the four studies focus on organizational outcome reported improved quality of care.
Salary and compensation: Research was carried out on salary and compensation there were evidence that higher pay results in better performance and high staff retention.
Rostering and scheduling: Research was carried out on four studies and scheduling, there was evidence that one of the studies showed the failure of HRM involvement to reduce turnover intention.
Task shifting: The six studies that research task shifting/task goal reported organizational outcomes. There was an improvement in efficiency in that study, reduction in employee shortage.
Managing staff through leadership support and mentoring: The studies which involved leadership and mentoring practices both say that better job satisfaction by staff.
4.2 Finding 2

In the finding written by Jemmy Mumbua Mutua, Jacinta Kinyili and Robert Arasa(2018) conducted a research using the variation of employee performance due to the manpower planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, reward and compensation. In the report it concluded the following outcome:
• 62.9% variation in employee performance due to the manpower planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, reward and compensation.
• 37.1% implies that there are other factors that lead to employee performance which were not discussed in the study.
It breaks down the roles that this impacts on the organization and concluded the following:
• As for manpower planning and employee performance concluded that more manpower planning will result in increased employee performance.
• Recruitment and selection and employee performance concluded that more Recruitment and selection will result in increased employee performance.
• Training and development and employee performance concluded that more Training and development will result in increased employee performance.
• Reward and compensation and employee performance concluded that more T Reward and compensation will result in increased employee performance.

4.3 Finding 3

In the finding written by Stefane M Kabene, Carole Orchard, John M Howard, Mark A Soriano and Raymond Leduc conducted a research using case studies this was the conclusion:
Case study 1
• HRM can bring about change and can facilitate the growth of organization via steps taken to understand and implement them to the existing culture.
• HRM can act as a tool to encourage the employee to be more creative and innovation through the use of the team-based approach.
• HRM plays an important role in investing in staff development through the use of internal position and ensure they can pursue external staff roles and can ensure organizational changes.
Case study 2
• HRM issues where raised in the University of Nebraska Medical Center, this HRM issues includes intense Price competition, payment reform in health, reduced state, research, changing workforce, population demographics and funding issues which prompt the organizational changes to meet the new challenges.
• The goal was to find a HRM strategy that aligns with the organizational strategy. It looks at staffing as a key issue and says that the best way to have the skills and quality within the job roles while recruitment of staff.
• The next goals to have a system where performance management was useful in therewards process and the manager was used feedback to make improve staff effectively.
• The third goal was the development and learning was useful as staff can learn and develop their own learning.
• The Next point in the case study was to value staff through staff retention and attracting the right staff.
• The finally organizational effectiveness have better a vision that includes flexible, innovation and reactive.
4.4 Discussion

There are different points that were picked out in the discussion this includes the following:
• Different health care system where examined and it was evidenced that the HRM and health care found to be significantly different in the countries within the organization. What made it different was the legislation which affects the HRM in a country such as Canada.
• There was a problem with trained staff and therefore country such as Canada, Germany and United state tend to recruit staff from a developing country in the Health sector.
• There was a big problem in united state HRM and health sector with the following issue such as care cost, care coverage and care standard which lead to poor care treatment from employee responsible.

Figure 1- – Stefane M Kabene, Carole Orchard, John M Howard, Mark A Soriano and Raymond Leduc(2006)
• The Average Annual premiums for employer sponsored family health coverage shows that Health insurance premium goes up as the year progresses. This means that it becomes more and more expensive to cope financially and show that health care cost is not affordable for everyone.
• Assessing the case studies in Finding three, found that HRM can play an important role within the health sector as it can allow the researcher to implement their policies and carry out more research within the health sector that can be useful to the organization.
• There is a need to recruit globally which coined the term globalization, resources sharing and quality distribution.
• There are other reasons why the developed country cannot retain staff that includes the cost of health sector.
• The economics of the developed country is not a problem as people are better in that economic.
• Human resources input plays roles in develop, manage, motivate and retain staff this is where the HRM researcher or professional must make a difference.
• There is a need for integrating the HRM in the organization as those who are responsible for implementation HRM know that the process works and can change the way organization treats its staff and recruits and retain staff.
• HRM expert should be part of the higher level planning so as to raised, considered, properly addressed and deal with the issues within HRM and align the HRM strategy with the organizational strategy.
• There should knowledge management and sharing within the organization, this is HRM should be encouraged to learn about other areas within the organization one way to do this is by work experience.
• Below is a summary of the wage differences in the organization in different countries showing the sources of wages and destination for recruiting staff such as physician.

Fig 2- Stefane M Kabene, Carole Orchard, John M Howard, Mark A Soriano and Raymond Leduc(2006)

Fig 3: Stefane M Kabene, Carole Orchard, John M Howard, Mark A Soriano and Raymond Leduc(2006)
The above table about the Factor influencing health care professional’s intent to mitigate the reason for migrating and willingness to remain in their home country. It explains why people migrate from developing county to a developed country. The major reasons are because get experience, better pays, living condition are improved. This is the reasons why more people with great qualification migrate.
4.5 Summary

For organization to do better it needs HRM at the heart of their business and therefore aligned to the organization strategy. The HRM is an important tool in the health sector from the findings and discussion as it will improve performance through effective training of staff and knowledge distribution. It is important that management and HRM expert work together to achieve this goal through effective discussion of issues. As mention earlier in the literature review, the use of HRM is Important, as it can find committed staff, trained staff, more investment in the organizational resources, motivated staff and knowledgeable staff. It is an asset that organization must embrace in order for them to grow and increase the performance of staff. As we can see there is a link between the literature review and secondary Finding. The issues such as commitment in the literature review are still present, as are always an issue and the only thing that may change is the roles of HRM expert in the health sector within the organization. When you compare the following roles, Strategic HRM, Human capital management, Knowledge management, Resourcing(Human planning recruitment and selection and talent management, Performance management, learning and management, Reward management and Employee relations and employee well-being that are mentioned in the introduction, the finding talks about the HRM changing roles and talk about this in details in the finding. ?
5.0 Conclusion /Evaluation/recommendation

Things are changing for the better as employees are now seen as an important asset in the organization. HRM strategies are seen as an integral part of the organization and HRM is about employee management and recruitment. HRM acts as a way of retraining and improving staff through performance management. The role of HRM includes the following:
• Strategic HRM focus on continues planning
• Human capital is about asset and its impact on the organization
• Knowledge management is focused on sharing knowledge
• Resourcing is about employee management maximum
• Performance management focuses on employee goal being met.
• learning and management is about procurement
• reward management focus on giving staff reward for their performance
• Employee relations and employee well-being is about strength relationship in the organization

The Issues in employee management HR that was discussed focused on using HRM expert to recruit the right staff that can adapt in the organization through effective training and retention staff by motivating staff and using technology to manage information using globalization. In the literature review, different literature was used and the main concern raised includes:
Motivation acts as a tool for increasing productivity but this was not appreciated by top-level management due to lack of understanding of the concept. There are different ways that staff can be motivated to work in an organization that includes a better job description, better pay rate, performance appraisal and proper training of staff. The approach can lead to higher productivity, Investment in HRM is not an easy thing as its complex, talk less of combining it with the health sector. There needs to be more said about the impact of HRM investment as this is ignored by management as there is no time and resources to invest in training and retaining staff. Knowledgeable staff was another concern as not all the literature covered this concern. It was seen as a way to retain staff, knowledge transfer and management. Management do not have for knowledge sharing. Commitment is about getting the right staff (i.e. personality trait, reward system) to stay in the health sector. It mentioned in the literature that the major problems includes lacks of training, care workers lacking and staff behavior which to staff retaining issues. The case study covered in the literature covered staff retaining through effective training and recruitment of quality staff. It about organization structure, reprofiling, cost a lot to integrate, new pay structure and performance review.
Within the Methodology, the focus was to use a secondary approach where the collection of data focus on health care and complexity means keeping it easy to assess. It is important that the focus is on useful, relevant and key data that can help create a useful finding. There are different limitation that includes time restriction, deadline, data analysis, source problem and analytical tool. Finally the ethical issues include such as guideline and signature, one way to overcome this are to follow the guideline.
Finally, the finding 1 analyzed HRM carried out by researcher and concluded there was a good result in using the HRM in the training, salary, rostering, task shifting and leadership support. Finding 2 analyse and concluded that planning, recruitment, training and reward resulted in good employee performance and Finally finding 3 concluded that using a case study that HRM is key to better team-based approach, staff development, better culture, address of issues, In the discussion there were such as legislation, poor staff training, cost of health care, and so on as a major issues in the developed country.
5.1 Recommendation of HR Strategy to the workforce

HR strategy must focus on the long-term which should be easy to implement and process without the employee being confused by the strategy.
• The Health sector HR strategy can satisfy organizational needs, it’s all about analysis, action, clear vision, deliverable and works.
• Make sure the strategy is diverse and relevant to the health sector and can suit the need of the health sector.
• Make sure the strategy is useful for everyone involved including the health sector.
• Keep the strategy and process relevant, easy to understand and implement within the health sector.
• Changes must be implemented slowly and must not affect the health sector hr and staff roles heavily.
• Make sure that employee can trust the new strategy implemented that it makes sense and can suit the need of the employee.
• Health sector strategy must be aligned with the organizational strategy within the organization.
• The hr strategy must fit in with the organizational culture of the health sector and must align with the culture.
• The chosen hr strategy must be cost-effective and must not be take too long to implement the HR.
The HR strategies below can be useful and aligned with the organizational strategy in order to improve organizational performance:
1. High-performance management
2. High commitment management
3. High involvement management
High-performance management
• The health sector can use this type of strategy to increase the performance of the organization.
• It can improve productivity, customer service, growth and profits.
• The health sector can use this strategy to carry out detailed analyses of the training, appraisal, performance, management recruitment and selection.
• This plans encourage and facilities, problem-solving, employee involvement, skill development and motivation.
• This is openness, action based, quality of work will be better with the hr strategy.
• There is team spirit, there is leadership between staff and employee, and there is better vision which results in profitability and higher performance.
High commitment management
• The health sector can benefit from the strategy as it gets employee voluntary committed.
• This approach gives the employee the license to free to behavior in a way that shows commitment and ensure that trust is still present.
• It encourages team working where they can share information and structure work, flexible, problem-solving, and job redesign.
• The health sector can use this strategy to ensure that staff can grow in the organization and job description.
• It can reward staff for their effort, its high involvement term of quality and can provide a competitive advantage
High involvement management
• The health sector can use the strategy to assess staff decision making, power, information access, training and incentives. It can commit and involve staff through sharing mission and information.
• It can allow employee appreciate their work through more control of their work and treat them as an important part of the health sector.
• This approach can lead to Ideas sharing within the team setting and pro-activity.
• Within the Health sector, this approach can ensure job satisfaction and commitment to the organization.
5.2 Evaluation of the impact of HR strategy in the Health sector

The Health sector can do well with aligning the HR Strategy with business strategy as it provides organization with a competitive advantage and high staff retention. HR Strategy is an important asset to an organization as it allows the employee to improve its performance. There are different impacts that HR Strategies can have in an organization that includes:
1. The health sector can allow the unearthing of talented staff and this can lead to a motivated employee who can grow in the organization and can lead management of employee who is committed to the organization.
2. The health sector can allow management to develop, hold onto high-quality employee. It is important that the employees are aligned to correctly to business needs which can lead to better performance, better idea sharing, flexibility, commitment, more acceptance of the strategy and better fit for the organization.
3. The health sector hr strategy can provide the organization with secure employment, this can act as a tool for providing a vision for organization do better in term of performance and employ can accept the process. It can keep the organization values going as it makes it a good place to do your work.
4. The health sector hr strategy can act as a tool where the employee can see their roles and responsibility as important, flexibility, job satisfaction, productivity and acceptable.
5. It can a tool to enhance high performance within the organization, which can lead to better quality of work, likely to increase the organizational profitability and increased commitment from the top management. It can change the way the employee act in the organization which can lead to more commitment and trust.
6. It can act as a strategy for knowledge management where is developed and grows. It can allow health sector to develop their skills as employee are committed and willing learn. The health sector allows hr strategy aim and objective to be achieved through effective, efficient learning and sharing of knowledge within the organization.
7. The health sector can benefit from reward employee for what they do in the organization. It can lead to high staff retention which can lead to commitment and better attitude within the organization.
8. The health sector can see an improvement in the way staff work in the organization through motivation, commitment and involvement in the business objective. It can give the employee a goal in the organization which ensures that they can feel more willing to commit to the organization.
5.3 Limitations of the research considered

There are limitations that we face but there was no way this could not avoid this, all that could be done was to find ways to deal with this concern. This would allow the delivery of the dissertation within the required time and with the deadline met. These are the limitation that was faced while writing the dissertation:
• Time restriction: This was a concern as the dissertation need more time. Due to the restriction, there were areas in the dissertation process that took so long to complete. For example in researching the information, it took longer to find information and organization this information. There were delays during the dissertation due fact that university decision making.
• Research Complexity: It was one area that slowed down the dissertation process, it made the write up difficult as the subject areas were complex and required the researcher being specific. To specific means that terms used to find the information had to be relevant and useful. Due to the complexity of the task, it required a lot of reading and analyses of information, this took time.
• Secondary data collection: In the areas, there was a concern as the duration to write the dissertation was not long enough, so we could not carry out a secondary data collection. It was also difficult to find information using only the primary data collection. Due to the restriction, there were difficulties finding the information with only one data sources.
• Locating information: The only issue here is there were problems with locating information that was required. This is because this required the Researcher to sign up or make a payment. As a result, the researcher did not get the information that was required.
• Target audience: To assess this, there was a need to find the correct audience and to ensure that the information is effectively located and presented in the correct way. Some information was general, not specific to the audience as there was heavy use of Google and there was no access to the good e-journal.
5.4 Future Research in HR within the Health sector

1. Technology and a new approach to treatment are acting as an enabler of change. It allows the use of the technology to store and manage knowledge that the health employee will need to carry out their duties. This will in develop the skill that the management in the health sector will need. Example mobile phone can be used to save time and gather knowledge. The future is mobile technology and the use of HR to support staff. This is still a work in progress and makes a big difference in the organization.
2. Due to the reduced staff in the skilled areas, there is a problem of finding the right staff and training them. This area can be further developed through the effective and efficient use of the talent management software. This need to be further explored and more research to a better way of finding talent.
3. Investment in the HR is a major problem and need further reading, there need to be more done in the areas to motivate and commit employee and get involved in the process and ensure investment.
More need to Researched in the areas, as more investment the right way can lead to better performance.

1) Communication plays a major role in project management. It is the way to success. The whole project starting from the bid contract to handing over the quality deliverables to the customer/client depends upon the way of communication and understanding the requirements or needs of the customer. The complete project consists of various departments and numerous people involved with individual roles and responsibilities. They apply an excessive amount of time in communicating with Teams. They should clearly communicate with each and every department regarding the project requirements and deliverables. It has to be defined clearly what has to be performed and what was the anticipated deliverable that is expecting. Communication breakdown will result in project delay and sometimes lead to project failure.
Good communication leads to delegate the effective tasks and transfer the open inquiries around them. It helps in to meet the timelines and track the project progress. It is very important to Project manager in communicating the important decisions to the team in writing the document or sending mails to maintain the records for future communications. It helps in documenting, report and record the project tasks, timelines, budget, costs etc.

2) Before taking a decision in giving project manager responsibility to herb, many factors need to be considered that influence the project manager position. Generally, in assigning the PM role you need to consider the PM skills that an individual had. Those skills include most importantly, communication skills, Decision-making skills, leadership skills, problem-solving skills, time management skills, are essential to make a project successful. PM should have the proper exposure to many concepts like Network modeling, Budgeting, risk management etc. As discussed in the case study Herb had proper exposure in R&D as well as in manufacturing departments. The requirement needs someone who is experts and worked in R&D and manufacturing units. For some extent, the management had taken the right decision in selecting herb as a Project manager. But the company should insist the Herb take some of the PM course or certifications like PMP or SCRUM. Herb previous records show that he will interact with other team members only in the team meetings, in order to become a PM he should overcome this. The company has taken the only experience into the consideration, they also need to see an individual PM skills too, in assigning a PM.

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3) Herb had the communication issues with Alice, Bob, Betty, and Frank. There was some type of communication gap between Alice, Bob, Betty, and Frank. Herb was not communicating clearly as a project manager to his teammates. They didn’t understand clearly what herb was trying to say and they are missing a piece of information or message that has been communicated by the Herb. As a Project manager herb should clearly define the tasks to their teammates and Herb should make sure that the team had understood the communicated message clearly. Moreover, Herb needs to maintain a record either in document format or conveying through emails to his teammates. This help in keeping the records. The breakdown communication happened with Alice is encoding. For Betty, it’s a feedback, Frank its encoding/decoding and for Bob it’s not properly conveyed.


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