1. Christmas is one of the most important holidays of Christians. 2. The date of the holiday for the Orthodox: January 7. 3. The Alexandrian theologians proposed to celebrate Christmas on May 26 in 200 BC. This case is the first in history. 4. Since 320 the holiday began to celebrate on December 25. 5. December 25 – the birthday of the sun. This date was associated with the celebration of Christmas. 6. The Catholic Church still adheres to the date of the holiday: December 25. 7. The first Christians rejected the Christmas holiday, celebrating only the feast of the Epiphany and Easter. 8. The day of the week for Christmas is the day off. Prayer for the Agreement Join the prayer by agreement, along with 10 Orthodox churches!Join the prayer by agreement, along with 10 Orthodox churches! pravzhizn.ru Learn the Schedule About the Fund to the Parishioner Priests We believe Miraculous Prayer Official Fund Correcting fate Go to Yandex.Direct Hide ads: Not interested in this topic Item purchased or service found Violates the law or spam Prevents content from being viewed Thank you, the announcement is hidden. 9. On the day of the holiday, it is customary to give gifts to each other. 10. The first case of gift was noted in ancient Rome, where in honor of the holiday Saturnalia children were given gifts. 11. The first holiday card was created by the Englishman Henry Cole in 1843. 12. In 1810, in the US, the public first saw Santa Claus. 13. The Northern Christmas Reindeer was invented by Adman Robert May in 1939. 14. Christmas candles are a symbol of understanding your place in the world, as well as victory over darkness in the soul. 15. Initially, spruce was installed for Christmas, and not for the New Year. 16. Spruce is the tree of Christ. 17. Evergreen trees are a symbol of rebirth from the time of paganism. 18. The first artificial Christmas trees were made by Germans. The material for them was feathers of geese. 19. Initially, the Christmas tree was decorated with candles. 20. Near the tree, always put a bucket of water in case of a fire from the flame of candles. 21. Nowadays it is customary to decorate a Christmas tree with garlands. 22. Initially, the tree (paradise tree) was decorated with fruits and flowers. 23. In the Middle Ages the Christmas tree was adorned with nuts, cones, candy. 24. The first glass decorations were created by Saxon glass blowers. 25. The prototype of the first toy was the paradise apple. 26. In the mid-19th century, mass production of multi-colored ball toys began. 27. In December 2004, the largest in the history of Christmas stocking was produced in the capital of England. 28. The length of the largest stocking was 33 meters, and the width was 15 meters. 29. In the US, about 3 million Christmas Cards annually. 30. Golden, green and red: traditional colors of ornaments Christmas Tree. 31. The highest festive tree, which was included in the Guinness Book of Records, was established in 1950 in Seattle. Its height was 66 meters. 32. In the USA Christmas trees are sold since 1850. 33. Before you sell a Christmas tree, you need to grow and take care of it for 5-10 years. 34. Inhabitants of the European countries believed, that on the eve of Christmas spirits wake up. 35. Over time, evil and good spirits began to be perceived as elves Santa Claus. 36. In order to “feed” the spirits, the inhabitants of Europe left porridge for the night on the table. 37. In the beginning of the 19th century the first book about the holiday “The Night Before Christmas” was published, authored by Clement Moore. 38. Between 1659 and 1681, it was forbidden to celebrate Christmas in the USA. The basis was the proclamation of the holiday as a decadent Catholic celebration, not related to Christianity. 39. In Bolivia the holiday of Christmas is called the Cock Mass. 40. In Bolivia, it is believed that the cock was the first to tell people about the birth of Christ. 41. At Christmas dinner, the British wear special crowns. 42. Poles adorn the tree with toys of spiders. 43. The inhabitants of Poland believe that the spider once wove a blanket for the born baby, so this insect is revered. 44. In 1836 the staff Alabama became the first US state to officially recognize Christmas as a national holiday. 45. Mistletoe (plant-parasite) is considered to be sacred by the British, so the branches of this evergreen bush are still adorned with Christmas trees. 46. ??A girl who stopped at the mistletoe, you could kiss any guy. 47. Christmas log is a symbol of the cyclical return of the sun. 48. The log should be burned during the Christmas celebration. 49. Burning log is a symbol of luck, health and fertility, and also a guard against evil spirits. 50. St Nicholas from Mira became a real prototype Santa Claus. 51. The very first Christmas tree at White House was established in 1856. 52. At the Christmas in Finland it is customary to go to the sauna. 53. On holidays, Australians go to the beach. 54. In honor of Christmas in Spain, the largest lottery is held annually. 55. In England it is customary to bake a festive cake, inside which there must be several items. If in a piece of pie someone gets a horseshoe, then this is to luck; if the ring is for the wedding, and if the coin is for wealth. 56. On the eve of the holiday Lithuanian Catholics eat only lean food (salads, porridges and other). 57. After the holiday, Lithuanian Catholics are allowed to taste roast goose. 58. In Germany and England, the main dish of the Christmas table is a roast goose or duck. 59. Pudding, adorned with spruce branches, is one of the main dishes of the festive table in the UK. 60. Tradition of residents of Western countries – a small Christmas tree, standing in the middle of the festive table. 61. In 1819, the writer Washington Irving first described the flight of Santa Claus. 62. In Russia, Christmas began to celebrate in the 20th century. 63. Russians modestly noted Christmas Eve (the day before Christmas), but the holiday itself did not do without mass festivities. 64. Christmas in Russia was celebrated cheerfully: they played round dances, dressed up as animals. 65. In Russia on Christmas days it was decided to guess at the future. 66. It is believed that the results of divination will be true, because in these days, good and evil spirits help to see the future. 67. A traditional festive wreath consisting of fir tree branches and 4 candles originated from the Lutheran Catholic Church. 68. The candles on the wreath should be lit this way: first – on Sunday, 4 weeks before Christmas; the rest one on the next weekend. 69. On the night before the feast, all four candles on the wreath should be lit and placed on the table so that the light consecrated the house. 70. It is believed that the happiness of Christmas brings the first guest who will enter the house. 71. A bad sign is considered if the first to enter a woman or a man with blond hair. 72. The first guest should pass through the house, holding a spruce branch. 73. The first song for Christmas was written in the 4th century AD. 74. Famous Christmas songs were written in Italy in The Renaissance. 75. “Christmas carols”- Christmas carols, translated from English mean” dancing under the clink. ” 76. Kutyu – the main dishes of the festive table. 77. kutyu made from cereals (rice, wheat or barley), as well as chocolates, raisins, nuts and dried fruits. 78. In the old days kutya was prepared only from cereals and honey. 79. To start a Christmas meal is necessary with kutya. 80. The tradition of filling stockings with gifts on a holiday came from the story of three poor sisters. The legend says that one daySt Nicholas made his way to them through the chimney and left gold coins in stockings. 81. The famous Christmas scene with lambs, trees and manger was invented only in the 13th century by Francis. 82. The first cracker was invented in 1847 by sweets vendor Tom Smith. 83. White candy with red stripes – a symbol of Christmas. Invented her confectioner from Indiana in the 19th century. 84. The white color of the Christmas candy means light and purity, and the three red bars are the Trinity. 85. An interesting fact is that because of the curled end of the candy, it looks like a cane of shepherds, who became the first apostles. 86. If you turn the Christmas candy, it forms the first letter of the name of Jesus: “J” (Jesus). 87. In 1955, employees of one of the stores filed an ad in a newspaper with the phone number of Santa Claus, however, the number was printed with an error. Because of this, a lot of calls arrived at the air defense center. The workers did not lose their heads, but supported the initiative. 88. In America, it has become a tradition to call Santa Claus. During the conversation, you could find out where he is now. 89. In Sweden, every year on Christmas, a huge straw goat is installed, which every year trying to set fire to vandals. 90. In the Netherlands, on Christmas night, children put a shoe to the fireplace for gifts and put a carrot for a magic horse. 91. Children in Italy receive gifts from a kind fairy. Those who behave badly can get a cabbage leaf. 92. In Italy, celebrate the feast of the Fiesta de la Corretta, during which decorate a large tree, after which it is carried through towns and villages. 93. In Greece, children take to the streets and sing kalends – songs that glorify Christmas. 94. Happy X-mas is a wish of a merry Christmas, which has deep roots. “X” is the first Greek letter of the name of Christ. 95. In Mexico, a large container with sweets is hung for children, which other Mexicans should smash with their eyes closed with a stick. 96. Christmas is celebrated in France in restaurants. 97. In 1914, German and British soldiers arranged a truce on the day of Christmas. At that time the soldiers forgot that they were on the front line, sang Christmas songs and danced. 98. In Canada, the Santa Claus ZIP code is written as: “IT IT”. 99. Writer O’Henry, sitting out in prison, I really wanted to congratulate my daughter on Christmas. That year he first wrote his first story, sending it to the editorial office. The story was published in the magazine, for which the writer received his first fee, and also congratulated his daughter and became famous.

1. What are the main duties of the different team members that Mr. Spencer should put together to ensure the success of the “Post-It” project?
– Of the duties required of the team of scientists to the success of this project. Is to make a team of scientist’s great efforts to promote ideas and the necessary things in their environment and provide them with innovators who take these ideas and think of ways to improve or develop. The manager must have a passion for providing all that is new and innovative to the team to encourage them to achieve work.
2. What kind of ethical concerns could arise when working on the “Post-It” project?
– It is unethical to make people pay for something which is may be had cheap quality and when promoting the product somebody lie and may tell more than what the product is really advantages for.

3. What are the different pros and cons of putting together a team that will handle the “Post-It” project? Based on these pros and cons what would be your recommendations for Mr. Spencer?
– Pros: The presence of a project management team is a knowledge of dealing with each case and there are ways to solve problems. They will have a common direction to follow and more ideas to share different views to find a solution to a particular situation. When a large group works on an idea, work is done faster and more efficiently.
– Cons: The group wastes more time thinking about an idea that may be delayed at the start of the project.
– Sometimes the group members are less focused because they do not know each other and do not adapt to each other. 
– The Mr. Spencer shouldn’t say “no” for an idea, that will lead the team accept the new ideas and face any difficulties to achieve the project.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

4. Each team has always a leader who will oversee the progress of a project. What are these duties in the specific context of the “Post-It” project?
– The leader makes sure that each member of the team completes his work on time.
–  The commander must ensure that all teams work together accurately and correctly.
– Great leadership invest in the project from their own money. Leaders are the link between different teams and CEO.

– In the project “Post it” the development of long-term strategies was the real challenge of the leader. It tracks the numbers and instant outputs, they must make sure to get the benefit of the product.

1(i) Managerial economics
(ii) What is Managerial Economics?
In order for any company to truly gain a competitive advantage, it is imperative that the management industry be integrated into the decision making process. According to Mark Deery and Eric Bentzen, the managed economy is a study of how economic power affects organizations and how their leaders use economic principles to achieve optimum results. This concept is a deeply useful tool that is ubiquitous in all sectors of the economy, from large companies to nonprofit organizations and helps managers make sound business decisions.
In the situation executive procedure for some commerce to get a real competitive verge administration exists essential to the economics of integration. Management and economics mark hirschey forces organizations to achieve the best results and how their leaders affect the business according to Eric bentzen how you can utilize to study the values of business. Large companies and nonprofits found everywhere all for the economy any of the frontrunners of this concept sound commerce decisions helps to brand a very useful tool. You utilize a finest judgment to ensure we are in finances management frontrunners in their administrations. They may view the contribution to resolve problems. promotional strategy labor hiring and training investment and finance on the price of production organization design strategies for selecting or developing products internet products and decide resources and especially the use of at least a number of concepts and methods used to ensure the expansion of the width to give special management economics. The practical applications may include boundary examination. the companies economic study utilizing marginal analysis of the changes caused by the decisions according to the concise encyclopedia increasing the price of its client decides to purchase a product if they still do not understand can help. Economics public choice theory the conclusion of the public companies it assistances to comprehend the conduct. The basic economic concept that describes the business model of the company. Economic university concise encyclopedia public choice theory which helps companies understands the public decision-making behavior. Any theory based business model to describe the company’s business.
Game theory methods. Based customer behavior in a wide range of consumer behavior based on the groups of people surround them in their companies will help you understand how to study as a mutual company. Optimization techniques or what are the most available resources. Such as sales procedures our try to comprehend the situation otherwise future predictions. Leaders who comprehend such concepts almost realistic they will face can be applied from the financial scene.

1.List the benefits of a solitary client benefit place for RR Communications.

There are six of them. a)Costing for individual divisional programming and equipment is increasingly while having single focus institutionalize engineering will diminish the cost of having numerous resourcing for individual .b)In the perspective of client, having single framework will likewise lessen the dissatisfaction a client may look for singular charging and client framework .c)Simplification and institutionalization of the association will include a radical decrease of the quantity of providers and incorporated acquisition .d)From the business perspective this concentrate framework can strategically pitch benefits and will expand the business .e)Centralize framework will make responsibility and straightforwardness for cost .f)It will give media transmission controllers and programming merchants inside development about organization exercises.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

2.Devise a usage system that would ensure the help of the divisional presidents for the mutual client benefit focus.

•After dissecting a contextual investigation and individual president’s practices they are roused by the remuneration. So as opposed to having their pay in view of exclusively on their divisional achievement, remunerate presidents on authoritative accomplishment all in all.

1. The structure and characteristics of microorganisms used in classify them

The structure and characteristics of microorganisms are used to classify them by comparing their genes of different organisms. They can be classified by placing them within Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryote. Microorganism shows some form of metabolism, regeneration, and reproduction. Some respond to chemical signals in their environment, which lead to new activity that involve movement. Microorganism is capable of self-propulsion, and they can undergo evolution over a period and their characteristics are transmitted to their offspring’s.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Viruses — Have no cellular structure and are classified according to their shape, type of nucleic acid, mode of replication, host organisms, and type of disease they cause.
Bacteria are single celled prokaryotic organisms. They have a cell surface membrane and a cytoplasm gel like enclosed by cell surface membrane. They have organelle an organized and specialized structure within cell. Some have hair like structure called Pilli and flagellum to propel them. They can reproduce asexually by binary fission.
Fungi are eukaryotes that lack chlorophyll and are heterotrophic. Fungi have DNA in a form of linear chromosomes inside nucleus. They can be unicellular or multicellular and are able to absorb food and secrete enzymes to digest complex molecules. Fungi grow on organisms and absorb their nutrients. Have complex cells with a nucleus and organelles. Have rigid cell walls that contain chitin. Their body is made up of filament called hyphae. They are classified based on their method of sexual reproduction.
Protozoa- Are unicellular animals like cells with a heterotrophic nutrition and have a relatively complex structure. Their body is bounded by a cell membrane and with intracellular type of digestion that can occur within the food vacuoles. Protozoa belong to the kingdom of Protista.

2. The characteristics of microorganisms used for classification

Some microorganisms are different due to their shapes, cell wall structure, and their oxygen requirement.
Bacteria — have a cell surface membrane. A cell wall made of peptidoglycan. Have no membrane bound organelles with no proper nucleus. Have a cytoplasm and have a small rings of DNA called plasmids and a large circular loop of DNA. Have smaller ribosomes than those of eukaryotic cells.
Fungi — are known as eukaryotic with their DNA in a form of linear chromosomes that are housed inside a nucleus, bound by a double membrane. It contains mitochondria. Have cell walls that contain chitin. Have hyphae, which are grown at their tips. Viruses- Have a nucleic acid type, mode of replication and host organisms. They are smaller and simpler than the prokaryotic cells. Virus contains a small amount of genetic material wrapped in a protein capsule. They cannot reproduce on their own but require a host cell to inject their DNA or RNA. They relied on the cellular machinery of the host cell to replicate the viral genetic material for it. Microorganism contains chloroplasts and carries out photosynthesis like algae. Microorganism can move and get their nutrients from environment and maintain homeostasis.

3. The use of microscope techniques to observe structures and classify microorganisms

Microscopes are used to view objects and areas that cannot be seen with the naked eye. The structure of microorganism can be examined through microscope. It consists of the unit of microorganisms that are too small to be seen by naked eye. The microscope can be used to magnify the lenses by 4, by 40 or by 100 in order to get the idea about the structure of microorganism. Microscopes employ lenses that magnify the original image. Resolution is the ability to distinguish 2 adjacent objects as distinct and separate. Magnification is to enlarge the number of times larger an image is compared to the real size of the object. Light microscopes are used to view microorganism when relatively low magnification and resolution is enough. Electron microscopes provide higher magnifications and higher resolution images. Magnification shows how bigger an image appears compared with the original object. Microscope produces linear magnification. The image appears 1000 times wider than the real size. Calculating the magnification of light microscopes, the compound microscope uses two lenses to magnify the specimen: the eyepiece and an objective lens. In most microscopes, there is a choice of objectives to use. Magnification can therefore be varied, according to the size of the specimen to be viewed and the level of detail required. The magnification of a lens is shown by a multiplication sign followed by the amount the lens magnifies. The lens magnifying ten times would be ×10. The total magnification of a microscope is magnification of the microscope = magnification of eyepiece multiple by magnification of objective.

Calculating of actual size of specimens under microscope

The eyepiece objective has a graticule in it, which has been calibrated using stage micrometers. You can be able to calculate the actual sizes of specimens from the electron micrograph by knowing the magnification. When you view an object, the scale of 100 divisions is been superimposed on it. It represents different length at different magnification and the number of scale divisions covering a specimen varies. Small scale of 1mm divided into 100 divisions is etched on it. Each division is 10 um. 1mm of the stage micrometers corresponds to 40 eyepiece divisions on the eyepiece graticule.

4. The correct set up and use of a light microscope and oil immersion lens to observe structures of microorganisms under magnification

Condenser
Set up the microscope to a low power work. Place the pencil against the surface of the sub stage lamp bulb. Look down the microscope and move the pencil over the lamp until surface is seen as a blur. Use the condenser control to move it up and down until the pencil tip comes into focus. Iris diaphragm Adjust the amount of light that passes through the specimen. Make sure microscope is set up for low power work and adjust condenser. Remove the eyepiece and place it on bench and look down to see bright disc of light.

Iris control-
Open and close it a few times and set it diaphragm in a position where back of the lens is low power objective is two to third filled with light. Light source to shine light from a lamp that is directed on to the mirror, up through the specimen. Stage Position the slide so the specimen is over the hole on stage and clip the slide into place. Examine the slide, remove it from the microscope, and place it in a suitable disinfectant. Use of objective, coarse focus and fine focus to make your image clear of specimen make sure the slide is clipped in place on stage. Rotate the nosepiece until the lowest power objective lens clicks into place. Use the coarse focus knot to lower the objective lens as low without touching the slide. Look down the eyepiece and turn the coarse focus slowly to move the objective lens away from the slide. Continue until the specimen comes into view. Use fine focus knob and bring the specimen into focus. Move the slide gradually until part of the specimen is in the center of the field of vision. Rotate the nosepiece and bring the next higher magnification objective lens into place. Look down the eyepiece, adjust the fine focus to make a clear image of the specimen and make sure that the part you wish to view is still in the center of the field of vision. Repeat with other higher magnification until you reach the magnification. Oil immersion lens Oil immersion lenses are usually used to visualize heat fixed and stained smears. Oil immersion lenses are placed very close to the slide, in a drop of balsam oil. Spring loaded to avoid damage to the lens or the slide. Make sure the slide is dry and place one drop of immersion oil on the specimen. Place the slide on the stage and rotate the nosepiece so that the oil immersion lens is in place. Adjust the focus knob and move the oil immersion objective down as close to the slide as possible. Look down the eyepiece and adjust the fine focus knob to move the lens slowly away from the slide and keep it in the oil until the specimen comes into view and the image is clear into view. Magnification enlarges the number of times larger an image is compared to the real size of the object. Oil immersion are used to increase the light gathering ability of a lens by allowing rays emerging from the specimen at angles to be viewed. Several times in water and dry. The microorganism are so small and oil is immerse and is been check by use of microscope. Gram-positive bacteria appear purple due to primary dye crystal it retains in the cell wall and Gram negative appear pink, which retained the counter staining dye called safranin. A glass slide-containing microorganism is flooded for 2 minute with a dilute solution of a dye and raised.

5. The structures of microorganisms observed using a light microscope and an oil immersion lens

Place the specimen on a slide stage and clipped into place. Rotate the nosepiece to the lowest power of the objective lens and placed over specimen. Adjust the coarse focus knob and look into the eyepiece until the image is clear and in focus. View the image adjusts the iris diaphragm for optimum light source. Ensure the object you wish to view is directly over the hole in the stage. Rotate the nosepiece and bring the times 10 objective into place over the specimen. Look down the ocular tube and use the fine focus knob to focus the image. Use times 40 objective lens over the specimen and look down the ocular tube and use the focus knob to fine the image. The structure reveals two pattern prokaryote and eukaryotes. Eukaryotes have their DNA in a membrane-enclosed nucleus and are typically larger and structurally more complex than prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic microorganisms have internal structure that lacks membrane-enclosed organelles. Most prokaryotes use their cytoplasmic membrane to drive energy. Oil immersion microscope is important in examining microorganism under microscope. It reduces the problems of cement drying on a lens. It allows large bright images and it is useful to study bacteria. It creates a suitable viscosity and high-resolution image.

6. The use of different microscopy techniques to observe the structures of microorganisms

Light microscope
Focus the real image of the object inside the microscope. Image is magnified by a second lens, which produces an inverted virtual image of the object.
Phase-contrast microscopes is use to observe unstained specimens using moving specimen such as amoeba. The microscope has a special phase-contract objectives and a condenser. The special optics of the microscope converts the differences between the transmitted light intensity. It gives clear image that appears dark against a light background.
Light microscopes are easier to move, smaller and to set up. They use electron beams of electrons. They are lighter than electron microscope. Light microscope form images including the range of wavelength provided by the light source. Have lower magnification and resolution. Able to watch living processes taking place of pond life in action.

Electron microscopes use a beam of fast travelling electrons. It has a much higher resolution than the optical microscopes. Electron microscopes produce very clear and highly magnified images. Transmission electron microscopes Specimen has to be chemically fixed by being dehydrated and stained with metal salts. The electron form two-dimensional black and white image and the photographed are called electron micrograph. Scanning electron microscope Electrons do not pass through the specimen, but cause secondary electrons to bounce off the specimen is surface and focused on a screen. It results in 3D image with magnification from 15 times up to 200,000 times. The image is black and white but computer software programs can add false color. Electron microscopes have much higher resolution than light microscopes. Electron microscopes are used in study and research in biology, medical sciences, and material science. The specimens are prepared for the appropriate type of microscope to be used for sampling. It is not possible to view any living material due to vacuum inside Electron microscopes. Electron microscopes have higher magnification and it resolution is good for measuring sizes of smaller features.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Every rotary drilling operation consists of three systems that work simultaneously in boring a hole; a rotating system which rotates the drill bit, a hoisting system that raises and lowers the drill string into the hole, and a circulating system that moves fluid around from the drill stem, out of the drill bit and up again to the hole at the surface (Dyke & Baker, 1998). The type of fluid chosen for a particular well depends on 3 important factors; Cost, Technical performance, Environmental impact. The cost of products is very important, but should only be considered on a cost-performance basis. Technical performance of the drilling mud is the most important factor (Hawker, 2001) (Devereux, 1999). The task focuses on investigating the effect of bone dust on the different mud samples and studying their behaviors when subjected to different conditions. In order to do this, they would all be subjected to a number of experiments. In doing so, the different mud samples with varying amount of bone dust would be used and at certain varying conditions such as varying temperatures and aging times, to help the mud samples perform maximally. Amongst the tests to be carried out are filtration or water loss test, swell tests, lubricity, investigations to determine the rheological properties of the different mud samples, aging and temperature tests.

1.1 DRILLING FLUIDS
Drilling fluid, in its liquid form, may be water or a mixture of water and oil, clay with some additives is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth. A drilling fluid is any fluid which is circulated through a well in order to remove cuttings from a wellbore. Drilling fluid is often used while drilling oil and natural gas wells.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

1.2 TYPES OF DRILLING FLUIDS
a) Water Base Muds (WBM): WBM having water as the continuous phase is predominantly used in the industry due to its environmentally acceptable nature, and also because it is relatively cheap to operate with. It also called aqueous drilling fluid and it consists of about 90–95% of fresh water, salt or sea water and several dissolved substances (Devereux, 1999), (Skalle, 2010)). WBM is the drilling mud type which would be focused on and used in this project. There are several types of WBM as seen below;
• Dispersed Muds: These mud type are used at greater depths requiring higher densities or in problematic hole conditions where heightened treatments are required. The mud system would be dispersed with specific additives to give specific properties to the mud e.g. thinners or dispersants.

• Non – Dispersed Muds: These mud type are used for shallow wells or top hole sections. Clear or native water such as spud muds, natural muds and other lightly treated systems

b) Oil Base Muds (OBM): These muds have oil as their continuous phase, usually diesel oil, mineral oil or low toxicity mineral oil, and although they may contain little formation water, no additional water or brine is added. This is due to the fact that they contain water-emulsifying agents. The ratio of the oil percentage to the water percentage in the liquid phase of an oil-based system is called its oil/water ratio. Oil-based systems generally function well with an oil/water ratio in the range from 65/35 to 95/5, but the most commonly observed range is from 70/30 to 90/10.

c) Synthetic-Base Muds: In SBMs, the continuous phase is the synthetic liquid while brine serves as the dispersed phase. During drilling, the solids in the mud system and the formations are exposed to the synthetic liquid and not to the aqueous phase, preventing swelling and degradation of borehole walls. As with OBMs, drill cuttings are less likely to disperse into the mud. SBMs are used where OBMs are commonly used in difficult drilling situations, such as high downhole temperatures, hydratable shales, or salt, where the properties of WBMs would limit performance. Out of an increased desire to reduce the environment impact of offshore drilling operations, synthetic-base muds were developed.

1. About 85% of Australians live within 50 km of the coastal zone.
2. Australia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world.
3. In Australia, electricity prices are highest in the world.
4. The largest sand island in the world, Fraser is also in Australia.
5. Australia and Antarctica were a single part 50 million years ago.
6. Australia is a sixth largest country in the world.
7. In 1880 Melbourne was the richest city in the world.
8. 91% of the country’s territory is covered by natural vegetation.
9. Millions of wild camels represent a huge problem for the Australian ecosystem.
10. Didgeridoo is wind instrument originated from Australia and is one of the oldest in the world.
11. Australia has the longest fence in the world; its length is 5.614 km.
12. Australia has three time zones.
13. The victory of Australian footballers over the team of American Samoa in the 31 – 0 has become a record for the entire history of international matches.
14. Australian camels are imported to Saudi Arabia.
15. There are 60 designated wine regions in Australia.
16. The largest coral reef in the world – the Great Barrier Reef, is located in the sea areas of Australia. Its length is 2030 kilometers.
17. Australia was one of the founding countries of the United Nations.
18. Australia – is the only country which occupies a whole continent.
19. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest living entity on the planet.
20. The Melbourne city is the most ‘Liveable City’ in the world.
21. In Australia, there is the world’s driest lake – Lake Eyre.
22. In 1892, a group of 200 Australians, dissatisfied with the local government, sailed to the shores of Paraguay and founded a colony there – New Australia.
23. In order to visit all the beaches of Australia, you will need more than 27 years.
24. The head of the country is British king or queen.
25. Before the appearance of people, Australia was home to many unique giant animals.
26. The world’s oldest deposit of fossils was found in Australia 3.4 billion years ago.
27. Australia is a country of immigrants.
28. Australia became the second country in the world where women received the right to vote.
29. Until 1902, bathing on the beach during the day was illegal.
30. In Australia, there is a poisonous octopus called Blue-Ringed Octopus. It causes complete paralysis and death in few minutes.
31. Until 1984, Anthem of Australia was “God Save the King / Queen.”
32. In the Australian Alps, snowfall is more than in Switzerland.
33. Murray River is the longest river in Australia. It is 2,548 km long.
34. Tasmania has the cleanest air in the world.
35. The average Australian drinks 96 liters of beer per year.
36. The world’s longest straight road is in Australia. It is 146 kilometers without any turns.
37. Boab trees are endemic to Australia. These trees can live for more than 2000 years.
38. Wine barrels were the invention of Australians.
39. Every year in Brisbane, the World Cup in the cockroach races is organized.
40. In 1932, the Australian army declared war on the emu population in Western Australia. Surprisingly, they lost.
41. Somehow an Australian tried to sell New Zealand on eBay.
42. In Australia, Since 1979 no one has died from poisonous spiders.
43. Wave Rock in Australia is one of the oldest rocks in the world.
44. Australia is on the list of top ten countries with the highest standard of living.

x

Hi!
I'm Piter!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out