1.Review bibliografic.

Dac? în trecut, femeile reprezentau sexul slab, în contemporaneitate, situa?ia ia o turnur? poate a?teptat?, sau dimpotriv?, poate nea?teptat?, dar în orice caz, mult dorit?. Un subiect în vog? al momentului îl reprezint? feminismul, dorin?a femeilor de a se afirma ?i de a schimba ceva, felul lor de a se face auzite prin intermediul multiplelor c?i, precum implicare în diverse ac?iuni, asumarea unor roluri importante într-o lume a b?rba?ilor, cât ?i prelucrarea propriei persoane.

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„That feminism has always thought about questions of life and death means that feminism has always, to some extent and in some way, been philosophical. That it asks how we organize life, how we accord it value, how we safeguard it against violence, how we compel the world, and its institutions, to inhabit new values, means that its philosophical pursuits are in some sense at one with the aim of social transformation. (Butler, Undoing Gender, 205)
Feminismul duce direct cu gândul la puterea intelctual?, la puterea filosofic? sau la puterea de gândire, ceea ce, în sens larg se refer? pe de-o parte la opiniile acestora, cât ?i al felul de exprimare a unor probleme, dar ?i rezolvare. Femeile sunt con?tiente de sine, cu toate c? par a fii persoane ce tr?iesc în deriva dintre real ?i imaginar, ele ?tiu ce for?e posed? ?i de ce sunt capabile. Din aceste afirma?ii, extragem faptul c? valoarea este dat? de anumite ac?iuni, de anumite idei ?i activit??i.
Identificare. Paralel? eu-gen.

Epoca aduce cu sine o schimbare radical?, familia patriarhal? este înlocuit? de familia modern?, ce prezint? egalitate între membrii, ce dispune de în?elegere ?i acceptare. Conform lui Janice Radway, un exemplu bine conturat este romanul de factur? romantic?, idilic?, care renun?? s? pun? în prim plan femeia ca simbol al maternit??ii ?i îngrijirii casei. Ideea de plictis atât în urma statului continuu acas?, cât ?i blocarea min?ii pe anumite subiecte, precum repetarea zi de zi a activit??ilor casnice, marcheaz? într-o manier? ?ocant?, astfel încât, femeia începe s? pun? accentul pe ea îns??i, s? î?i declare u?or independen?a. Traiul în repetativitate nu duce la o evolu?ie, din contr?, sugereaz? rupere de realitate, rupere de propriul eu.

„I think it is fair to say that feminists everywhere seek a more substantial equality for women, and that they seek a more just arrangement of social and political institutions.” (Butler, Undoing Gender, 174). Femeile încearc? s? nu mai fie dependente de b?rba?i, acestea doresc s? le fie respectate drepturile, dar s? se fac? auzite ?i prin for?ele lor proprii, adic? s? arate c? pot ?i c? merit?. Este evident faptul c? egaliatea duce la echilibru, iar echilibrul face balan?a s? fie egal?, de aici, traiectoria fiind asigurat? spre evolu?ie i nu stagnare. Dorin?? de exprimare aduce implicit ?i lupta împotriva violen?ei, a h?r?uirii, a rasismului. În ciuda acestui fapt, discriminarea împotriva femeilor înc? exist?, cel pu?in când vine vorba despre femeile de culoare sau de femeile ce î?i duc existen?a în ??ri s?race, f?r? resurse. Este o linie foarte fin? ce separ? actele f?cute în numele femeilor ?i acetele f?cute de femei. F?r? îndoial?, la nivel global, situa?ia se schimb?.
Un punct esen?ial în desifrarea problemei feminit??ii îl reprezint? genul care dore?te acest fapt, iar Freud ofer? un r?spuns absolut genial – „Problema feminit??ii v? preocup? pentru c? sînte?i b?rba?i. Pentru femeile care se afl? printre dumneavoastr? problema este cu atît mai interesant? cu cît ele sunt chiar enigma despre care vorbim.” (42). La început, acest subiect era tratat superficial, fiind considerat aproape inutil, îns? tot mai multe voci au început s? se fac? auzite, fapt ce a atras aten?ia unei mul?imi, printre care se num?r? ?i b?rba?ii. Ace?tia, în urma unui secol predispus schimb?rii, au în?eles c? ideea de echilibru este esen?ial?, au constat faptul c? împ?r?irea treburilor este o necesitate ?i ca egalitatea nu trebuie s? fie doar în gândire, ci ?i în ac?iuni. Din acest motiv, în zilele noastre, nu mai este ciudat când un tat? are grij? de copiii lui sau când acesta are grij? ?i de cas?. Dup? cum spune Freud, cele dou? sexe sunt „dou? modalit??i diferite ale unei singure dispozi?ii.”, rezultând pân? ?i din nivelul psihanalitic, egalitatea dintre genuri.

Punctul de plecare în lupta pe care o duc reprezentantele sexului frumos este reprezentat de structura de domina?ie, care la rândul ei se revars? asupra mai multor elemente. Un element de o importan?? covâr?itoare este analiza genului. Genul nu înglobeaz? doar sexul pe care un individ îl are, ci face referire la ce se afl? atât în interiorul lui, cât ?i în exteriorul s?u. „But the terms that make up one’s own gender are, from the start, outside oneself, beyond oneself in a sociality that has no single author (and that radically contests the notion of authorship itself).” (Butler, Undoing Gender, 1). O persoan? reprezint? suma tuturor ac?iunilor pe care le face, a activit??ilor, cât ?i a idealurilor, astfel definindu?i propriul gen. Îns?, persoana î?i traseaz? traiectoria în afara liniilor exterioare, astfel încât rela?iile pe care aceasta le stabile?te sunt direct propor?ionale cu felul de manifestare a feminit??ii sau a masculinit??ii. În plus, societatea contureaz? individul ?i dorin?ele acestuia, inmdiferent de gradul lui de independen??. Personalitatea ?i gândirea sa nu sunt totalitatea ideilor unui singur autor, adic? a lui însu?i, ci, sugereaz? o multitudine de autori ce î?i las? amprenta, ace?tia purtând numele de colectiv, sau societate. Simone de Beauvoir vorbe?te despre un alt element ce intereseaz?, adic? despre instabilitatea de care d? dovad? genul – „gender is in no way a stable identity…it is an identity tenously constitued in time- an identity instituted through a ??stylized repetition of acts??.” (Butler, „Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory”, 519). Individul reu?e?te s? se cunoasc? pe sine însu?i în timp, dup? ce acumuleaz? anumite informa?ii, atât despre el, cât ?i despre ceilal?i. Acesta trebuie s? înve?e s? se analizeze, s? fie con?tient de societatea în care tr?ie?te pentru a putea s? realizeze ceva pentru el, în mod particular, dar ?i pentru a schimba ceva la un nivel superior. Conexiunea particular-general este v?zut? pân? ?i aici.

În concep?ie hegelian?, tradi?ia este strict legat? de recunoa?tere, recunoa?tere ce are s? se fac? în urma experien?elor acumulate. În cuvinte simple, recunoa?terea este combina?ia între reflexia critic? ?i acceptarea propriei persoane. Recunoa?terea se face la nivel intelectual. De exemplu, omul poate s? se gândeasc? la interpretarea unor lecturi prin filtrul s?u unic, prin coresponden?a f?cut? între el însu?i ?i protagonistul scrierii sau reg?sirea în actele acestuia. Hegel porne?te de la opinia lui Spinoza, care formuleaz? principiul persisten?ei propriei persoane („self- persistence”), adic? un individ persist? în propriul lui fel de a fi. Fiecare persoan? tânje?te dup? unicitate ?i dup? exprimare în mod original, aceasta fiind baz? pentru a se face remarcat. În ciuda faptului c?, oamenii doresc independen??, ace?tia sunt con?tien?i pân? la un anumit punct c? nu ar fi capabili s? tr?iasc? unul f?r? cel?lalt. Hegel sus?ine ideea conform c?reia un om se cunoa?te pe sine însu?i ?i prin intermediul unor norme ?i concepte.
Conform lui Butler, accep?iunea modern? a genului îl prezint? pe acesta ca fiind o norm?, de asemenea. Acesta are o structur? dual?, fiind dezv?luit ca o form? de putere social?, dar ?i ca un aparat institu?ional binar. Totu?i, înglobarea normelor ?i a conven?iilor restric?ioneaz? într-o anumit? m?sur? pl?cerea. „To be ec-static means, literally, to be outside oneself, and this can have several meanings: to be transported beyond oneself by a passion, but also to be beside oneself with rage or grief.” (Butler, Undoing Gender, 20) Aceast? putere ec-static? face posibil? existen?a noastr? ca oameni. În plus, orice via?? este format? atât din momentele frumoase, cât ?i din amintirile mai pu?in pl?cute.

În primul s?u volum, The History of Sexuality, Foucault vorbe?te despre confesiunea corpului („bodily confession”), ce vizeaz? urm?toarea ipotez?:
“The self is not something that has to be discovered or deciphered as a very obscure part of our selves. The self has, on the contrary, not to be discovered but to be constituted through the force of truth. The force lies in the rhetorical quality of the master’s discourse, and this rhetorical quality depends for a part on the exposé of the disciple, who has to explain how far he is in his way of living from the true principles that he knows” (168).

La urma urmei, sinele este doar un concept, a c?rui defini?ie teoreticienii încearc? s? o dea. Pe de-o parte acesta sugereaz? ceea ce persoana crede c? este, sugereaz? ideea de un singur autor, care deja a fost comb?tut?. Pe de alt? parte, sinele este o proiec?ie în viitor, ceva ce persoanele doresc s? fie. Îns?, prin puterea adev?rului ?i a unei min?i odihnite ?i gata s? priveasc? spre evolu?ie, sinele ar putea fi în?eles ?i ca valoare, sau ca idei de parcurgere a vie?ii.

1.2. Înglobarea feminit??ii în reviste.

Concep?ia postomodern? în privin?a felului de a citi revistele adresate femeilor are în vedere orientarea asupra dorin?elor lectorului ?i nu lectura f?cut? din punct de vedere teoretic sau lectura impus? de regimul politic. Dar, înainte de toate, revistele înglobeaz? o multitudine de subiecte, precum mod?, c?r?ile lunii, filme recomandate, bârfe, reclame publicitare, etc ?i se adreseaz? unui public larg.

„Pentru Foucault puterea nu este un lucru generat de cineva, ci exist? doar în ecua?ia ??putere/cunoa?tere?? : puterea sub forma de cunoa?tere sau cunoa?terea ca putere.” (Culler 16) . Afirmarea feminit??ii aduce cu sine puterea de exprimare, cât ?i dorin?a de a-?i l?sa amprenta, iar aceasta se manifest? prin intermediul cunoa?terii, adic? al punerii ?i rezolv?rii problemelor ce pândesc femeile. Revistele pun accentul pe via?a femeilor în anumite intervale de timp, prezint? articole despre femeia modern? ?i situa?iile în care aceasta este pus?. Din acest punct de vedere, revistele sunt o îmbinare de gen, al c?ror centru îl reprezint? sexul frumos.

Pentru o în?elegere mai bun?, este luat în calcul mecanismul ce st? la baza func?ion?rii revistelor. Strategia reprezint? delimitarea spa?iului propriu, aceasta fiind folosit? de institu?ii precum armata, pe când, tactica este arma celor slabi. În alt? ordine de idei, tacticile sunt ac?iuni determinate de absen?a unui mediu prospice ?i care tind s? se includ? ele însele în spa?iile deja create pentru men?inerea for?ei. Conform lui De Certeau, cititul este o tactic?, care nu are un spa?iu al s?u bine delimitat. Este important? forma dual? pe care o poate îmbr?ca cititul-de nevoie ?i de pl?cere. Pl?cerea furnizat? este rezultat al petrecerii timpului liber conform cu propriile dorin?e, f?r? a ?ine cont de lumea real? ?i tendin?ele spre care aceasta se îndreapt?, ea neputând fi g?sit? în lucruri care oamenii sunt obliga?i s? le fac?.

Un punct cheie al analizei articolelor este faptul c? acestea nu se adreseaz? unui grup ?int?, ci vizeaz? mai multe. Teoreticienii impun un „orizont de a?teptare” în decodificarea unor texte. Acesta poate face referire la epoca în care articolul este citit, la cine îl cite?te, la cum este citit. „Critica feminist? a dezb?tut problema producerii unei diferen?e în cazul în care cititorul este o femeie.” (Culler 75). Aceast? idee conform c?reia perspectivele sunt diferite datorit? sexului, ajung de-a lungul istoriei s? influen?eze femeia s? citeasc? dintr-un punct de vedere masculin. Acela?i teoretician d? exemplul camerei de filmat – „cinematic gaze”, unde b?rbatul este privitorul, pe când femeia reprezint? obiectul privit.

Din nou, binaritatea la nivelul lecturii unor reviste ce înglobeaz? feminitatea este resim?it?. Atât b?rba?ii, cât ?i femeile citesc aceste texte, îns? perspectivele sunt diferite. Sexul frumos lectureaz? astfel de articole din dou? motive. Un prim motiv este faptul c? se citesc u?or. Nu necesit? o aten?ie extrem de sporit?, au fost f?cute pe ideea de delectare ?i informare asupra unor tendin?e actuale în mod? sau în lume. Un alt motiv îl reprezint? simpla pl?cere adus? de aceste scrieri, iar la un nivel de analiz? aprofundat?, faptul c? femeia nu este obligat? s? le citeasc?, ci este alegerea ei s? fac? acest lucru. B?rba?ii recunosc c? se uit? pe aceste texte pentru a înl?tura plictiseala. Cu toate c? ei sunt sexul puternic, este demonstrat faptul c? nu au o înclina?ie special? pentru a asculta ?i nu prezint? o capacitate excep?ional? de în?elegere. Cu toate acestea, ei tind s? considere aceste texte o pierdere de vreme, care te pune, oarecum în leg?tur? cu ?tirile actuale din domeniul showbiz-ului. În plus, revistele sunt ?i un instrument secundar; omul modern ?i-a dezvoltat abilitatea de multi-tasking la nivelul la care aceasta a devenit o necesitate. El nu se poate concentra pe o singur? activitate, din acest motiv, r?sfoirea unei reviste vine în ajutor.

Revistele se las? deschise f?r? a încerca o modelare a oamenilor, au diverse interpret?ri. Sunt puncte de referin?? atât pentru femeile cu copiii, cât ?i pentru cele f?r?, atât pentru femeile aflate în floarea vârstei, cât ?i pentru femeile trecute deja prin via??, dar, dup? cum deja a fost men?ionat, revistele reprezint? centru de interes ?i pentru b?rba?i.

Pentru o în?elegere mai bun? a femeii, trebuie luat în calcul faptul c? aceasta evolueaz? de-a lungul a patru stagii. Prima etap? este reprezentat? de puritatea feminin?, ce vine odat? cu tinere?ea, începerea ?colii, preg?tirea profesional? ?i acei câ?iva ani dinaintea mariajului. O a doua etap? este sugerat? de c?s?torie ?i renun?area la activitatea profesional?. Ea se dedic? familiei nou concepute, f?r? a se pune pe sine îns??i deasupra. Între timp, apar copiii. Urm?toarea etap? este conturat? de renun?area la ceea ce o face nefericit?-mariajul ei. Aceasta încearc? s? se descurce singur?, chiar dac?, pentru început, ea duce o via?? mizer?. Ultimul stadiu este dezv?luit de reg?sirea sinelui, de încercarea unei noi pove?ti de dragoste, al?turi de un om al?turi de care crede c? poate muta mun?ii din loc. Bineîn?eles c? aceast? clasificare este una general? ?i c? nu se aplic? în toate cazurile; exist? ?i bine-cunoscutele excep?ii.

„As a feminist I very much take my mother’s story to heart: emancipation cannot be forced on others, it is something one discovers for oneself – as my mother ended up doing.” (Hermes 83). Rolul mamei în via?a fiicei sale este covâr?itor deoarece aceasta traseaz? traiectoria pe care copilul ei o va urma f?r? s? î?i dea seama. De câte ori fetele nu î?i copiaz? mam?? Se dau cu rujul ei, se îmbrac? în hainele ei sau p??esc pe urmele ei? De ce? Pentru c? mama reprezint? proiec?ia în viitor a fiicei. Interdependen?a dintre cele dou? este rezultatul iubirii sincere ?i pure. Prin ochii unui copil, mama este mereu eroina care a reu?it s? stea în picioare ?i s? duc? cele mai grele lupte pentru ca puiul ei s? nu duc? lips? de nimic.

Oamenii se schimb?, la fel ?i revistele. Aceast? afirma?ie subliniaz? faptul c? exist? o perioad? în via?a oric?rei femei în care aceasta cite?te reviste. În plus, prin subiectele przentate, revistele tind s? idealizeze femeia, ?i de aici, cititoarele sunt u?or influen?abile în a deveni ceva ce ele poate c? nu sunt, ?i astfel formânduse o majoritate, o modelare a eului ?i a originalului. Cu toate c? exist? similitudini între revistele de factur? feminin? ?i c?r?ile de conturare a eului ?i a personalit??ii, lectorii nu trebuie s? uite c? unicitatea este factorul esen?ial.

Articolele din acest tip de scriere sunt adesea asem?nate cu subiecte de bârf?; idee gre?it?. Într-un anumit fel, cei care se angreneaz? în subiecte de acest tip, fac asta din pl?cere ?i nu pentru a inflen?a al?i indivizi sau p?rerile pe care ace?tia le au. Cele dou? genuri nu trebuie confundate, chiar dac? acestea vizeaz? emo?iile persoanelor.

1.3. Cultura modei sau moda culturii?
În primul rând, definirea culturii este important? pentru a putea trece mai departe. Aceasta este un sistem format din valori, idei, gânduri ce au leg?tur? cu lumea, ce pun în lumini ?i umbre anumite popoare, ce organizeaz? ?i clasific? pe baza unor principii diferitele rase ?i care diferen?iaz? puterile ?i resursele. În al doilea rând, conceptul de mod? la ce face referire? Moda este strict legat? de viziune ?i crea?ie, în plus, ea d? tonul unui nou stil, unei noi metode de purtare a pieselor vestimentare ?i nu numai. De asemenea, aceasta cere ?i un ochi estetic, o preferin?? pentru frumos, care cu greu poate fi format?; ea trebuie s? fie înn?scut?. Ce este la mod? nu este neaparat ?i ceva frumos, din acest punct de vedere, se pune accentul pe filtrarea anumitor lucruri prin propriul eu, prin propria perspectiv?.
Prin intermediul modei, implicit al costumelor, al decor?rii corpului se formeaz? o tradi?ie a diverselor culturi înc? din cele mai vechi timpuri ?i pân? ast?zi. În continuare o s? fie explorate diverse elemente legate de corpul omenesc ?i punerea acestuia în valoare.
Titlul capitolului este ales dup? multe c?ut?ri ?i reprezint? un punct de plecare deoarece atât moda, cât ?i cultura sunt privite ca fiind construc?ii binare. Prima întrebare pune în lumin? dezvoltarea pe parcursul epocilor a modei, adic? a tot ceea ce se poart? ?i de ce se poart?. În largo sensu, prezint? hainele, c?ci despre ele este vorba, în principiu, în diverse perioade de timp. Cum s-a plecat de la str?lucirea anilor ’30 ?i s-a ajuns la excesele anilor ’80, corsetele din Belle Epoque devin, u?or-u?or tunicile anilor ’70. Cea de-a doua problem? ridicat? pune în valoare exprimarea culturii prin intermediul hainelor, a accesoriilor, a viziunii. Mai multe popoare se fac v?zute, ies din umbr? prin intermediul ancor?rii lor în mod?.

Ceea ce cititorul nu trebuie s? uite este faptul c?, precum afirm? cu t?rie Judith Butler, corpul este mult mai mult decât felul în care arat?, el se define?te ca fiind mult mai mult decât limitele pe care acesta le prezint?.

În preistorie, oamenii obi?nuiau s?-?i acopere corpurile cu pielea animalelor. Acesta a fost începutul modei. De la acoperirea sexului, se ajunge cu pa?i repezi la haine de lungimi mult mai mari, care îmbr?cau tot corpul. În continuare, ace?tia încep s? foloseasc? numeroase trucuri, de la îmbibarea acelor piei într-un ulei ce încânta sim?urile cu arome, pân? la accesorii, de exemplu, turbane. Vine un moment în care vestimenta?ia reprezint? ?i nivelul pe care un individ îl ocup? în ierarhia social?, spre exemplu, culorile mov, alb, auriu erau culorile nobilimii.

În postmodernism, pia?a este supra-saturat?, exist? de toate din toate. Tot ce conteaz? acum, este un ochi fin care s? propun? o reinterpretare prin manier? personal?, care s? î?i lase o tu?? original? asupra unei crea?ii. Tocmai din acest fapt, se ridic? ideea conform c?reia nu se ?tie cât o s? mai dureze aceasta. Într-o lume cyborgic? o s? mai conteze oare stilul vestimentar? Probabil c? acesta o s? fie tehnologizat, iar momentul de apogeu pentri aceast? teorie a crea?iei ?i a perspectivelor este acum, când deja exist? o viziune spre viitor, dar ?i una spre trecut.

1. The name Alaska is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which literally means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the northernmost state of the United States.
3. Alaska is the largest state in the United States and contains one-fifth of the entire land area of the United States.
4. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress voted to admit Alaska into the Union as the 49th state,
5. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
6. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air; it is the only capital of the US state without land communication.
7. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
8. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement onThree Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
9. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
10. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
11. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
12. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
13. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
14. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
15. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
16. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
17. The flag of Alaska was invented by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and won.
18. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
19. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
20. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
21. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
22. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
23. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different dialects.
24. the population density here is lower than any of the states.
25. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
26. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
27. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
28. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
29. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
30. Of the 20 highest peaks in the United States, 17 are in Alaska
31. During the Klondike gold rush in 1897, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
32. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
33. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
34. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
35. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
36. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
37. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
38. America’s largest national forest is the Tongass.
39. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
40. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
41. The Northern Lights can be seen in Fairbanks 243 days a year.
42. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
43. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
44. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
45. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
46. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
47. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline moves up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
48. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
49. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
50. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
51. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
52. in Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
53. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
54. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
55. The economy of Alaska is based on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, fishing and tourism.
56. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
57. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
58. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
59. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
60. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
61. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.
62.

1.1. Kind of Research Methodology used?

Basically, researchers conduct a contrast of the accessible literature to detect the required reply or what has been written on a unique subject. Document-based research has to do with the reviewing of sources that are frequently sourced from or discovered in the library. Whenever factor out is made of qualitative research, one ought to be aware that the research documents exceptionally primarily based and vice versa. In doing all this, researchers are in search of to “immerse themselves in the assignment matter” and cultivate state-of-the-art principles that considerably decorate their grasp and clarification of truth. These sources consist of law.

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Qualitative research “is a form of research in which researchers make an analysis of what they see, hear and understand”. In general, qualitative research is characterised by way of participatory research, the place a researcher performs a vigorous function in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of statistics. Therefore, qualitative research is a structure of research in which researchers make a comparison of what they see, hear and understand. It is aimed at accumulating statistics about a theme that investigates something about human behaviour that cannot be measured, such as perception, opinions, experiences, and so forth.

1.2. The reason for using such kind of research methodology.

Generally, any form of research is important when one is searching for an answer to a legal problem. In this context, document based-research is important because of the following:

1.2.1. It provides present day solutions to the legal problem being researched.
1.2.2. It gives information about what other scholars have written on the subject.
1.2.3. It indicates whether anyone has written on the subject yet.
1.2.4 It indicates whether the concern being investigated has been absolutely explored and has for this reason turn out to be saturated.
1.2.5. It suggests whether there is a hole in the handy literature that nevertheless wants to be explored.
1.2.6. It shows whether there is a need to habits similarly learn about of the concern.

1.3 The ethical issues considered in conducting the research.

1.3.1. Does the research conform to the principle of informed consent?

If the research consists of minors, people under the age of 21 years, prior consent from parents or legal guardians need to be obtained. Generally, research that entails human men and women ought to continuously be carried out with the quintessential knowledgeable consent. Informed consent is a simple ethical philosophy of scientific research on human participants.

1.3.2. Does the research cause direct harm to research subjects?

However, the cardinal rule is that contributors should be blanketed from any possible discomfort or emotional misery emanating from the research project. Thus, it is your accountability as a researcher to inform the individuals of the typical cause of the study. One of the ordinary moral challenges is to have the functionality to weigh the manageable advantages of doing research in opposition to the opportunity of injury to the humans being studied (participants. Furthermore, one need to point out to the people their characteristic in the research assignment.

1.3.3. Does the research promote anonymity?

On the other hand, information can additionally have names or codes related to it, however the researcher will have to maintain the names or codes secret from the public. On the one hand, it is may also additionally be essential to enable the individuals the proper to determine out on how, where and to what extent their attitudes, beliefs and behaviour will be revealed. Secondly, anonymity can be associated with privacy and confidentiality. Firstly, it relates to the duty to make positive that it is now not feasible to find out the participants in a research project. Anonymity addresses many potential difficulties.

1.3.4. Does the research deal with the manipulation of information?

This capacity that members commonly have the right to agree or refuse to take part in your research. Factors such as coercing, undue effect or deceiving the participants point out the absence of or negate voluntary participation. It is your responsibility as a researcher to make sure that the participants participate in your research voluntarily. Accordingly, you need to usually recognize this right.

1.3.5. Does the research potentially tamper with the research field for other researchers?

It is unethical for the researcher to tamper with other researcher work especially of the same fields that he/she is also working on. It will also amount to plagiarism, using someone’s work and present it as one’s own without giving credit to the owner. It will amount to disciplinary steps to be taken.

1.4. The social justice issues that are raised in the scenario.

There was once a protest recently in the neighbourhood of Mamelodi, specifically the team named “the worried parents”. Moreover, the concerned mother and father as they had been indignant with the view in which the court deals and offers the criminal and their conviction. However, the group raised issues that relate to crimes such as the following:
1.4.1. toddler abuse.
1.4.2. child pornography.
1.4.3. statutory rape.

Question 2

About Plagiarism and examples

The term “plagiarism” is debated vastly in academia. What we seek to do here is to show you some of the accepted definitions of this term. The Oxford English Dictionary defines plagiarism as the “action or practice of plagiarising; the wrongful appropriations or purloining, and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or expression of the ideas of another”. Furthermore, it is “fraud that occurs when a researcher steals the ideas or writings of another or uses them without citing the source.

2.1. It arises in conditions the place a researcher fails or omits to indicate clearly, for instance with quotation marks or indent and special font, phrases or passages taken verbatim, that is, word for word, from a posted or unpublished text, except crediting the authentic textual content and author.

2.2. It takes place in cases where a statute, case law, book, article, or digital text is paraphrased except acknowledging the supply or sources and the creator thereof.

2.3. It arises in instances where greater than a full-size section of or the entire statute, case law, book, article, or digital textual content is used.

Question 3

S v Makwanyane and Another (CCT3/94) 1995 ZACC 3; 1995 (6) BCLR 665; 1995 (3) SA 391; 1996 2 CHRLD 164; 1995 (2) SACR 1 (6 June 1995).

Introduction
According to CHASKALSON P : The two accused in this matter had been convicted in the Witwatersrand Local Division of the Supreme Court on four counts of murder, one count of attempted murder and one count of robbery with aggravating circumstances. The Appellate Division dismissed the appeals towards the convictions and concluded that the situations of the murders were such that the accused must get hold of the heaviest sentence permissible according to regulation. They appealed to the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in opposition to the convictions and sentences. They had been sentenced to death on each of counts of murder and to long terms of imprisonment on the other counts.

3.1. The facts of the case.

It does not deal specifically with the death penalty, but in section 11(2), it prohibits “cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Chapter Three of the Constitution sets out the fundamental rights to which every person is entitled under the Constitution and contains provisions dealing with the way in which the Chapter is to be interpreted by the Courts. There is no definition of what is to be regarded as “cruel, inhuman or degrading” and we, therefore, a need to give meaning to these words ourselves.

In giving meaning to section 9, O´Regan J seek the purpose for which it was included in the Constitution. This purposive or teleological approach to the interpretation of rights may at times require a generous meaning to be given to provisions of chapter 3 of the Constitution, and at other times a narrower or specific meaning. It is the responsibility of the courts, and ultimately this court, to develop fully the rights entrenched in the Constitution. Consequently, any minimum content which is attributed to a right may in subsequent cases be expanded and developed. But that will take time.

3.2. The legal questions.

3.2.1. Is capital punishment for murder justifiable? The question that now has to be considered is whether the imposition of such punishment is nonetheless justifiable as a penalty for murder in the circumstances contemplated by sections 277(1)(a), 316A and 322(2A) of the Criminal Procedure Act ?

3.2.2. Can, and should, an unelected court substitute its own opinion of what is reasonable or necessary for that of an elected legislature?

3.2.3 Would the carrying out of the death sentence on these 143 persons have deterred the other murderers or saved any lives?

3.2.4 Should this be determined subjectively from the point of view of the individual affected by the invasion of the right, or objectively, from the point of view of the nature of the right and its place in the constitutional order, or possibly in some other way?

3.2.5 If the law recognises the right to take the life of a wrongdoer in a situation in which self-defence is justified, then, to deter others, and to ensure that the wrongdoer does not again kill an innocent person, why should it not recognise the power of the state to take the life of a convicted murderer?

3.2.6 This “planned and calculated termination of life itself” was permitted in the past which preceded the Constitution. Is it now permissible?

3.2.7 Does our constitution permit any convicted criminal, however heinous the crime, to be put to death by the government as punishment for that crime?

3.3. The decision of the court.

It gave its approval to a technique which, at the identical time as paying due regard to the language that has been used, is “generous” and “purposive” and offers expression to the underlying values of the Constitution. In S v Zuma and Two Others, this Court dealt with the approach to be adopted in the interpretation of the fundamental rights enshrined in Chapter Three of the Constitution.

As Kentridge AJ described in the first judgment of this court (S v Zuma unreported judgment of this court, 5 April 1995), many of the rights entrenched in section 25 of the Constitution regarding criminal justice are longstanding requirements of our law, even though eroded with the useful resource of the statute and judicial decision. In decoding the rights contained in section 25, these common law standards will be useful courses.

It used to be dealt with in this judgment solely with the provisions of section 277(1)(a) of the Criminal Procedure Act, however it is clear that if subsection (1)(a) is inconsistent with the Constitution, subsections (1)(c) to (1)(f) need to additionally be unconstitutional, so too have to provisions of regulation corresponding to sections 277(1)(a), (c), (d), (e) and (f) that are in pressure in components of the country wide territory in terms of section 229 of the Constitution. Different concerns arising from section 33(1) would possibly perchance practice to subsection (b) which makes provision for the imposition of the death.

3.4. The importance of the case in relation to the notion of Ubuntu.

While it envelops the key values of group solidarity, compassion, respect, human dignity, conformity to primary norms and collective unity, in its integral feel it denotes humanity and morality. Its spirit emphasises respect for human dignity, marking a shift from disagreement to conciliation. Mokgoro J held that: Metaphorically, ubuntu expresses itself in umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu, describing the importance of team spirit on survival issues so central to the survival of communities. Here the word was given its first full exposition by using the courts. “In this sense, ubuntu made its debut in the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in S v Makwanyane.”

3.5. The link of transformative constitutionalism with this case.

Therefore, transformative constitutionalism needs to take place in an environment that promotes the democratic values of human dignity, equality, and freedom. The vision of the Constitution is to create a South Africa that is primarily based on democratic values, social justice, and fundamental human rights. For Langa J, this is the core notion of transformative constitutionalism: that people need to change. Particularly, the phrases “we, the people of South Africa” in the Preamble to the Constitution suggests this collective duty transform. In addition, the Constitution enjoins everyone to be concerned in a process to radically change South Africa according to Langa J.

Conclusion

It similarly states that “Even if the formation of this common norm is nonetheless underway, the Special Rapporteur considers that most stipulations beneath which capital punishment is really applied render the punishment tantamount to torture and that underneath any other, less extreme conditions, it nonetheless quantities to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. In conclusion, there is no express evidence that any method of execution in use these days complies with the prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment in every case. The United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture in this 2012 file resumes the jurisprudence concerning execution techniques.

1. Since the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century, coal has had a significant impact on the world’s energy supply. To this day, coal is still one of the leading energy sources amongst all the fossil fuels. India too, has had a long history of commercial coal mining spanning over 240 years. Started in 1774 by East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the western bank of river Damodar, the Indian coal industry has consistently evolved over the ages. With the enactment of the Coal Mines Act, 1973, all coal mines in India were nationalized, which otherwise, had primarily been a private sector enterprise. Subsequently, Coal India Limited (CIL) was constituted as a new public-sector company on 01 Nov 75, to enable better organizational and operational efficiency in the coal sector. CIL is now the world’s largest coal-producing company, which produced 554.14 Million Tons (MT) in 2016 – 17, contributing to 84% of the country’s entire coal output. However, the monopoly over commercial mining that state-owned Coal India enjoyed since nationalisation in 1973, was broken by the government in Feb 18, by permitting private firms to enter the commercial coal mining industry.

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