1.Review bibliografic.

Dac? în trecut, femeile reprezentau sexul slab, în contemporaneitate, situa?ia ia o turnur? poate a?teptat?, sau dimpotriv?, poate nea?teptat?, dar în orice caz, mult dorit?. Un subiect în vog? al momentului îl reprezint? feminismul, dorin?a femeilor de a se afirma ?i de a schimba ceva, felul lor de a se face auzite prin intermediul multiplelor c?i, precum implicare în diverse ac?iuni, asumarea unor roluri importante într-o lume a b?rba?ilor, cât ?i prelucrarea propriei persoane.

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„That feminism has always thought about questions of life and death means that feminism has always, to some extent and in some way, been philosophical. That it asks how we organize life, how we accord it value, how we safeguard it against violence, how we compel the world, and its institutions, to inhabit new values, means that its philosophical pursuits are in some sense at one with the aim of social transformation. (Butler, Undoing Gender, 205)
Feminismul duce direct cu gândul la puterea intelctual?, la puterea filosofic? sau la puterea de gândire, ceea ce, în sens larg se refer? pe de-o parte la opiniile acestora, cât ?i al felul de exprimare a unor probleme, dar ?i rezolvare. Femeile sunt con?tiente de sine, cu toate c? par a fii persoane ce tr?iesc în deriva dintre real ?i imaginar, ele ?tiu ce for?e posed? ?i de ce sunt capabile. Din aceste afirma?ii, extragem faptul c? valoarea este dat? de anumite ac?iuni, de anumite idei ?i activit??i.
Identificare. Paralel? eu-gen.

Epoca aduce cu sine o schimbare radical?, familia patriarhal? este înlocuit? de familia modern?, ce prezint? egalitate între membrii, ce dispune de în?elegere ?i acceptare. Conform lui Janice Radway, un exemplu bine conturat este romanul de factur? romantic?, idilic?, care renun?? s? pun? în prim plan femeia ca simbol al maternit??ii ?i îngrijirii casei. Ideea de plictis atât în urma statului continuu acas?, cât ?i blocarea min?ii pe anumite subiecte, precum repetarea zi de zi a activit??ilor casnice, marcheaz? într-o manier? ?ocant?, astfel încât, femeia începe s? pun? accentul pe ea îns??i, s? î?i declare u?or independen?a. Traiul în repetativitate nu duce la o evolu?ie, din contr?, sugereaz? rupere de realitate, rupere de propriul eu.

„I think it is fair to say that feminists everywhere seek a more substantial equality for women, and that they seek a more just arrangement of social and political institutions.” (Butler, Undoing Gender, 174). Femeile încearc? s? nu mai fie dependente de b?rba?i, acestea doresc s? le fie respectate drepturile, dar s? se fac? auzite ?i prin for?ele lor proprii, adic? s? arate c? pot ?i c? merit?. Este evident faptul c? egaliatea duce la echilibru, iar echilibrul face balan?a s? fie egal?, de aici, traiectoria fiind asigurat? spre evolu?ie i nu stagnare. Dorin?? de exprimare aduce implicit ?i lupta împotriva violen?ei, a h?r?uirii, a rasismului. În ciuda acestui fapt, discriminarea împotriva femeilor înc? exist?, cel pu?in când vine vorba despre femeile de culoare sau de femeile ce î?i duc existen?a în ??ri s?race, f?r? resurse. Este o linie foarte fin? ce separ? actele f?cute în numele femeilor ?i acetele f?cute de femei. F?r? îndoial?, la nivel global, situa?ia se schimb?.
Un punct esen?ial în desifrarea problemei feminit??ii îl reprezint? genul care dore?te acest fapt, iar Freud ofer? un r?spuns absolut genial – „Problema feminit??ii v? preocup? pentru c? sînte?i b?rba?i. Pentru femeile care se afl? printre dumneavoastr? problema este cu atît mai interesant? cu cît ele sunt chiar enigma despre care vorbim.” (42). La început, acest subiect era tratat superficial, fiind considerat aproape inutil, îns? tot mai multe voci au început s? se fac? auzite, fapt ce a atras aten?ia unei mul?imi, printre care se num?r? ?i b?rba?ii. Ace?tia, în urma unui secol predispus schimb?rii, au în?eles c? ideea de echilibru este esen?ial?, au constat faptul c? împ?r?irea treburilor este o necesitate ?i ca egalitatea nu trebuie s? fie doar în gândire, ci ?i în ac?iuni. Din acest motiv, în zilele noastre, nu mai este ciudat când un tat? are grij? de copiii lui sau când acesta are grij? ?i de cas?. Dup? cum spune Freud, cele dou? sexe sunt „dou? modalit??i diferite ale unei singure dispozi?ii.”, rezultând pân? ?i din nivelul psihanalitic, egalitatea dintre genuri.

Punctul de plecare în lupta pe care o duc reprezentantele sexului frumos este reprezentat de structura de domina?ie, care la rândul ei se revars? asupra mai multor elemente. Un element de o importan?? covâr?itoare este analiza genului. Genul nu înglobeaz? doar sexul pe care un individ îl are, ci face referire la ce se afl? atât în interiorul lui, cât ?i în exteriorul s?u. „But the terms that make up one’s own gender are, from the start, outside oneself, beyond oneself in a sociality that has no single author (and that radically contests the notion of authorship itself).” (Butler, Undoing Gender, 1). O persoan? reprezint? suma tuturor ac?iunilor pe care le face, a activit??ilor, cât ?i a idealurilor, astfel definindu?i propriul gen. Îns?, persoana î?i traseaz? traiectoria în afara liniilor exterioare, astfel încât rela?iile pe care aceasta le stabile?te sunt direct propor?ionale cu felul de manifestare a feminit??ii sau a masculinit??ii. În plus, societatea contureaz? individul ?i dorin?ele acestuia, inmdiferent de gradul lui de independen??. Personalitatea ?i gândirea sa nu sunt totalitatea ideilor unui singur autor, adic? a lui însu?i, ci, sugereaz? o multitudine de autori ce î?i las? amprenta, ace?tia purtând numele de colectiv, sau societate. Simone de Beauvoir vorbe?te despre un alt element ce intereseaz?, adic? despre instabilitatea de care d? dovad? genul – „gender is in no way a stable identity…it is an identity tenously constitued in time- an identity instituted through a ??stylized repetition of acts??.” (Butler, „Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory”, 519). Individul reu?e?te s? se cunoasc? pe sine însu?i în timp, dup? ce acumuleaz? anumite informa?ii, atât despre el, cât ?i despre ceilal?i. Acesta trebuie s? înve?e s? se analizeze, s? fie con?tient de societatea în care tr?ie?te pentru a putea s? realizeze ceva pentru el, în mod particular, dar ?i pentru a schimba ceva la un nivel superior. Conexiunea particular-general este v?zut? pân? ?i aici.

În concep?ie hegelian?, tradi?ia este strict legat? de recunoa?tere, recunoa?tere ce are s? se fac? în urma experien?elor acumulate. În cuvinte simple, recunoa?terea este combina?ia între reflexia critic? ?i acceptarea propriei persoane. Recunoa?terea se face la nivel intelectual. De exemplu, omul poate s? se gândeasc? la interpretarea unor lecturi prin filtrul s?u unic, prin coresponden?a f?cut? între el însu?i ?i protagonistul scrierii sau reg?sirea în actele acestuia. Hegel porne?te de la opinia lui Spinoza, care formuleaz? principiul persisten?ei propriei persoane („self- persistence”), adic? un individ persist? în propriul lui fel de a fi. Fiecare persoan? tânje?te dup? unicitate ?i dup? exprimare în mod original, aceasta fiind baz? pentru a se face remarcat. În ciuda faptului c?, oamenii doresc independen??, ace?tia sunt con?tien?i pân? la un anumit punct c? nu ar fi capabili s? tr?iasc? unul f?r? cel?lalt. Hegel sus?ine ideea conform c?reia un om se cunoa?te pe sine însu?i ?i prin intermediul unor norme ?i concepte.
Conform lui Butler, accep?iunea modern? a genului îl prezint? pe acesta ca fiind o norm?, de asemenea. Acesta are o structur? dual?, fiind dezv?luit ca o form? de putere social?, dar ?i ca un aparat institu?ional binar. Totu?i, înglobarea normelor ?i a conven?iilor restric?ioneaz? într-o anumit? m?sur? pl?cerea. „To be ec-static means, literally, to be outside oneself, and this can have several meanings: to be transported beyond oneself by a passion, but also to be beside oneself with rage or grief.” (Butler, Undoing Gender, 20) Aceast? putere ec-static? face posibil? existen?a noastr? ca oameni. În plus, orice via?? este format? atât din momentele frumoase, cât ?i din amintirile mai pu?in pl?cute.

În primul s?u volum, The History of Sexuality, Foucault vorbe?te despre confesiunea corpului („bodily confession”), ce vizeaz? urm?toarea ipotez?:
“The self is not something that has to be discovered or deciphered as a very obscure part of our selves. The self has, on the contrary, not to be discovered but to be constituted through the force of truth. The force lies in the rhetorical quality of the master’s discourse, and this rhetorical quality depends for a part on the exposé of the disciple, who has to explain how far he is in his way of living from the true principles that he knows” (168).

La urma urmei, sinele este doar un concept, a c?rui defini?ie teoreticienii încearc? s? o dea. Pe de-o parte acesta sugereaz? ceea ce persoana crede c? este, sugereaz? ideea de un singur autor, care deja a fost comb?tut?. Pe de alt? parte, sinele este o proiec?ie în viitor, ceva ce persoanele doresc s? fie. Îns?, prin puterea adev?rului ?i a unei min?i odihnite ?i gata s? priveasc? spre evolu?ie, sinele ar putea fi în?eles ?i ca valoare, sau ca idei de parcurgere a vie?ii.

1.2. Înglobarea feminit??ii în reviste.

Concep?ia postomodern? în privin?a felului de a citi revistele adresate femeilor are în vedere orientarea asupra dorin?elor lectorului ?i nu lectura f?cut? din punct de vedere teoretic sau lectura impus? de regimul politic. Dar, înainte de toate, revistele înglobeaz? o multitudine de subiecte, precum mod?, c?r?ile lunii, filme recomandate, bârfe, reclame publicitare, etc ?i se adreseaz? unui public larg.

„Pentru Foucault puterea nu este un lucru generat de cineva, ci exist? doar în ecua?ia ??putere/cunoa?tere?? : puterea sub forma de cunoa?tere sau cunoa?terea ca putere.” (Culler 16) . Afirmarea feminit??ii aduce cu sine puterea de exprimare, cât ?i dorin?a de a-?i l?sa amprenta, iar aceasta se manifest? prin intermediul cunoa?terii, adic? al punerii ?i rezolv?rii problemelor ce pândesc femeile. Revistele pun accentul pe via?a femeilor în anumite intervale de timp, prezint? articole despre femeia modern? ?i situa?iile în care aceasta este pus?. Din acest punct de vedere, revistele sunt o îmbinare de gen, al c?ror centru îl reprezint? sexul frumos.

Pentru o în?elegere mai bun?, este luat în calcul mecanismul ce st? la baza func?ion?rii revistelor. Strategia reprezint? delimitarea spa?iului propriu, aceasta fiind folosit? de institu?ii precum armata, pe când, tactica este arma celor slabi. În alt? ordine de idei, tacticile sunt ac?iuni determinate de absen?a unui mediu prospice ?i care tind s? se includ? ele însele în spa?iile deja create pentru men?inerea for?ei. Conform lui De Certeau, cititul este o tactic?, care nu are un spa?iu al s?u bine delimitat. Este important? forma dual? pe care o poate îmbr?ca cititul-de nevoie ?i de pl?cere. Pl?cerea furnizat? este rezultat al petrecerii timpului liber conform cu propriile dorin?e, f?r? a ?ine cont de lumea real? ?i tendin?ele spre care aceasta se îndreapt?, ea neputând fi g?sit? în lucruri care oamenii sunt obliga?i s? le fac?.

Un punct cheie al analizei articolelor este faptul c? acestea nu se adreseaz? unui grup ?int?, ci vizeaz? mai multe. Teoreticienii impun un „orizont de a?teptare” în decodificarea unor texte. Acesta poate face referire la epoca în care articolul este citit, la cine îl cite?te, la cum este citit. „Critica feminist? a dezb?tut problema producerii unei diferen?e în cazul în care cititorul este o femeie.” (Culler 75). Aceast? idee conform c?reia perspectivele sunt diferite datorit? sexului, ajung de-a lungul istoriei s? influen?eze femeia s? citeasc? dintr-un punct de vedere masculin. Acela?i teoretician d? exemplul camerei de filmat – „cinematic gaze”, unde b?rbatul este privitorul, pe când femeia reprezint? obiectul privit.

Din nou, binaritatea la nivelul lecturii unor reviste ce înglobeaz? feminitatea este resim?it?. Atât b?rba?ii, cât ?i femeile citesc aceste texte, îns? perspectivele sunt diferite. Sexul frumos lectureaz? astfel de articole din dou? motive. Un prim motiv este faptul c? se citesc u?or. Nu necesit? o aten?ie extrem de sporit?, au fost f?cute pe ideea de delectare ?i informare asupra unor tendin?e actuale în mod? sau în lume. Un alt motiv îl reprezint? simpla pl?cere adus? de aceste scrieri, iar la un nivel de analiz? aprofundat?, faptul c? femeia nu este obligat? s? le citeasc?, ci este alegerea ei s? fac? acest lucru. B?rba?ii recunosc c? se uit? pe aceste texte pentru a înl?tura plictiseala. Cu toate c? ei sunt sexul puternic, este demonstrat faptul c? nu au o înclina?ie special? pentru a asculta ?i nu prezint? o capacitate excep?ional? de în?elegere. Cu toate acestea, ei tind s? considere aceste texte o pierdere de vreme, care te pune, oarecum în leg?tur? cu ?tirile actuale din domeniul showbiz-ului. În plus, revistele sunt ?i un instrument secundar; omul modern ?i-a dezvoltat abilitatea de multi-tasking la nivelul la care aceasta a devenit o necesitate. El nu se poate concentra pe o singur? activitate, din acest motiv, r?sfoirea unei reviste vine în ajutor.

Revistele se las? deschise f?r? a încerca o modelare a oamenilor, au diverse interpret?ri. Sunt puncte de referin?? atât pentru femeile cu copiii, cât ?i pentru cele f?r?, atât pentru femeile aflate în floarea vârstei, cât ?i pentru femeile trecute deja prin via??, dar, dup? cum deja a fost men?ionat, revistele reprezint? centru de interes ?i pentru b?rba?i.

Pentru o în?elegere mai bun? a femeii, trebuie luat în calcul faptul c? aceasta evolueaz? de-a lungul a patru stagii. Prima etap? este reprezentat? de puritatea feminin?, ce vine odat? cu tinere?ea, începerea ?colii, preg?tirea profesional? ?i acei câ?iva ani dinaintea mariajului. O a doua etap? este sugerat? de c?s?torie ?i renun?area la activitatea profesional?. Ea se dedic? familiei nou concepute, f?r? a se pune pe sine îns??i deasupra. Între timp, apar copiii. Urm?toarea etap? este conturat? de renun?area la ceea ce o face nefericit?-mariajul ei. Aceasta încearc? s? se descurce singur?, chiar dac?, pentru început, ea duce o via?? mizer?. Ultimul stadiu este dezv?luit de reg?sirea sinelui, de încercarea unei noi pove?ti de dragoste, al?turi de un om al?turi de care crede c? poate muta mun?ii din loc. Bineîn?eles c? aceast? clasificare este una general? ?i c? nu se aplic? în toate cazurile; exist? ?i bine-cunoscutele excep?ii.

„As a feminist I very much take my mother’s story to heart: emancipation cannot be forced on others, it is something one discovers for oneself – as my mother ended up doing.” (Hermes 83). Rolul mamei în via?a fiicei sale este covâr?itor deoarece aceasta traseaz? traiectoria pe care copilul ei o va urma f?r? s? î?i dea seama. De câte ori fetele nu î?i copiaz? mam?? Se dau cu rujul ei, se îmbrac? în hainele ei sau p??esc pe urmele ei? De ce? Pentru c? mama reprezint? proiec?ia în viitor a fiicei. Interdependen?a dintre cele dou? este rezultatul iubirii sincere ?i pure. Prin ochii unui copil, mama este mereu eroina care a reu?it s? stea în picioare ?i s? duc? cele mai grele lupte pentru ca puiul ei s? nu duc? lips? de nimic.

Oamenii se schimb?, la fel ?i revistele. Aceast? afirma?ie subliniaz? faptul c? exist? o perioad? în via?a oric?rei femei în care aceasta cite?te reviste. În plus, prin subiectele przentate, revistele tind s? idealizeze femeia, ?i de aici, cititoarele sunt u?or influen?abile în a deveni ceva ce ele poate c? nu sunt, ?i astfel formânduse o majoritate, o modelare a eului ?i a originalului. Cu toate c? exist? similitudini între revistele de factur? feminin? ?i c?r?ile de conturare a eului ?i a personalit??ii, lectorii nu trebuie s? uite c? unicitatea este factorul esen?ial.

Articolele din acest tip de scriere sunt adesea asem?nate cu subiecte de bârf?; idee gre?it?. Într-un anumit fel, cei care se angreneaz? în subiecte de acest tip, fac asta din pl?cere ?i nu pentru a inflen?a al?i indivizi sau p?rerile pe care ace?tia le au. Cele dou? genuri nu trebuie confundate, chiar dac? acestea vizeaz? emo?iile persoanelor.

1.3. Cultura modei sau moda culturii?
În primul rând, definirea culturii este important? pentru a putea trece mai departe. Aceasta este un sistem format din valori, idei, gânduri ce au leg?tur? cu lumea, ce pun în lumini ?i umbre anumite popoare, ce organizeaz? ?i clasific? pe baza unor principii diferitele rase ?i care diferen?iaz? puterile ?i resursele. În al doilea rând, conceptul de mod? la ce face referire? Moda este strict legat? de viziune ?i crea?ie, în plus, ea d? tonul unui nou stil, unei noi metode de purtare a pieselor vestimentare ?i nu numai. De asemenea, aceasta cere ?i un ochi estetic, o preferin?? pentru frumos, care cu greu poate fi format?; ea trebuie s? fie înn?scut?. Ce este la mod? nu este neaparat ?i ceva frumos, din acest punct de vedere, se pune accentul pe filtrarea anumitor lucruri prin propriul eu, prin propria perspectiv?.
Prin intermediul modei, implicit al costumelor, al decor?rii corpului se formeaz? o tradi?ie a diverselor culturi înc? din cele mai vechi timpuri ?i pân? ast?zi. În continuare o s? fie explorate diverse elemente legate de corpul omenesc ?i punerea acestuia în valoare.
Titlul capitolului este ales dup? multe c?ut?ri ?i reprezint? un punct de plecare deoarece atât moda, cât ?i cultura sunt privite ca fiind construc?ii binare. Prima întrebare pune în lumin? dezvoltarea pe parcursul epocilor a modei, adic? a tot ceea ce se poart? ?i de ce se poart?. În largo sensu, prezint? hainele, c?ci despre ele este vorba, în principiu, în diverse perioade de timp. Cum s-a plecat de la str?lucirea anilor ’30 ?i s-a ajuns la excesele anilor ’80, corsetele din Belle Epoque devin, u?or-u?or tunicile anilor ’70. Cea de-a doua problem? ridicat? pune în valoare exprimarea culturii prin intermediul hainelor, a accesoriilor, a viziunii. Mai multe popoare se fac v?zute, ies din umbr? prin intermediul ancor?rii lor în mod?.

Ceea ce cititorul nu trebuie s? uite este faptul c?, precum afirm? cu t?rie Judith Butler, corpul este mult mai mult decât felul în care arat?, el se define?te ca fiind mult mai mult decât limitele pe care acesta le prezint?.

În preistorie, oamenii obi?nuiau s?-?i acopere corpurile cu pielea animalelor. Acesta a fost începutul modei. De la acoperirea sexului, se ajunge cu pa?i repezi la haine de lungimi mult mai mari, care îmbr?cau tot corpul. În continuare, ace?tia încep s? foloseasc? numeroase trucuri, de la îmbibarea acelor piei într-un ulei ce încânta sim?urile cu arome, pân? la accesorii, de exemplu, turbane. Vine un moment în care vestimenta?ia reprezint? ?i nivelul pe care un individ îl ocup? în ierarhia social?, spre exemplu, culorile mov, alb, auriu erau culorile nobilimii.

În postmodernism, pia?a este supra-saturat?, exist? de toate din toate. Tot ce conteaz? acum, este un ochi fin care s? propun? o reinterpretare prin manier? personal?, care s? î?i lase o tu?? original? asupra unei crea?ii. Tocmai din acest fapt, se ridic? ideea conform c?reia nu se ?tie cât o s? mai dureze aceasta. Într-o lume cyborgic? o s? mai conteze oare stilul vestimentar? Probabil c? acesta o s? fie tehnologizat, iar momentul de apogeu pentri aceast? teorie a crea?iei ?i a perspectivelor este acum, când deja exist? o viziune spre viitor, dar ?i una spre trecut.

1. The name Alaska is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which literally means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the northernmost state of the United States.
3. Alaska is the largest state in the United States and contains one-fifth of the entire land area of the United States.
4. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress voted to admit Alaska into the Union as the 49th state,
5. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
6. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air; it is the only capital of the US state without land communication.
7. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
8. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement onThree Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
9. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
10. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
11. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
12. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
13. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
14. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
15. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
16. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
17. The flag of Alaska was invented by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and won.
18. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
19. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
20. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
21. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
22. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
23. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different dialects.
24. the population density here is lower than any of the states.
25. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
26. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
27. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
28. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
29. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
30. Of the 20 highest peaks in the United States, 17 are in Alaska
31. During the Klondike gold rush in 1897, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
32. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
33. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
34. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
35. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
36. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
37. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
38. America’s largest national forest is the Tongass.
39. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
40. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
41. The Northern Lights can be seen in Fairbanks 243 days a year.
42. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
43. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
44. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
45. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
46. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
47. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline moves up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
48. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
49. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
50. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
51. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
52. in Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
53. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
54. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
55. The economy of Alaska is based on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, fishing and tourism.
56. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
57. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
58. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
59. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
60. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
61. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.
62.

1.1. Kind of Research Methodology used?

Basically, researchers conduct a contrast of the accessible literature to detect the required reply or what has been written on a unique subject. Document-based research has to do with the reviewing of sources that are frequently sourced from or discovered in the library. Whenever factor out is made of qualitative research, one ought to be aware that the research documents exceptionally primarily based and vice versa. In doing all this, researchers are in search of to “immerse themselves in the assignment matter” and cultivate state-of-the-art principles that considerably decorate their grasp and clarification of truth. These sources consist of law.

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Qualitative research “is a form of research in which researchers make an analysis of what they see, hear and understand”. In general, qualitative research is characterised by way of participatory research, the place a researcher performs a vigorous function in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of statistics. Therefore, qualitative research is a structure of research in which researchers make a comparison of what they see, hear and understand. It is aimed at accumulating statistics about a theme that investigates something about human behaviour that cannot be measured, such as perception, opinions, experiences, and so forth.

1.2. The reason for using such kind of research methodology.

Generally, any form of research is important when one is searching for an answer to a legal problem. In this context, document based-research is important because of the following:

1.2.1. It provides present day solutions to the legal problem being researched.
1.2.2. It gives information about what other scholars have written on the subject.
1.2.3. It indicates whether anyone has written on the subject yet.
1.2.4 It indicates whether the concern being investigated has been absolutely explored and has for this reason turn out to be saturated.
1.2.5. It suggests whether there is a hole in the handy literature that nevertheless wants to be explored.
1.2.6. It shows whether there is a need to habits similarly learn about of the concern.

1.3 The ethical issues considered in conducting the research.

1.3.1. Does the research conform to the principle of informed consent?

If the research consists of minors, people under the age of 21 years, prior consent from parents or legal guardians need to be obtained. Generally, research that entails human men and women ought to continuously be carried out with the quintessential knowledgeable consent. Informed consent is a simple ethical philosophy of scientific research on human participants.

1.3.2. Does the research cause direct harm to research subjects?

However, the cardinal rule is that contributors should be blanketed from any possible discomfort or emotional misery emanating from the research project. Thus, it is your accountability as a researcher to inform the individuals of the typical cause of the study. One of the ordinary moral challenges is to have the functionality to weigh the manageable advantages of doing research in opposition to the opportunity of injury to the humans being studied (participants. Furthermore, one need to point out to the people their characteristic in the research assignment.

1.3.3. Does the research promote anonymity?

On the other hand, information can additionally have names or codes related to it, however the researcher will have to maintain the names or codes secret from the public. On the one hand, it is may also additionally be essential to enable the individuals the proper to determine out on how, where and to what extent their attitudes, beliefs and behaviour will be revealed. Secondly, anonymity can be associated with privacy and confidentiality. Firstly, it relates to the duty to make positive that it is now not feasible to find out the participants in a research project. Anonymity addresses many potential difficulties.

1.3.4. Does the research deal with the manipulation of information?

This capacity that members commonly have the right to agree or refuse to take part in your research. Factors such as coercing, undue effect or deceiving the participants point out the absence of or negate voluntary participation. It is your responsibility as a researcher to make sure that the participants participate in your research voluntarily. Accordingly, you need to usually recognize this right.

1.3.5. Does the research potentially tamper with the research field for other researchers?

It is unethical for the researcher to tamper with other researcher work especially of the same fields that he/she is also working on. It will also amount to plagiarism, using someone’s work and present it as one’s own without giving credit to the owner. It will amount to disciplinary steps to be taken.

1.4. The social justice issues that are raised in the scenario.

There was once a protest recently in the neighbourhood of Mamelodi, specifically the team named “the worried parents”. Moreover, the concerned mother and father as they had been indignant with the view in which the court deals and offers the criminal and their conviction. However, the group raised issues that relate to crimes such as the following:
1.4.1. toddler abuse.
1.4.2. child pornography.
1.4.3. statutory rape.

Question 2

About Plagiarism and examples

The term “plagiarism” is debated vastly in academia. What we seek to do here is to show you some of the accepted definitions of this term. The Oxford English Dictionary defines plagiarism as the “action or practice of plagiarising; the wrongful appropriations or purloining, and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or expression of the ideas of another”. Furthermore, it is “fraud that occurs when a researcher steals the ideas or writings of another or uses them without citing the source.

2.1. It arises in conditions the place a researcher fails or omits to indicate clearly, for instance with quotation marks or indent and special font, phrases or passages taken verbatim, that is, word for word, from a posted or unpublished text, except crediting the authentic textual content and author.

2.2. It takes place in cases where a statute, case law, book, article, or digital text is paraphrased except acknowledging the supply or sources and the creator thereof.

2.3. It arises in instances where greater than a full-size section of or the entire statute, case law, book, article, or digital textual content is used.

Question 3

S v Makwanyane and Another (CCT3/94) 1995 ZACC 3; 1995 (6) BCLR 665; 1995 (3) SA 391; 1996 2 CHRLD 164; 1995 (2) SACR 1 (6 June 1995).

Introduction
According to CHASKALSON P : The two accused in this matter had been convicted in the Witwatersrand Local Division of the Supreme Court on four counts of murder, one count of attempted murder and one count of robbery with aggravating circumstances. The Appellate Division dismissed the appeals towards the convictions and concluded that the situations of the murders were such that the accused must get hold of the heaviest sentence permissible according to regulation. They appealed to the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in opposition to the convictions and sentences. They had been sentenced to death on each of counts of murder and to long terms of imprisonment on the other counts.

3.1. The facts of the case.

It does not deal specifically with the death penalty, but in section 11(2), it prohibits “cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Chapter Three of the Constitution sets out the fundamental rights to which every person is entitled under the Constitution and contains provisions dealing with the way in which the Chapter is to be interpreted by the Courts. There is no definition of what is to be regarded as “cruel, inhuman or degrading” and we, therefore, a need to give meaning to these words ourselves.

In giving meaning to section 9, O´Regan J seek the purpose for which it was included in the Constitution. This purposive or teleological approach to the interpretation of rights may at times require a generous meaning to be given to provisions of chapter 3 of the Constitution, and at other times a narrower or specific meaning. It is the responsibility of the courts, and ultimately this court, to develop fully the rights entrenched in the Constitution. Consequently, any minimum content which is attributed to a right may in subsequent cases be expanded and developed. But that will take time.

3.2. The legal questions.

3.2.1. Is capital punishment for murder justifiable? The question that now has to be considered is whether the imposition of such punishment is nonetheless justifiable as a penalty for murder in the circumstances contemplated by sections 277(1)(a), 316A and 322(2A) of the Criminal Procedure Act ?

3.2.2. Can, and should, an unelected court substitute its own opinion of what is reasonable or necessary for that of an elected legislature?

3.2.3 Would the carrying out of the death sentence on these 143 persons have deterred the other murderers or saved any lives?

3.2.4 Should this be determined subjectively from the point of view of the individual affected by the invasion of the right, or objectively, from the point of view of the nature of the right and its place in the constitutional order, or possibly in some other way?

3.2.5 If the law recognises the right to take the life of a wrongdoer in a situation in which self-defence is justified, then, to deter others, and to ensure that the wrongdoer does not again kill an innocent person, why should it not recognise the power of the state to take the life of a convicted murderer?

3.2.6 This “planned and calculated termination of life itself” was permitted in the past which preceded the Constitution. Is it now permissible?

3.2.7 Does our constitution permit any convicted criminal, however heinous the crime, to be put to death by the government as punishment for that crime?

3.3. The decision of the court.

It gave its approval to a technique which, at the identical time as paying due regard to the language that has been used, is “generous” and “purposive” and offers expression to the underlying values of the Constitution. In S v Zuma and Two Others, this Court dealt with the approach to be adopted in the interpretation of the fundamental rights enshrined in Chapter Three of the Constitution.

As Kentridge AJ described in the first judgment of this court (S v Zuma unreported judgment of this court, 5 April 1995), many of the rights entrenched in section 25 of the Constitution regarding criminal justice are longstanding requirements of our law, even though eroded with the useful resource of the statute and judicial decision. In decoding the rights contained in section 25, these common law standards will be useful courses.

It used to be dealt with in this judgment solely with the provisions of section 277(1)(a) of the Criminal Procedure Act, however it is clear that if subsection (1)(a) is inconsistent with the Constitution, subsections (1)(c) to (1)(f) need to additionally be unconstitutional, so too have to provisions of regulation corresponding to sections 277(1)(a), (c), (d), (e) and (f) that are in pressure in components of the country wide territory in terms of section 229 of the Constitution. Different concerns arising from section 33(1) would possibly perchance practice to subsection (b) which makes provision for the imposition of the death.

3.4. The importance of the case in relation to the notion of Ubuntu.

While it envelops the key values of group solidarity, compassion, respect, human dignity, conformity to primary norms and collective unity, in its integral feel it denotes humanity and morality. Its spirit emphasises respect for human dignity, marking a shift from disagreement to conciliation. Mokgoro J held that: Metaphorically, ubuntu expresses itself in umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu, describing the importance of team spirit on survival issues so central to the survival of communities. Here the word was given its first full exposition by using the courts. “In this sense, ubuntu made its debut in the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in S v Makwanyane.”

3.5. The link of transformative constitutionalism with this case.

Therefore, transformative constitutionalism needs to take place in an environment that promotes the democratic values of human dignity, equality, and freedom. The vision of the Constitution is to create a South Africa that is primarily based on democratic values, social justice, and fundamental human rights. For Langa J, this is the core notion of transformative constitutionalism: that people need to change. Particularly, the phrases “we, the people of South Africa” in the Preamble to the Constitution suggests this collective duty transform. In addition, the Constitution enjoins everyone to be concerned in a process to radically change South Africa according to Langa J.

Conclusion

It similarly states that “Even if the formation of this common norm is nonetheless underway, the Special Rapporteur considers that most stipulations beneath which capital punishment is really applied render the punishment tantamount to torture and that underneath any other, less extreme conditions, it nonetheless quantities to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. In conclusion, there is no express evidence that any method of execution in use these days complies with the prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment in every case. The United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture in this 2012 file resumes the jurisprudence concerning execution techniques.

1. Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, in a large family with many children.
2. He was an active politician, writer, inventor, founder of a huge number of various public organizations, hospitals, and educational institutions.
3. He is called one of the “founding fathers” of the United States.
4. Benjamin independently studied French, Spanish, Italian, and also Latin language.
5. Benjamin invented a lightning rod.
6. Benjamin Franklin portrait is printed on a hundred-dollar bill.
7. Franklin married his childhood friend, who was called Deborah Read in 1730. They had two children.
8. Benjamin Franklin was the first Post Master General of the United States
9. From 1776 to 1785, Benjamin Franklin was the US ambassador in Paris.
10. For many years Franklin suffered from gout.
11. He was one of the three people who signed The American-French treaty of alliance (1778) and the Versailles Peace Treaty (1783).
12. He created the first detailed map of the Gulf Stream in 1970.
13. Franklin was elected a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1779.
14. He also contributed to building a first successful fire insurance company.
15. In his own printing house, Franklin printed even paper money.
16. Benjamin Franklin was the founder of the first US public library.
17. He invented bifocals glasses.
18. He loved swimming, in his early childhood he made wings for hands to swim.
19. Benjamin Franklin founded the Union of the Fire Society, a firefighting company in America.
20. He was one of the members who signed the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution.
21. He also collected extensive data on storm winds and proposed a theory explaining its origin.
22. He has developed his own time management system.
23. He published many of his works in the newspaper with female names like Polly Baker, Busy Body and many more.
24. Franklin founded a group called “Junto”, which included his like-minded people who wanted to make changes in society and express their creativity.
25. In the US there is a bridge across the Delaware River, named after Franklin, it is known as the Benjamin Franklin Bridge and connects Philadelphia and Camden.
26. Franklin loved to eat fish but he then decided to become vegetarian.
27. He was very fond of chess and was engaged in music.
28. In 1790, Benjamin Franklin tried to abolish slavery.
29. Benjamin Franklin never patented any of his inventions.
30. In middle age, Franklin suffered from obesity.
31. Benjamin Franklin invented odometer.
32. In 1727 he founded his own printing house in Philadelphia.
33. One of his first successful literary works was The Poor Richard’s Almanack (1732-1758).
34. In 1753, for merits in the field of studying electricity, the Royal Society of London awarded Franklin with the gold medal of Copley, at that time the most prestigious award of that time.
35. He could play musical instruments like guitar, harp, and violin. He invented the glass harmonica.
36. Benjamin Franklin invented a medical catheter, a chair-rocking chair and much more.
37. Due to weak financial conditions, Benjamin started working with his brother in the print shop at the age of 12.
38. In 1721, Benjamin brother started publishing a magazine for which Benjamin wants to write an article but his brother denied publishing.
39. Benjamin secretly published articles from other publishing house and so many of it is famous today.
40. Franklin almost killed himself twice while performing experiments.
41. He appeared on the first US postage stamp
42. Franklin invented mechanical arms to reach the upper shelves of the library.
43. More than 30 colonies of the United States have renamed in honor of Benjamin Franklin.
44. Franklin was the first deputy postmaster of North America.
45. Benjamin Franklin National Memorial is located at the Franklin Institute, the most visited museum and one of the oldest centers of science and development of education in the United States.
46. Franklin belongs to more than 14 different halls of Fame.
47. He was known as “The only President of the United States who was never President of the United States”.
48. He died on April 17, 1790, at the age of eighty-four.
49. The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, which he wrote between 1771 and 1790 (was published posthumously) is considered a classic of the genre even today.
50. About 20,000 people took part in his funeral.

1. Understand the purpose of induction for health and social care or children and young people’s settings
1.1 Explain why induction is important for practitioners, individuals and organisations
Induction is a process which starts when a new member of staff is brought into an organisation. Or an activity that is designed to provide new-starters with the information they need, as well as getting them up to speed on how the organisation works. However, it is not restricted to new staff. There could be a need to induction employees to help adjust to new tasks in a changed working environment.
Through induction organisations can maintain and improve their standards of care and support. Induction processes are important to ensuring that new staff are productive as quickly as possible, and should play a key role in knowledge management initiatives. The benefits of an induction programme for staff are obvious. It enables somebody to become a useful, integrated member of a team through a gradual planned process, rather than being ‘thrown in at the deep end’ without the proper knowledge required to do their job or the understanding of how the job fits in with the rest of the organisation. Despite this, most organisations have inadequate or ad-hoc staff induction processes, with many relying solely on staff just ‘working it out as they go’.

Induction also serves as a first stage in the succession planning process to facilitate a smooth transition in the future should certain staff leave the organisation. individuals such as service user are central to service delivery. In relation to individuals accessing care service within the organisation, an induction interview upon entry is important in introducing and familiarising a service user to the services available to them, introducing them to key staff, any occupancy condition that might need highlight and generally making them feel informed and looked after through the process.

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1.2 Identify information and support materials that are available to promote effective induction
My company is committed to the principle that safer recruitment, induction and supervision of staff are essential to the safeguarding of adults with care and support needs. To this effect, My company has generic recruitment policies and procedures in place. This chapter provides additional, specific guidance in relation to safer recruitment practices at each step of the generic recruitment process, which aims to prevent unsuitable persons from working with adults, either as a paid member of staff or volunteer whether they are permanent, temporary or agency staff or recruited from abroad. In addition it applies to staff / volunteers who are seen by adults with care and support needs as trustworthy and / or have access to confidential information. This may include administrative staff, caretakers, and maintenance workers for example.

My company is committed to the prevention of abuse and neglect and promoting the wellbeing of adults with care and support needs, and expects all staff and volunteers to abide and embed these principles in their daily practice. My company has robust recruitment and selection procedures in place to identify and deter people who might abuse or neglect adults with care and support needs or who are otherwise unsuitable for employment / volunteering.  My company’s policies and Staff Handbook provide internal guidance for staff which relate clearly to the SAB policy and which set out the responsibilities of all staff to operate within it. This includes guidance on:
identifying adults who are experiencing or at risk of abuse or neglect;
recognising risk from different sources and in different situations and recognising abusive or neglectful behaviour from other service users, colleagues, and family members;
routes for making a referral and channels of communication within and beyond the agency;
organisational and individual responsibilities for whistleblowing
assurances of protection for whistle blowers;
working within best practice as specified in contracts;
working within and co-operating with regulatory mechanisms;
working within agreed operational guidelines to maintain best practice in relation to:
challenging or distressing behaviour;
personal and intimate care;
control and restraint;
gender identity and sexual orientation;
medication;
handling of people’s money;
risk assessment and management
My company Staff Handbook also provides guidance outlining the rights of staff and how employers will respond where abuse is alleged against them within either a criminal or disciplinary context.

Advertisements for staff will include the above principles and reference the requirement for the successful applicant to undertake an enhanced criminal records check, as appropriate.

The My company job description (JD) for all job holders is specific about extent of contact and levels of responsibility the post holder will have for adults with care and support needs, including prevention of abuse or neglect at operational and / or strategic levels.

The My company person specification (PS) includes any other requirements the post holder will need in order to perform the role in relation to working with adults with care and support needs, including experience specific to the post, and for example working with adults with learning disabilities or dementia. The successful candidate should be able to demonstrate such required competencies and qualities.

The recruitment pack highlights that a robust selection process is in place, and includes My company’s safeguarding adults’ policy. Also stated is that proof of identity will be required, as well as a criminal records / Disclosure and Barring Service check, as appropriate.

My company uses its own agreed application forms for applicants – this is available on Office 365 or from the HR Department. My company does not accept curriculum vitae instead of an application forms, as this may only contain information the person wants to present rather than all the information that My company requires to facilitate shortlisting. The application form also includes reference to My company’s commitment to safeguarding adults with care and support needs.

Application forms should be scrutinised for any unexplained gaps in employment history, or other potential concerns in relation to safeguarding adults. References should be sought on all candidates who are shortlisted for interview.

Where an applicant is not currently working with adults with care and support needs but has done so previously, a reference should also be obtained from the last such employer, in addition to the current / most recent employer. This should include confirmation of the reason why the applicant left the post.

The referee should state:
whether they are satisfied the applicant has the ability and is suitable to undertake the job, and if not why;
whether they were the subject of any disciplinary sanctions or any allegations made against them, which relate to adults (including outcomes).

The interview should assess the merits of the candidate against the JD and PS, and explore their suitability to work with adults with care and support needs. The interview panel should state to each candidate there will be a requirement to complete an application for a Disclosure and Barring Service check, confirm their identity and receive satisfactory references. Where possible, one member of the panel will be trained in safer recruitment practice.

The panel should explore with the candidate:
their attitude towards adults with care and support needs, including any specific needs of adults of the service, including reasons why they want to work with such adults;
their ability and commitment to the organisation’s agenda for safeguarding and promoting wellbeing;
any gaps in their employment history;
discrepancies / concerns in relation to any information provided by either them or a referee;
if they wish to declare anything in relation to applying for a criminal records check
their understanding of appropriate relationships and personal boundaries;
emotional resilience in working with in challenging situations.

Adults who use the service can make very valuable contributions as part of recruitment of new staff. Where possible their participation should be built into the process at all levels, from administration posts to senior positions. Their roles should be clarified with the adults who participate, so they understand how their views will be considered and what weighting they will be given.

Offers of appoint will be conditional on receipt of satisfactory checks and references. This should include checks in relation to any concerns about their own children.

In the following circumstances, the applicant should be reported to the police:
they are found to be on a list concerning their suitability to work with adults / have been disqualified from working with adults by a Court;
they provided false information in relation to their application;
there are serious concerns about their suitability to work with adults.

The level of disclosure requested – either Standard or Enhanced – should reflect the nature of the post and degree of contact with adults or with confidential information. A record should be kept of the date when the disclosure was obtained, by whom, level of disclosure and unique reference number.

There are three levels of a Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) check. Each contains different information and the eligibility for each check is set out in law. They are:
Standard check: This allows employers to access the criminal record history of people working, or seeking to work, in certain positions, especially those that involve working with children or adults in specific situations. A standard check discloses details of an individual’s convictions, cautions, reprimands and warnings recorded on police systems and includes both ‘spent’ and ‘unspent’ convictions;
Enhanced check: This discloses the same information provided on a Standard certificate, together with any local police information that the police believe is relevant and ought to be disclosed;
Enhanced with barred list check: This check includes the same level of disclosure as the enhanced check, plus a check of the appropriate barred lists. An individual may only be checked against the children’s and adults’ barred lists if their job falls within the definition of ‘regulated activity’ with children and/or adults.

It should be noted that in ‘signing off’ or agreeing a personal budget or personal health budget a local authority may add conditions such as a DBS check as part of its risk assessment of safeguarding in specific cases. The local authority may also require personal budget holders using Direct Payments to tell them who they employ.

The same checks should be made on overseas staff as for all other staff.

Where an applicant has worked or been resident overseas in the previous five years, My company should obtain a check of the applicant’s criminal record from the relevant authority in that country as well as information about their conduct. It should be noted that not all overseas organisations / countries are able to provide such information.

Written confirmation should be provided by the agency that the necessary checks have been undertaken and are satisfactory.

In relation to each candidate who is appointed, records should be made of:
any specific information raised with them (for example gaps in employment history) and their explanation and any corroborating information;
the outcome of their criminal records check including unique reference number and date;
reasons for decision to appoint despite criminal convictions, including risk assessment undertaken.

On starting in a new post, the member of staff should be given written information in relation to:
My company’s Adult Policies, Procedures and Practice resource (APPP), including key chapters for induction;
safeguarding adults policies and procedures;
know the identity of and how to contact staff with designated safeguarding responsibilities; what to do if they have concerns about the safety of a child or adult;
other relevant procedures for example whistleblowing and allegations
clear written statement of the standards of behaviour, code of conduct and the boundaries of appropriate behaviour expected of staff (found in Staff Handbook);
safeguarding adults and children training, and booked on relevant courses (found in Staff Training and Development);
supervision and appraisal processes and know when the first sessions will take place (see also Staff Handbook).

Regular supervision sessions should take place as per the organisation’s policies and procedures, as should annual staff reviews – as detailed in the Staff Handbook. Both processes aide both the organisation and member of staff by ensuring:
staff are up to date with current practices in relation to their specific area of work and safeguarding adults in general (both local and national issues);
identify areas for development;
provide opportunities to identify and address any concerns about behaviour and / or attitudes;
develop any required action plans and review arrangements.

Criminal records checks on existing staff should be carried out every three years, unless there are grounds for concern about the member of staff’s suitability to work with adults (please note the employee can decline). Staff can register with the Disclosure and Barring Service Update Service, in relation to criminal records rechecking. For more information please see the Disclosure and Barring Service website.

1.3 Explain the link between induction processes, qualifications and progression routes in the sector
Employing a skilled and motivated workforce is vital to ensuring good quality services are provided to adults with care and support needs, and their carers.

It will also assist to:
improve service satisfaction levels of adults and their carers;
enhance staff job satisfaction;
embed standards and safe working practices;
reduce the number of complaints from adults and carers;
reduce the number of staff disciplinary hearings and dismissals;
improve staff retention levels.

As part of a wider competency framework which also includes staff supervision and appraisal, workforce development links staff learning and development to other activities, such as strategic planning, workforce planning, performance management and career development.

The Company is committed to providing equal opportunity of access to training and development initiatives to all staff within the organisation in accordance with the Equal Opportunities Policy as defined in the Staff Handbook. The Company’s training and development programme sets out to enhance the knowledge, skills and abilities of its staff to ensure the highest standards of care for service users and the highest standards of management for staff and resources.

Training, learning and development needs of individual staff members must be carried out at the start of their employment and reviewed at appropriate intervals during the course of their employment.

Staff must be supported to undertake training, learning and development to enable them to fulfil the requirements of their role. It is the responsibility of line managers to identify, by discussion with staff, individual training and development needs against service user, Company, legal and regulatory requirements through induction, observation, supervision and performance appraisal. Before the beginning of each financial year the line manager should define and plan the staff training programme and agree the training budget with their line manager. They should complete the appropriate training request forms for each employee and forward these to their line manager with a copy to the regional coordinator as required.

Where appropriate, staff must be supervised until they can demonstrate required / acceptable levels of competence to carry out their role unsupervised.

Health, social and other care professionals must have access to clinical or professional supervision as required, in line with the requirements of the relevant professional regulator. Staff should receive appropriate ongoing or periodic supervision in their role to make sure competence is maintained.

Staff should be supported to make sure they are can participate in:
statutory training;
other mandatory training, as defined by the provider for their role;
any additional training identified as necessary to carry out regulated activities as part of their job duties and, in particular, to maintain necessary skills to meet the needs of the people they care for and support;
other learning and development opportunities required to enable them to fulfil their role. This includes first aid training for people working in the adult social care sector.

All learning and development and required training completed should be monitored and appropriate action taken quickly when training requirements are not being met.

Staff should receive regular appraisal of their performance in their role from an appropriately skilled and experienced person and any training, learning and development needs should be identified, planned for and supported.

Managers must support staff to obtain appropriate further qualifications that would enable them to continue to perform their role, and not act in a way that prevents or limits them from obtaining further qualifications appropriate to their role.

Where registration with a professional body is a requirement of the role, managers must ensure staff are able to meet the requirements of their relevant professional regulator throughout their employment, such as criteria for continuing professional development. Managers must not act in a way that prevents, limits or would result in staff not meeting requirements required.

Staff should be supported to join Accredited Registers if they wish.

The induction programme must prepare staff for their role. Line managers are responsible for registering new employees for induction training through e-Learning. All staff are given a My company induction booklet on day one of their employment which they must complete. Evidence of learning and completion of induction must be signed off by the new employee and their line manager within three months for adult services. Induction for non-care functions must also be completed within the first three months of employment. All induction records must be kept on the personal file with a copy sent to Kingston Office for logging purposes. The Care Certificate must also be completed on the e-learning system and assessors are responsible for inducting and mentoring all new staff through this via observations and competency assessments. The Care Certificate must be completed within 12 weeks of employment to ensure they are supported, skilled and assessed as competent to carry out their roles.

Line managers must ensure that at any one time if possible 50% of their staff in adult services are working towards or have completed a minimum of National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) / Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF). Documented evidence of NVQ / QCF completion signed by an external verifier must be kept on the personal file with a copy sent to My company Head Office and Helmsman.

Directors must ensure that all managers of a residential home have completed an NVQ level 4 / QCF level 5 or be working towards it and that documented evidence of completion, signed off by the external verifier, is kept on the personal file.

Other training and development initiatives may be agreed between the line manager and employee and implemented in accordance with service needs.

If an employee fails to complete a Company funded course he/she will be required to refund to the Company all costs incurred. In such circumstances the employee will be expected to complete the course using their own source of funding.

If an employee leaves the Company having completed an approved course he/she will be required to reimburse the Company as follows:
up to 6 months after completion of a course – 100%;
between 6 and 9 months – 75%;
between 9 and 12 months – 50%;
over 12 months – nil.

The line manager must ensure that the employee signs a refund agreement when registering a Company funded course.

Non-attendance and / or lateness without good reason could result in formal disciplinary action being taken against the employee. All training providers have the right to refuse the entry of a latecomer if the lateness is such that entry would cause disruption. Services will be charged for non-attendance where a latecomer has been refused entry by the training provider and a repeat course has to be arranged. Failure of staff to attend pre-booked training courses (without reasonable explanation) will result in the cost of the training being deducted from their employees pay.

Whilst attending a course participants must show respect by being attentive to trainers, by listening and not interrupting others, and by valuing all opinions expressed. Mobile phones should be switched off.

For the most part the mandatory qualifications can be gained on the job or in the employee’s own time without the need for time off from work. Where attendance to a pre-authorised course requires travel and overnight accommodation, reasonable expenses will be reimbursed subject to receipt.

Employees in organisations of 250 employees or more and in those with fewer than 250, from 6th April 2011, have a statutory right to request unpaid time off for training, subject to certain conditions, which they believe would improve their effectiveness in their job and the performance of the business. The training may be an accredited programme leading to a qualification, or unaccredited training to help develop specific skills relevant to the job, workplace or business.

To be eligible, you must have been an employee of the Company for a continuous period of at least 26 weeks.

Any request must be in writing and contain the following information:
a statement that the application is an ‘application under section 63D Employment Rights Act 1996’;
the subject matter of the proposed training or study;
where and when the proposed training or study would take place;
who would provide or supervise it;
what qualification it would lead to (if any);
how you think the proposed training or study would improve your effectiveness in the business and the performance of the business;
the date of the application;
the date and method – for example email or letter – that any previous application was submitted.

The submission should be made to your line manager and only one application may be considered in any 12 month period.

Within 28 days of receiving a valid request, the Company will either accept the request on the basis of the information provided or meet with you to discuss your request and, within 14 days of that meeting, will inform you of the decision in writing. A time extension of up to 28 days is permitted in the event of the absence of the appropriate manager at the time of submission. The Company may request further information before the request can be considered.

You have the right to be accompanied by a work colleague or Trade Union Representative at any meetings relating to your request.

Grounds for refusing a request are:
the proposed study or training would not improve your effectiveness in the business;
the proposed study or training would not improve the performance of the business;
the burden of additional costs;
agreeing to the request would have a detrimental effect on the ability to meet customer demand;
inability to reorganise work among existing staff;
inability to recruit additional staff;
agreeing to the request would have a detrimental impact on quality;
agreeing to the request would have a detrimental impact on performance;
there would be an insufficiency of work during the periods you would be proposing to work;
there are planned structural changes during the proposed study or training period.

If the request is accepted, the Company’s Training Management Service ‘Helmsman’ will confirm in writing to the regional coordinator the subject of the study or training, where and when it is expected to take place and over what period, who will provide or supervise the training, what qualification (if any) the training will lead to, how the training time will be taken. The regional coordinator will confirm whether it will be paid, unpaid, or whether you would work flexibly whilst undertaking the training, and how the costs of the training will be met. The regional coordinator will then provide you with all of the details My companying the training that has been planned and will be delivered to you.

If the request is refused, this will be confirmed in writing stating: the business reasons for rejection; why the business reason, or reasons, apply in these circumstances; the appeal procedure; the date of the notice.

Any appeal must be submitted in writing within 14 days of the date of receiving the refusal notice. An appeal meeting must be held within 14 days of receiving the appeal notice and the outcome of the appeal must be communicated in writing within 14 days of the meeting.

If the decision is still to refuse the request, this must set out the grounds for the decision and why the grounds apply in these circumstances.

1.4 Analyse the role of the induction process in supporting others to understand the values, principles and agreed ways of working within a work setting
In 2010 the care quality commission listed the minimum amount of information that should be covered by the induction process for new staff. These include service aims and objectives:
Specific service user information
Relevant policies and procedures
Health and safety compliancy and emergency measures
Event incident reporting
Service user rights
However, this is basic information and in reality the induction process can be what make the individual makes it. it is important that it is not just treated as a box ticking exercise and must be seen as a important opportunity to introduce new employee to the culture and ways of working within the company. It is an opportunity, particularly when inducting new staff, to ‘get the message across’ to ensure it effectively reflects the employer ‘brand’ and the values the organisation is promoting; the ethos. Well considered induction programmes can increase productivity within a company and reduce the turnover of staff in the short term. The length and nature of the process is determined by the complexity of the job and the background of a new employee. The induction programme must prepare staff for their role. Line managers are responsible for registering new employees for induction training through e-Learning. All staff are given a My company induction booklet on day one of their employment which they must complete. Evidence of learning and completion of induction must be signed off by the new employee and their line manager within three months for adult services. Induction for non-care functions must also be completed within the first three months of employment. All induction records must be kept on the personal file with a copy sent to head Office for logging purposes. The Care Certificate must also be completed on the e-learning system and assessors are responsible for inducting and mentoring all new staff through this via observations and competency assessments. The Care Certificate must be completed within 12 weeks of employment to ensure they are supported, skilled and assessed as competent to carry out their roles.

1.5 Analyse the role of induction in safeguarding individuals and others within a work setting
My company is committed to the prevention of abuse and neglect and promoting the wellbeing of adults with care and support needs, and expects all staff and volunteers to abide and embed these principles in their daily practice. My company has robust recruitment and selection procedures in place to identify and deter people who might abuse or neglect adults with care and support needs or who are otherwise unsuitable for employment / volunteering.  My company’s policies and Staff Handbook provide internal guidance for staff which relate clearly to the SAB policy and which set out the responsibilities of all staff to operate within it.
The induction programme must prepare staff for their role. Line managers are responsible for registering new employees for induction training through e-Learning. All staff are given a My company induction booklet on day one of their employment which they must complete. Evidence of learning and completion of induction must be signed off by the new employee and their line manager within three months for adult services. Induction for non-care functions must also be completed within the first three months of employment. All induction records must be kept on the personal file with a copy sent to Head Office for logging purposes. The Care Certificate must also be completed on the e-learning system and assessors are responsible for inducting and mentoring all new staff through this via observations and competency assessments. The Care Certificate must be completed within 12 weeks of employment Skills for Care to ensure they are supported, skilled and assessed as competent to carry out their roles.

The Care Certificate is an agreed set of standards that sets out the knowledge, skills and behaviours expected of specific job roles in the health and social care sectors. It’s made up of the 15 minimum standards that should be covered if new starter is ‘new to care’ and should form part of a induction programme.

The standards
Understand your role
Your personal development
Duty of care
Equality and diversity
Work in a person centred way              
Communication
Privacy and dignity
Fluids and nutrition
Awareness of mental health, dementia and learning disabilities
Safeguarding adults
Safeguarding children
Basic life support
Health and safety
Handling information
Infection prevention and control
These are updated from annually up to 3 years depending on which through e-Learning and with class room based learning.
2. Be able to manage the induction process in health, social care and children and young people’s work settings
2.1 Explain the factors that influence induction processes for practitioners
The need for new staff to become competent at their jobs can sometimes be seen to be at odds with their understandable desire to get involved as quickly as possible. However, the first few months of a persons’ working life are crucial in enabling them to acquire the necessary occupational, job-specific and behavioural skills they need in order to become more ’employable’. Put simply, employability is the ‘realisation of potential through sustainable employment the acquisition by an individual of the qualities and competencies required to meet the changing needs of employers and thereby help to realise his or her aspirations and potential to work’. Hillage and Pollard 1998
The induction process should be viewed as the start of an employee’s knowledge learning with and organisation. In other words, the first day of the performance management programme. The foundation for many of the key factors that influence an employee’s performance management programme. The foundation for many of the key factors that influence an employee’s performance and job satisfaction is set during the induction process. It is not enough to just read off regulations and the job description. The impressions made when someone starts work for a new employer have lasting impact on how they see the employer brand. Roles and responsibilities must be clearly defined and discussed as a knowledge learning opportunity.
A lack of clear definition of a rota can lead to low performance and other problems. It is important for new employee to be inducted into the organisational culture rather than just being shown an organisational structure chart. Taking a 360-degree approach and showing a new member of staff around, introducing them to senior staff as well as other staff members, will in effect ‘bring the chart to life’ and help a new employee feel part of the organisation and culture. As a result, from day one the employees objectives will be more aligned with the goals and values of the organisation which should lead to better motivation and loyalty.

4. Be able to evaluate the induction process in health and social care or children and young people’s settings
4.1 Explain the importance of continuous organisational improvement in the provision of induction
Continuous improvement is a type of change that is focused on increasing the effectiveness and or the efficiency of an organisation to fulfil its policy and objectives. As a process it is an ongoing cycle of evaluating current performance, identifying opportunities for enhancement, taking action, and then re-evaluating performance. Putting it simply, it means ‘getting better all the time’. The success of continuous improvement is dependent upon managers and staff members knowing what to do and how to do it, which requires an understanding of how organisations work and how to manage the process of change. The culture of an organisation provides are solved, openness to evaluation methods etc. my company is committed to promoting continuous learning and developing a learning culture.
From the start of being employed by my company (induction), care staff are expected to play an active part in identifying their development needs and working with the organisation to meet these. As a consequence of personal and organisational improvement, service users can be assured that they are receiving the best service possible. The important of continuous development is recognised in The Care Certificate must be completed within 12 weeks. It is the first step in a process, as new employees would then be responsible, with their line manager, for creating an ongoing personal development plan (PDP). The organisation’s commitment to staff improvement can be demonstrated by both policy and practice in recruiting and retaining a well-qualified and well-motivated workforce. Through supervision and appraisal, the success of CPD activities can be evaluated, along with outcomes, particularly on the working practices of the home on which I work, with this provision can be improved as a quality assurance process.

Ref:
http://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Documents/Learning-and-development/Care-Certificate/The-Care-Certificate-Standards.pdfwww.cqc.org.uk
Regard staff hand book
http://www.scirp.org/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=1720260

1.3. Objectives
1.3.1. General Objective
The overall objective of the study will be:

To assess factors affecting child trafficking in Gamo Gofa zone chencha woreda

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1.3.2. Specific Objectives
The specific objectives of the study include:

1. To depict and investigate the attitude and role of parents and society in child trafficking in Gamo Gofa zone chencha woreda.
2. To identify the major causes of child trafficking in Gamo Gofa zone chencha woreda
3. To identify socio-economic factors that facilitate for child trafficking Gamo Gofa zone chencha woreda.
4. To identify the major actors involving in child trafficking in Gamo Gofa zone chencha woera.

1.4. Research Questions
Depending on the above objectives of the study, the following main research questions are formulated,
1) What is the attitude of parents towards their children trafficking away from their home to other parts of the country or out of the country?
2) What are the socio economic factors behind children trafficking?
3) What are the major urging causes that force people to resort in to child trafficking?
4) Who are the different actors involved in the act of child trafficking in the study area?
5) What are the major challenges that faced the trafficked persons in the whole process of their journey?
6) Are there any particular groups in the society, which are highly prone to trafficking?
7) What are the agencies of different parts of the society in the human trafficking?

1.5. Significance of the study
The importance and purpose of this study is that, to assess the general situation of child trafficking in Gamo Goffa Zone, in case of Chencha woreda and to identify the factors affecting and impact of child trafficking on their Physical, psychological and social makeup of the children, parents and societies of the study area.
Therefore, the facts which will be engendered at the completion of this study or the findings of the study are expected to have the following contributions.
To educate others employed in criminal justice fields and the community about the nature and extent of the human trafficking problems so that it is possible for others to recognize who are victims among them are and what the risk factors are that can make them more vulnerable. This information should help to enhance the collaborative efforts of low enforcement and social services to bring better help to the victims.
The other importance of this thesis and reason for the selected hypothesis is to further explore how economic factors can play a significant role in why such slavery continues in local, regional, national level and in the world at large today. It presents the accounts of trafficked persons on the factors of their trafficking and so that other researchers and concerned bodies may utilize it as input for further inquiry/ investigation or action.
1.6. Delimitation of the study
Though it is more valuable the study was covered all the zone and other parts of the country where migrants are found, due mainly to the availability of affected groups on the different geographical distribution challenges, this research will focuses on the investigation of factors of child trafficking / pull and push factors / and the challenges of trafficking in selected study area.
Therefore, the identification and understanding of these complicated factors and multifaceted challenges; and outlining the major precipitating causes of children trafficking will be the main concern of this research. To this end, the information will be gathered, through structured questioner, interviews and Focus group discussion/ FGDs/, from victims, residents /parents and public servants of Chencha and Arbaminch town were used to identify and explain the causes of trafficking. The researcher’s personal observation in the Arbaminch town will also used to identify and narrate the problems that victims face at their home and in trafficking process.
Geographically scope of this study will delimited to or gives particular emphasis to assess factors affecting child trafficking in a Gamo Goffa zone, a case of chencha woreda by taking different informants from this particular area and Arbaminch town only.

1.7 structure of the thesis
The thesis proposal contains three chapters.
Chapter one is the introductory part that includes the background of the study, statement problem, general and specific objectives and its respected research question, significance of the study, scope of the study and finally description of the study are clearly stated.
Chapter2. This chapter is started with introduction of reviewing the literature. so it provides the conceptual and theoretical background information of child trafficking activities related to the objective of the study that is the factors of child trafficking as well as reviews some basic of the ideas and thoughts of the related to the problem and the concepts that have addressed similar problem in worldwide, African, Ethiopian context and south nation nations with respect to their experiences.
Chapter3.in this chapter basically the design of the research are justified briefly.
Research Design, Research Approach, Research Methods, Research Techniques, Sample Design, Population or Universe Sampling Frame, Sampling Unit, Sampling Technique, Sample Size, Sources of Data, Data Analysis and Interpretation Data Presentation

1. Explain why the classful IP Addressing is not feasible to accomplish the task by using class B and C
Based on this scenario, the 8 class C networks technically gives you enough addresses to accommodate the 1800 hosts, but barely enough. Therefore there is a chance that the networks would need to be carved up quite a bit for example: likely needing to spread out multiple networks across a large area. As a result you would lose a certain amount of address space to overhead. Most probably nearly 90% could lead to depletion. Using a class B address would give us much more room for future growth and it would be much easier to partition
2. What is the most suitable technique to form a network with 1800 hosts?

The most suitable network technique to form a network with 1800 hosts is known as subnetting. It is a set of techniques that you can use to efficiently divide the address space of a unicast address prefix for allocation among the subnets of a network

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3. What is / are the principle / principles of the technique mentioned in ii)

• By using the method of subnetting we as network administrators have the capability of separating it to smaller portions as per our necessity. This somehow helps to decrease the flow of traffic thus preventing the complicated ways of the network
• All computers need the subnet mask field filled when configuring IP
• How to determine the number of subnets and the number of hosts per subnet
• It helps us create various logical networks that exist within a single class network
• If you create a network of interconnected subnetworks, every data link on this network would be categorized with a unique network or subnetwork id.

4. Describe / display how to create the network with 1800 hosts using the technique mentioned in ii) and principles mentioned in iii
Network Address – 200.100.25.11/25
For 1800 hosts – (2^7= 128 – 2 = 126)
Therefore subnet mask is 25, Maximum Subnets – 128, Maximum IP addresses –126
New Network IP Range -200.100.25.0/25

5. Provide the following

• The network ID of the new network with 1800 hosts – 200.100.25.0/25,
• The subnet mask – 255.255.255.128,
• The valid range of the new network – 200.100.25.1 – 200.100.25.126
• The broadcasting ID of the new network – 200.100.25.127

1. Since the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century, coal has had a significant impact on the world’s energy supply. To this day, coal is still one of the leading energy sources amongst all the fossil fuels. India too, has had a long history of commercial coal mining spanning over 240 years. Started in 1774 by East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the western bank of river Damodar, the Indian coal industry has consistently evolved over the ages. With the enactment of the Coal Mines Act, 1973, all coal mines in India were nationalized, which otherwise, had primarily been a private sector enterprise. Subsequently, Coal India Limited (CIL) was constituted as a new public-sector company on 01 Nov 75, to enable better organizational and operational efficiency in the coal sector. CIL is now the world’s largest coal-producing company, which produced 554.14 Million Tons (MT) in 2016 – 17, contributing to 84% of the country’s entire coal output. However, the monopoly over commercial mining that state-owned Coal India enjoyed since nationalisation in 1973, was broken by the government in Feb 18, by permitting private firms to enter the commercial coal mining industry.

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