1. 300 years into the future, plastic surgery operations was a norm.
2. Once you turn 16 years old, you receive a “pretty” operation. It transforms you into a ‘normal’ citizen.
3. After the operation, you basically start a new life.
4. People who lived before this catastrophe are called “Rusties.”
5. Tally is 15.
6. Her best friend, Peris, has already had the operation and, Tally decides to sneaks across the river to New Pretty Town.
7. On her way, she meets Shay, another Ugly.
8. They become friends and Tally is taught how to ride a hoverboard from Shay.
9. Shay then brings up rebelling against the operation.
10. Tally, at first ignores her comment, but takes it seriously when Shay runs away.
11. On the day of Tally’s operation, she is taken to Special Circumstances.
12. She meets Dr. Cable, a woman who is described as “a cruel pretty”, is the head of Special Circumstances.
13. She gives Tally a choice to either help locate Shay and the Smoke, or never become a pretty.
14. Tally chooses and ends up cooperating with Dr. Cable.
15. Dr. Cable provides her with the materials/supplies needed for her to survive in the wild.
16. Tally is also given a heart locket that contains a tracker to track her moves.
17. The heart notifies Special Circumstances where Tally’s exact location is.
18. Tally finds Shay and David, including other runaways just like them.
19. Tally is reluctant based on her decisions, which assures David that he loves her.
20. David takes her to meet his parents, Maddy and Az, who are the original runaways from the city.
21. Tally and David explain how the operations really work and is.
22. It also causes lesions in the brain to make the people placid, or “pretty-minded.” Horrified, Tally decides to throw the locket away burning I the fire and keep the secret of the runaways.
23. However, the flames’ heat causes the tracker to activate, giving away the Smoke’s location.
24. The next day, Special Circumstances arrives at the camp and Tally tries to escape.
25. She wasn’t successful and gets caught, taken to a rabbit pen, where other caught Smokies are kept as well.
26. Eye scans are taken from the Smokies, identifying from which city they fled.
27. Tally is then taken to Dr. Cable, who explains how they found the Smoke. Dr. Cable thinks Tally activated the pendant on purpose.
28. After being ordered to give the pendant, Tally manages to escape on a hoverboard.
29. After a chase, she hides in a cave where tracking her heat signature doesn’t work.
30. There she finds David, hiding too, and they begin to work out a rescue plan.
31. Tally and David go back to his house, where they find out that Special Circumstances took Maddy and Az.
32. David leads Tally to a secret place where survival equipment is and the found everything they need, and load them onto the four hoverboards stashed there.
33. As Tally and David travel back to the city, they fall in love. Arriving at the Special Circumstances place, they find out that Shay has already been turned into a Pretty.
34. After meeting Dr. Cable, David knocks her out and takes her device.
35. Tally and David free all the Smokies that were captured and help in the complex. Maddy then tells David that Az is dead.
36. Once everyone is safe, Maddy begins working on a cure.
37. Since Tally feels responsible, she decides to become a Pretty and take the cure as a “willing subject.”
38. While David with Az’s death, Maddy suggests that Tally should go back with Shay before her mind changes, just in case.
39. When she gets there, Tally announces to a Middle Pretty, “I’m Tally Youngblood. Make me pretty.”

6. SYMBOLS
Heart Shaped Pendant
The heart shaped pendant is a tracker and which Tally was supposed to activate as soon as she got to the Smoke. This pendant is not just a symbol of Tally’s treachery, but also a symbol of her internal struggle.
White Tiger Orchids
The white tiger orchids symbolizes an excessive good that has turned evil because there is too much of it. The orchids can be compared to the Pretties.
Hoverboards
Hoverboards are a symbol of maturity, mostly for Tally.
Scarred Hands
Scarred hands symbolize friendship, mostly for Tally. The scar itself was created when Peris and she cut their palms and swore to be best friends forever.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

7. THEME
Power of Appearance
It is demonstrated that prettiness and ugliness are both relative terms. When Tally was an ugly, she waited for the surgery. However, when she learned that things are not the way they appear to be, she quickly coiled away. The ugly truth under all that prettiness is that undergoing the surgery would mean having brain lesions and part of her former identity erased; most Pretties are gorgeous but have flaws such as vainness. Also, in Tally’s society, appearances are emphasized. As Uglies, they are encouraged to be nicknamed by their imperfections. By comparison, in a world with perfect faces, average faces would be considered ugly. But among Pretties, because there is no comparison, they are constantly unsatisfied and often change their looks on a weekly basis by surgery. It thus implied that in a world where perfection is so easily attainable, people would still soon be unsatisfied and seek for more.

1.1 Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship?
Working relationships develop in a planned and structured way and a personal relationship happens naturally and we can choose who we want to be friends with but we do not choose who we can work with. Working relationships have clear boundaries and acting professional is key in the role where as a personal relationship is informal and socialising is more about sharing personal moments.

1.2 Describe different working relationships in social care settings?
Effective working relationships involve complying with ways of working agreed by the workers and the employer these are set out in the core set of values. Valuing and respecting each team member and being honest and openly communicating when positive outcomes have been achieved and when improvements need to be made. Effective team working can ensure that tasks are completed quickly and efficiently and that any difficulties or challenges are shared and acted on by the whole team.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

3.1 Explain why it is important to work in partnership with others?
Working well and in partnership with others is important for you to improve your understanding of others’ roles, practices and approaches, in turn this improves your knowledge of skills. Your work setting to create a more skilled workforce. The service users to provide care and support to ensure that the care or support provided is consistent and holistic. Other people you work with in partnership for team building and share skills and knowledge. Other agencies you work with to pool resources and help everyone to work together effectively.

3.2 Identify ways of working that can help improve partnership working?
For partnerships to work well it is important that the role of each partner and the aims of the partnership are made clear to everyone who is involved to improve trust and knowledge of each others contributions. It is essential for everyone involved to communicate openly and be clear about decisions reached as well as listening to and addressing ideas and conflicts which may a rise.

3.3 Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts?
The skills that are needed to resolve conflict are empathy to gain a better understanding of another persons view, assertiveness to clearly state your point of view,honesty to express how you feel,creativity to see how a conflict could become an opportunity. Negotiation; mediation to enable others to move towards making improvements and agreeing on ways forward.
Approaches for resolving conflicts need to be constructive and to treat each party with respect. Needing to focus on the conflict only and not to blame an individual and to use active listening throughout the conflict.

3.4 Explain how and when to access support and advice about:

Partnership working is depending on your experiences that you have developed over time a range of skills and approaches that have proved useful when working in partnership with others. Being able to recognise when you must ask for support and advice is just as important as knowing how to do so. Sources of support in your work place are managers, supervisors and if you need to go further then higher management and if this is not available then a independent external source called advisory concilation and arbitration services.
Resolving conflicts may be uncomfortable about the decision that has been reached, or not feel that the decision reached is in the best interests of the individual concerned or for the team in your work setting.

2.2 Outline what is meant by agreed ways of working?

The agreed ways of working are set out in the companies contract and their policies and standards which are in staff inductions. The agreed ways are standards to follow within your job role and set out how to do the basics in the job. Individuals have care plans to follow and may have agreed ways of working within these to follow. Agreed ways of working are updated regular so policies can be updated at the same time or some time in the future.

2.3 Explain the importance of full and up-to-date details of agreed ways of working?

Policies and procedures are an important way of knowing that you are doing your job correctly and in a safe and effective way. Full and up to date agreed ways of working means that everyone can work consistently and ensure that quality is maintained. Working in this way also keeps your own professional development up to date. Legislation can change and so when it does procedures have to be amended accordingly.

2.1Describe why it is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role?

Working within the agreed duties and responsibilities of your job role as a social care worker is also therefore part of your duty of care; not doing so can have consequences for the individuals you provide care and support to,for the rest of your team and for you. Not fulfilling your job role and responsibilities may put your colleagues and other professionals you work with at unnecessary risk,i.e not completing a risk assessment may mean that unsafe working practices will result in injuries and fatalities. Not complying will result in allegations and investigations taken place.

1.1 Explain Why Different Communication Methods are Used in the Business Environment.
Effective communication is pivotal to the straightforward running of an organisation. When communication has taken place accurately, the deliverer and receiver will both have acquired the same information. Within a business environment, certain situations and scenarios will require different methods of communication. For example, a one-to-one or team meeting is most valuable when carried out face-to-face as this is the best way to make sure a point is understood by your colleague(s). on the other hand, if a company wants to distribute a newsletter, this does not need to be as personal as a face-to-face. It can simply be sent out over email. More important and personal issues within an organisation tend to be communicated face-to-face, whereas less significant company wide matters will be issued on a large scale to multiple employees. Within GBE Converge many methods of communication are sourced as we can have face-to-face meetings in our meeting rooms and are also able to send out a newsletter to both organisations via Outlook.

1.2 Describe the Communication Requirements of Different Audiences.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Your style of communication should be adjusted and adapted depending on the target audience and audience mood. This is decided by considering which form of communication would be the most necessary whether it be written or verbal communication. There are many requirements that might have to be catered for when communicating. The requirements could be: age, gender, ethnicity, ETC. As an example, younger people have much shorter attention spans, whereas older people would be more patient and able to be engaged for a longer period. The style of communication may have to also be altered for an audience. Louder speaking and bigger text may be needed for an older audience, to make sure that they receive all necessary information. when we are communicating something as an organisation we make sure that the information is accessible and understandable to all recipients.

1.3 Explain the Importance of Using Correct Grammar, Sentence Structure, Punctuation, Spelling and Conventions in Business Communications.

Grammar – The idea of using correct grammar is to make sure that what is written can be easily understood. A sentence or paragraph littered with grammatical errors can be very hard to read or maybe cause a misunderstanding. The use of correct grammar when speaking or writing helps people achieve a better understanding of the point.

1. The character of General Zaroff is portrayed through both direct and indirect characterization. The author uses direct characterization when describing his personality and appearance through Rainsford’s eyes. He uses indirect characterization when describing Zaroff through the conversation between the general and Rainsford. Throughout the dialogue, the author gives hints and evidence pointing to certain personality traits displayed by General Zaroff. The evidence that Zaroff believes he is superior to all animals, including humans, can be found in his conversation with Rainsford where he states that he has conquered all massive beasts, animals are no longer a match for him, and he is stronger than the others. The general constantly boasts about his success in hunting and his skill set.
2. The hunter has a major advantage in the game being played. First, the hunter is one his own territory. Therefore, he is more knowledgeable of the land he is hunting on. Second, the hunter has more advanced weapons. While the prey is only armed with a hunting knife, the hunter has a pistol. The pistol is more effective than the knife when killing. Third, the hunter not only relies on himself and his skills, but also has dogs and an accomplice, Ivan, to help him catch his prey when he is not successful on his own. Fourth, the hunter has been playing this wicked game for much longer and is an avid hunter. Therefore, his skill set is much more varied and advanced than that of a sailor that crashes on the island.
3. As the story progresses, Rainsford’s ideas of hunting change. At the beginning, he is very invested in the sport and believes there is nothing wrong with what he is doing. He simply feels lucky to be the hunter and not the prey. As the stakes get higher and he is faced with a different challenge, he begins to realize that hunting, as enjoyable as it might be for him, is not exactly a good experience for his prey. When he is put in the situation of being Zaroff’s prey, he begins to understand the suffering and worry the animals he kills feel. Rainsford then feels some more sympathy and changes his view on hunting.
4. In these conversations, Rainsford is more like Zaroff because they look at the world in a very similar way. They both believe the strongest will prevail and they feel no sympathy for their prey. They simply hunt for their own entertainment without ever considering how they would feel is the roles were reversed. He differs from Zaroff because he is not as cold blooded and eager to find danger. He thinks the murder of another man is outrageous and completely wrong. At the end of the story, Rainsford becomes a little more like Whitney in the way that he now understands the suffering and pain these animals undergo and he is more considerate.
5. I would consider “The Most Dangerous Game” to be commercial fiction because the plot moves along very quickly and there are many dangerous, risky situations. Although it does contain some characterization, it is more focused on the conflict at hand and the events occurring through the story. The plot is much more intense and the theme is quite complex.
6. General Zaroff might be putting a value on Rainsford during dinner because he is going to become his prey soon. He wants to know what he is going up against and if he wins, how great his success is.
7. The location plays a huge role in the theme of this story. The island is alone in the middle of the ocean adding to the theme of suspense and solitude. There is a constant dark theme of being alone and in danger.
8. The irony of the statement “Who cares what a jaguar feels?” is that when Rainsford is put in the same position, he wants his feelings to be taken into consideration. At the end of the story, Rainsford might feel differently because he suffered what those animals have undergone and he understands and is considerate.
9. The figurative literary devices used in the beginning of the story set the ominous and frightening mood. They also foreshadow danger and events that are yet to come. These devices also point to an underlying issue discussed in this story, animal cruelty.
10. Rainsford’s past experiences helped him elude Zaroff because he had a very advanced knowledge and skill set due to his years of hunting. He was able to create a complicated trail

that would be difficult to follow. He also created successful and efficient traps.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

1. HUMAN IMPACTS

? The immediate effect of disaster caused the death of two workers followed with several deaths within few hours of the explosion. The death rate was continuously increased with several radiation sicknesses.
? Due to faulty nuclear reactor radioactive materials iodine-131, cesium-134 and cesium 137 were released . According to UNSCEAR, among these radioactive materials, iodine-131 has less duration of action due to its short half life, nearly 8 days. But this is easy to reach in thyroid gland via air. Cesium molecules have longer duration of action as they are having prolonged half life. The scientists were worried about their long term effects.
? The residents of Pripyat, were released from that area almost after 36 hours of incidence. Within this period, different health effects were noticed such as headaches, nausea, vomiting and miscellaneous radiation health effects. Surrounding 30km area almost vacant, people left their personal everything behind.
? According to U.S. NRC, within 3 months of nuclear accident, 31 people died due to radiation effect
? The number is exceeding 6,000 of thyroid cancer cases which were relating the effect of radiation exposure. The effect of radiation exposure is continuous, though it is mild and considered 0.1 REM per year. In this contaminated area almost five million residents are living and get affected with solid tumor, leukemia. The exact relation to the radiation induced health effect and the number of sufferers, is not yet clear.
? Some fear effects still present in the surrounding areas, Many doctors from Eastern Europe and Soviet Union still suggested for abortion to pregnant women, as radiation poisoning causes birth defects or other disorder to fetus.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

2. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

? After a short interval of the accident the woodland present nearby area of the Chernobyl, is affected by radiation exposure and killed several plants . The area is now known as ‘Red Forest’, as the colour of the trees turned to ginger color due to burning. The wild lives stayed in the forest were no more exist.
? The large area, including Pripyat and Chernobyl is considered as “zone of alienation” and limit the humans living. The nuclear plant management team is working hard to stop the leakage of the radioactive materials from the reactor, and able to completely shut down its last reactor in December 2000.
? Some of the former residents were coming back to stay in their houses and government officials and researchers are allowed to inspect the sites. In 2011, Ukarine opened the area for visitors to see the disastrous effect of the radiation.
? This allowance does not provide any indication that the area is totally safe for living. The long effect of the radiation is continuing.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Despite the effort to come up with several work-life initiatives (WLBI) in the service industry to enhance employees’ performance, the performance of most employees has remained dismal. Furthermore, the mechanism and extent to which the flexible work arrangements, HR financial incentives, HR work-family support services, work-life balance, employee behavior, and attitudes affect employees’ performance remain unclear (Wang and Walumbwa, 2011; Snape and Redman, 2010; Wright and McMahan, 2011; Groen, B. A., van Triest, S. P., Coors, M., & W tenweerde, N. 2018; Wang, E. S., & Lin, C. L. 2018).
Empirical research carried out in developed countries by Wright and MacMahan, (2010); Kuvaas and Dysvik, (2010); Boxall,(2013); Allen, (2013), as well as studies carried out in Kenya by Shitsama, (2011) and Bosibori,(2012), reveal that HR practices have a positive and statistically significant relationship with performance. However, these studies have focused on HRM functions of employee development and attraction practices such as training and development, performance appraisal, career management, recruitment and selection (Teseema and Soeters, 2006; Mutua, Karanja and Namusonge, 2009). There is a little empirical study exploring the telecommunication and insurance industry regarding work-life balance on employee performance. This research will try to identify whether there is a relationship between work-life balance and employee performances in insurance and telecommunication industry in Kenya to add to the existing literature more ingredients that will spice up human resource practices as far as employees are concerned.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

1.3 Objectives of the study
1.3.1 General objective

The general objective of the study will be to evaluate the effect of work-life balance on employee performance in the service industry.
1.3.2 Specific objectives

The specific objectives will be to;

i. To establish the effect of work-family priorities on employee performance in the service industry
ii. To examine the influence of Flexible Working Options on Employee Performance the service industry
iii. To determine the impact of Employee Assistance Programs on Employee Performance in the service industry
1.4 Research questions

a) What is the influence of work-family priorities on employee performance in the service industry?
b) Which Flexible Working Options are available to the Service, industry employee?
c) What are the effects of Employee Assistance Programs on Employee Performance in the service industry?
1.5 Significance of the study

The study will benefit various groups in Kenya and also in other developing countries. First, it brings light to HR managers and future managers on the importance of integrating work-life initiatives in the strategic objectives of the organization.
The research is of importance to organizational policy makers by providing relevant information about employees’ perception on the availability of work-life initiatives to employees and its effect on corporate behavior. Correctly, the government policymakers can use the research findings when drafting statutory policies by including those initiatives not involved in the employment Act of Kenya such as flexible work arrangements, onsite and offsite baby care centers as requirements in organizations with a certain number of female employees.
The study is also of use to other human resource management students and scholars who might want to carry out their research in the area of work-life initiatives and employees’ performance.
1.6 Assumptions of the study

The study assumes that first, involvement in one role necessarily impedes the attention of family and social life and that such interference between role commitments leads to work-life conflict if not balanced. Further, the study assumes that Organizations can implement various work-life balance initiatives that may assist employees to balance their work, family and social life responsibilities better, gain improvements in well-being and provide organizational benefits.

1.7 Limitations of the study

The influence of work-life balance on employee performance is not restricted to the service industry in Kenya only as there are many industrial sectors whose settings may not be related to the ones in the service industry. The area of study in Kenya is under-researched, and it may be difficult to compare the different sectors of the population and come up with a cross-cutting generalization because different factors could affect one industry and not another. This issue will be mitigated by ensuring that similar questions are asked cutting across the sectoral lines to ensure that uniformity of the answers could be achieved for comparison.
Access to the respondents may also pose a challenge due to the stringent policies by most of the organizations not to allow any form of research within their premises. This challenge will be mitigated by using a research permit from the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation and an introduction letter given by the University which will quickly enable access to the organizations under study.
Some respondents are likely to be reluctant to give confidential information which would be vital for the study. The Researcher will assure the employees that the information provided would be treated with confidentiality and would not use the information for other purposes other than for the research.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Employee performance- The favorable expected employee outcomes regarding productivity and efficiency in the organizations
Flexible work arrangements- Working arrangements which allow the employee to differ the amount, timing and location of his/her work.
Human resource practices- Human resource management control activities.
Organizational performance- Refers to the achievement of Human resource management short and long-term goals and objectives regarding employee performance, retention of employees, provision of quality services and the ability to attract better applicants.
Productivity- Refers to the perceived work effort expended by an employee.
Service efficiency- Employee service behaviors such as carrying out the right task at the right time with the right speed of delivery.
Work-life balance -Managing work and family responsibilities without the influence either into work and family responsibilities.
Work life conflict- The interference between work and non-work responsibilities
Work-life initiatives- Practices and programmes beyond and above the statutory requirements offered by the employer for the use and benefit of the employ

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Review

This study is anchored on three theories; spillover theory by Guest (2002), Hertzberg Two Factor Theory by psychologist Frederick Hertzberg (1959) and The Demand–Control Model by Karasek (1979).
2.1.1 Spill over theory

Spill-over can be explained as a process by which work and family affects one another, which in turn, generates similarities between the two domains (Edwards and Rothbard, 2000). It can be either positive or negative. If work-family interactions are rigidly structured in time and space, then spill over in term of time, energy and behavior are negative. When flexibility occurs which enables individuals to integrate and overlap work and family responsibilities in time and space lead to positive spillover which is instrumental in achieving healthy work-life balance.

According to Guest (2002), the determinants of work-life balance are located in the work and home contexts. Contextual determinants include demands of work, the culture of work, demands of home and lifestyle of home. Individual determinants include work orientation (i.e., the extent to which work (or home) is a central life interest), personality, energy, personal control, and coping, gender and age, life and career stage. The variables of the study are under the contextual determinants, which are left policy and service delivery. The leave policy is the culture of work, while the service delivery is the demand for labor.

The nature of work-life balance was defined both objectively and subjectively. The objective indicators include hours of work and hours of uncommitted or free time outside of work.
Subjective Indicators refer to the states of balance and imbalance. He also noted that balance might be reported when equal weight is given both to work and home or when home or work dominates by choice. Spillover occurs when there is interference of one sphere of life with other. Also, many outcomes of work-life balance which include personal satisfaction and well-being at work, home, and life as a whole, performance at work and home, impact on others at work, family and friends.

The relevance of this theory to the study is that organizations are expected to adopt affirmative work-life balance policies that will enable employee has a positive work-life balance which will make them be effectively committed to achieving the organization’s goals.

2.1.2 Hertzbergs Two Factor Theory
The Two Factor Theory was developed by a psychologist Frederick Hertzberg in 1959, who theorized that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction act independently of each other. The characteristics related to job satisfaction included advancement, recognition, the work itself, achievement, growth, and responsibilities. Hertzberg referred to these characteristics as motivators. The symptoms related to dissatisfaction, which included working conditions, supervision, interpersonal relationships, company policy, and administration were seen as hygiene factors. It states that some aspects in the workplace cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of elements cause dissatisfaction. The theory perceives workplace as independent variable and job satisfaction as the dependent variable. These variables concur with the study variables which are the technical environment, physical environment, and organizational environment and job satisfaction (Spearritt, 2010).

According to Schermerhorn (2003), Herzberg’s two-factor theory is an essential frame of reference for managers who want to gain an understanding of job satisfaction and related job performance issues. Schermerhorn asserts that Herzberg’s two-factor theory is a useful reminder that there are two critical aspects of all jobs: what people do regarding job tasks (job content), and the work setting in which they do it (job context). Schermerhorn suggests that managers should attempt to always eliminate poor hygiene sources of job dissatisfaction in the workplace and ensure building satisfier factors into job content to maximize opportunities for job satisfaction. Therefore, this theory is relevant and significant to this study in that it recognizes that employees have two categories of needs that operate in them and that both should be addressed. This theory, therefore, can guide a researcher in establishing work-life balance and its effects on employee performance in the Service industry.

2.1.3 The Demand–Control Model

The Demand–Control Model by Karasek (1979) points out that job demands and job control jointly predict the occurrence of individual mental strain. Based on similar empirical findings, the causal relationship between job characteristics and the pressure outside the work-sphere is furthermore essential to the model. Karasek (1979) however implicitly acknowledged a full range of demands and resources. Accordingly, the Job Demands-Resources Model (Bakker and Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, 2001) claims that applications and resources determine job-related stress. Although the Job Demands-Resources Model exclusively refers to work-related demands and resources – given the bi-directional nature of work-family conflict – a conflict occurs if requests from the family and the work sphere compete with and exceed individual resources (Demerouti, 2007).

According to Greenhaus and Parasuraman (1999), a high level of involvement in unpaid work leads to a high level of conflict in paid employment. Similarly, previous research revealed that children in the household – inducing higher family demands – are associated with a higher level of conflict (Crompton and Lyonette, 2008; Greenhaus and Parasuraman, 1999), particularly for women (Hennig et al., 2012). Martinengo et al. (2010) reveal that younger children – who demand more time – are predictors of family-to-work conflict. As women still tend to be more responsible for childcare than men (Sayer, 2010), regardless of hours worked in paid employment, they work a second shift at home (Asher, 2011; Hochschild, 2003). Thus, household and family responsibilities are family demands which potentially increase the family-to-work conflict. The work-related order that is most often discussed is the number of working hours, possibly causing work-to-family strife (Sayer, 2010).
Long working hours limit the time resources for one’s private life (Chung, 2011; Golden and Wiens-Tuers, 2006; Jacobs and Gerson, 2004; Tausig and Fenwick, 2001), while shorter working hours and part-time employment might contribute to a better work-life balance (Bonney, 2005; Crompton and Lyonette, 2008). In a European comparative study, Fahlén (2012) discovers that shorter working hours reduce conflict in both directions; that is, home-to-work and work-to-home. Related to high work demands, job position/level (Crompton and Lyonette, 2008; Steiber, 2009; Tausig and Fenwick, 2001) and educational level (Jacobs and Gerson, 2004) were also found to increase work-life conflict.
Along the same line of reasoning, Bakker and Demerouti (2007), Bakker and Geurts (2004), Demerouti et al. (2001), Parasuraman, (1996) and Pocock (2005) interpret individual temporal, spatial and organizational control over the work sphere as a job resource. Relating own power to work flexibility, Hill et al. (2008) defined workplace flexibility as ‘the ability of workers to make choices influencing when, where, and for how long they engage in work-related tasks. Thus, individual flexibility can be seen as a job resource since flexibility allows control over devoting resources to one or the other life spheres. This, in turn, decreases the likelihood of harmful interference. Power in this context can have a buffering effect on job-related demands such as long working hours (Gerson, 2004).
2.2.1 The impact of work-family balance on employee performance
Work and family are the most critical parts in human life that are not easily separated. When trying to balance between the work and family, the employees often end with conflict and dilemma in giving priority to both career and family. The incompatible of demand between career and family seem to create a personal pressure on the employees. More often than not, conflict tends to create pressure on the employees as they try to balance the two roles that need to be performed simultaneously. The last decades have seen dramatic changes in family life, including increases in dual-earner households and single-parent families as well as higher numbers of employed adults who are also caring for elderly or infirm relatives (Neal ; Hammer, 2007), that means many employees are simultaneously juggling paid work and unpaid family work.

Work-family conflicts are a familiar source of stress and have been linked to employees’ health and family functioning, as well as labor market decisions and fertility decisions (Gornick& Meyers, 2003). Stress has the implications for the individual as well as the organization, and it can no longer be considered merely as the individuals or managers problem (Menon and Akhilesh, 2007). It is now generally accepted that prolonged or intense stress can have a negative impact on an individual’s mental and physical health. When trying to balance work and family responsibilities, many workers experience conflict between these two roles (Day and Chamberlain, 2006). Work-family conflict has been defined as mutual compatibility between the demands of the work role and application of the family role. Juggling work and family responsibilities is a common experience for many employees. Although engaging in both work and family roles can have positive effects for individuals, but if workers are unable to balance the responsibilities associated with both characters, the potential for conflicts between roles increases (Frone, Russell and Cooper, 2010).

In the work setting, Rees (2005) researched on the uneven development of gender mainstreaming in Europe and found that women encounter more stress as compared to men. The main reason is women have to balance their responsibilities towards their work and family. While Carnicer et al., (2004) have found that gender is not a significant variable to explain the work-family conflict. As the consequences of work-family conflict, De Janasz (2007), found that the battle of work and family may lower job satisfaction and it may decrease the organizational commitment. To overcome the work-family conflict, Boyar et al. (2008) suggested that organizations can work to reduce work-family conflict by adopting family-friendly programs that help employees balance work and family demands. Specifically, their study implies that organizations should find ways to hold constant or reduce perceptions of work and family demand, along with other direct antecedents of work interfering with family and family interfering with work (Cooper, 2010).

2.2.2 The influence of Flexible Working Options on Employee Performance

Pruchno, Litchfield, and Fried (2007), conducted research to find out impacts of workplace flexibility which shows that the most workplace flexibility turns into a win-win situation for both the company and the employee, the study also concluded that flexible working hours increase the employee productivity and allow him to do proper scheduling to move with official and personal life. Employees who are using alternative work schedule are conscious that all the other staff has not been able to utilize it. It is the responsibility of the managers to recognize the team that will be more productive for opting flex schedule (Fried, 2007).

Employees, who are giving maximum output, will continue to sustain the same production. The supervisor evaluates an employees capability and job performance with the flexible work schedule while maintaining productivity. By a decrease in the time, the supervisor believes that they can improve employee confidence, loyalty, thus enhancing productivity. Flexible working intended at making convenience for employees to change when, where and for how many hours they want to work. Flexible working persuades workers to bring in new ideas for the conflicts occurring, and they convinced line managers to take flexible working options more sincerely. According to the research when the organization environment is not reactive to the needs for substitute work schedule, the probability is that staff work less than their capability (Nkereuwem, 2006).

The broadly acknowledged statement is that better workplace environment produces better results. It is considered with due significance to the nature of the job and the individuals that are going to work in that office. The output thinks the employee performance that the individual produces and it is related to productivity. Efficiency is affected at a business level by such factors such as employees, technology, and objectives of the organization. Employees performance and health also influenced by the physical environment of the organization (Nkereuwem, 2006).

Morgan (2014) found that flexible time effects on employee behavior. The impact of flexitime is also highly dependent on the nature of job like low wage workers get waged on a daily basis at hour regulation so they could not make full use of flexible timing. Scandura and Lanka (2007), in their research show the relationship between flexible working hours, personal (family) responsibilities and gender differences to job satisfaction and commitment toward the organization.

According to Hurtz and Donovan (2000), the Better significance is the opportunity that the relationship between personality characteristics and specific work environments may influence performance. Researchers distinguished that the effects of exhaustion, are mostly related to a wide range of physical and mental health problems. People cannot give their output to maximum capacity without good health and proper functioning conditions, which cause failure for the employees’ to reach their proficient potential and the output required to make the organization perform efficiently and effectively. The secret to the job satisfaction is our ability to control our moods on a daily basis strain. Emotional stability enhances the employees’ ability to handle work pressure and stress, to consistently carry out the responsibilities, and self-indulgence (Worral, 2009).
Emotionally stable people can sustain an analytical approach when dealing with difficult work conditions. Costa and McCrae, (1985, 2002) say that people with neuroticism behavior are those who experience more negative emotions, which would be reflected in poor job attitudes and high levels of job stress. Neuroticism is a propensity to suffer harmful effects such as panic, depression, humiliation, annoyance, guiltiness, and hatred. The findings of Van Vianen and De Dreu in 2001 are that high levels of emotional stability contributed to social consistency in teams, and high levels of neuroticism predict irritation and ignorance in relationships. James and Galinsky, 2006, the higher income workers are more offered with the flexible work arrangements than, the lower income. This creates a sense of inequality in the workplace and decreases the motivational level.
Worral and cooper (2009) researched to find out effects of working hours patterns in general and by managerial level, and the way they tradeoff between official work and personal life-related issues like health, moral, time to family and productivity. The research shows a strong relationship between working hours and increasingly negative impact. Findings regarding tradeoff demonstrate that it’s tough for many managers. The results also disclose the fact that specifically the junior managers and those who are working in the non-profit organization are more concerned toward their social life, but the picture is different for senior managers who work for profit-oriented firms they are more concerned toward their office. The research also concluded that long working hours have a negative impact on managers’ productivity and their social life like with family and moral (Cooper, 2009).

2.2.3 Employee Assistance Programs

Employee assistance program can be defined as work-based intervention program designed to identify and assist employees in resolving personal problems (e.g., marital, financial or emotional issues; family issues; substance/alcohol abuse) that may be adversely affecting the employees’ performance. Employee assistance program plans are usually 100% paid by the employer and can include a wide array of other services, such as nurse lines, necessary legal assistance, and referrals, adoption assistance or assistance finding elder care services. Employee assistance services can be made available not only the employee but also to immediate family members or anyone living in their home. (SHRM, 2015).

Employers recognize that a holistic approach to wellness results in a happier, more productive employee. According to the Employee Assistance Professionals Association, an employee assistance program utilizes specific core technologies to enhance employee and workplace effectiveness through prevention, identification, and resolution of personal and productivity issues. An employee assistance program typically consists of a group of professionals, such as lawyers, therapists, counselors, and financial experts, who contract with an employer to provide advice and guidance to employees. EAPs help them address personal, non-work issues, and concerns that could affect their work life. Employee assistance programs (EAP) began in the 1940s by providing employee services that primarily focused on the effect of alcohol use and abuse on job performance.

Over time, this emphasis was broadened to include other personal issues that negatively affect job performance. The tremendous growth in EAP services began in the early 1970s. During that period, EAPs helped employers address a growing list of employee concerns and proactively deal with workplace problems that could lead to violence, physical and mental health issues or declining morale among workers. Today, the vast majority of Fortune 500 companies offer EAPs that deliver a variety of health and productivity services to improve organizational performance, as well as assist individual employees and their dependents. (Attridge, 2005).

Worsening health status and stagnating productivity are significant concerns of large employers nationwide. Some employers are experiencing alarming increases in absence rates due to the growing number of claims for short- and long-term disability and Family Medical Leave (FML). Stress is a significant concern for employers and managers, and mental health and substance-use conditions continue to be a leading cause of illness and lost productivity for most employers (Nkereuwem, 2006).

According to Roman (2005), factors such as mental health conditions, sleep problems, mental health stigma, and substance use and abuse affect business performance by reducing productivity and increasing both planned and unplanned absences. Many of these factors are either preventable or modifiable. While stress is known to affect fertility, few employers have found successful strategies to reduce the adverse effects of chronic stressors. Many employees experience damaging levels of stress due to problems they encounter in their home or work lives (Roman, 2005).

Today’s workforce faces many new causes of stress, including the economy, long commutes, the time and energy required to care for ailing parents or young families and the availability of new technologies that blur the line between work and home. Furthermore, common behavioral health conditions such as depression can negatively affect productivity. Depression itself can be life-threatening, but it may also increase an individual’s risk for developing common medical conditions such as heart disease. Two decades of research show that persons with depression are at a higher risk of developing heart disease than healthy persons. Left untreated, depression may have a negative impact on comorbid (co-occurring) disease outcomes and reduce an individual’s ability to comply with treatment. (Rees, 2005).

2.3 Empirical Literature Review

2.3.1 Work-life balance
Iqan, (2010) Conclude that a successful balance between work and non-work roles are beneficial for both employee and employer. And this balance in work and life domains enhances the quality of personal relationship and organizational outcomes. Work/life balance is a broad concept that encompasses prioritizing between work (including career and ambition) on the one hand, and life (including areas such as health, leisure, family, pleasure and spiritual development) on the other. There are also two critical concepts related to work/life balance – achievement and enjoyment (Bowman 2013).

According to Susi (2010), Work life balance is the drive for the satisfaction of employees. Many organizations feel the need for work-life balance which includes retention of the valuable workforce, reduces work-family conflict and reduces employee stress, job satisfaction, and better life balance. Work-life balance practices need to be supported and encouraged at workplace culture. Firm and supportive organizational culture increase employee intent to remain in the organization. Felicity, Asiedu, Appiah, (2013) concludes that work-life balance is essential in enhancing employee performance at work and home. Gender difference exists in work-life balance needs because work and non-work responsibilities are different for male and females. Some research results show that women demonstrated more need for work-life balance as compared to men. An individual derives satisfaction in life from work and family domains. Researches find that work balance practices affect the overall organization and individual performance.

Lockwood (2012) defines work-life balance as a managing work and personal responsibilities. Work-life programs require support from senior management. For work/life benefits in work environment, it is helpful to have a corporate culture that encourages employees to look at business in an entirely different way and supports and accepts employees as individuals with priorities beyond the workplace. Work-life balance programs increased employee motivation and productivity. The work-life environment is a concept that supports the efforts of employees to split their time and energy between work and the other essential aspects of their lives. A work-life environment is a daily effort to make time for family, friends, community participation, spirituality, personal growth, self-care, and other personal activities, in addition to the demands of the workplace. Organizations are social systems where human resources are the most critical factors for effectiveness and efficiency and need active managers and employees to achieve their objectives. Organizations cannot succeed without their efforts and commitment (Hobson, 2009).

Job satisfaction is critical to retaining and attracting well-qualified personnel. Exceptional organizations have leaders that create work environments where people can achieve work-life balance and well-being as they define it for themselves (Spinks, 2004). A satisfied workforce is essential for the success of organizations and their businesses. Dissatisfied employees make organizations dysfunctional, damaging their financial performance. Job satisfaction and work-life balance are more likely to drive employees to remain with their current employers than Work-life balance is assisted by employers who institute policies, procedures, actions, and expectations that enable employees to pursue more balanced lives easily. The pursuit of work-life balance reduces the stress employee experience. When they spend the majority of their days on work-related activities and feel as if they are neglecting the other essential components of their lives, stress and unhappiness result. Work-life balance enables employees to feel as if they are paying attention to all the crucial aspects of their lives.

Because many employees experience a personal, professional, and monetary need to achieve, work-life balance is challenging. Employers can assist employees to experience work-life balance by offering such opportunities as flexible work schedules, paid time off (PTO) policies, response time and communication expectations, and company-sponsored family events and activities. Managers are essential to employees seeking work-life balance. Managers who pursue work-life balance in their own lives model appropriate behavior and support employees in their pursuit of work-life balance. They create a work environment in which work-life balance is expected, enabled, and encouraged. They retain outstanding employees to whom work-life balance is essential (Spinks, 2004).

Literature shows that managers have a valuable role in encouraging employees to manage their work and life activities. A healthy relationship exists between work-life balance and employee satisfaction. Hence companies should make policies and programs for employees. Managers can apply different roles of work-life balance to manage employees work-life balance and provide success to the company (Rani 2011). When employees are not clear about their characters to be performed then employees are unable to meet organizational goals, and it also has an impact on their personal life and employees become dissatisfied towards their job and organization faces lack of effectiveness (Spearritt, 2010).

A study conducted in Pakistan by Nadeem and Abbas, (2009) on the relationship among work-life conflict and employee job satisfaction at all levels of the management in public and private organizations, showed that job satisfaction at top level of control has negative correlation with family to work interference, family to work intervention and stress and job satisfaction has positive relationship with job autonomy. Job satisfaction at the middle level of employees decreases when work-life conflict and pressure increases. Job satisfaction at the lower level of employees has a negative correlation with weight and family to work interference and positive relationship with job autonomy.

A study by Hanglberger (2010) on the effect of work-life balance, explicitly working hours on employees’ job satisfaction found a positive relationship between them. Gash, (2010) analyzed the same for women in the UK and Germany and the findings supported Hanglberger studies, showing a positive effect of reduced working hours on employees’ life satisfaction. Another study (Malik, 2010) was conducted in Pakistan to investigate the relationship between work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among medical professionals in hospitals.

The level of employees’ job satisfaction increases by many factors and when employees are satisfied with their work, they feel motivated (Noor, 2011). The demand of employees works life balance increased by a change in trends in the business such as a change in organizations structure, diversity of workforce and female employees working in organizations. Organizations should provide work-life balance facilities to their employees so that employees can perform their duties effectively and leads the organization to the success (Parvin and Kabir, 2011).
Another study by Dev 2012, conducted in India indicates that work-life balance is significantly correlated with job satisfaction in the service industry. It suggested that female employees should be given more facilities such as flexi-time, job sharing, child care, etc. to gain their organizational commitment. It was revealed that those doctors who are better in managing their work-life shows higher satisfaction with jobs and fewer turnover intentions. Job satisfaction has a negative correlation with work stress, family to work interference and work to family interference but have a positive relationship with the workload. Employees productivity is reduced, and their turnover and absenteeism are increased due do work-life strains, most of the institutions also complain that they cannot much facilitate their employees to balance their work and family responsibilities (Dev, 2012).

Fatima and Sahibzada (2012) carried out a study on work-life balance in the universities. They concluded that due to a heavy workloads in universities, staff become dissatisfied. Hence, higher learning institutions should develop strategies that could facilitate faculty needs to strike a balance between work and life activities to achieve a competitive advantage. A study was conducted by Maren, (2013) to analyze work-life balance and job satisfaction among teachers exposed a negative relationship between work-life conflicts and job satisfaction. study suggested that if organizations offer support and facilities to reduce work-life disputes, it will lead to improvement in employees job satisfaction. Chahal, (2013) proposed to increase the effectiveness of the employee’s, bank should do timely appraisal for their staff and encourage them to work hard because satisfied employees are the reason for the success of the the organizations.Cases where employees are happy with their jobs, they became loyal and committed to the organization. Saleem, (2013) say that organization should make strategies and policies that will help employees to have a clear understanding regarding their job tasks and objectives and if employees are not satisfied with their job they will not pay attention to their work and will not make customers happy.

2.4 Summary of Literature

Konrad and Mangel, (2000), found no relationship between a composite measure of work-life initiatives and productivity. However, while there is not substantial evidence for the universalistic approach for work-life policies regarding their effects on job performance; Perry, Smith, and Blum (2000), provide evidence for the configuration approach. Specifically, organizations with a greater range of work-family policies (including leave policies, traditional dependent care, and less conventional dependent care) had higher organizational performance, market performance, and profit-sales growth.

Furthermore, the research has been dominated by North American and North European academics. This reflects the fact that the contemporary debate is partly about affluence and its consequences and according to Crompton (2006), Work-Life Balance may be a misleading phrase as it implies that employees.

It is also argued that the conceptualization of work-life balance is not applicable to all types of people, for certain low-income workers the concept of work-life balance may be unthinkable if they must struggle to find enough work to make ends meet (DeBruin and Dupuis, 2004). Employees may work more extended hours because flexible working arrangements increase their availability for work and reduce their commuting time, or because they are exchanging leisure time for flexibility. There is also ambiguity around the definition of work. The term work often refers to paid employment but may also relate to that which includes unpaid work at home and in the community (Eby, 2005). Greenhaus,(2003) have also questioned the apparent assumptions that work-family balance always leads to favorable outcomes since according to them this is an empirical question which has not yet been firmly answered due to different definitions of work-family balance.

Additionally, the use of family-friendly provisions such as regular leave entitlements, flexibility, and part-time work may inadvertently indicate less career commitment, reducing the likelihood of career progression (Hosking and Western, 2008). While the part-time job is likely to mitigate general experiences of work-life conflict, it is also widely observed that part-time hours often involve work that is lower paid and less secure, involving less autonomy and skill discretion (Bardoel, 2007). Hence, reduced hours may improve work-life outcomes, but other important aspects of job quality, opportunity, and financial security are substantially reduced.

2.5 Research Gap
Researcher(s) The focus of the Study Research Gap
Beauregard Henry (2009) Linkeeing work-life balance practices and organizational performance These scholars have concentrated their studies in the developed countries; it is with this in mind that this study will attempt to fill this gap by addressing work-life balance and employees performance in the service industry in Kenya.
Mordi, (2011) The extent to which work-life balance policies/practices are a reality for employees in the banking sector The study sought to establish the levels of awareness of the availability of work-life balance policies in the banking sector in Nigeria. It thus does not look at the effect these policies have on the performance of employees. This study will, therefore, seek to fill these gaps.
Lilian, Menezes, and Kelliher (2011)
Flexible working arrangements, work-related outcomes, and employee outcomes
The study looked at a performance at the organizational level, and individual level which mostly inferred large surveys done making it secondary data hence mixed findings reported. Generalizing the results is, therefore, a problem for this study.
Gillian and Marilyn(2004) Connections between macro, organizational and individual levels of WLB policy and practice in the UK Carried seven case studies–five in the public sector and two in the voluntary sector. They found a connection between organizational and individual levels tregarding mutuality in both needs and benefits are arguably necessary for the eactive development and implementation of WLB. While this study recognizes the connectivity of organizational and individual levels in the use of WLB practices it does not concentrate on these connections but n the effect of these practices on the performance of employees. This study seeks to investigate this in Kenyan companies as opposed to the UK with specific WLB practices under scrutiny.
Lockwood(2003) Work-life balance: Challenges and solutions in the USA Identifies three factors-global competitions, personal lives/family values, and an aging workforce–as present challenges that impair work-life balance. Suggests that companies capitalize on factors by using work/life initiatives to gain a competitive advantage in the market. Recognizes the importance of organizational culture in the use of work-life balance practices, but did not point out the role it plays on the performance of employees when specific WLB practices are used. This study sought to address this and focus on specific WLB practices and how they affect the performance of employees in the service sector in the developing countries context
Qazi, Koh and Huang, Khoo(2011)

Flexible work arrangements, child care facilities, employee support schemes, perceived supervisor support

The study used hierarchical regression analysis indicating that both perceived availability and utilization of work-life initiatives were positively related to job satisfaction, commitment and negatively associated with turnover intentions. The questionnaire was developed from scales developed by other researchers and was tested for content validity and clarity by 20 subject experts; this is a large number which is useful for any research. The study suggested a further investigation to incorporate moderating and mediating variables such as gender differences and perceived organizational support.

2.6 Conceptual Framework

Independent variables Dependent variable

Source: Author, 2018

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Nowadays as it is seen in our country, the rise of fuel gas has been increasing irrelevantly due to the bad state of economy of our motherland is going through. Not just to be seen through the increase of fuel gas, an issue that is now raising up top notch today also includes the unemployed university graduates in Malaysia. As how it is to be seen, there are numbers of graduates and undergraduates who are going through hardship of getting a secure place in a workstation. As how it is known, “the global population has been negatively affected by the deep recession of ensuring of prolonged and shallow”, Dian Hikmah Mohd Ibrahim & Zaidi Muhyddis, 2015.
Also, it may not be noticed by the people around, but this issue of unemployment of university graduates has a rate which approximate 3 times in global youth unemployment of adult, more than twice the overall global unemployment rate. Unemployment rates for young graduates also tend to be higher than non-graduates. As how it the topic is about unemployment of university graduates, it is meant to be brought out about how terrible the economy is doing at the moment that links to the unemployment of university graduates. The unemployment of university graduates are caused by some reasons which happens to increase the rate of unemployment.
The increase rate of unemployment are caused by a few factors that leads to the rise of the issue, as the factors can come from both parties which are the employers and also the future employees. Generally in today’s world, the quantity of people are increasing in a way where it does not tally with the quality that they have to offer for future life. As for example, there are group of people who graduate but did not graduate with quality- which means they finish studying for the sake of finishing and not to be prepared for their future.

One of the main reason why there are many unemployed university graduates is because of “the lack of professional connections”, Alyssa Davis, 2014. It is true that professional connections brings out the better side of an individual as it personally show the way an individual connect with another. Connections are important as it is also defined as first impression or judgement that also affect the individual after a get to know session.
Other than just lack of professional connections, the reason why there are still people who are unemployed is because they are lack of experience. Lack of experience point can be blamed on both sides of the parties of employers and future employees. Many company and employers now tend to search for graduates who graduated not only with good grades but also with good and long experience. Heidi, 2014 mentioned too that the causes of graduates unemployment is due to the graduates who do not have any practical experience of work.
As how it is said by Will Kimball, 2014, “unskilled and inexperienced workers such as fresh university graduates will suffer unemployment due to the fact that most employers will be looking for professional workers with a certain set of working skills to maintain the company performance during recession”, is also a factor as only some university graduates who are lucky to have working experience while studying but it is not to all students who have practical experience to work. It is well known that not all study majors includes practical work that accessible students to right away get the experience of working right after graduating university. This indirectly shows how employers do not believe in the graduate’s ability.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Last but not least, another bizarre reason that causes unemployment among graduates is the stability of the company itself. Some companies goes through hard times by struggling to keep up with today’s economy to maintain their reputation and rankings in the business market. But however, the downslope of some company is “Employers are cutting costs, and when you cut costs, one of the first thing you look at is your hiring policy”, Shamsudin Bardan, 2017.

2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The unemployment among graduates in Malaysia has reached to a state where it is worrying to the future graduates who are still studying. However, not only in Malaysia unemployment is an issue but it goes to the same way to the countries around the world especially to developing countries with enormous population. Companies and firms that closes down happens to effect the rate of unemployment and then affect the supply the labour market- Nazaria; 2003: Working paper of Unemployed Graduates Pre and Post 1997.
Unemployment rate among graduates in Malaysia is chosen as because this particular issue is roaming around the nations and it effects the current employees and the future employees of the country. An important issue like this should stop be considered as a small issue that can be solved in a day. As it is to be seen, unemployment affects the future of employers and employees, and how it is viewed right now, it also gives an effect to the economy of the country as the higher the rate of unemployment in a country like Malaysia, the higher the chances of downfall of the country’s economy. As an example, fresh graduates has fresh and brilliant ideas to change and to step up a company’s target and reputation.
As how it is not noticeable by the people today, the cause of unemployment among graduates in Malaysia is because of the consumption, investment, government, and spending. As for example, it can be seen as how these four factors connect to each other as in consumption wise, “the rate of unemployment is a valuable measure of aggerate income uncertainty- an increase in income uncertainty would be expected to increase savings”, Jim Malley and Thomson Moutos, 1996. However, some countries have their own unemployment benefits, but sadly in Malaysia, Malaysia does not have any unemployment benefits system but the government has prepared a several types of welfare benefit system.

3.0 OBJECTIVES
As in this topic of unemployment among graduates in Malaysia, there are three (3) objectives selected for this study.
The first objective is to investigate the factors of unemployment among university graduates in Malaysia. In connection to topic itself, it can be seen that there are a few factors that causes the reason of unemployment which is lack of professional connections, lack of practical experience and also the economy stability of the country.
Next, the second objective is to study the impact of unemployment among graduates in Malaysia on social institution. Briefly, the impact of unemployment among graduates in Malaysia can be seen as an impact to the social institution is because without fresh newcomers into a society, a society would not get broader and glowing ideas for the future.
Lastly, the objective is to study any other related issue of unemployment impact on society. As this issue of unemployment among graduates in Malaysia has a wide scope, there are many other issues that is related with it such as the future of a country and the people who will lead the country.

x

Hi!
I'm Piter!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out