1. Identify some of the problems likely to occur in a boundaryless organization such as Newskool Grooves. What are the advantages of boundaryless organizations?
A few issues that have happened at the Kiev workplaces, directors they said that their PC software engineers discover working with little structure is awkward. They are utilized to the possibility of a solid initiative structure and all-around characterized work forms.
Endeavoring to achieve collaborators in different workplaces who rehearse boundary-less association has turned into an issue for a few chiefs. They said that when they call the workplace they say to hold up until their gathering day which is an issue since they have a prompt issue and can’t simply hold up until the point when they choose to get together.
Engineers dealing with equipment in various areas had a correspondence breakdown which required numerous long periods of exchange to determine which could have been stayed away from if they were all on a similar track. The engineers rarely met up close and personal and all gained ground however every one of them moved in a few bearings with the item advancement.
Preferences of boundaryless associations:
Boundaryless association associations convey primarily through email, telephone and other virtual techniques instead of more customary eye to eye correspondence. The opportunity to telecommunicate with global representatives evacuates land boundaries to profitability and considers plan adaptability. By sorting out master representatives in gatherings and giving them basic leadership expert, these can change rapidly to address issues and capacities effectively in a poorly characterized progressive system.
Representatives never again work in detachment yet function as a piece of a group on load up, far reaching ventures, quality administration, without a moment to spare techniques, lean generation, and inventory network administration, reports US lawful. To be effective, you should feel great in a disorderly free frame work put and have a simplicity of working with individuals to organize the inconceivable measure of systems administration required. At the point when representatives oversee and arrange their very own activities, it cultivates a feeling of pride in the capacity to change and meet the requests of the circumstance encouraging a solid hard-working attitude.
2. Consider some of the cultural issues that will affect a company operating in various parts of the world. What actions would you take to ensure that Newskool’s different offices work effectively with one another?
In the boundaryless organization, headquarter in Berlin, Germany, structure outsourcing organization in Kiev, Ukraine, advertising in Los Angeles, such huge numbers of deferent representatives with various societies are all team up cooperating to accomplish authoritative objectives. Representatives are additionally exceptionally various in qualities, identity, and work inclinations which are profound level decent variety. Some social issues that are delicate in will ascend in the work put and make repulsive things among representatives. They probably won’t cooperate well as they will have a battling in the basic leadership.
A decent research in understanding different organic trademark like sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, age or inability, will better the surface level assorted variety. All representatives are inventive and get a kick out of the chance to acknowledge challenges. Along these lines, in this comparable identity and work inclinations, they ought to be underlined in working with others as a group. Preparing for group working with various societies individuals will be very imperative.
Taking a gander at the contentions in Newskool like the challenges in the basic leadership and workers battling to improve contrast with the others. it requires investment to the organization to accompany one choice as every one of the workers can partake in basic leadership. Individuals that are so various will propose diverse arrangements, mirroring their distinctive societies. Possibly it will regard have a legitimate discourse in basic leadership and just couple of administrators can have the power in basic leadership in exchange.
It’s anything but an element of various sort of work individuals must perform. As people from various regions or divisions can contribute their conclusions and ides in a similar work that require one choice. Another contention will be wastefulness. Indeed, extraordinary individuals must perform diverse assignment in their associations, however Newskool is boundaryless. Whenever Gerd, the organizer And the President does not fulfill, he requests that his representatives re-try work assignments. It will cause a loss in assets as Gerd see something uniquely in contrast to his different representatives. In some cases, it regards have pecking order as individuals can know who to allude, which office to work et cetera. This contention is an element of various kinds of work individuals must performed. The representatives that are at some point so overwhelming and think their works are right. Decline to tune in to Gerd and get things done by their own specific manners.
3. Based on what you know about motivation, personality, and organizational culture, what types of people are likely to be satisfied in each functional area of the company? Use concepts from the job characteristics model to describe what might need to change to increase employee satisfaction in all areas.
Sorts of individuals are probably going to be fulfilled are capable, on edge, enabled and open people. This in view of self proficiency theory; this hypothesis alludes to a people conviction that he or she is fit for performing errands. individuals who groups self effectiveness trust that they are able in carrying on in a way that create that result they need. in Newskool Groovers their representatives are partake in basic leadership and choice and advancement, innovative and capable individuals.
Points of interest:
Limit less association can accomplish more noteworthy incorporation and co-appointment they can adjust in natural changes.
Drawbacks:
It very well may be hard to conquer political and specialist limits. it tends to be tedious to deal with the law-based procedure to co-ordinate the endeavors of many partners.
Focal points of system structures:
1. creation cost lessened through accomplices with bring down expense.
2. high bureaucratic expense stayed away from with a level structure.
3. natural authoritative conduct:
Disservices of system structure:
1. coordination issues rise, trailed by absence of cost decrease and enhanced quality
2.difficulty in supplanting accomplices and keeping restrictive data from contenders.
3. trouble in getting continuous figuring out how to fabricate center capabilities.
outsourcing offers expanded adaptability and decrease cost. planning and hierarchical structure is an undeniably complex administration movement

1. Bill Gates founded Microsoft in 1975.
2. William Henry Gates III is the real name of Bill Gates.
3. He said to his teachers that he would be millionaire at the age of 30.
4. Bill Gates became a billionaire at the age of 31.
5. It was estimated that Bill earns $ 250 per second.
6. If Bill Gates gives each person on Earth fifteen dollars, then also he will be left with 5 million more.
7. Bill Gates was one of the top richest person in the world.
8. The net worth of Bill Gates is more than $91 billion.
9. He wrote his first computer program tic-tac-toe on his school computer.
10. As a teen, he hacked into school computer and changed the class schedule code, and placed himself with mostly female interesting girls.
11. At the age 17, Gates sold his first computer program, a timetable system for his high school for which he pocketed a $4,200.
12. He graduated from Lakeside School, US.
13. He scored 1590 out of 1600 on his SATs.
14. He went to Harvard in 1973 but after two years he left Harvard to chase his dreams.
15. After dropout from college he and his childhood friend Paul Allen continue to form software for new generation computer and the company was called Micro-soft.
16. In 2007, he earned the honorary degree from Harvard University.
17. In 1977, Bill Gates got arrested for driving without license.
18. During his teenage years he read the whole World ‘Book Encyclopedia’.
19. Bill Gates got married in 1994 with Melinda Gates.
20. Melinda Gates was subordinate at Microsoft.
21. Bill Gates is a father of three children.
22. Business Adventures by John Brooks is his all-time favorite book.
23. Harvard teachers have different views about Bill Gates, they says- ‘he is a good programmer but a terrible person.’
24. In 2010, Bill Gates and Warren Buffet founded a foundation called ‘The Giving Pledge’. It is joined by world’s billionaire and they donate at least half of their earnings to the foundation for philanthropic causes.

25. He is the CEO of ‘Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’.
26. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation donated around $31.1 billion.
27. The foundation works to save life, create awareness, to fight against diseases like malaria and polio and to spread education.
28. At Microsoft, gates used to memorize the license plates of each employee.
29. Bill Gates says that his children will inherit only 10 million dollars each.
30. Bill gates read 50 books a year.
31. He has Gold Card for unlimited fast food from McDonald.
32. In 1994 he purchased Leonardo da Vinci’s Codex Leicester for $30 million US.
33. According to him there will be no poor countries by 2035.
34. If Bill Gates spends $1millon in a day, it would take 218 years to complete spend all his money.
35. Bill Gates and Steve Jobs relations were not good but when Steve Jobs was dying, he kept a letter on his bed side.
36. Bill gates’ foundation spend more money every year on world’s health then WHO.
37. Bill Gates says that he will appoint a lazy person to do the work because they will find the easiest way to finish the work early.
38. Bill Gates sold most of the shares of Microsoft to other shareholders.
39. In 2013, Bill gates admitted that Ctrl+Alt+Del was a mistake.
40. He once said that by 2004 spammed email messages problems would be finished.
41. His net worth is 4.5 times more than North Korea’s GDP.
42. in 2005, Gates was knighted by Queen Elizabeth of England with the KBE Order for his charity and contributions.
43. If Bill Gates was country and it would be 37th richest country in the world.
44. When Bill Gates net worth rise dot $101 billion, the media created a new title ‘centibillionaire’ for him.
45. He pays $1 million tax for his house.
46. At the time of his marriage to avoid paparazzi, he rented all the helicopters that can fly over hotel.
47. He booked all the 250 rooms of the hotel where the marriage ceremony was happening.
48. He doesn’t allow any Apple products for usage of the kids and his wife.
49. Bill Gates is a huge fan of Porsche cars, even his first car was Porsche 911.
50. ‘Do not die’ is in the bucket list of Bill Gates.
51. Bill Gates said that he would never release 32bit version of windows but they did it in 1992.
52. Another false prediction of Bill Gates was 640 KB of RAM is enough for the user.
53. In 1997 Bill Gates invested $ 150 million in Apple.
54. In 209, he acquired the rights of Feynman lectures, so that he can put in online and others can learn.
55. In 2014 he resigned from CEO of Microsoft and he is on the Board of Directors.
56. He is the founder of Corbis Corporation, board member of Icos Corporation and he is involved in many more.
57. Bill Gates is author of many books.
58. His great-grandfather was a legislator and mayor, grandfather – vice-president of the State Bank of the State, and his father – a free lawyer.
59. Bill Gates said that internet is not a good idea but soon he corrects himself.
60. Bill Gates saved millions of lives by sponsoring the purchase of vaccines and improving health of the people.

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1. What are the corporate business, and individual ethical issues raised by this case?

There are different ethical issues that are mentions in this case and the main issue is child slavery. Corporate ethical issue are seen in this case, different corporate are part of child slavery such as:
? Chocolate Manufactures: they were aware of the slavery happening in the lvory Coast, because they are the ones that buy directly from the farmers. Chocolate manufactures companies like Hershey’s, Twix, Nestle and others, they continue to use the chocolate beans from the middleman. Moreover, these companies fund the establishment of certification system but was reported that the system is unprogressive. (bill)
? Law: are not enforced and there is shortage of enforcement officers. There is widespread of poverty and local officials accept bribes from the slave supplier. All of these problems led to the increase child slavery in lvory coast.
? Middlemen: The names of ADM Co., Barry Callebaut and Cargill Inc., serves as middlemen which they are key part of this industry. They took advantage of the farmers’ inability to provide their trucks to transport the cocoa, who buy the cocoa beans from farmers at half the current market price. After that they grind, process them then sell the processed cocoa to the chocolate manufactures.
? Market price: the drop in the price of cocoa beans, the farmer have to use slavery as a way to suppress the profit loss and their survival.

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Furthermore, individuals are also part of ethical issues that is related to child slavery such as:
? Farmers: It is illegal to perform the children slavery, also it against the human rights if we force someone to do something unwillingly. Farmers are physically abusing the children. Force them to do tough tasks, work from sunrise to sunset, they sleep on bare wooden planks. Because of the farmers each year unknown number of children are die or killed.
? Traffickers: they are the ones that kidnapped the young children’s then sell them to farmers to work as salves. They are part of this ethical issue.
? Consumer: they were aware of child slavery, buying product from these companies in somehow they continued patronization of the product causes the problem to still exist.

2. In your view, is the kind of child slavery discussed in this case absolutely wrong no matter what, or is it only relatively wrong (i.e., if one happens to live in a society such as ours that disapproves of child slavery)? Explain your view and why you hold it.

In my opinion, child slavery is absolutely wrong in this case. Although the child slavery is illegal. Children didn’t have personal freedom right. Farmers have treated children in a hasty manner, beaten and starved children to force them to do hard work. Children work from sunrise to sunset, they sleep on bare wooden boards. Every year, unknown numbers of these children die or killed at Choco farms.

( if one happens to live in a society such as ours that disapproves of child slavery)

3. Who shares in the moral responsibility for the slavery occurring in the chocolate industry?
Everybody in this case who knows that this slavery is happening is responsible even just a little portion of it.
• Farmers: implement the slavery method against the children, they know that they shouldn’t do it and it is illegal. Instead of preventing child slavery they continually doing it. The worse part that they are abusing the children.
• African government: are also part is sharing the moral responsibility because they have the control over lvory Coast and they knew about child slavery but doesn’t enforces law to stop it. Also the African government accept bribes.
• Middleman: who buy the slavery made product and sell the processed cocoa to the chocolate manufactures.
• Chocolate companies: are moral responsible, since they are aware of the nature of the cocoa farms. They control over the grievance therefore, they can pressure the farmers to stop child slavery. On the other hand, they didn’t act until this was reveal to all.
• Consumers: who knows the company names and that child slavery happened behind the production, but still bought their product.

4. Consider the bill that Representative Engel and Senator Harkin attempted to enact into a law, but which never became a law because of the lobbying efforts of the chocolate companies. What does this incident show about the view that “to be ethical it is enough for businesspeople to follow the law”?

As it was mentioned in the case, chocolate companies declared that they knew about child slavery issue in Lvory Coast before it was publicizing. As an ethical action they should do something to stop it but no. they didn’t take any action and their aim was to get cocoa beans in low prices.
In 2001 Representative Engel and Senator Harkin introduced a bill, this bill would lead companies to label their product stating that “slave-free”. For the companies to have positive ethical image it will be great to label that but it come with huge responsibility. Companies claims that they don’t know where and whom they buy from. Therefore they resisted to the bill. If the law proposed by Representative Engle and Senator Harkin was being official, then the business of chocolate industry in America would cease and impacted the cocoa business all over the world.
According to my understanding, that not passing this bill shows that if laws aren’t broken then they are free to do what please them in the best interest of their. Beside that this statement “to be ethical it is enough for businesspeople to follow the law”. It is wrong because business people follow the law, but not all of them are ethical. As it shown in the case chocolate companies follow the law but they are unethical with the problem of child slavery. The purpose of a business is maximize the profits, and to raise the company value. To achieve their goals company use any necessary moves under the law. To end this I can say business people don’t care about humanity but only about profit oriented.

1. The name Alaska is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the northernmost state of the US.
3. Alaska is the largest state of all the states of United States and contains one-fifth of the entire land area of the US.
4. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress declared Alaska as the 49th state.
5. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
6. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air; it is the only capital of the US state without land communication.
7. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
8. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement onThree Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
9. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
10. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
11. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
12. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
13. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
14. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
15. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
16. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
17. The flag of Alaska was drawn by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and he won.
18. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
19. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
20. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
21. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
22. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
23. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different languages.
24. Alaska has the lowest population density in comparison to all the other states.
25. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
26. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
27. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
28. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
29. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
30. Of the 20 highest peaks in the United States, 17 are in Alaska
31. During the Klondike gold rush in 1897, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
32. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
33. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
34. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
35. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
36. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
37. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
38. America’s largest national forest is the Tongass.
39. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
40. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
41. The Northern Lights can be seen in Fairbanks 243 days a year.
42. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
43. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
44. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
45. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
46. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
47. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline moves up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
48. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
49. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
50. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
51. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
52. in Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
53. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
54. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
55. The economy of Alaska is based on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, fishing and tourism.
56. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
57. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
58. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
59. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
60. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
61. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.
1.

1. East Germany started constructing a wall on August 13th, 1961.
2. After the defeat of Germany in World War II, Germany was divided into 4 zones and it was controlled by 4 Allied powers.
3. West Germany was controlled by France, Great Britain, and America.
4. The Soviet Union controlled East Germany.
5. The capital of Germany, Berlin was also divided into East and West Berlin.
6. The main reason behind the construction of Berlin wall was to stop East Germans moving to West German
7. After construction of Berlin wall, even the subways were divided.
8. Before construction of the wall, the West Germans were allowed to visit East with a permit in advance.
9. In 1961, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev approved the construction of the wall.
10. The east side of the wall was not covered in graffiti but West side was.
11. Despite the construction of the wall, there were several checkpoints that allowed people to visit another side.
12. The Berlin Wall was 155 kilometers long.
13. The wall was about 11 to 13 feet high.
14. The wall divided the Berlin for 28 years and a day.
15. At first, the wall was just a barbed wire fence. Then it turned into a concrete wall.
16. The Berlin Wall was thought as the cruelty of Soviets, they had control over the people of East Berlin and their willingness to shoot at people they thought were traitors.
17. The wall was known as ‘Iron Curtain’.
18. The wall literally divided Europe into democracy and communism.
19. Charlie Checkpoint was the most famous crossing point and is still famous for the museum.
20. After the construction of the wall, about 5,000 people tried to escape.
21. It is estimated that 138 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall.
22. Before the construction of the wall, 3.5 million East Germans fled to West Germany.
23. Many segments of the wall are given in different institutions around the world.
24. East Germany adopted the currency of West Germany On July 1st, 1990.
25. The construction was started overnight. In the morning when people woke up there was wire fence dividing the Berlin.
26. In 1979, a Swedish woman married to the Berlin Wall.
27. For two years, starting in 2010, a memorial complex “Berlin Wall” was built.
28. About 28 million euros were invested in the creation of the memorial.
29. In 1963, West Germany tried to destroy the wall with a tank but failed.
30. Athlete Usain Bolt, who set his fantastic world record in Germany, received as a gift a piece of the Berlin Wall weighing.
31. There were 20 bunkers and 302 observatory towers on Berlin Wall.
32. The pieces of Berlin Wall were sold on eBay.
33. If West Berliners want to get rid of anything they used to throw it on the other side of the wall.
34. In 1989 the border of Hungary was opened which made the route of escape to Austria for East Germans.
35. The last person who died in process of crossing the wall was escaping in the hot air balloon.
36. November 9th, 1989, was the date known for the demolition of Berlin wall.
37. The Berlin Wall actually had two walls. There is an area of 160 yards between two walls and there were watchtowers, guard dog runs, tripwire machine gums and many more.
38. The Soviets added thousands of machine gun inside the Wall to control the people of East from escaping.
39. The demolition of wall started when East German Politburo member Guenther Schabowski, mistakenly announces that we will demolish the wall immediately.
40. David Bowie performed on the West Berlin wall and all the east side people were listening him through wall. He addressed them from the stage: “We convey our best wishes to all our friends on the other side of the Wall!
41. At the fall of the wall, travel restrictions were immediately lifted, sparking an instant mass migration of thousands of people.
42. In the year 1989, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher requested Soviet President to stop the demolition of Berlin wall.
43. One notable escape was in 1963 by Horst Klein, an East German acrobat who used a high-tension cable to tightrope over the wall, well above the heads of the patrolling guards.
44. Actual demolition started on June 13th, 1990 and from 9th November 1989 and June 13th, 1990 the wall was guarded.
45. An East German soldier drove the tank to escape the wall in 1963.
46. In the first two years of the wall’s existence, more than 1,300 desperate guards escaped their oppressed lives and duties by fleeing to the west.
47. 98 people were shot or killed when they were trying to escape through wall.
48. The demolition of the wall also ended Cold War.
49. East and West Germany were reunited On October 3, 1990.
50. Present time, two rows of cobblestones are set along the Berlin wall in the Berlin.

1. An Open Society Should Have Open Borders.
All over the news, politians, citizens and news journalists believe the U.S. immigration system is broken. If this current system of cutting off immigrats via wall is broken, new solutions should be considered. Manufactured goods are exchanged across borders due to the North American Free Trade Agreement. However, repercussions of this made millions of Mexicans unemployed and they weren’t able to cross the border to search for a new job here.
The United States can learn from Europe and how well its countries harmonize. Europe opened many of its borders which then improved the economy of the countries that immigrants When the European Union was created, effectively allowing the free movement of EU citizens across the common market’s borders; countries once known for their high output of immigrants, like Spain, Portugal and Ireland, became immigrant-receiving countries.
The U.S. spends more on border enforcement than on all other federal law enforcement agencies combined. Americans are proud of their country’s history of harboring Irish families fleeing famine in the late 19th century, as well as Jewish refugees from World War II. Why not refugees from Mexico and Central America?

1) Astrology is not considered a science as it does not have explanatory power to describe the universe. Science requires following strict principles known as scientific method but astrology does not follow this method. Astrology is a matter of chance; if it would be science, we could get the precise, accurate and specific information. According to Popper’s criticism on naive empiricist astrology is a pseudo-empirical, it can be experimented and observed but it does not conforming to scientific standards.
3) Let me give an overview of research process in my understanding: firstly, we need to identify research topic what I want to find about. Then, we define the research problem and set the research question. We already know what is known about this topic but what remains to be known?! Therefore, we try to define the relation that questions emerge with the topic of interest. At the next level, we try to determine how to conduct this research. It means, I need to find the way how to answer the questions. So, what information do I need to answer the questions – is the information collection level of research process. Information analysis and interpretation level is what I managed to find by using methods, tools and techniques to collect and analyze information. At the end, I write my research paper in the form of report, journal, article, thesis or dissertation. I need to summarize the information I found in the applicable for me form.
4) Karl Popper is the prominent proponent of the theory-then-research strategy. He claims that there is a progress in science when conjectures are produced first and then disprove them through empirical research. This means that our research is guided by our theoretical proposition. Data should be collected so that theory can be tested. While the proponent of research-then-theory strategy, Robert Merton argues that this strategy creates new problem for theory that constructs new theoretical formulations which means that through piecing together the explanation and understanding, we make up a theory.
5) An ecological fallacy is an assumption of those relationships apply at a group level also apply at an individual level. For example. My friend is from Japan. He is the most intelligent person I have ever seen. This means people from Japan tend to be highly intelligent but that does not mean that everyone from Japan is intelligent. He does not seem intelligent just because he is from Japan.
6) A relationship observed between two variables that is not consequence of any direct relationship but is incorrectly appeared to be related to each other due to the role of third variable, the fact is called a spurious relationship. For example: if we take Asian Americans, 60% of people between 25 and 29 have already completed college. While the rate of white people is 40%, the rate of black people is much less just 23%. While looking at this picture, we can consider that race has an impact on educational attainment. This is an example of spurious relationship where race does not have an effect but it is racism that mediates the relationship between two variables.
11) Confidence interval is the amount of uncertainty a sample population estimate (the mean or proportion) of a true population. If we want to determine the average age of victims of robbery in Azerbaijan, we can say 30 years old. However, the best is to define interval of true answer that lays in 20-40 years old. The Confidence interval is a sample mean or proportion plus or minus to calculate upper limit and lower limit of sample statistics. In this case, upper limit is 40, lower limit is 20. Before calculating, we should choose either 90%, 95% or 99% of confidence level. This is amount of uncertainty. The true population will be presented in 90%, 95% or 99% of all sample estimated CI. it also means that 10%, 5% or 1% would not contain true population score. Then we keep going to calculate CI by using mean.
12) Longitudinal study is a research design that deals with the collection and analysis of data over period of time. Longitudinal research design tracks the same variables that are growing, developing or changing over long or short period of time. for instance. For example: If we experiment changes for George W. Bush on the pre and post 2000 election surveys and the pre and post 2002 election surveys. The question is: how respondents felt toward George W. Bush as a result of the election?
13) Validity and reliability are the most important elements of quality of test. Validity is about providing strong evidence: what do we measure? Are we measuring what we wish to measure? Reliability is repeatability and consistency of questions. What characteristics are measured and how well?
Questions are indicators, so we should ensure a variety of question types. They can be either open ended or multiple choices. If the questions are open ended it means they are more valid than reliable, on the contrary if they are multiple choices, it means they are more reliable than valid.
14) In order to transform concept of terrorism into a variable, we need to operationalize concept firstly, and go through the process of identifying indicators and then variables. In other words, we can transform concept into variables directly or through indicators. Concept of Terrorism is caused by many possible reasons. I am going to identify multiple indicators that cause a terrorism. Terrorism can be observed both in rich and poor countries regardless type of government. From my perspective, root causes of terrorism are economic factors (variables: social inequality, economic sanctions, unemployment), political factors (variables: government repression, human rights) and social factors (variables: human development, religion). Therefore, terrorism is dependent variable. We know more reasons that lead to terrorism than how terrorism influence on other factors.
15) It is hypothesized that battered/coerced women violence is accepted as a justification for self-defense in homicide cases over the past decade. In my hypothesis, it is the conjecture of the relationship between variables. It is valid because it is falsifiable and may undergo changes until research progresses.
18) Operationalization is part of the empirical research process. For example: how to measure rationality in international relations: Does rationality have an impact in international relations? The importance of conceptualism and their relationship are important. So, both concepts rationality and international relations are to be measured. Thus, empirical research question should be operationalized before the data collection.

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