1. Abstract

Corporate governance is understood as a system of governance of companies. At present, it is becoming an essential component of modern corporations which can determine the success or failure of companies. Due to this, in the age of corporations, countries in the world have started to look seriously the governance of companies which operate in its land. There are various forms for foreign companies to operate business in Ethiopia. Establishing a branch of foreign company is one of such forms in order to operate business in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, branches of foreign companies are highly engaged in various business sectors.

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The Ethiopian legal regime concerning branches of foreign companies has insufficient provisions on some governance aspects of such companies. With the absence of sufficient laws, there will be multifaceted impacts on those parties or stakeholders having various dealings with branches of foreign companies in Ethiopia. Such stakeholders include, but not limited to, creditors, the government, employees, customers of the branch foreign companies and the public in general.

This thesis is concerned with investigating corporate governance of branches of foreign companies operating in Ethiopia. It tries to identify major problems in the Ethiopian law relating to governance of branches of foreign companies. Such problems would have tremendous negative consequences in the future unless required measures are taken to correct the problems. Hence, the thesis is intended to inform the stakeholders, particularly, the government to make reform of laws and other kinds of measures.

1.1 Background and motivation for this work
This thesis is part of an Industrial PhD done within REESBE (Resource-Efficient Energy Systems in the Built Environment). This thesis was performed at the company Solarus Sunpower Sweden AB in Gävle, Sweden.
This work was aimed at detailing the scientific principles behind the Solarus concentrating photovoltaic-thermal (C-PVT) solar collector, which is a design with unique features. A better understanding of its own product will help the company to improve its product while, at the same, the knowledge generated will increase the scientific understanding on the issues around C-PVT panels and hopefully support future researchers in this topic.
1.2 Aims and Research Questions
The research questions include both broader solar aspects and very specific questions about C-PVT solar collectors:
1. How is the annual energy output ratio between PV and T collector varying around the world?
2. What are the most important parameters that define a concentrating PVT collector?
3. What type of reflector geometry is the most adequate for a stationary low concentration factor C-PVT?
4. What type of cell string layout is most adequate for a stationary low concentration factor C-PVT?
5. Is there good agreement between the results of the outdoor testing with the simulations in LTSPICE and raytracing Tonatiuh?
6. Which combination of materials and production processes allows silicone solar cells to resist the expansion of aluminum at stagnation temperatures of 200C?
1.3 Limitations

1.4 List of appended papers and author´s contribution

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7 papers were selected for the thesis.

Paper I: Gomes J., Junge J., Lehmann T. et Karlsson B. Defining An Annual Energy Output Ratio Between Solar Thermal Collectors And Photovoltaic Modules. Presented at IAHS Conference, 2016. Conference proceeding. Planned to be deepened and submitted to a journal in 2018.
Key Message: A new tool for comparison of T and PV technologies and market overview.
Author contribution: 90%. The author wrote the paper and did most of the work. The world maps, part of the market survey and some of the simulations were performed by Ms Junge and Ms Lehmann.

Paper II: Gomes J., Diwan L., Bernardo R. et Karlsson B. Minimizing the Impact of Shading at Oblique Solar Angles in a Fully Enclosed Asymmetric Concentrating PVT Collector. Presented at ISES Solar Conference 2013. Published in peer review Energy Procedia, Volume 57, 2014, p. 2176-2185 (Impact factor 1.16). Available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.184
Key Message: Analysis of the impact of shading in an asymmetric low concentration stationary PVT which including collector testing at two universities.
Author contribution: 85%. The author wrote the paper and did the majority of the work. Part of the collector testing work was conducted at Dalarna University by Mr Diwan with support from the author. The rest of the collector testing was done by the author at Gävle University.

Paper III: Gomes J., Bonfiglio ., Giovinazzo C., Fernandes C., Torres J., Olsson O., Branco P. et Nashih S. Analysis of C-PVT reflector geometries. Presented at the 17th international conference on power electronics and motion control. Available at DOI: 10.1109/EPEPEMC.2016.7752175. Submitted in April 2017 to a journal of IEEE: Transaction of Industrial Applications (Impact factor of 1.9).
Key Message: Analysis of the raytracing results of different reflector geometries including costs/output balance.
Author contribution: 85%. The author wrote the paper and did the majority of the work.

Paper IV: Giovinazzo C., Bonfiglio L., Gomes J. et Karlsson B. Ray Tracing Modelling of an Asymmetric Concentrating PVT. Presented at Eurosun 2014 and published in the conference proceedings (p.67). Available at DOI: 10.18086/eurosun.2014.21.01
Key Message: The Solarus C-PVT collector has been modelled using Tonaituh to extract a 3D map of the effective solar radiation that reaches both top and bottom sides of the receiver.
Author contribution: 65%. The author wrote the paper and supported Ms Giovinazzo and Mr Bonfiglio that performed the ray tracing simulations.

Paper V: Nashih S., Fernandes C. , Torres J., Gomes J. et Branco P. Validation of a Simulation Model for Analysis of Shading Effects on Photovoltaic Panels. Published on Journal of Solar Energy Engineering: Including Wind Energy and Building Energy Conservation, Volume 138, Issue, 14th June 2016 (Impact Factor 1.19). Available at DOI: 10.1115/1.4033646.
Key Message: Validation of the LTSpice model.
Author contribution: 50%. The author wrote part of the paper, did the experimental testing and supported both the theoretical and simulation work.

Paper VI: Fernandes C., Torres J., Branco P., Fernandes J. et Gomes J. Cell string layout in photovoltaic collectors. Published in Energy Conversion and Management journal, Volume 149, 1st October 2017, Pages 997-1009 (Impact Factor: 5.589). Available at DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.04.060.
Key Message: Simulations using an LTSPICE to predict the shading impact on a C-PVT.
Author contribution: 40%. The author wrote part of the paper, did the experimental testing and supported both the theoretical and simulation work.

Paper VII: Bernardo R., Davidsson H., Gentile N., Gomes J., Gruffman C., Chea L., Mumba C. et Karlsson B. Measurements of the Electrical Incidence Angle Modifiers of an Asymmetrical Photovoltaic/Thermal Compound Parabolic Concentrating-Collector. Presented at PEEC 2013. Published in Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 1B, 2013, pp. 37-43 (Impact Factor: 0.72). Available at DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.51B007.
Key Message: Characterization of the IAM of an early C-PVT prototype.
Author contribution: 40%. The team did the measurements and wrote part of the paper.

1.1 List of all papers from the author relevant to this thesis
In total, the author of this thesis has produced 22 papers in both conferences and journals. The list below shows all papers produced by the author of this thesis and categorizes them. Some of these papers were selected to be an integral part of this thesis as shown on the previous chapter while others were only used partially.

Paper VIII: Gomes J, Bastos S., Henriques M., Diwan L. et Olsson O. Evaluation of the Impact of Stagnation in Different Prototypes of Low Concentration PVT Solar Panels. Presented at the ISES world congress 2015 and published in the proceedings (p1025-1036). Available at DOI: 10.18086/swc.2015.10.14.
Key Message: Analysis on the impact of stagnation on solar cells encapsulated by silicone and different methods for mitigation of the impact.

Paper IX: Mantei F., Henriques M., Gomes J., Olsson O. et Karlsson B. The Night Cooling Effect on a C-PVT Solar Collector. Presented at the ISES world congress 2015 and published in the proceedings (p1199-1207). Available at DOI: 10.18086/swc.2015.10.33.
Key Message: Night cooling using glazed PVT´s collectors will work only under very few circumstances.

Paper X: Davidsson H., Bernardo R., Gomes J., Chea L., Gentile N. et Karlsson B. Construction of laboratories for solar energy research in developing countries. Presented at ISES Solar Conference 2013 and published at peer review Energy Proceedia, Volume 57, 2014, Pages 982-988 (Impact Factor: 1.16). DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.081.
Key Message: Study on the design and components for a solar lab for research and education in developing countries.

Paper XI: Gomes J., Gruffman C., Davidsson H., Maston S. et Karlsson B. Testing bifacial PV cells in symmetric and asymmetric concentrating CPC collectors. Presented at PEEC 2013. Published in Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 1B, 2013, PP. 185-190 (Impact Factor: 0.72). DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.51B034.
Key Message: Different low concentration bi-facial PV collector prototypes were built and tested.

Paper XII: Gentile N., Davidsson H., Bernardo R., Gomes J., Gruffman C., Chea L., Mumba C. et Karlsson B. Construction of a small scale laboratory for solar collectors and solar cells in a developing country. Presented at PEEC 2013. Published in Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 1B, 2013, PP. PP. 75-80 (Impact Factor: 0.72). DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.51B014.
Key Message: Developing and reducing the cost of components of solar collector testing labs while maintaining the necessary accuracy.

Paper XIII: Contero F., Gomes J., Mattias G. et Karlsson B. The impact of shading in the performance of three different solar PV systems. Presented at Eurosun 2016 and published in the proceedings. DOI: 10.18086/eurosun.2016.08.25.
Key Message: Evaluation of the electrical shading at HiG´s installation. Comparison between different shading mitigation devices.

Paper XIV: Gomes J. et Karlsson B. Analysis of the Incentives for Small Scale Photovoltaic Electricity Production in Portugal. Presented at Eurosun 2010 and published in the proceedings. DOI: 10.18086/eurosun.2010.08.05.
Key Message: Analysis of the impact of the incentive schemes in PV penetration.

Paper XV: Gomes J. et Karlsson B. Analysis of Reflector Geometries for Flat Collectors. Presented at Renewable Energy Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 2010.
Key Message: Analysis on the best point for truncation for reflectors in concentrating solar thermal collectors.

Paper XVI: Diogo Cabral, Paul-Antoine Dostie-Guindon, João Gomes et Björn Karlsson. Ray Tracing Simulations of a Novel Low Concentrator PVT Solar Collector for Low Latitudes. Presented at ISES solar world congress 2017 and will be published in the conference proceedings.
Key Message: Comparison between different reflector geometries for a low concentrating PVT using Tonatiuh ray tracing.

Paper XVII: Alves P., Fernandes J., Torres J., Branco P., Fernandes C., Gomes J. Energy Efficiency of a PV/T Collector for Domestic Water Heating Installed in Sweden or in Portugal: The Impact of Heat Pipe Cross-Section Geometry and Water Flowing Speed. Presented at the 12th SDEWES conference in 2017 and published in the proceedings.
Key Message: Simulations were conducted to verify the influence of the flow, losses in electric efficiency, temperature variation, shading effect in the back receiver of electrical efficiency in Portugal and Sweden.

Paper XVIII: Fernandes C., Torres J., Nashih S., Gomes J. et Branco P. Effect of reflector geometry in the annual received radiation of low concentration PV systems. Submitted on Dez 2017 to IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications (TIA)
Key Message: Soltrace simulations.

Paper XIX: Fernandes C., Torres J., Nashih S., Gomes J. et Branco P. Cell string layout in a stationary solar concentrating solar photovoltaic collectors. Published in Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (PEMC), 2016 IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/EPEPEMC.2016.7752179
Key Message: Simulations using an LTSPICE to predict the shading influence in a C-PVT.

Paper XX: Torres J., Nashih S., Fernandes C. et Gomes J. The effect of shading on photovoltaic solar panels. Published October 2016 in Energy Systems, page 1-14 (Impact Factor 0.912). DOI: 10.1007/s12667-016-0225-5
Key Message: LTSPICE study on the shading impact in a PVT.

Paper XXI: Fernandes C., Torres J., Nashih S., Gomes J. et Branco P. Shading Effects on Photovoltaic Panels. Presented at Conftele conference at Aveiro University 2015. Conference proceeding.
Key Message: Early shading study with LTSPICE.

Paper XXII: Kurdia A., Gomes J., Olsson O., Ollas P. et Karlsson B. Quasi-dynamic testing of a novel concentrating solar collector according to ISO 9806:2013. Submitted to Eurosun 2018.
Key Message: Comparison of the testing results between the Solarus C-PVT and a standard flat plate

Paper XXIII: Torres J., Fernandes C., Gomes J., Olsson O., Bonfiglio L., Giovinazzo C. et Branco P. Effect of Reflector Geometry in the Annual Received Radiation of Low Concentration Photovoltaic Systems. Published in Energy 2018, 11(7), 1878 (Impact Factor 3.05); DOI: 10.3390/en11071878
Key Message: Analysis of different reflector geometries using the soltrace software.

Note: References to the above papers will be marked as, for example, XXIII.


Klang Valley is an area which is centred in Kuala Lumpur and includes its adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. Urbanization can be defined as the process of city formation and city growth and it happens as the reason people move into urban to seek economic opportunities and to improve their living qualities (Ambe, 2003). Furthermore, according to Soh (2012), definition of crime is crime is not being plagued by a singular factor anywhere it occurred. Criminal behaviours are motivated by various circumstances of potential criminals. However, many scholars have identified some key factors that persuaded or influenced criminal behaviours of potential offenders. Factors of crime include poverty, unemployment, and failure of leadership as well as weaknesses in law enforcement.

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There are four factors of urban crime in Lembah Klang which are Increasing population and migration, Poverty, Unemployment and Influx of iilegal worker. The first factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Increasing population and migration. As we can see, the number of population and migration in Malaysia is increasing from day to day. The present global urban population is greater than the entire global population of 1960 and it is growing rapidly. As we can see, urban areas have become engines for economic growth and centres of diversity and change. Due to the increasing of population it is quite difficult to plan and manage the expansion of cities because it may cause unpredictable crime which it happens when there are, high population densities, and rapid changes in social environments and poor living conditions. Based on the statement by ACP Amar Singh Sidhu in his paper “The Rise of Crime in Malaysia” which has been presented during the Conference he has highlighted that due to the increase of population it has shown that the states of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Penang and Johor has displayed higher index crime per 100,000 that the mean national crime index of 612 cases except for Selangor and Johor. It has been proven that when there are less of population in the country itself it could avoid and curb the cases of crime compare to the increase of population.
Second factor of urban crime is Poverty. Crime usually happens due to the poverty issues as has been stated by many authorities in the field of criminal they have stated that poverty is one of the major cause of crime. Urban poor happens due to certain issues such as the high cost of living, financial difficulties, unstable jobs, lack of capital , limited educational opportunities, inadequate housing that has led most of people who are living in urban area involved in crime (Clark, 1982). Poverty also has caused most homeless people suffer from mental problem and being alcoholic that lead them to involve in crime activities until there are many victims suffered due to their criminal behaviours.
Third factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Unemployment. Unemployment is one of the factor that can cause urban crime, this is because when there are a lot of people are being unemployed they will tend to involve in crime such as robbery, snatch thief and many more as long as they are able to get money (Becker,1968). This can be proven from the study by Nor-ina Kanyo and Norizan Hj Md Nor which is in their paper that has been presented at Persidangan Geografi 2007 where they have come out with the statistics regarding the unemployment rate where during the economy crisis in 1997, unemployment rates increases from 2.5% in 1996 to 2.6% in 1997 and 3.2% in 1998 (Malaysia Economy Report, 1999). Besides that, according to department of statistics Malaysia, it has shown that the unemployment rate in Lembah Klang has increased from 2.9% in 2014 to 3.9% in 2015.Unemployment factor has proven that number of crime in Lembah Klang has increased drastically because there are a lot of people are jobless and they are seeking for money and due to the financial constraints they face they have involved themselves in crime activities.
Last factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Influx of illegal worker. Influx of illegal worker also has caused to the crime in the urban areas especially in Lembah Klang. As we can see in Malaysia, the number of labour that migrate from other countries such as Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Vietnam are based on contract labour migrants. Most of them are low skilled worker because they have a low qualification to apply for a professional jobs in Malaysia and due to that they need to do involved in contract work in specific sectors. The number of migrant workers in Malaysia is between 800,000 and 1.2 million and the illegal workers are about 500,000. According to statistics in 2002, crimes committed by migrants has increased three- fold from 1,333 in 1992 to 3,113 in 2002 and the Indonesian .The presence of foreigners in Malaysia country has shown that 30,000 foreigners are in Malaysia prison that effect to crimes because they are involving in crime activities such as drug cases, robbery and many more until people that living in Malaysia feel insecure with their presence and existence in the country (Amar Singh, 2005).

The first impact of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Affect tourism and business. Crime may affect tourism it is because when tourist from other countries or foreigners found out that the country that they are tend to visit is high crime rate thus it could affect tourism and business and it can also give impact towards the economy of that cities because when there are lack of tourists to visit their country it is hard for the country to gain its revenue when the number of tourists is decreasing from day to day.
Second impact of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Affect economic perspective. For the economic perspective crime in urban area it can contribute a lot of consequences in economic perspective. As we can see, when there are a lot of crime cases happen in Malaysia, there will be a lot of victims suffering due to the crime cases. Besides that, due to the urban crime there are a lot of victim that loss cash or property and also they feel threaten due to the serious crime that usually happens in urban areas. Furthermore, crime also contribute to the damaged property, increased property insurance claims, increased health and life , higher workers compensation premiums, private legal costs increase and readjusting the lifestyle and involve costs to the victim when they need to move house and due to the problems it could give huge impact towards the economic (Soh, 2012).
Next impact of urban crime is Emotional and physical effects. Urban crime can cause emotional and physical effects if the victims is suffering mentally and psychologically due to the crime cases such as snatch theft, gang robbery with firearms, rape and aggravated assault, house breaking and violent crime (Soh, 2012). When the victim endure and experience with the crime cases it can affect their health as well as they will experience acute stress and depression and also their quality of life will drop when they become the victim of crime. For example, when the victim of snatch theft experience that they will automatically trauma to walk alone and feel insecure because of the bad experience they went through.
Last impact of urban crime is Social problems. Urban crime normally occurs is because of the social problem that arise among people who do not receive a proper education thus it will certainly affect them to continue with a lot of social problems and they will live in a crime cycle and will create a lot of problem to the society. Example of social problems that usually happens in urban area is prostitution, drug cases, bullying, murder cases, property theft and many more. Furthermore, according to Shamsuddin and Hussin (2013) the number of crime rates reported in 2009 is 588 murder cases and 3177 rape cases and concluded that the crime rate in Malaysia has worsened more than 300% since 1991.The crimes record has displayed in the distribution across states in Malaysia, where the highest number of violent crime cases was recorded in Selangor (91,962), followed by Kuala Lumpur (59,050) and Johor (49,105). On other hand the least violent crime cases were recorded in Perlis (1240), Terengganu (3869), and Kelantan (6821) (Amin, 2014). Due to the social problems that involve with crime, it can lead to health problem such as those who involved with drug and prostitution it can lead to AIDS infection and various health problem.


The first solution for urban crime in Lembah Klang in the aspect of government action is The Government Responds (NKRA). The concerns from Government to reduce urban crime cases can be seen through National Key Result Area (NKRA). Malaysian Government in September 2009 established a Crime Lab bringing together agencies from across the criminal justice system and from wider government such as Ministry of Home Affairs, RELA, PDRM, Attorney General Chambers, Federal Courts, National Anti-Drug Agency and many more. This effort bring in over 30 representatives from relevant ministries and agencies as well as the private sector and NGO’s work together to strategize the effort in combating crime in Malaysia (GTP Roadmap,2010). This government strategy and solution through National Key Result Area (NKRA) can be seen through GTP Roadmap where in reducing crime is employing stakeouts for motorcycle and car theft and house breaks-in. Stakeouts methods has been proven successfully when government has successfully improve security features for property to protect it from crime and a special lock known as U-locks which it is a technology from Japan and also government has able to eliminate illegal workers and improve the availability and usage of mobile devices and make it compatible between PDRM and JPJ is one of the successful strategy in reducing crime.
Second solution for urban crime in Lembah Klang is Safe city programme. In preventing crime a Safe City Programme or the SCP was launched in collaboration with local authorities and other bodies to deter crime. A successful implementation of safe city programme requires close collaboration between Police, State and Local Authorities in order to combat crime cases and police force as well should be accountable to ensure that law enforcement is effectively administered. In safe city programme there are few measures has been taken in order to ensure the city is safe such as providing lighting, safety mirrors, safety alarms and CCTV. One of the successful implementation in safe city program that has been taken by government in combating crime can be seen through the installation of CCTV. Close circuit television (CCTV) has proven to people that it is one of the best solution that could help in reducing crime this is because by having CCTV it could monitor the activities of crime as well as police could easily detect the person that involved in crime (GTP Roadmap,2010).
Third solution in combating crime in Lembah Klang is through Law and enforcement. By having law and enforcement people will not easily involve with crime because they know the punishment that will be taken against them. The effort must be well co-ordinate among the enforcement agencies to make sure the crime issues can be reduced. The law enforcement is an on-going process and must been done continuously. For example, by having law and enforcement every of the crime cases happen will be investigate by police and the person who involved in crime action will be taken against them by putting them in jail or fine them according to the cases they involved. The law enforcement is an on-going process and must been done continuously and the key aspects of crime prevention are the awareness among the general public.
Last solution in combating crime in Lembah Klang is through Omnipresence Programme. Omnipresence programme is one of the programme that attempts to prevent street crime. In this programme it is not relying on police force but must a take the form of Public-Private-Police partnership approach in order to reduce the number of crime. As such, other agencies within the Ministry of Home Affairs have been mobilised to create an omnipresence of troops to patrol crime areas and supplement PDRM officers. For example, “Feet on Street” initiative which currently involves RELA and JPAM troops. In 2010, there are 4,979 members of RELA and JPAM on the ground trained as Police Volunteer Reserve (PVR) to assist PDRM in combating crime. By implementing this it has shown that the number of crime cases able to be reduced from time to time because people are aware that other than police force there are another agency is performing their duty in combating crime (GTP Roadmap, 2010).

In conclusion, the best approach to crime management is primarily prevention strategy rather than waging war against criminal activities. Therefore, government, security and law enforcement agencies need to be more proactive in preventing crime. Among the strategies should also include the holistic strategy beyond police manpower and equipment, by eliminating the root causes of crimes such as reducing the aggregate level of unemployment and poverty among other things. When Governments and other stake holders initiated and implement economic and developmental policies for building sound economy that will generate employments, no doubt, it naturally reduces poverty level to the barest minimum as well as crimes. Moreover, if all the measures in preventing crime are addressed effectively it can ensure youths are not easily involve in crime because they are aware with the existing law and actions that will be taken against them when they involved in crime.

1.1 Introduction
The basic issue of this research was to focus on the indiscipline cases in some selected five (5) Secondary schools in Imotong State-Torit (South Sudan) which are listed as follow: 1) Torit Day Secondary School 2) Dr.John Garang Memorial Secondary School 3) Bishop Akio Secondary School, 4) Torit Progressive Secondary School 5) Fr. Saturlino Ohure Secondary School.
This research consists of Background of the study which concentrates on the core understanding of the paper, Significance of the study focuses on identifying types and causes of indiscipline and how the stakeholders will look for appropriate solution. The Objectives of the study was to find out the causes of indiscipline cases among the Students in Imotong State. Problem of study was to identify possible solutions and put indiscipline to an end, research question was to find out the views of the students, teachers, head teachers and parents. Literature review focused on the types, causes, importance and control of indiscipline among the Secondary School Students. The research methodology used was mix quantitative and qualitative methods with (75) participants comprises of Students, teachers, and head teachers Parents, which was conducted in Imotong State Torit South Sudan, data analysis and conclusion were summarized and finding recommended.
The number of Students’ drop out is increasing due to poor performance caused by the misbehavior in the Schools such as late coming, smoking, fighting, and many others which will create another gap in the young generation stage and will lead to destruction of the State since youth are the back born of the country. According to Hell (1904) viewed adolescence as a time when “the wisdom and advice of parents and teachers is overtopped and I ruder natures may be met by blank contradiction” (vol.2, p-79). He viewed this as due not only to human evolutionary history but also to the incompatibility between adolescents” need for independence and the fact that “parents still think of their off-spring as were children, and tighten the rein where they should loosen it”(vol.2, p,384). In most cases, corporal punishment creates hatred and opposition that will disconnect understanding between students, teachers and administrators in the school. Sullivan, Johnson, Owens and Conway (2014), siting Slee (1995), advance that, suspension as a means to reforming students behavior does not help the student because the school staff simply get rid of the troublesome students rather than changing the school environment in such a way as to prevent or reduce discipline problem.
However, discipline as part of educational and lifelong training must be carried out in the context of peace and needs to deal with in school in order to reduce the concern. Discipline is a required set of actions by a teacher towards a student after the student’s behavior disrupts the ongoing educational activity or breaks a pre-established rule created by the school system. Therefore, guides the children’s behavior or sets limits to help them learn to take care of themselves, other people and the world around them.

1. Introduction
Logistics plays a vital role of which transport is a key factor in the success and growth of the Namibian economy. Transport is only one leg of the combination of logistical support as combination order follows as inventory, transporting, warehousing, handling and packaging whereby TransNamib is only involve in transportation and warehousing. Transportation is the operational section of logistics which physically move the inventory to new destination.

2. Background of TransNamib
Before independence TransNamib was mandated to operate rail, road and airports and seaports in South West Africa which is now Namibia. On the olden days TransNamib provided bus and train transport for passenger to all corners of the country.
TransNamib Holdings Limited is the national surface carrier of Namibia – a leader in provision of rail and road transport solutions within and across the border of the country. “TransNamib” was established in terms of the National Transportation Service Holding Company Act of Parliament (Act 28 of 1998) and is the success or of the former TransNamib Ltd. (www.transNamib) all shares in TransNamib are owned by the Government of the Republic of Namibia, who also exercises non-regulatory control through the appointment of the Company’s directors.
Company Profile of TransNamib
To be the preferred transport and logistics partner in Namibia and beyond.
Providing total logistics solutions in rail- and road transport through a passion for excellence.
• Integrity – We never compromise the principles of working in an honest and ethical manner.
• Safety – We believe that our people are our greatest asset and therefore we seek to implement mechanisms to ensure that all our stakeholders are never in harm’s way.
• Excellence – We are unwavering in our pursuit of continuous improvement in the quest to deliver excellent service, first-time-every time.
• Teamwork – We need each other to deliver on our service promise to our customers and therefore we shall work together in our quest to be the preferred logistics partner in Namibia and beyond.
• Discipline – We passionately focus our energy to competently achieve the strategic objectives of our organization.
• Commitment – We have one mission and we shall never forget that we can only make a difference to our Nation, by delivering on our performance promises.

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3. Assess current performance against strategic aims and objectives
The strategic direction of an organization is defined by its purpose, ultimate goals and underlying value statement, which represents the ethical approach in term of which an organization seeks to accomplish its vision and mission. TransNamib reviewed and formulated its strategic statements – aligned to vision 2030 (V2030, 2004).
The company identified key contributors that focuses on improving customer services, Business Efficiency, and Business Continuity, and entails the following:
• Investment in new rolling stock (locomotives, wagons and tankers)
• Optimization of railway infrastructure and management systems
• Re-alignment of resources and business processes
• Regaining market share through improved service delivery and a focused Sales and Marketing Strategy
• Aligning logistics services and operational processes to customer needs
• Regaining control over the railway asset on its balance sheet
• Enhancing operational Safety and
• Improving corporate governance and risk management (Annual Report, 2013).
TransNamib is a stated owned company and lot of governments support is experience whether it is financially or politically but too many political interference which hamper the senior management to execute its duties. Although the company scaled down its operations the number of staff were retained and has currently a huge financial burden on the state coffers. This organisation is without a Chief Executive Officer for the past five years which hampers and delays the implementation of the company strategy.
The internal practices are the inner workings of the organization that affect employee relationships, interactions and accomplishments. As these organizational practices are closest to the core culture, the organization’s consistency in aligning them with the core culture will have a major impact on organizational success which include the organization’s structure, job titles, how work is organized, recruitment and selection; training and development; performance management; internal communication and technology (Margolis, 2017). Culture refers to the deeply held values, beliefs and assumptions of an organization’s members and acts as a mechanism guiding behavior in the workplace (Rosenberg and Trevino, 2003).
In order to align the company values, the core culture and the practices within the organisation must be enforced to all levels within the organisation to have maximum positive results and successful implementation of the company strategies.
The company’s strategy intent is the pathfinder for any organization’s drive; thus all its working practices must be aligned to the overall company’s strategic aims and objectives. The working practices must be geared to support and give meaning to the strategy of the organization. Both senior, middle and junior management must in tandem with the company’s main strategies and objectives. The fair of the unknowns must be managed in such a way to ally it and turn it into expectations and desires to be part of the organization’s strategy. The company’s new strategy should be crafted in such a way to encompasses all the import functions and structures, to be able to serve its key functionalities and customers.
Relationships at work are a valuable asset as a business strategy that may give companies an edge over their rivals (Newman, 2008). A sound and healthy working environment ensures that companies excel and sustainable profits are guaranteed and stability which encourage employee choice to work for the organisation. TransNamib needs transformation in order adopt to the ever changing business climate. Since independence the company has relinquish some of its operations but still same amount of employees who is idling but the salary bill must be paid. The board must urgently appoint the Chief Executive Officer to lead the organization to greater heights and restructure and transform the company to be profitable.
Improved human resource management will be a positive contributor who relates to organizational performance. The manifestation of additional stable revenues when an organization’s human resource management system is align with and support its operational goals and strategy. One of the motivating factors for employees is to design and implement performance incentive to align employee and shareholders interest. By encouraging excellent performance by allowing skilled and motivated employees to become involved in planning and execution of their duties.

4. Discuss challenges of supply chain integration
The main challenges Managers must mindful of the best tactic of worldwide demographics from the industry to user viewpoint is taking global product and localizing it effectively. The challenge will be the different tastes and branding strategies during the application period. The method of moving the product from global to local must be done step by step as some brands need a home-grown touch.
The implementers must take cognize of the current condemnation of the worldwide communities specifically to ethical and environmental contemplations. The global economy is enforcing a global culture which might be seen as a threat by rest of the world. As a result, managers should prudently contemplate how to best localize products to hold cultural uniqueness in the areas they function.
As a result for both managerial behavior and practices could the readiness to accept change or integration and do away with unwanted practices, beliefs and the adopted organizational culture. The fear of the unknowns also plays a critical role for managers to fully embrace change and whole heartedly ingrate change. Any perceived and proposed changes must have the full support, buy-in and involvement of the managers to have the maximum degree of success. The managers have to own the new changes, promote and implement the strategy of change for successful integration.
Managerial behavior and practices can be aligned by providing adequate training and facilitation of the desired outcomes. With the millennium of change management which plays a vital role in adopting the behavior and practices for common good of the task at hand to implement. The organization must ensure that all levels of communication is in place, monitored and evaluated in order make sure communication reaches grass roots levels. The company strategies needs to be reviewed annually to ensure the key performance areas are relevant to the ever changing global and local business environment.
Currently the relationship with the organization and management is uncertainty because of political interference from the central government for job creation and continuity but seriously affecting the sustainability and profitability of the organization. Cross functional teams leaders must motivate encourage employees to ensure the maximum agreed performance are achieved to meet the company strategy.
Where the employees could not met the target the managers must identify the needed intervention whether is formal training or on-the-job training to equipped the employees with the necessarily skills to perform their duties to the best of their ability.

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Topic Name: Pathophysiology – Burns
Student Name and ID
numbers :
Maryam Wasil A Jastaniah
Section No.: 72
Instructor: Dr. Maha

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Topic: Burns
What is Burns ?
Burns are injuries initiated due to therma l, chemical, electrical, physical agents of
local and systemic repercussions or effects. Also, burns are considered to be one of
the most mortifying forms of traumatic injuries as it has caused so many victims to
suffer severely through the years.
Thermal burns are due to sources of heat that would significantly increase the
temperature of the skin causing damage of skin and cells.
Radiation burns are caused by being exposed to sources of radiation for a long
period of time such as sunlight and x -rays.
Chemical burns are caused by strong chemicals coming in contact with the skin or
eyes such as acids, detergents, alkali, etc.
Electrical burns , from its name is from electrical currents which could be direct or
alternating currents.

Classification of Burns
When classifying burns, the extent and depth of the burns are the most important
factors to be considered.
The extent of a burn is usually calculated by %TBSA (percentage of the Total Body
Surface Area) that has been burned. This could be done through sev eral methods
such as:
? Rule of Nines

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? Lund and Browder Chart
? Palmar Surface
The depth of a burn depends on how deeply and how severely a burn injury has
penetrated the skin’s surface. The burn depths are classified as degrees:
? First -degree Burns (superficial): affect epidermis or outer layer of
skin. Burn site is red in color, painful, dry and has no blisters. Could
be caused by mild sunburn where long term damage of the tissue is

? Second -degree Burns (partial thickness): affect epidermis and
part of the dermis layer of the skin. Burn site is red in color,
blistered, could be painful and appear to be swollen.

? Third -degree Burns (full thickness): the epidermis and dermis
are destroyed and could affec t the subcutaneous tissue, the burn
site may be white or charred.

? Fourth -degree Burns : damage the underlying bones, muscles, tendons and
destroy the nerve endings resulting in no sensation in the area.

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Assessment of Burns Using: Rule of Nines
Assessing a burn using the Rule of Nines is used to make the right treatment decisions
including fluid replacement or resuscitation – due to extreme fluid loss caused by
removal of the skin barrier on burn victims . The percentage of total body surface
area (%TBSA) that has been burned is estimated in multiples of nine.
The Rule of Nines is usually used in adults more than infants to assess second -degree
and third -degree burns as they are more severe and more traumatic than first -degree
burns. The percentage s are estimated based on different body areas:
? The Entire Head: 9%
? The Entire Trunk: 36%
? The Upper Extremity: 18%
? The Lower Extremity: 36%
? The Groin: 1%
(Note: each body area is divided into posterior – anterior OR right –left, depending
on the area. For example, the head = 4.5% anteriorly, 4.5% posteriorly.)
The factors that could slightly affect the Rule of Nines are the Body Max Index
(BMI) and age of the burn victim.

Effect of Burn Injury
Severe burn injuries tremendously effect the body. Burn victims usually go through
metabolic stress, meaning they become hyper metabolic and almost everything in
the body te nds to work faster. The blood pressure rapidly increases as well as the
heart rate, nutritional needs and pain – pain management becomes a priority.

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If the case is severe enough it could cause multiorgan failure where the heart could
shut down and the lun gs may be brutally affected. Along with that, these failures
could also lead to the victim’s kidneys to shut down and possibly infect the liver.
Extensive burns could also affect the immune system (generalized suppression).
Burn victims become more prone t o bacterial infections, this is due to depressed
complement levels and the reduction of neutrophil chemotaxis as well as
Burns could cause both local and systemic responses : if the burn is less than 25% of
the total body surface are (TBSA) it causes a local response, if the burn is more than
25% of the total body surface area (TBSA) it produces both local and systemic
responses – considered more major injuries.
Still under the metabolic stress response, there is also an inflammatory hyper
catabolic response where there are higher levels of cytokines. These cytokine levels
elevate persistently and are directly related to age as well as the severity of the burn.
Major burn injuries could also effect :
? The Skeletal Muscles.
? The Bones.
So, the effects of burn injury on skeletal muscles include the turnover of muscle
protein, alteration of the protein metabolism and the mediators and of course the
functional impacts – muscle cachexia. These changes would t remendously impact
the locomotion and homeostasis of protein, lipids and glucose metabolism.
Muscle Protein Turnover in Burn Patients : The body proteins constantly synthesize
and break down resulting in a decrease of muscle mass also leading to an inadequate

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count of amino acids. This could cause organ failure as there may be a decrease in
blood circulation to specific organs.
Mediators of Altered Protein Metabolism Following Burns: Other th an the
breakdown of body proteins and amino acids, there are still factors such as the
resistance to insulin, the increase of stress hormones, an elevation of muscle wasting
after burn. Immobilization is also another factor, which is usually caused by the
several surgical procedures of more severe cases. Being bedridden or immobilized
postop increases the muscle deterioration or wasting.
Muscle Cachexia: A wasting syndrome where there is a significant loss in weight,
muscle (atrophy) and appetite. A burn su rvivor with this syndrome would face
fatigue, an increase in psychological distress, limitations of motion and self -care.
Effect of Burn on Bone: Severe burns cause an increase in bone resorption and
osteoclasts. There could also be a great chance of osteoporosis, significant decrease
in bone mass, etc.
There are so many effects all according to the severity of the burn, keep in mind that
burn survivors might not only be effected as an individual but the whole family or
caretaker would also be affected as they would have to provide assistance during

Management of Burns
1. First Aid
2. Medical Management
3. Surgical Management

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The way you react and treat a burn during the first minutes after being injured can
really affect how severe the injury could get.
First Aid, immediate treatment:
Burn victims must “Stop, Drop & Roll” to put out any live flames and victims should
remove any burned clothing. If any clothing tends to stick to the skin DO NOT pull
on it, just cut around the burned area where it is adhered. Also any jewelry, tight
clothing or belts should be removed from burned areas and around the neck as the
skin starts to swell immediately after a burn.
Medical Management , treatment slightly differs depending on type of burn:
? First -degree Burns:
Apply or immerse in cool, fresh water until pain is reduced.
Cover the burn with sterilized – non -adhesive bandages or cloth.
Pain medication may be used to reduce pain and inflammation.
Seek medical attention only if the burn covers a very large area.

? Se cond -degree Burns:
For ten to fifteen minutes immerse area in fresh, cool water (dry & cover with clean
cloth, sterilized gauze).
DO NOT break blisters.
Take steps to prevent shock (lay flat, feet elevated approximately twelve inches,
covered with coat or blanket) – DO NOT take these steps if head, leg, back or neck
injury is suspected or even if it is just too discomforting.
Further medical treatment is a must.

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? Third -degree Burns:
Cover burn (with material that will not leave any lint residue on the burn) .
Take steps to prevent shock.
If the face is burned, the victim must sit up – beware of any breathing problems.
Burned area should be elevated above head if possible.
IMMEDIATE medical attention is required.

(In all types of burns do not use any ointment s or butter on the burns as it may cause

Surgical Management, Managing the Wound:
For any surgical intervention to succeed, the right operation must be done at the right
time. The two basic concepts that are used to manage a burn wound are: 1) Delayed
excision, and 2) Early excision. Depending on how severe the burn injury, it might
be required to apply both concepts but it is more common in most cases to use the
delayed excision.
After reconstructive surgery in severe cases, the patient may have to go through the
process of removing dead tissue. Then comes the plastic surgery intervention which,
according to the case, a treatment is chosen.
In plastic surgery several treatments are used, including:
? Skin Grafts : are the most common when treati ng burn patients, it is where skin
is removed from one are of the body and is transplanted and relocated where

? Microsurgery : during a burn incident, the patient may lose a finger, a toe, an
ear or even a lip in some cases. This treatment, these bo dy parts can be re –
attached and this surgery is usually used with the free flap procedure.

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? Free Flap Procedure : a procedure used during reconstruction where the
muscles, skin or the bones are transferred within the original blood supply (in

? Tissue Expansion : this procedure is used to help the patient’s body kind of
“grow” extra skin, which could be needed in reconstruction surgery. The skin
is stretched by applying a balloon expander under or near the area in need of
repair. Th is causes the tissue to expand (stretch ; grow), then it is used to
basically reconstruct or correct the areas or body parts that were damaged
during the burn.

In conclusion, the techniques always vary according to the severity of the burn and
the age of the victim. Burns are very severe traumatic injuries which have the
possibility of affecting all ages. The steps to help a victim should be taken very
seriously to avoid worsening the patients status.

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Efstathia Polychronopoulou, David N Herndon, Craig Porter; The Long -Term Impact of Severe Burn
Trauma on Musculoskeletal Health, Journal of Burn Care ; Research , Volume 39, Issue 6, 23
October 2018, Pages 869 –880, https://doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iry035
https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0950 -3501(97)80019 -0/pdf
https://www.webmd.com/skin -problems -and -treatments/plastic -surgery -burns#1
https://www.omicsonline.org/open -access/burns -definition -classification -pathophysiology -and -initial –
approach -2327 -5146 -1000298.php?aid=93503
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK 430741/
https://www.verywellhealth.com/burn -pictures -4020409
https://www.sharecare.com/health/burns/how -burns -affect -the -body
https://www.scribd.com/doc/36331191/Local -and -Systemic -Response -to-Burns

1. The word ‘bible’ is a Greek word which means ‘the books’.
2. The Bible was written roughly between 1200 and 100 AD.
3. There are 66 books in Protestants Christians Bible.
4. Ethiopian Orthodox Christians recognize 81 books in the Bible.
5. Greek Orthodox Bible has 75 books in the bible.
6. Most parts of Old Testament was written in Hebrew.
7. The New Testament is written in Greek.
8. The complete Bible is translated in around 670 different languages.
9. Bible is most famous and most published book in the world.
10. The New Testament is translated into 1521 languages.
11. Every year approximately 100 million copies of the Bible are sold.
12. Oldest man in the bible is Methuselah, he lived for 969 years.
13. The Bible has more than a single author, it was written by kings, fisherman, prophets, shepherds, poets, farmers, musicians, doctors and many others.
14. There are poetry, legal documents, songs, letters, eyewitness accounts, people stories, historical documents and advice material in Bible.
15. Most Catholics recognize 73 books in the Bible.
16. According to the stories in the bible, Satan killed only 10 people but God killed more than 2,400,000 people.
17. To read the entire Bible, it takes 49 hours, i.e. slightly more than 2 days.
18. Goliath was the tallest man in the Bible; he was 9 and half feet tall.
19. The first English translation of Bible was made in 1382 A.D., by John Wycliffe.
20. The shortest book in the New Testament is 2 John with 13 verses.
21. The longest book in the New Testament is Acts. It has 28 chapters.
22. Women, old people are the most maximum readers of the Bible.
23. Noah built the ark to protect family and animals to survive the flood, and he was 600 years old when he made an ark.
24. According to Bible Jesus lived on the earth for forty days after his supernatural resurrection.
25. The longest Chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119.
26. The shortest Chapter in the Bible is Psalm 117.
27. The bible is the most shoplifted book.
28. The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9.
29. There are total 1189 numbers of Chapters in the Bible.
30. There are two men in the Bible who were taken up to heaven by God, without dying. They are Elijah and Enoch,
31. There is a description in Bible that after Crucifixion of Jesus, many saints rose from dead and were seen by people.
32. China is world’s largest producer of Bibles.
33. The words: “Do not be afraid” appear 365 times in the Bible.
34. Total number of Chapters in the Old Testament is929.
35. There are 260 Chapters in the New Testament.
36. The word “Christian” appears only 3 times in the Bible.
37. “Mahershalalhashbaz” is the longest word in the Bible.
38. “Amen” is the last word in the Bible.
39. Bible has 100 positive statements about the right hand.
40. There are no original texts of the bible.
41. The Old Testament was written in 1000 of years but New Testament was written in a period of 50-75 years.
42. There are many songs lyrics that are inspired by Bible.
43. As bible is offered for free in hotels and worship places it is the most commonly stolen book in the world.
44. After the death of Bob Marley, he was buried with his guitar, a Bible and stalk of marijuana.
45. There is no phrase in Bible like ‘God never gives you more than you can handle’ but the opposite is said in the bible.
46. Solomon was the wisest man in the Bible.
47. Jehovah’s Witnesses don’t celebrate holidays and birthdays.
48. Swearing on the Bible is forbidden by the Bible.
49. 7, 12 and 40 are the numbers the bible repeatedly repeats.
50. The most highlighted or read Kindle books are The Bible, Steve Jobs’ bio, and the Hunger Games.
51. Having Bibles, watching South Korean movies and distributing pornography in North Korea may be punished with death.
52. Dominican Republic flag has the bible on it.
53. In Bible, there is no physical description of Jesus.
54. In 1631, two London Bible printers accidentally left the word “not” out of the seventh commandment, which then read, “Thou shalt commit adultery.”
55. In the Bible, ‘666’ number is a sign of the beast.
56. There are plenty of puns, funny names, humorous imagery, sarcasm and irony in Bible.
57. In the bible, there is no mention of three wise men, just three gifts.
58. Bible states that the Earth is free floating in the space.
59. In the Bible, God sends 2 bears to murder 42 children because they had mocked the bald man.
60. The Old Testament has more than 60 passages; Christians believe its prophecies of Jesus.
61. There is mention of unicorns in Bible.
62. In Bible the greatest warrior was Gideon, he defeated 135,000 Midianites with the help of God.
63. According to Bible, Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines.
64. There is a description in Bible that earth is round.
65. There are around 2,500 prophecies in Bible.
66. “Jesus wept” is the shortest verse in the bible.
67. There are total 31,173 Verses in the Bible.
68. Most scholars believe that Jesus never viewed himself as creating a new religion per se, just reforming Judaism.
69. Jesus had several sisters and brothers, names of sisters are not named in the Bible.
70. The Bible contains around 774,000 words.

1.1 Explain the features of effective team performance.
Effective teams work together and work towards common goals and objectives. A team is a group of people who work together and communicate because they have interest in common. The members in a team need to be able to communicate and collaborate to function effectively.
Pearson and Spencer (1997) suggest that teams are formed because of a belief that having people work on shared goals interdependently will lead to synergy. Effective teams display certain features and the following are eight characteristics identified by Larson and LaFasto (1989) in their book Teamwork: What Must Go Right/What Can Go Wrong.
1. The team must have a clear goal.
2. The team must have a results-driven structure.
3. The team must have competent team members.
4. The team must have unified commitment.
5. The team must have a collaborative climate.
6. The team must have high standards that are understood by all.
7. The team must receive external support and encouragement.
8. The team must have principled leadership.
My position means that I will be leading team that I take part and I have the responsibility of motivating and inspiring them to achieve and to be effective on what they are performing. One of my favourite quote that inspire me is once said by Casey Stengel, a famous baseball coach:
“Finding good players is easy. Getting them to play as a team is another story.”
Maintaining the focus and the challenge of my team can help with keeping them keen and motivated. Teams also need to see their objectives achieved. A successful leader should have a contribution to the growth and development of the team as a whole, the members of the team and me as individual. Creating an effective team is about people first and then the work is the visible result of what the team has achieved


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