1. Abstract

Corporate governance is understood as a system of governance of companies. At present, it is becoming an essential component of modern corporations which can determine the success or failure of companies. Due to this, in the age of corporations, countries in the world have started to look seriously the governance of companies which operate in its land. There are various forms for foreign companies to operate business in Ethiopia. Establishing a branch of foreign company is one of such forms in order to operate business in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, branches of foreign companies are highly engaged in various business sectors.

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The Ethiopian legal regime concerning branches of foreign companies has insufficient provisions on some governance aspects of such companies. With the absence of sufficient laws, there will be multifaceted impacts on those parties or stakeholders having various dealings with branches of foreign companies in Ethiopia. Such stakeholders include, but not limited to, creditors, the government, employees, customers of the branch foreign companies and the public in general.

This thesis is concerned with investigating corporate governance of branches of foreign companies operating in Ethiopia. It tries to identify major problems in the Ethiopian law relating to governance of branches of foreign companies. Such problems would have tremendous negative consequences in the future unless required measures are taken to correct the problems. Hence, the thesis is intended to inform the stakeholders, particularly, the government to make reform of laws and other kinds of measures.

1.1 Background and motivation for this work
This thesis is part of an Industrial PhD done within REESBE (Resource-Efficient Energy Systems in the Built Environment). This thesis was performed at the company Solarus Sunpower Sweden AB in Gävle, Sweden.
This work was aimed at detailing the scientific principles behind the Solarus concentrating photovoltaic-thermal (C-PVT) solar collector, which is a design with unique features. A better understanding of its own product will help the company to improve its product while, at the same, the knowledge generated will increase the scientific understanding on the issues around C-PVT panels and hopefully support future researchers in this topic.
1.2 Aims and Research Questions
The research questions include both broader solar aspects and very specific questions about C-PVT solar collectors:
1. How is the annual energy output ratio between PV and T collector varying around the world?
2. What are the most important parameters that define a concentrating PVT collector?
3. What type of reflector geometry is the most adequate for a stationary low concentration factor C-PVT?
4. What type of cell string layout is most adequate for a stationary low concentration factor C-PVT?
5. Is there good agreement between the results of the outdoor testing with the simulations in LTSPICE and raytracing Tonatiuh?
6. Which combination of materials and production processes allows silicone solar cells to resist the expansion of aluminum at stagnation temperatures of 200C?
1.3 Limitations

1.4 List of appended papers and author´s contribution

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7 papers were selected for the thesis.

Paper I: Gomes J., Junge J., Lehmann T. et Karlsson B. Defining An Annual Energy Output Ratio Between Solar Thermal Collectors And Photovoltaic Modules. Presented at IAHS Conference, 2016. Conference proceeding. Planned to be deepened and submitted to a journal in 2018.
Key Message: A new tool for comparison of T and PV technologies and market overview.
Author contribution: 90%. The author wrote the paper and did most of the work. The world maps, part of the market survey and some of the simulations were performed by Ms Junge and Ms Lehmann.

Paper II: Gomes J., Diwan L., Bernardo R. et Karlsson B. Minimizing the Impact of Shading at Oblique Solar Angles in a Fully Enclosed Asymmetric Concentrating PVT Collector. Presented at ISES Solar Conference 2013. Published in peer review Energy Procedia, Volume 57, 2014, p. 2176-2185 (Impact factor 1.16). Available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.184
Key Message: Analysis of the impact of shading in an asymmetric low concentration stationary PVT which including collector testing at two universities.
Author contribution: 85%. The author wrote the paper and did the majority of the work. Part of the collector testing work was conducted at Dalarna University by Mr Diwan with support from the author. The rest of the collector testing was done by the author at Gävle University.

Paper III: Gomes J., Bonfiglio ., Giovinazzo C., Fernandes C., Torres J., Olsson O., Branco P. et Nashih S. Analysis of C-PVT reflector geometries. Presented at the 17th international conference on power electronics and motion control. Available at DOI: 10.1109/EPEPEMC.2016.7752175. Submitted in April 2017 to a journal of IEEE: Transaction of Industrial Applications (Impact factor of 1.9).
Key Message: Analysis of the raytracing results of different reflector geometries including costs/output balance.
Author contribution: 85%. The author wrote the paper and did the majority of the work.

Paper IV: Giovinazzo C., Bonfiglio L., Gomes J. et Karlsson B. Ray Tracing Modelling of an Asymmetric Concentrating PVT. Presented at Eurosun 2014 and published in the conference proceedings (p.67). Available at DOI: 10.18086/eurosun.2014.21.01
Key Message: The Solarus C-PVT collector has been modelled using Tonaituh to extract a 3D map of the effective solar radiation that reaches both top and bottom sides of the receiver.
Author contribution: 65%. The author wrote the paper and supported Ms Giovinazzo and Mr Bonfiglio that performed the ray tracing simulations.

Paper V: Nashih S., Fernandes C. , Torres J., Gomes J. et Branco P. Validation of a Simulation Model for Analysis of Shading Effects on Photovoltaic Panels. Published on Journal of Solar Energy Engineering: Including Wind Energy and Building Energy Conservation, Volume 138, Issue, 14th June 2016 (Impact Factor 1.19). Available at DOI: 10.1115/1.4033646.
Key Message: Validation of the LTSpice model.
Author contribution: 50%. The author wrote part of the paper, did the experimental testing and supported both the theoretical and simulation work.

Paper VI: Fernandes C., Torres J., Branco P., Fernandes J. et Gomes J. Cell string layout in photovoltaic collectors. Published in Energy Conversion and Management journal, Volume 149, 1st October 2017, Pages 997-1009 (Impact Factor: 5.589). Available at DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.04.060.
Key Message: Simulations using an LTSPICE to predict the shading impact on a C-PVT.
Author contribution: 40%. The author wrote part of the paper, did the experimental testing and supported both the theoretical and simulation work.

Paper VII: Bernardo R., Davidsson H., Gentile N., Gomes J., Gruffman C., Chea L., Mumba C. et Karlsson B. Measurements of the Electrical Incidence Angle Modifiers of an Asymmetrical Photovoltaic/Thermal Compound Parabolic Concentrating-Collector. Presented at PEEC 2013. Published in Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 1B, 2013, pp. 37-43 (Impact Factor: 0.72). Available at DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.51B007.
Key Message: Characterization of the IAM of an early C-PVT prototype.
Author contribution: 40%. The team did the measurements and wrote part of the paper.

1.1 List of all papers from the author relevant to this thesis
In total, the author of this thesis has produced 22 papers in both conferences and journals. The list below shows all papers produced by the author of this thesis and categorizes them. Some of these papers were selected to be an integral part of this thesis as shown on the previous chapter while others were only used partially.

Paper VIII: Gomes J, Bastos S., Henriques M., Diwan L. et Olsson O. Evaluation of the Impact of Stagnation in Different Prototypes of Low Concentration PVT Solar Panels. Presented at the ISES world congress 2015 and published in the proceedings (p1025-1036). Available at DOI: 10.18086/swc.2015.10.14.
Key Message: Analysis on the impact of stagnation on solar cells encapsulated by silicone and different methods for mitigation of the impact.

Paper IX: Mantei F., Henriques M., Gomes J., Olsson O. et Karlsson B. The Night Cooling Effect on a C-PVT Solar Collector. Presented at the ISES world congress 2015 and published in the proceedings (p1199-1207). Available at DOI: 10.18086/swc.2015.10.33.
Key Message: Night cooling using glazed PVT´s collectors will work only under very few circumstances.

Paper X: Davidsson H., Bernardo R., Gomes J., Chea L., Gentile N. et Karlsson B. Construction of laboratories for solar energy research in developing countries. Presented at ISES Solar Conference 2013 and published at peer review Energy Proceedia, Volume 57, 2014, Pages 982-988 (Impact Factor: 1.16). DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.081.
Key Message: Study on the design and components for a solar lab for research and education in developing countries.

Paper XI: Gomes J., Gruffman C., Davidsson H., Maston S. et Karlsson B. Testing bifacial PV cells in symmetric and asymmetric concentrating CPC collectors. Presented at PEEC 2013. Published in Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 1B, 2013, PP. 185-190 (Impact Factor: 0.72). DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.51B034.
Key Message: Different low concentration bi-facial PV collector prototypes were built and tested.

Paper XII: Gentile N., Davidsson H., Bernardo R., Gomes J., Gruffman C., Chea L., Mumba C. et Karlsson B. Construction of a small scale laboratory for solar collectors and solar cells in a developing country. Presented at PEEC 2013. Published in Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 1B, 2013, PP. PP. 75-80 (Impact Factor: 0.72). DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.51B014.
Key Message: Developing and reducing the cost of components of solar collector testing labs while maintaining the necessary accuracy.

Paper XIII: Contero F., Gomes J., Mattias G. et Karlsson B. The impact of shading in the performance of three different solar PV systems. Presented at Eurosun 2016 and published in the proceedings. DOI: 10.18086/eurosun.2016.08.25.
Key Message: Evaluation of the electrical shading at HiG´s installation. Comparison between different shading mitigation devices.

Paper XIV: Gomes J. et Karlsson B. Analysis of the Incentives for Small Scale Photovoltaic Electricity Production in Portugal. Presented at Eurosun 2010 and published in the proceedings. DOI: 10.18086/eurosun.2010.08.05.
Key Message: Analysis of the impact of the incentive schemes in PV penetration.

Paper XV: Gomes J. et Karlsson B. Analysis of Reflector Geometries for Flat Collectors. Presented at Renewable Energy Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 2010.
Key Message: Analysis on the best point for truncation for reflectors in concentrating solar thermal collectors.

Paper XVI: Diogo Cabral, Paul-Antoine Dostie-Guindon, João Gomes et Björn Karlsson. Ray Tracing Simulations of a Novel Low Concentrator PVT Solar Collector for Low Latitudes. Presented at ISES solar world congress 2017 and will be published in the conference proceedings.
Key Message: Comparison between different reflector geometries for a low concentrating PVT using Tonatiuh ray tracing.

Paper XVII: Alves P., Fernandes J., Torres J., Branco P., Fernandes C., Gomes J. Energy Efficiency of a PV/T Collector for Domestic Water Heating Installed in Sweden or in Portugal: The Impact of Heat Pipe Cross-Section Geometry and Water Flowing Speed. Presented at the 12th SDEWES conference in 2017 and published in the proceedings.
Key Message: Simulations were conducted to verify the influence of the flow, losses in electric efficiency, temperature variation, shading effect in the back receiver of electrical efficiency in Portugal and Sweden.

Paper XVIII: Fernandes C., Torres J., Nashih S., Gomes J. et Branco P. Effect of reflector geometry in the annual received radiation of low concentration PV systems. Submitted on Dez 2017 to IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications (TIA)
Key Message: Soltrace simulations.

Paper XIX: Fernandes C., Torres J., Nashih S., Gomes J. et Branco P. Cell string layout in a stationary solar concentrating solar photovoltaic collectors. Published in Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (PEMC), 2016 IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/EPEPEMC.2016.7752179
Key Message: Simulations using an LTSPICE to predict the shading influence in a C-PVT.

Paper XX: Torres J., Nashih S., Fernandes C. et Gomes J. The effect of shading on photovoltaic solar panels. Published October 2016 in Energy Systems, page 1-14 (Impact Factor 0.912). DOI: 10.1007/s12667-016-0225-5
Key Message: LTSPICE study on the shading impact in a PVT.

Paper XXI: Fernandes C., Torres J., Nashih S., Gomes J. et Branco P. Shading Effects on Photovoltaic Panels. Presented at Conftele conference at Aveiro University 2015. Conference proceeding.
Key Message: Early shading study with LTSPICE.

Paper XXII: Kurdia A., Gomes J., Olsson O., Ollas P. et Karlsson B. Quasi-dynamic testing of a novel concentrating solar collector according to ISO 9806:2013. Submitted to Eurosun 2018.
Key Message: Comparison of the testing results between the Solarus C-PVT and a standard flat plate

Paper XXIII: Torres J., Fernandes C., Gomes J., Olsson O., Bonfiglio L., Giovinazzo C. et Branco P. Effect of Reflector Geometry in the Annual Received Radiation of Low Concentration Photovoltaic Systems. Published in Energy 2018, 11(7), 1878 (Impact Factor 3.05); DOI: 10.3390/en11071878
Key Message: Analysis of different reflector geometries using the soltrace software.

Note: References to the above papers will be marked as, for example, XXIII.


Klang Valley is an area which is centred in Kuala Lumpur and includes its adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. Urbanization can be defined as the process of city formation and city growth and it happens as the reason people move into urban to seek economic opportunities and to improve their living qualities (Ambe, 2003). Furthermore, according to Soh (2012), definition of crime is crime is not being plagued by a singular factor anywhere it occurred. Criminal behaviours are motivated by various circumstances of potential criminals. However, many scholars have identified some key factors that persuaded or influenced criminal behaviours of potential offenders. Factors of crime include poverty, unemployment, and failure of leadership as well as weaknesses in law enforcement.

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There are four factors of urban crime in Lembah Klang which are Increasing population and migration, Poverty, Unemployment and Influx of iilegal worker. The first factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Increasing population and migration. As we can see, the number of population and migration in Malaysia is increasing from day to day. The present global urban population is greater than the entire global population of 1960 and it is growing rapidly. As we can see, urban areas have become engines for economic growth and centres of diversity and change. Due to the increasing of population it is quite difficult to plan and manage the expansion of cities because it may cause unpredictable crime which it happens when there are, high population densities, and rapid changes in social environments and poor living conditions. Based on the statement by ACP Amar Singh Sidhu in his paper “The Rise of Crime in Malaysia” which has been presented during the Conference he has highlighted that due to the increase of population it has shown that the states of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Penang and Johor has displayed higher index crime per 100,000 that the mean national crime index of 612 cases except for Selangor and Johor. It has been proven that when there are less of population in the country itself it could avoid and curb the cases of crime compare to the increase of population.
Second factor of urban crime is Poverty. Crime usually happens due to the poverty issues as has been stated by many authorities in the field of criminal they have stated that poverty is one of the major cause of crime. Urban poor happens due to certain issues such as the high cost of living, financial difficulties, unstable jobs, lack of capital , limited educational opportunities, inadequate housing that has led most of people who are living in urban area involved in crime (Clark, 1982). Poverty also has caused most homeless people suffer from mental problem and being alcoholic that lead them to involve in crime activities until there are many victims suffered due to their criminal behaviours.
Third factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Unemployment. Unemployment is one of the factor that can cause urban crime, this is because when there are a lot of people are being unemployed they will tend to involve in crime such as robbery, snatch thief and many more as long as they are able to get money (Becker,1968). This can be proven from the study by Nor-ina Kanyo and Norizan Hj Md Nor which is in their paper that has been presented at Persidangan Geografi 2007 where they have come out with the statistics regarding the unemployment rate where during the economy crisis in 1997, unemployment rates increases from 2.5% in 1996 to 2.6% in 1997 and 3.2% in 1998 (Malaysia Economy Report, 1999). Besides that, according to department of statistics Malaysia, it has shown that the unemployment rate in Lembah Klang has increased from 2.9% in 2014 to 3.9% in 2015.Unemployment factor has proven that number of crime in Lembah Klang has increased drastically because there are a lot of people are jobless and they are seeking for money and due to the financial constraints they face they have involved themselves in crime activities.
Last factor of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Influx of illegal worker. Influx of illegal worker also has caused to the crime in the urban areas especially in Lembah Klang. As we can see in Malaysia, the number of labour that migrate from other countries such as Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Vietnam are based on contract labour migrants. Most of them are low skilled worker because they have a low qualification to apply for a professional jobs in Malaysia and due to that they need to do involved in contract work in specific sectors. The number of migrant workers in Malaysia is between 800,000 and 1.2 million and the illegal workers are about 500,000. According to statistics in 2002, crimes committed by migrants has increased three- fold from 1,333 in 1992 to 3,113 in 2002 and the Indonesian .The presence of foreigners in Malaysia country has shown that 30,000 foreigners are in Malaysia prison that effect to crimes because they are involving in crime activities such as drug cases, robbery and many more until people that living in Malaysia feel insecure with their presence and existence in the country (Amar Singh, 2005).

The first impact of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Affect tourism and business. Crime may affect tourism it is because when tourist from other countries or foreigners found out that the country that they are tend to visit is high crime rate thus it could affect tourism and business and it can also give impact towards the economy of that cities because when there are lack of tourists to visit their country it is hard for the country to gain its revenue when the number of tourists is decreasing from day to day.
Second impact of urban crime in Lembah Klang is Affect economic perspective. For the economic perspective crime in urban area it can contribute a lot of consequences in economic perspective. As we can see, when there are a lot of crime cases happen in Malaysia, there will be a lot of victims suffering due to the crime cases. Besides that, due to the urban crime there are a lot of victim that loss cash or property and also they feel threaten due to the serious crime that usually happens in urban areas. Furthermore, crime also contribute to the damaged property, increased property insurance claims, increased health and life , higher workers compensation premiums, private legal costs increase and readjusting the lifestyle and involve costs to the victim when they need to move house and due to the problems it could give huge impact towards the economic (Soh, 2012).
Next impact of urban crime is Emotional and physical effects. Urban crime can cause emotional and physical effects if the victims is suffering mentally and psychologically due to the crime cases such as snatch theft, gang robbery with firearms, rape and aggravated assault, house breaking and violent crime (Soh, 2012). When the victim endure and experience with the crime cases it can affect their health as well as they will experience acute stress and depression and also their quality of life will drop when they become the victim of crime. For example, when the victim of snatch theft experience that they will automatically trauma to walk alone and feel insecure because of the bad experience they went through.
Last impact of urban crime is Social problems. Urban crime normally occurs is because of the social problem that arise among people who do not receive a proper education thus it will certainly affect them to continue with a lot of social problems and they will live in a crime cycle and will create a lot of problem to the society. Example of social problems that usually happens in urban area is prostitution, drug cases, bullying, murder cases, property theft and many more. Furthermore, according to Shamsuddin and Hussin (2013) the number of crime rates reported in 2009 is 588 murder cases and 3177 rape cases and concluded that the crime rate in Malaysia has worsened more than 300% since 1991.The crimes record has displayed in the distribution across states in Malaysia, where the highest number of violent crime cases was recorded in Selangor (91,962), followed by Kuala Lumpur (59,050) and Johor (49,105). On other hand the least violent crime cases were recorded in Perlis (1240), Terengganu (3869), and Kelantan (6821) (Amin, 2014). Due to the social problems that involve with crime, it can lead to health problem such as those who involved with drug and prostitution it can lead to AIDS infection and various health problem.


The first solution for urban crime in Lembah Klang in the aspect of government action is The Government Responds (NKRA). The concerns from Government to reduce urban crime cases can be seen through National Key Result Area (NKRA). Malaysian Government in September 2009 established a Crime Lab bringing together agencies from across the criminal justice system and from wider government such as Ministry of Home Affairs, RELA, PDRM, Attorney General Chambers, Federal Courts, National Anti-Drug Agency and many more. This effort bring in over 30 representatives from relevant ministries and agencies as well as the private sector and NGO’s work together to strategize the effort in combating crime in Malaysia (GTP Roadmap,2010). This government strategy and solution through National Key Result Area (NKRA) can be seen through GTP Roadmap where in reducing crime is employing stakeouts for motorcycle and car theft and house breaks-in. Stakeouts methods has been proven successfully when government has successfully improve security features for property to protect it from crime and a special lock known as U-locks which it is a technology from Japan and also government has able to eliminate illegal workers and improve the availability and usage of mobile devices and make it compatible between PDRM and JPJ is one of the successful strategy in reducing crime.
Second solution for urban crime in Lembah Klang is Safe city programme. In preventing crime a Safe City Programme or the SCP was launched in collaboration with local authorities and other bodies to deter crime. A successful implementation of safe city programme requires close collaboration between Police, State and Local Authorities in order to combat crime cases and police force as well should be accountable to ensure that law enforcement is effectively administered. In safe city programme there are few measures has been taken in order to ensure the city is safe such as providing lighting, safety mirrors, safety alarms and CCTV. One of the successful implementation in safe city program that has been taken by government in combating crime can be seen through the installation of CCTV. Close circuit television (CCTV) has proven to people that it is one of the best solution that could help in reducing crime this is because by having CCTV it could monitor the activities of crime as well as police could easily detect the person that involved in crime (GTP Roadmap,2010).
Third solution in combating crime in Lembah Klang is through Law and enforcement. By having law and enforcement people will not easily involve with crime because they know the punishment that will be taken against them. The effort must be well co-ordinate among the enforcement agencies to make sure the crime issues can be reduced. The law enforcement is an on-going process and must been done continuously. For example, by having law and enforcement every of the crime cases happen will be investigate by police and the person who involved in crime action will be taken against them by putting them in jail or fine them according to the cases they involved. The law enforcement is an on-going process and must been done continuously and the key aspects of crime prevention are the awareness among the general public.
Last solution in combating crime in Lembah Klang is through Omnipresence Programme. Omnipresence programme is one of the programme that attempts to prevent street crime. In this programme it is not relying on police force but must a take the form of Public-Private-Police partnership approach in order to reduce the number of crime. As such, other agencies within the Ministry of Home Affairs have been mobilised to create an omnipresence of troops to patrol crime areas and supplement PDRM officers. For example, “Feet on Street” initiative which currently involves RELA and JPAM troops. In 2010, there are 4,979 members of RELA and JPAM on the ground trained as Police Volunteer Reserve (PVR) to assist PDRM in combating crime. By implementing this it has shown that the number of crime cases able to be reduced from time to time because people are aware that other than police force there are another agency is performing their duty in combating crime (GTP Roadmap, 2010).

In conclusion, the best approach to crime management is primarily prevention strategy rather than waging war against criminal activities. Therefore, government, security and law enforcement agencies need to be more proactive in preventing crime. Among the strategies should also include the holistic strategy beyond police manpower and equipment, by eliminating the root causes of crimes such as reducing the aggregate level of unemployment and poverty among other things. When Governments and other stake holders initiated and implement economic and developmental policies for building sound economy that will generate employments, no doubt, it naturally reduces poverty level to the barest minimum as well as crimes. Moreover, if all the measures in preventing crime are addressed effectively it can ensure youths are not easily involve in crime because they are aware with the existing law and actions that will be taken against them when they involved in crime.

1.1 Introduction
The basic issue of this research was to focus on the indiscipline cases in some selected five (5) Secondary schools in Imotong State-Torit (South Sudan) which are listed as follow: 1) Torit Day Secondary School 2) Dr.John Garang Memorial Secondary School 3) Bishop Akio Secondary School, 4) Torit Progressive Secondary School 5) Fr. Saturlino Ohure Secondary School.
This research consists of Background of the study which concentrates on the core understanding of the paper, Significance of the study focuses on identifying types and causes of indiscipline and how the stakeholders will look for appropriate solution. The Objectives of the study was to find out the causes of indiscipline cases among the Students in Imotong State. Problem of study was to identify possible solutions and put indiscipline to an end, research question was to find out the views of the students, teachers, head teachers and parents. Literature review focused on the types, causes, importance and control of indiscipline among the Secondary School Students. The research methodology used was mix quantitative and qualitative methods with (75) participants comprises of Students, teachers, and head teachers Parents, which was conducted in Imotong State Torit South Sudan, data analysis and conclusion were summarized and finding recommended.
The number of Students’ drop out is increasing due to poor performance caused by the misbehavior in the Schools such as late coming, smoking, fighting, and many others which will create another gap in the young generation stage and will lead to destruction of the State since youth are the back born of the country. According to Hell (1904) viewed adolescence as a time when “the wisdom and advice of parents and teachers is overtopped and I ruder natures may be met by blank contradiction” (vol.2, p-79). He viewed this as due not only to human evolutionary history but also to the incompatibility between adolescents” need for independence and the fact that “parents still think of their off-spring as were children, and tighten the rein where they should loosen it”(vol.2, p,384). In most cases, corporal punishment creates hatred and opposition that will disconnect understanding between students, teachers and administrators in the school. Sullivan, Johnson, Owens and Conway (2014), siting Slee (1995), advance that, suspension as a means to reforming students behavior does not help the student because the school staff simply get rid of the troublesome students rather than changing the school environment in such a way as to prevent or reduce discipline problem.
However, discipline as part of educational and lifelong training must be carried out in the context of peace and needs to deal with in school in order to reduce the concern. Discipline is a required set of actions by a teacher towards a student after the student’s behavior disrupts the ongoing educational activity or breaks a pre-established rule created by the school system. Therefore, guides the children’s behavior or sets limits to help them learn to take care of themselves, other people and the world around them.

1.1 Explain the features of effective team performance.
Effective teams work together and work towards common goals and objectives. A team is a group of people who work together and communicate because they have interest in common. The members in a team need to be able to communicate and collaborate to function effectively.
Pearson and Spencer (1997) suggest that teams are formed because of a belief that having people work on shared goals interdependently will lead to synergy. Effective teams display certain features and the following are eight characteristics identified by Larson and LaFasto (1989) in their book Teamwork: What Must Go Right/What Can Go Wrong.
1. The team must have a clear goal.
2. The team must have a results-driven structure.
3. The team must have competent team members.
4. The team must have unified commitment.
5. The team must have a collaborative climate.
6. The team must have high standards that are understood by all.
7. The team must receive external support and encouragement.
8. The team must have principled leadership.
My position means that I will be leading team that I take part and I have the responsibility of motivating and inspiring them to achieve and to be effective on what they are performing. One of my favourite quote that inspire me is once said by Casey Stengel, a famous baseball coach:
“Finding good players is easy. Getting them to play as a team is another story.”
Maintaining the focus and the challenge of my team can help with keeping them keen and motivated. Teams also need to see their objectives achieved. A successful leader should have a contribution to the growth and development of the team as a whole, the members of the team and me as individual. Creating an effective team is about people first and then the work is the visible result of what the team has achieved


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